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Full text of "Latine et graece"

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HARVARD 

COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



r 



VOLVMEN III. 



LATINE 



EDIDIT 

EDGAR S, SHUMWAY, 

I.Qf6. BT I.TTT. PBOF. IN OONLBGIO BTTGEB8BM8I. 



-o 

NOVI EBORACI: 
D. APPLETON ET SOC. 



l^^^-^r^'. 












Ck)FTBIOHT, 1886, 

Bt d. appleton and company. 



Iter ert bmgum per praeeepta, breve et ^ffleax per sxbxfi^.— Sbneca. 



Latine. 



Novi I A nn T Xr T7 mense sept. 

EBORACI. I J J\_ JL JL iS Jld • MDCCCLXXXIIII. 



^^MvUaJSoffa: RetineDocta: Betenta Dooey—CoMxsiuB. 

Ledor: Quid tibi vis, O ephemeris parvula? 

LatMiA : Ut TerenU verba flectam : Latini nihil a me alienum puto. " jVon 
erUm tam praeeiarum eet eeire Latink qtMm turpe neecire," — Cic. Bbut. oxl. 

M, rORCIUS CATO CENSORIUS, 

1. Hle Cato, cum esset Tusculi natas, in populi Romani civi- 
tatem susceptus est, ita, cum ortu Tusculanus esset, civitate Ro- 
manus, habuit alteram loci patriam, alteram iuris. (de leg. 2 § 
6. Cf. pro Plancio § 20 : M. Cato, ille in omni virtute princeps, 
Tusculanus. And Brut. § 294 : Cato homo Tusculanus.) 

2. M. Catoni, homini ignoto et novo, quo omnes, qui isdem 
rebus studemus, quasi exemplari ad industriam virtutemque du- 
cimur, certe licuit Tusculi se in otio delectare, salubri et propinquo 
loco ; sed homo demens, ut isti putant, cum cogeret eum neces- 
sitas nuila, in his undis et tempestatibus ad summam senectutem 
maluit iactari quam in illa tranquillitate atque otio incundissime 
vivere. (de re pubL 1 § 1.) 

8. M. Cato, homo sapientissimus et vigilantissimus, cum se 
virtute, non genere populo Romano commendari putaret, cum 
ipse sui generis initium ac nominis ab se gigni et propagari vel- 
let, hominum potentissimorum suscepit inimicitias et maximis 
laboribus nsque ad summam senectutem summa cum gloria vixit. 
(in Verr. 6 § 180.) 

4. M. Cato cum Quinto Maximo quartum consule adulescen- 
tulus miles ad Capuam profectus est quintoqoe anno post ad 
Tarentum; quaestor deinde quadriennio post factus est, quem 
magistratum gessit consulibus Tuditano et Cethego. (Cato mai. 

§ 10-) 

5. M. Cato nlles bello Punico fuit, quaestor eodem bello, 

consul Id Hispania, qoadriennio post tribunus militaris depugna- 
vit apud Thermopylas M' Glabrione consule. (Cato mai. § 32.) 



2 LATINE. 

6. In bello cum Antiocho gesto virtus enitoit egregia M. 
Catonis. (pro Mur. § 32.) 

1, M. Oatonem illum Sapientem, clarissimum virum et pru- 
dentissimum, cam multis graves inimicitias gessisse accepimus 
propter Hispanorum, apud quos consul f uerat, iniurias. (divin. 
in Caecil. § 66.) 

8. M. Catonis consilio illatum bellum tertium Puniciim, in 
quo etiam mortui valuit auctoritas. (de offic. 1 § 79.) 

9. M. Cato senatui quae sint gerenda praescripsit hoc modo : 
* Karthagine male iam diu cogitanti bellum multo ante denuntio, 
de qua vereri non ante desinam quam illam excisam esse cogno- 
vero, (Cato mai. § 18.) 

10. De bello Punico cum aliud M. Catoni, aliud L. Lentulo 
videretur, nulla inter eos concertatio umquam fuit. (Tusc 3 § 51.) 

[Jieliqva deinceps peneqtiemvr.'] 
C, 1Z7LIUS CAESAR, 

1. Utinam C. Caesari contigisset adulescenti, ut esset senatui 
atque optimo cuique carissimus ! quod cum consequi neglexisset, 
omnem vim ingenii, quae summa fuit in illo, in populari levitate 
consumpsit. itaque cum respectum ad senatum et ad bonos non 
haberet, eam sibi viam ipse patefecit ad opes suas amplificandas, 
quam virtus liberi populi ferre non posset. (Philipp. 6 § 49. 
Cf . in Catil. 4 § 9 : C. Caesar in re publica viam, quisw popula- 
ris habetur, secutus est) 

2. C. Caesar a CatUinariis mortis poenam removet, ceterorum 
43uppliciorum omnis acerbitates amplectitur, municipiis dispertiri, 
bona publicari iubet. (in Catil. 4 § 7. Cf. epist. ad Attic. 1 2, 
21, 2 : Caesaris sententia in Catilinarios severa fiiit, qui tum 
praetorio loco dixit.) 

3. C. Caesar cum esset in Hispania praetor, populum Gadita- 
Bum multis omamentis adfecit, controversias sedavit, iura, ipso- 
xum permissu, statuit, inveteratam quandam barbariam ex Gadi- 
tanorum moribua disciplinaque delevit, summa in eam civitatem 
studia ac beueficia contulit (pro Balbo § 43.) 

4. C. Caesar primo suo consulatu lege agraria agrum Yola- 
terrannm et oppidum onmi periculo in perpetuum liberavit. 
(epissL ad famiL 13, 4, 2.) 



LATINE. 



5. Lege Caesaris iustissima atque optima populi liberi plane 
et vere liberi. (in Pison. § 37.) 

6. £go C. Caesarem non eadem de re publica sensisse quae 
me scio ; sed tamen me ille sui totius consulatus eorumque hono- 
rum, quos cum proximis communicavit, socium esse voluit, detu- 
lit, invitavit, rogavit. (in Pison, § 79.) 

7. C. Caesar consul id publicanis per populum dedit, quod 
per senatum si Hcuisset, dedisset. (pro Plancio § 35.) 

8. Caesaris leges . iubent ei, qui de vi, itemque ei, qui maie- 
statis damnatus sit, aqua et igni interdici. (Philipp. 1 § 23.) 

IReliqua deinceps persequemur,] 

M. ANTONIUS. 

1. M. Antonius summam spem salutis bonis omnibus attulit 
(cum P. Clodium interficere tentaret). (pro Mil. § 40.) 

2. Post pugnam Pharsalicam ad me (i. e. Ciceronem) misit 
Antonius ezempium Caesaris ad se litterarum, in quibus erat, se 
audisse Catonem et L. Metellum in Italiam venisse, Komae ut 
essent palam ; id sibi non placere, ne qui motus ex eo fierent, 
prohiberique omnis Italia, nisi quorum ipse causam cognovisset ; 
deque eo vehementius erat scriptum. itaque Antonius petebat a 
me per litteras, ut sibi ignoscerem : facere se non posse quin iis 
litteris pareret. tum ad eum misi L. Lamiam, qui demonstraret 
illum Dolabellae dixisse, ut ad me scriberet, ut in Italiam quam 
primum venirem ; eius me litteris venisse. tum ille edixit ita, 
ut me exciperet et Laelium nominatim. (epist. ad Attic. 11, 
7, 2.) 

3. Post victoriam Pharsalicam Antonius L. Domitium, claris- 
simum et nobilissimum virum, occidit, multosque praeterea, qui 
e proelio effugerant, quos Caesar, ut non nuUos, fortasse servas- 
set, crudelissime persecutus trucidavit. (Philipp. 2 § 71.) 

4. Vidit popoius Romanus Lupercalibus quam abiectus (An- 
tonius), quam confectus esset, cum Caesari diadema imponens 
servum se illius quam conlegam esse malebat; qui si reliquis 
flagitiis et sceleribas abstinere potuisset, tamen unum ob hoc 
factum dignum illum omni poena putarem. nam si ipse servire 
poterat, nobis dominam cur imponebat? (Philipp. 13 § 17.) 

[Bdiqwi deineqM pertequemur,'] 



4 LATINE. 

CXCJSRO, 

1. [A. U. C. 648 = 106 A. Chr.] Diem meum scis esse III. 
Nonas lanuarias. (epist. ad Attic. 13, 42, 2. Cf. 7, 5, 3 : Ita 
ad arbem III. Nonas, natali meo.) 

2. IIlo loco (that is, at Arpinum) libentissime soleo uti, 
sive quid mecum ipse cogito sive quid scribo aut lego. est mea 
et huius fratris mei germana patria : hic enim orti stirpe anti- 
quissima sumus; hic sacra, hic genus, hic maiorum multa vesti- 
gia. quid plura ? hanc vides villam, ut nunc quidem est, lautius 
aedificatam patris nostri studio, qui cum esset infirma valetudine, 
hic fere aetatem egit in litteris ; sed hoc ipso in loco, cum avus 
viveret et antiquo more parva esset villa, ut iJla Curiana in Sabi- 
nis, me scito esse natum ; qua re inest ncscio quid et latet in 
animo ac sensti meo, quo me plus hic locus fortasse delectet, si 
quidem etiam ille sapientissimus vir, Ithacam ut videret, imraor- 
talitatem scribitur repudiasse. (de leg. 2 § 3.) 

3. [663-668 = 91-86] Mc cupidissimum audiendi (oratorcs) 
primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus. reliquos fre- 
quenter audiens acerrimo studio tenebar, cotidieque et scribens et 
legens et commentans oratoriis tamen exercitationibus contentus 
non eram. iam consequente anno Q. Varius sua lege damnatus 
excesserat ; ego autem iuris civilis studio multum operae dabam 
Q. Scaevolae Q. F., qui quamquam nemini se ad docendum da- 
bat, tamen consulentibus respondendo studiosos audiendi docebat. 
Atque huic anno proximus Sulla consule et Pompeio fuit : tum 
P. Sulpicii in tribunatu cotidie contionantis totum genus dicendi 
penitus cognovimus. Eodemque tempore, cum princeps Acade- 
miae Philo cum Atheniensium optimatibus Mithridatico bello 
domo profugisset Romamque venisset, totum ei me tradidi admi- 
rabili quodam ad philosophiam studio concitatus, in quo hoc etiam 
commorabar attentius, quod etsi rerum ipsanim varietas et magni- 
tudo summa me delectatione retinebat, tamen sublata iam esse in 
perpetuum ratio iudiciorum videbatur: occiderat Sulpicius illo 
anno tresque proximo trium aetatum oratores erant crudelissime 
interfecti, Q. Catulus, M. Antonius, C. lulius. (Brut § 305-307.) 

4. [668-670 = 86-84] Triennium fere fiiit urbs sine armis, 
sed oratorum aut interitn aut discessu aut fuga — nam aberant 
etiam adulescentes M. Crassus et Lentuli duo— primas in causis 
agebat Hortensius ; magis magisque cotidie probabatur Antistins ; 



LATINE. 



Piso saepe dicebat, minus saepe 'Pomponius, raro Carbo, semel 
aut iterum Philippus. At vero ego hoc tempore omni noctis et 
dies in omnium doctrinarum meditatione versabar. eram cum 
Stoico Diodoto, qui cum habitavisset apud me mecumque vixis- 
set, nuper est domi meae mortuus. a quo cum in aliis rebus tum 
studiosissime in dialectica exercebar, quae quasi contracta et 
astricta eloquentia putanda est huic ego doctori et eius artibus 
variis atque multis ita eram tamen deditus, ut ab exercitationi- 
bus oratoriis nullus dies vacnus esset. commentabar declamitans 
— sic enim nunc loquuntur — saepe cum M. Pisone et cum Q. 
Pompeio aut cum aliquo cotidie ; idque faciebam multum etiam 
Latine, sed Graece saepius, vel quod Graeca oratio plura orna- 
menta suppeditans consuetudinem similiter Latine dicendi adfe- 
rebat, vel quod aGraecis summis doctoribus, nisi Graece dicerem, 
neque corrigi possem neque doceri. (Brut. § 308-310.) 

5. [673 = 81] Kecuperata (per Sullam) re publica primum 
nos ad causas et privatas et publicas adire coepimus, non ut in 
foro disceremus, quod plerique fecerunt, sed ut, quantum nos 
efficere potuissemus, docti in forum veniremus. Eodem tempore 
Moloni dedimus operam ; dictatore enim Sulla legatus ad sena- 
tum de Rhodionim praemiis venerat. (Brut. § 311.) 

6. [674 = 80] Prima causa publica (a me) pro Sex. Roscio 
dicta tantura commendationis habuit, ut non uUa esset quae non 
digna nostro patrocinio videretur. deinceps inde multae, quas 
diligenter elaboratas et tamquam elucubratas adferebamus. (Brut. 
§ 312. Cf.de offic. 2 § 51 : Maxime et gloria paritur et gratia 
defensionibus, eoque maior, si quando accidit ut ei subveniatur, 
qui potentis alicuius opibus circumveniri urguerique videatur, ut 
nos et saepe alias et adulescentes contra L. Sullae dominantis opes 
pro Sex. Roscio Amerino fecimus, quae, ut scis, exstat oratio.) 

[Beliqita deineq» peneqwmur.'] 

DE VITA HORATL CoUoquium. 

D, — ^Quos apud scriptores de vita Horati legimus ? 

M, — Suetonius in "De Viris illustribus" bredter vitam 
poetae exposuit ; qui autem opera Horati diligenter leget, eum 
de aliis auctoribus nihil quaerere oportebit. 

D. — Scio Horatium saepe de se locutum, sed, credo, parum 
distincte. 



6 LATINE. 

M. — ^Tibi quaerere licet ; nisi poetae verbis non respondebo. 

D, — Quo anno Horatius natus est ? 

M,-^Ij, Manlio Torquato et L. Aurelio Ootta consulibus, 
poeta natus est (689 A. U. C). (C. iii, 21, 1.) (Epod. 13, 6.) 

D. — Nonne humilibus parentibus ortus est ? 

M. — Dicit se libertino natum patre, non praeclaro, sed vita 
et pectore puro (S. i, 6, 45, 64). 

D. — Nonne erant, qui hanc originem poetae dedecori darent? 

M. — Ita vero. Moleste primum ferebant, filium liberti legioni 
Romanae praeesse: deinde eundem cum Maecenatc familiariter 
vivere (S. i, 6, 46). 

D, — Quo loco natus est ? 

M, — Se Lucanum an Apulum ancipitem appellat : Venusiam 
enim, ubi natus sit, sub utrumque finem esse locatam (S. ii, 1, 
54). Apuliam suam altricem appellat (C. iii, 4, 10), quam alio 
loco montes notos ipsi ostentare dicit (S. i, 5, 77). 

D. — Nonne haec loca ei semper notissima? 

M. — ^Vero ita : montem Vultumum, nidum celsae Acheron- 
tiae, Bantinos saltus, pingue arvum humilis Forenti (C. iii, 4, 10, 
14), Aufidum sonantem (C. iv, 9, 2), silvas Venusinas (C. i, 28, 
27), laetus in animum revocat 

D. — Quomodo Horatius pueritiam degit? 

M. — Non facere possumus quin eum liberum et laetum pue 
rum fuisse credamus. Meministine palumbes in monte Vulturno 
infantem sonmo sopitum frondibus texisse ne serpentes et ferae 
ei nocerent (C. iii, 4, 12) ? 

D, — Nihilne de aliis propinquis loquitur ? 

M. — De nullo nisi patre. Pater, ut ait, coactor erat, et macro 
pauper agello ; sed puerum in Flavi ludum mittere noluit, et ipse 
Romam docendum optimas artes duxit (S. i, 6, 70). 

D. — Nonne pater ei praecepta dedit? 

M. — Dicit patrem notando vitiorum exempla se hortatum, 
ut parce, frugaliter, contentus eo, quod sibi paratum esset, vive- 
ret (S. i, 4, 106), et, incorruptissimum custodem, se non solum 
ab omni facto verum opprobrio quoque turpi servavisse (S. i, 
6, 84). 

D. — Quarum artium studiis animus pueri excplebatur ? 

M. — Neque Graeca neque Latina omisit; plagosus Orbilius 
Livium Andronicum eum docuit (Ep. ii, 1, 71) , dicit sibi con- 



LATINE. 



tigisse, etiam Romae doceri, qaantura Achilles iratus Graiis no- 
cuisset (£p. ii, 2, 41). 

D. — Nonne domum reliquit, quo melius haec studia coleret ? 

M. — Dicit se Athenis curvo rectum dinoscere doctum esse, 
et inter silvas Academi verum quaesisse. (£p. ii, 2, 44, 45.) 

D. — Credisne Horatium sententias Platonis secutum? 

M, — Non dubium est quin praecepta £picuri tenuerit (G. i, 
9, 13; 11, 8). Dicit autem se in verba nuUius magistri addic- 
tum jurare, sed quocanque se tempestas rapiat hospitem deferri 
(£p. i, 1, 14), et saepe ad sententias Stoicorum incliuare videtur 
(G. iv, 9, 46 ; iii, 29, 62). 

D, — Quid ei impedivit, quominus Athenis multum temporis 
maneret ? 

M, — ^Dicit dura tempora se loco grato emovisse et civilem 
aestum in arma tulisse (£p. ii, 2, 43). 

2>. — Nonne honore adf ectus est ? 

M, — Greatus tribunus militum, legioni praepositus est (S. i, 
6, 46). 

2). — ^Dicit, memini, per deos stetisse, quominus Philippis 
periret. 

M, — Ita dicit (G. iii, 4, 26). Videtur salutem et deis prote- 
gentibus et celeri suae fugae debuisse (G. ii, 7, 29). Dicit non 
irridicule, Philippos se primum a railitia dimisisse (£p. ii, 2, 50). 

2>. — Gredisne Horatium scutum Philippis reliquisse ? 

-^.— Est proprium poetae per ludum sua pericula verbis am- 
plificare. Nbnne meministi eum omnium scelerum hominem ac- 
cusare, qui arborem in caput suum casurum in suo agro statuerit 
(G. ii, 13, 1) ? 

D. — ^Bello civili conf ecto, quid negotii suscepit ? 

M. — Dicit paupertatem audacem se decisis hnroilem pennis 
inopemque et laris et fundi patemi impulisse, ut versus faceret 
(iEp. ii, 2, 60). 

2). — Qualia poemata primum scripsit ? 

M. — ^Dicit se Graecos versiculos primum facere voluisse (S. 
i, 10, 31). 

2). — Quare de hoc conatu destitit ? 

M. — Amore patriae eodem commotus, credo, qui eum in 
civilia arma vocavit, vulgus imitatorum reliquit Dicit Quirinum 
se vetuisse hoc modo ligna in silvam ferre (S. i, 10, 32). 



8 LATINE. 



D* — ^ntram satiras an cannina prius scripsit 9 

M, — Nullam in satiris mentionem fundi Sabini fecit, qua de 
«ausa has prius scriptas pntemus : constat autem Horatium tum 
jam Maecenate amico usum (S. i, 1). 

2>. — Nonne Horatius hoc praedio delectabatur ? 

M. — Nonne tibi in animum carmen, quo Maecenatem in hos- 
pitium invitat, venit (C. iii, 29) ? Dicit se satis beatum unicis 
Sabinis potentem amicum largiora non flagitare (0. ii, 18, 19). 

2). — Quo anno carmina ad Maecenatem misit ? 

M, — Quinctilinm Varum, qui A. XJ. C. 719 occidit, pulcro 
carmine (i, 24) luget, et in duodecimo carmine ejusdem libri de 
Marcello vivo loquitur, qui adolescens A. U. C. 720 mortem obiit, 
quare annum facile cognoscere possumus. Dicit etiam (C. ii, 4, 
23) suam aetatem octavum lustrum claudere trepidare. 

D. — Quid de suis carminibus dicit? 

M, — Dicit se primum parios iambos Latio ostendisse (£p. i, 
19, 23; C. iv, 30, 13), et saepe de suis **iambi8" loquitur (C. i, 
16, 3, 24). Voluit praecipue in lyricis vatibus inseri (C. i, 1, 36), 
et negavit se grandia conari (C. i, 6, 9). 

D, — Num totum annum in Sabinis degit ? 

M, — Praeneste, Tibur, Baias saepe adiit (C. iii, 4, 22) et 
Bomae hiemavit 

D, — Nonne amicos diligebat? 

M, — Vei^lium "dimidium animae," Maecenatem "praesi- 
dium et dulce decus" appellat (C. i, 3, 8 ; 1, 2), et societate ami- 
corum semper laetabatur. 

2>. — Nonne Horatins exiguo corpore, nigris oculis, angusta 
fronte erat? 

M, — Ita erat. Dicit se, quater undenis Decembribus imple- 
tis, esse corporis exigui, praecanum, solibus aptum, irasci celerem, 
tamen ut placabilis esset (£p. i, 20, 24). 

D, — Nonne eodem anno, quo Maecenas, mortuus est? 

M, — Contigit ei, ut praedixit, comitem amici supremum iter 
carpere (C. ii, 17, 12). Maecenas ei solum paucis diebus prae- 
cessit. 

2>. — Non putavi Horatium suam vitam hoc modo scripsisse. 

M, — Parva adhuc de magno fonte traximus. " Multas ad res 
peratiles " Horati " libri sunt, quos legite, quaeso, studiose, ut 
f acitis." B. H. R. 



LATINE. 9 



NOMINA QUAJB A CHRXSTIANO rtUUNT. 

Deest adhiic, qaantum ego qaidem sciaro, ratio etymologica 
qua resolvi possit vocabulum Gallicum garfon. Ipsi sibi repug- 
nantia scribit illustris Brachet, in Dict. Etym, lAng. GcUl. ; sub 
voce garfon sic dicens, *' dimin. a gars^ originis incognitae *' ; 
iterumque, sub voce gars^ " nominat. antiq., cui gargon objectivus 
fuit." 

Atqui res, me judice, sic habet. Utuntur vulgo complures 
etiam nunc ubicunque locutione " Ohristianorum," sensu bominum 
generatim ; ut puella quaedam de cane dilecto " Miselle, paene 
Christianus es ! " clamabat, sibi volens prope humanum sagacissi- 
mum animal esse. 

Sic semper in Romanica lingua, ut per Engadinam plebs lo- 
quitur, crastian significat tantummodo hominem ; contra, hum 
designat virum. Sed in Romanica lingua, ut apud Grisones 
loquuntur, crastian per transmutationem fit carstiaun (sic quoque 
eredenza Italice se praestat cardienscha Romanice). Eat igitur 
carstiaun homo in genere ; ita Dominus noster il figl dil car- 
stiaun sive fitius hominis vocatur (vide U Niev Testament per 
Lncium Gabriel Romanice versum). 

Manifeste autem carstiaun Romanice fit garpon Gallice ; pro 
c stat g, ut pro confiare dicitur gonfi^ ; pro ti stat |?, ut^^pro lec- 
tione dicitur lepon. 

Postremo, a vocabulo garfon ducimus garsun Hibemice, quod 
vulgo scribitur gossoon. 

Vere mirabiles sunt verborum origines. Nam quis dicere 
audebit omnem gossoon nostratem Ohristiani nomen gerere me- 
ruisse 9 Alexander Johannis Gordon. 



BSLFAStM IN HlBKRNIA, 

Vn Kal Jun. MDCCCLXXXIV. 



EPISTULAJB. 

J. K L., E. S. S., Editori Latink, S. P. D. 

Heidelbergam, urbem Badensem, qua paucos menses jam 
ago, eorum, qui Latinb legunt, multi sine dubio viserunt; alii 
quidem plures eam nunquam viderunt. His igitur, fortasse, pla- 
ceat si loci naturam describam. 

Heidelberga, urbs pulcherrima, apud ripam fluvii Neckaris 
sita est circa duodecim millia passuum ab confluentibus Neckari 



lO LATINE. 

Rhenoque flaminibus. Campus latus amoenasque, ultra quem 
series montiam humilium videri potest, inter urbem Bhenumque 
patet. Supra urbem Alpibus tenus snnt colles silvosi, qui olim 
ab Romanis silva Hercynia vocati sunt Urbs ipsa apud Necka- 
ris ripam australem, qua coUes paulo ab amni recedant, extendi- 
tur circa duo millia passuum, ab flumine autem in maximam latitu 
dinem non pius quam quingentos passus. Duae viae longae ab 
altero ad alterum finem urbis extenduntur, trans quas multae 
brevesque viae trajiciuntur. In Neckari, amni rapido, sunt duo 
pontes, alter novus ex ferro structus, aiter antiquus structus 
e saxo. Antiquus pons, ab parte Heidelbergensi, est munitus 
duabus turribus, in quibus notae impressae plumbeis globis jactis 
Crallorum ballistis ignif eris, in bello ante centum f ere annos gesto, 
jam nunc videri possunt. Exadversus Heidelbergam sunt coUes 
cubantes, quorum clivi aprici ad austrum vergentes vineis messi- 
busque spiceis ornati sunt, sed coUes, qui post urbem arduores 
altioresque surgunt^ usque ad fastigia tecti sunt Paulo supra 
alterum finem urbis est notabUis quaedam arx, de qua aUo tem- 
pore narrabo. Aedificia, ut Europeae urbis, sunt non antiqua^ 
quia oppidum ad res mUitaris gerendas aptissimum saepe oppug- 
natum est, semel quidem 6mnia tecta praeter hospitium unum 
arcemque incensa sunt. Situs autem amoenus, solum fertile, flu- 
men ad naves onerarias ferendas idoneum fecerunt ut urbs resti- 
tueretur. Vale. 

Datum Heidelbergae a. d. V. Eal. Sept. 

Lawrbnob, Eamsas, 8, 81, '84. 
Professori Shumway: 

Paucis diebus abhinc hos versiculos * inclusos otiosus scribebam. Sapphi- 
cum metrum volui tentare. Non necesse est explicare mnsam non me adju- 
viflse. Res hoc ostendit. Ad te mitto nt quemcumque modum voles ponas, 
** sive flamma, sive mari Ubet Hadriano." 

Tuus amicus, D. H. Robimson. 

T. A W. Professori E. S. Shumwat, S. P. D. : 

Hos versus ^ ad te mitto, quos in tomo antiquo invenL Tomus a P^lippo 
Ficinello scriptus fuit. Insunt Tersibus, mihi videtur, quaedam imaginationes 
pulchrae. Jamdudum interpretationem Anglicam facere conatus sum quam 
quoque ad te mitto. Multos annos abhuic moe erat nobis in schola discipulis 

* " Ad Disdpuloe." * " Duae CSoronae." 



LATINE. 1 1 



scribere Latine, pensum diumum, alia aulem studia nunc me propemodum a 
Musis alienavit. Reminiscor me puerum chartam instar tui Latine valde 
desiderari, cogitans, diebus istis, yiam rectam linguam discere esse, ut natura 
docet, ea, et lingua et calamo, uti. Yaleas. 

Anthopoli, Idihus ipns Jfartiis, 
A. D. 1884. 

AD DJSCIPULOS, 

Unde sunt hi omnes juvenes in aula, 
Gongregantes huc, ut aves ad escam ? 
Our venerunt ab domibus, venustis 
Matribus, cur ? 

Occidentali, abs oriente parte, 
A nivis sede, et regione Texae, 
Oonvenerunt hi cupidi sdendi 

Omnia nota. 

tenelli agni procul abs ovili ! 
In suis pratis satis est ciborum ; 
Mensa cauponis macilenta semper 

Macerat omnes. 

Estne doctrinae vehemens f ames tam 
Ut nihil quam haec res pretiosius sit ? 
Sic putant paud ; et utinam benignus 
Servet Apollo 

Hanc manum parvam studiosiorum ! 
Oeteri omnes, qui studio anteponunt 
Fatuos lusus stupidosque noctu, 

Mox procul absint ! 

Jamdiu colles humilesque valles, 
Lata camporum spatia et vicina 
Patrio tecto vehementer ardent 

Ut redeatis. 

COLLOQXTIA DE MODO SUBJUNCTrVO, 

L Maoisteb kt DisciFirLus. 

M. HOdie, pueri, modo subjunctivo studebimus. Primo autem quid est 
modus ? — ^Num quisquam explicare potest ? Interrogatio fortasse est difB- 
cilior. Ergo praetermittam. Hortensi, nam tu, opinor, intellegis, qua nu 
tione usurpatur modus subjunctivus ? 

J/. Subjunctivus alteri verbo subjicitur nec per se sententiam absolvit. 

M. Optime, mi puer. Jam, parve lule, per exemplum illustrato. 

/. Me orai fU ad se veniam. 



12 LATINE. 

M, Recte. At de temporibus subjunctiyif quae res in penso hodiemo trac- 
tatur, quid scis tu, Augustule f 

A. De consecutione temporum me explicafe visne f 

M. Ita est. Quae subjunctivi tempora inTenimus post indicativi prae- 
sens, futunim, futurum exactum ? 

A. Invenimus subjunctivi et praesens et perfectum. 

M. Quod autem tempus post perfectum saepissime adhibetur f 

A. Post perfectum saepissime ponitur subjunctivi imperfectum. 

M. Ista sunt. Praecipue ita fit in sententiis finem notantibus et in inter- 
rogationibus indirectis. 

II. JOHANNKS ET JaCOBITS. 

Jo. Dic mihi, Jaoobe, unde venias, quid egeris. 

Ja. Rure venio, ubi ferianim partem degi — ^Et tu f 

Jo. Ego iter cum parentibus feci neque sdo quando domum revertar. 

Ja. Utinam ego quoque iter fadam 1 Si parentes adessent, iter mecum 
facerent. 

Jo. Ego itineris diutumitate sum .defessus et gauderem si in schola essero. 

Ja. Yenl mecum m scholam et una ediscamus. 

Jo. Tecum Ubenter in scholam ibo sed cognoscere velim quis sit magister. 

Ja. Magister est vir doctissimus. Yim Latini cognoscit atque semper est 
benignus. 

Jo. Quid te docet ? 

Ja. Docet nos modum subjunctivum. Heri, exempli causa, nobis de sub- 
junctivo in interrogationibus indirectis explicavit. 

Jo. Multa de interrogationibus indirectis audivi neque unquam inteilegere 
potui. Fecitne magister ut tu ista intellegeres f 

Ja, Sane, mi amice, et ego fadam, opinor, ut tu quoque eadem intellegas. 
Si, exempli causa, dicam, Uhi est fraler tuu8 f interrogatio sit directa ; sed, 
Nescio ubi sii/raiery interrogatio sit indirecta. 

Jo. Ista sunt mirabilia ! Cum igitur modo dicerem, " Cognoscere velim 
quis sit magister," num illud f uit interrogatio indirecta ? 

Ja. Certissime. Nesdens, sapientissime, intenx>gationibus indirectis uti 
solitus es. 

in.' HlXRONTlfnS BT FnRus. 

H. Quidtibiest? Gur es vultus torvi ? 

F. Defessus sum. Jam duas horas huic subjunctivo miserrimo cum par- 
ticula ut studeo. 

ff. Oportet sis animo forti. Olim mihi quoque videbAtur subjunctivus 
perdiffidlis. Jam intellego, opinor, et te, si placet dooebo. 

P. Mirificum ! quam doctum ! At perge, si quid habes. 

J£. Attende igitur, bone Petre, aures erige, animum adverte, aures praebe, 
ausculta, audito, dum haeo clariora luce tibi fado. 

P. Quin indpe f Sum totus ex auribus, audio. 

' Yide Rudimanni Institutiones. 



1-ATINE. 13 

H. Particula vt fere idcm valet quod " eA flne," " in hunc flnem," ** eo con- 
silio " et Bubjunctiyo additur. Praeterea ut locum habet post verba quae in- 
dicant eventum ; ut, " fit," " accidit," etc Sic adhibitum %U ferc idem valet 
quod "eo exitu," "eo eventu." Denique %U sequitur adjectiva "tantus," 
" talis," eta, atque particulaa " adeo," " ita," " sic," " tam," etc. 

P, Magnas gratias. Ista jam percipio ; at d6 " timeo ne," et " timeout " 
distrahor. 

H, Contraria significatione adhibentur hae formulae : priore (timeo ne) 
utimur cum significamus timere nt quid eveniat quod nolimus ; posteriore au- 
tem (timeo ut) cum significamus timere 91« qfuAd fUhi evenicU quod velimus. 

W. C. COLLAR. 

JEREMIAS FROPHETA SOLYMORX7M RXnNAM LAMENTATUR. 

Heu mihi ! quid cemo ! jam candida filia Son 
Armipotens quondam, nunc pressa eet perfido ab oste. 
Sacrata urbs pollens, et sedes regia David, 
Grandes divitiae ubi sunt f ubi alta trophaea ? 
Quae palmas tantas saevos testantur in hostes ? 
Heu mihi, eheu luctus properataque mortis imago ! 
Et nunc uxores, discissa veste, furentes 
Adflictam currunt magno clamore per urbem. 
Intrepidum quondam f rusta nunc agmen in armis 
Contra hostem urbem tentat servare mentem. 
Heu mihi I sed muros habet ; alto a cuhnine Sion 
Tam ruit, et juvenes miseri, innuptaeque puellae 
Carceris horrendi per vim ducuntur in antrum ; 
Occidunt canos, bellatoresque trucidant ; 
Perque vias sanguis, per tecta et templa rubescit. 
Nam vastant urbem devictam et funditus alta 
Monumenta cadunt, argentea et aurea vasa 
De templo educunt quondam dilecta Conanti. • 
Infelix Sion, et regia tecta, fuistis 
David ! Me miserum ! nunc ob tua crimina tanta 
Ce circumspicio moestam, supraque ruinas 
Urbis deflentem. Quo abiit tua prisca venustas ? 
Quo cessit templi majestas ? Quoque tuorum 
Castrorum ? ubi sunt ergo tua tanta trophaea ? 

SscuNDUS Marchisiub. 
JDS EPJSTXTLZS SCRIBENDJS. 

Tuia scriptis incredibili sum affectas volaptate. — Non param 
gandiorom tuom nobis epistolium peperit — ^Tuae mihi literae 
moltis modis jacundissimae faerant — ^Fait taa ilia epistola sane 
qnam gratissima. — ^lneffabili volaptati tua nobis epistula fait— 
IncTedibili jucunditati fuerunt tuae epistulae. 



14 LATINE. 



ENGLISH SUPPLEMENT. 

[SUPPLKMKNTUM ANGLICUM.] 

TROM OLD ROME, A Teaoher^s Letter to his Fupils, [Adapted 
trom the Oermaii.'^ 

As I wander about among the ruins of ancient Rome, I often 
think of you, and wish you could once tread the squares and 
streets through which have walked the Roman authors whose 
works you are studying, and the men of whom they write. The 
Latin historians, orators, and poets, who are conducting you up 
the grades of the school, from Nepos to Horace and Tacitus, 
would ail become twice as familiar and dear to you if you could 
see where they lived and wrote. And, out of the dead letters, 
\iymg forms would present themselves before you, if you could 
read them in that place to which they carry you in spirit, namely, 
in Rome itself. Perhaps I can, in a measure, make up for your 
loss in not being able to see these places, by telling you what 
letters and stones here have told me. But, to f ollow me aright, 
you must direct your thoughts, which you know are always ready 
for traveling (I), toward the south. Fancy you have visited me 
here, every one of you, and — whither should I rather lead you 
than to the central points of the old city ? 

To find our bearings as speedily as possible, let us go to the 
Oorso. This is the most lively street of old Rome, and runs in 
a straight line from the Porto del Popolo to the Piazza di Ve- 
nezia. It corresponds toward the north with the ancient Via 
Fiaminia, and toward the south with the Via Lata. On this 
street we traverse the Campus Martius, the great play-ground of 
the ancient Romans. Here the young people ran, wrestled, and 
f enced, or played their favorite games of ball. As it is the cus- 
tom among the better classes in Rome to-day to take a prome- 
nade or pleasure-drive in the Corso in the aftemoon, so the 
ancient Romans, post decisa negotia, resorted to the Campus 
Martius. Horace is one of the more sensibie ones ; he goes to 
the baths when the heat of the sun becomes too oppressive: ^^Ast 
vhi me fessum sol acrior ire lavatum admonuit, Jugvo campum 
lu^mque trigonem.^^ 

But serious matters also were undertaken in this extensive 



LATINE. 13 

" field." Here the people assembled for contiones ' and comitia ; ^ 
here they voted for candidates for the office of consul. Of those 
chosen, the one was usually a man of approved character, and 
belonged to the better class of thc nobility ; the other, however, 
had in attendance a larger number of clients. During the time 
of tbe republic a simple barrier, which might be called a sheep- 
fold, sufficed to keep in order tbose who came to vote. Oaesar 
began to build barriers of marble, and Agrippa finished these 
S<iepta Julia, After Oacsar's time the number of fine build- 
ings greatly increased at this very place. It was Marcus Agrippa 
especially who gave this locality an entirely different appear- 
ance, by his magnificent plans for bathing establishments. The 
public buildings, however, were soon surrounded by private 
houses, and if Strabo, who visited Rome in the reign of Tibe- 
rius, desired to accompany us to the Capitol to-day, he would 
hardly recognize the Campus Martius which he described with 
80 much spirit. Of all the splendors which he saw, nothing, 
except the Pantheon, has been completely preserved. Nar- 
Tow and crooked streets traverse this quarter, now densely cov- 
ered with houses, and lead us to the f oot of the Campidoglio, 
as the hill is now called. The people, no longer understanding 
the Latin designation, easily assimilated it, therefore, with the 
already current names of Campo Marzio and Campo Vaccino. 
In the earliest times the rock projected abruptly into the Oampus 
Martius. But in the time of SuUa permission was given to buJId 
on the Capitoline, and it was not long before the hill contained, 
besides its temples, a number of private houses. This explains 
how the soldiers of Vitellius, in the year 69 a. d., could press 
forward under the protection of the houses, and ascend the hill 
on which the Tempie of Jupiter had been built. It is nowhere 
mentioned that, in connection with the new bnildings, a street 
was at the same time aiso opened, which would have wound up- 
ward from the Oampus Martius; but yet intercourse of some 
kind must have been made possible by means of grades and 
narrow stairways. 

During tlie middle ages not only the private houses, but also 
the tempies on this hill, the true monuments of ancient Roman 

' For diifereiioe, see " Handbook of Latin SynonTms," § 17. 



16 , L-ATINE. 



power, f ell into ruins ; and then over these rains in later times new 
streets were opened to this sacred height By the middle one of 
these roads, which was constracted by Michael Angelo, and has 
a gradual ascent, we can reach the sommit roost easily. The 
younger of you will, no doabt, firet hasten toward the bushes on 
thc left, for there a couple of wolves are running impatiently 
hither and thither in a narrow cage. I need hardly teli you that 
it is only in thankful remembrance of that good-natured she- 
wolf, who is said to have nourished the founders of the city, that 
these innocent descendants have been condemned to a tedious 
imprisonment. 

At first view, you will all think the Capitol has entirely 
changed its ancient form. It has only assumed a modem garb 
in deference to the prevailing taste. The present Capitoline 
Square, which is surrounded on three sides by modem buildings, 
and in the center of which stands the antique equestrian statue 
of Marcus Aurelius, has been established only since the sixteenth 
century. That there was originally a hoUow here is still plainly 
to be seen, from the fact that steps lead f rom the square, right atid 
left, to the two summits of the hill. The southwestern of these 
summits the ancients called Capitolium, and the northeastern 
Arx. Between them, on the spot which, in the time of Livy, was 
still inclosed on account of its sanctity, Romulus is said to have 
opened his Asylum. In this hollow was worshiped already in 
very early times, between two groves, the god Vejovis, who, on 
that account, was called Vejovis Lucaris. And inasmuch as this 
epithet sounded something like that of ApoUo Lykoreus, the 
Italian god was often identified with the Grecian — the more so, 
because the f ormer also was represented with the avenging arrow 
in his hand. To the sanctuary of this god the homeless, who 
were to people the young city of Romulos, were allowed to flee, 
to make expiation, and then, purified of all past crime, to enter 
the gate of the Palatine city. Nothing is handed down to us of 
another temple between these hills. Perhaps the awe inspired 
by the stern god Vejovis, who once demanded human blood for 
atonement, was so great that they did not venture to hem in his 
jurisdiction with other buildings. Besides, it was not easy to 
build on these slopes, and a temple on one of these two heights 
had a far more beautiful and prominent position. 



LATINE. 17 

The boys of the second form aiDoDg you already know that 
Tarquinius Superbus, after the capture of Gabii, directed his at- 
tention to the arts of peace, and, above all, that he built on the 
Tarpeian Rock the Temple of Jupiter, which had bcen vowed by 
his father. Livy, in this passage (LIII.-LV.), designates the 
whole southwestern part of the Capitoline Hill as Rupes Tar- 
peiae ; but, in a narrower sense, the rock is a steep precipice to- 
ward the south. This place, where thc first traitress of Rome 
received her reward from the mocking enemy, and where after- 
ward perjurers, thieving slaves, and those accused of high trea- 
son were hurled down, has now lost its terrors. It is no longer 
separated frora the remaining plain of the hill by a wall ; the 
trembling culprit is no longer led through the " poor sinner^s " 
gate. A lovely garden, adorned with citron, orange, and 
palm trees, reminds us that here in the German Hospital our 
sick countrymen can enjoy fresh air and a splendid view. To 
be sure, the hill has undergone many changes in the course of 
time through land-slides, so that no one can say definitely, " This 
abrupt abyss was the grave of the transgressors." But this 
much, at any rate, is certain, that on this side of the hill lay the 
ill-reputed place. For once, while, for the purpose of stealing 
the state treasores which were preserved in the Temple of Satum, 
at the upper end of the Forum, burglars were busy with their 
crow-bars at its firm foundation-walls, their blows re-echoed from 
the perpendicular wall of the Tarpeian Rock near by, and thus 
betrayed the presence of the incautious robbers. 

Livy, in his account of the founding of the Temple of Jupiter, 
has already informed you where to look for the largest and most 
sacred temple of Rome. But at present we need no longer rely 
on the written account alone; the stones-have spoken louder 
and more intelligibiy than human tongues. During the rebuild- 
ing operations, which were carried forward during the years 
1875-78, on the southem side of the Capitoline Hill, the foun- 
dation-walls of the old Temple of the Tarquins were brought to 
light The great age of these remains is fully attested by the 
material of which they are composed, and the manner in which 
it was used ; and the fact of their belonging to that temple is 
proved beyond all doubt by their position and mass. On this 
spot, then, between his two companions, Juno and Minerva, thore 



18 LATINE. 

was enthroned the omnipotent Roman god of empire, who made 
this, his temple-house, the capital of the world. Here the young 
Romans ofiered up sacrifices when they had laid aside the dress of 
boyhood ; here the consuls entered on the duties of their oflSce ; 
hither the victorious generals, after having been led in triumph 
through the city, directed their steps, to express their gratitude 
in the temple of their mighty god. And not only mortals sought 
here safety and deliverance, but even the celestials, with their 
sanctuaries, altars, and chapels, joined themselves closely to the 
powerful god of heaven. It is true, this temple, which the 
Etruscans had helped the Romans to build, just as the Phoeni- 
cians before had helped the Jews to build their temple, was 
bumed down during the civil wars of Marius and SuUa. But, 
through the care of SuUa and his friend Catullus, it was rebuilt 
on the old site more splendidly than before ; and, the more Greek 
art came into favor in Rome, the more richly was the temple 
adomed with statuary. Twice again Jupiter was obliged to be- 
hold a sudden and violent destruction of his abode. Tacitus re- 
lates, in his "Histories" (III, 71), with the greatest indignation, 
how the Capitol was destroyed in the most shameful manner by 
the soldiers of Vitellius. Sabinus, the brother and general of 
Vespasian, caused the statues, the monuments of his ancestors, 
to be tora down, in order to use them for barricading the gate 
of the principal entrance. The enemy, however, penetrated into 
the inclosure of thc temple by side-paths ; the fire seized upon 
the colonnades ; the wooden gable-ends of the temple fed the 
flames, and the Capitol was bumed down, clausis foribus, inde- 
fenmm et indireptum, Vespasian rebuilt the temple, but scarcely 
was it completed, when it again sank into ashes during the great 
fire in the reign of Titus, XJnder Domitian it was again rebuilt 
with more splendor than bef ore ; but this very splendor was the 
rain of the temple, for it invited the greedy barbarians. The 
temple of the Roman state hastened inevitably toward its de- 
struction, as the bonds of the empire became relaxed, and, when 
the master of the house himself was dethroned, the temple of 
the mightiest Olympian fell into neglect and ruin. 

Ldke a monument in token of the overthrow of heathenism, 
there stands now on the northera and highest summit of the 
Capitoline Hill, on the Roman Arx, a Christian church, dedi- 



LATINE. 19 

cated to the Virgin Mary. It stands on the very spot where the 
Romans, in the fourth century b. c, erected a teinple to Juno 
Moneta. Why she was.called Moneta even Cicero could no 
longer explain with certainty. She is said on one occasion, 
while a pestilence was raging in the city, to have caused her 
voice to be heard from the citadel, and by her good advice or 
admonition to have relieved the distress of the citizens. Such 
stories, however, were only resorted to in order to account in an 
easy way for the name of the goddess, which was already in 
existence. Moneta has the same root as moneo and mens, and sig- 
nifies the thinking one. Under this name the goddess, no doubt, 
was worshiped on this hill in very early times, just as Jupiter Sta- 
tor was worshiped on the Palatine — the powerful male divinity 
on the one hiU, the sagacious female divinity on the other. 

This hill was choscn for the citadel because it far overtopped 
the southern summit of the Capitoline. Within the fortification 
there was, of course, no room for several large temples, and yet for 
convenience they united, with tiie Temple of Juno, which was so 
securely situated, the arrangements for stamping money — a cir- 
cumstance which has given the word moneta the meaning of 
mint. The fact that the augur consulted the gods especially on 
this hill, from which there is an extensive view across the Forum 
as £ar as the Caelian Hill, you have already learned from Livy, 
where he gives an account (L, 1 8) of the accession of the pious 
Numa to the throne. It is possible that this auguraculum was 
also a reminiscence of the prehistoric worship on this citadel 
hill of the queen of heaven. 

[Tobe cotUifated,'] 

JDE PRONOMJNIBXIS POSSESSIVIS, 

This SyrUaxu Omata of the posseBsive pronouns has been adapted from 
the German of Rothfuchs, arranged to suit the various grades, and to f umish 
a thorough treatment of a subject usually left to disoonnected foot-notes. By 
this arrangement, **A" should be leamed and constantly exemplified during 
the first two years; "B," while reading Gaesar; "C," while at work on 
Gioero. 

A, — (1.) Octdos tollOf I raise my eyes; Patrem tuum vidi^ I saw 
your f ather. 

The pronomina possessiva, mine, your, his, etc., in 



20 LATINE. 



Latin, are expressed only when they are necessary for 
cleamess, and usually stand afieT their mbstantivum, 

(2.) Hannibal regi Antiocho de fide sua et odio in Romanos 
multa commemoravity Hannibal told King Antiochus 
much about bis fidelity and his hate of the Romans. 

When the possessive appUes to several substantiva 
united by and, but of different genders, it is expressed 
with only one of these. 

(3.) Bomani victis non ad alterius praescriptum sed ad suum 
arbitrium imperare consueverunt, the Romans are accus- 
tomed to give commands to the conquered, not accord- 
ing to the commands of another, but after their own 
pleasure. 

If, in connection with the possessive, there is implied 
relation or opposition to other persons or things, it stands 
before its substantive. 
B. — (1.) Amicus meus vivit, pater ejus mortuus est, my Mend 
lives, his father is dead. If the pronom^en possessivum, 
his, her, or their, can be exchanged for the expression 
**of the same,'' it is always expressed through these 
pronomina: efus, eorum^ earum, 

(2.) Caesaris equitatus fusus estj pedites vicerunt, Caesar'8 
cavalry was def eated, his inf antry conquered. The j^ro- 
nominaj ejuSj eorum^ earum, are omitted, just like the 
pronomina possessiva, when they are not necessary for 
cleamess. 

(3.) Caesar suis locis €unem instruxity Oaesar drew up his 
line of battle in a favorable place. The pronomina pos- 
sessiva sometimes mean "own," "peculiar to," "due," 
"fit," "suitable," "right," "favorable," " advantageous," 
and then stand before their substantiva, especially before 
locus and tempus. 

(4.) Brutus suum ipsius filium percuti jussit, or simply 
suum filium^ Bmtus commanded that his own son be 
executed. In tbe meaning " own," the genitivus, ipsius, 
ipsorumj can be inserted between possessivum and wh- 
stantivum. 
O. — (I.) Desiderium tui, longing after thee; desiderium tuum 
can also be used. In place of the genitivus objectivus of 



LATINE. 21 



a personal pronoun, can stand, also, the pronomen posses- 
sivum, 

(2.) Alexander aegre ferehat quod complures Macedones se 
suosgue amicos deseruissent, Alexander was vexed be- 
cause many Macedonians had deserted - him and his 
friends (his thought) ; but, if it were expressed as a 
fact, and not as his thought, it would have been eum 
ejusqtM amicos deseruerant, If the pronomina his, her, 
their, stand in a subordinate clause, and refer to the 
subject of the principal clause, they are expressed by 
suus, provided the subordinate clause is to be considered 
as the thought of the subject of the principal ; otherwise, 
however, by eiv^, eorum. The same diiFerence exists be- 
tween se, sibiy and eum^ ei, 

(3.) Caesar- milites incu^avit, cur de sua virtute aut de ip- 
sius dUigentia desperarent, Caesar upbraided his soldiers, 
(asking) why they were in despair concerning their own 
valor, or conceming his carefulness. If suus in a sub- 
ordinate clause refers to the subject of the principal 
clause, and this reference is to be clearly distinguished 
in opposition to that of a second reference to the subject 
of the clause in which it stands, the former must be re- 
placed by ipse, 

AJmBARBARUS. [Meissner,] 

Accompliah, efficere, consequi aliquid, not praestare. 

Acooimt O^ hoc in te reprehendo, not propter hoc te repre- 
hendo, per me (not propter) licet. 

Accostom Olie'8 sel^ assuescere (never with se) aliqua re, i. e., 
to something (not consuescere, which in classic prose is joined 
only with the infinitive). 

Advanced age, aetate provectum esse, not aetate provecta 



Advise ag^amsty dissuade from, dissuadere aliquid or de aliqua 
re or nequis faciat, not dissuadere alicui aliquid. 

Advocate, patronus (causae), not advocatus — who through 
his presence at court aided the accused (adesse alicui). 

Affirm, dicere, not contendere .(contend in strife). 

Age, of Pericles, temporibus (not tempore) Periclis ; the 



22 LATINE. 

greatest man of his age, summus vir illius aetatis, not suae 
aetatis. 

Aim, object, end, with (or to) what ? Quo consilio ? Quid 
-spectans ? Not quem ad fiDem ? (How long ? To what point ?) 

AUude to, significare aliquem (aliquid), describere aliquem, 
significstione appellare aliquem (not alludere, to plaj with, to 
joke, C. Dat, or ad aliquem). 

AIbo, at the beginning of the sentence, atque etiam, nec — 
non, not etiam. Also not, at the beginning of a new thought, 
nec, not etiam non ; emphatic ne — quidem ; and also not, ac ne — 
quidem, not nec — quidem. 

Altar, altaria-ium, in ciassic prose in plural onlj. 

Altogether too, nimis or nimium, not nimius (which is ad- 
jective). 

And not even, and also — not, et or ac ne — quidem, not nec 
— quidem. 

Angry, iratum esse or succensere, not irasci (to be wrath- 
ful). 

Answer, respondere, not responsum dare, which is said only 
of oracles, or jurists. He answered (in O. recta), inquit, not 
respondere. To reply to a person, respondere alicui, but ad ali- 
quid or alicui rei. 

Antiqnity, not antiquitate, but antiquis temporibus, When 
it equals " men of antiquity," veteres (dicunt), antiqui (dixerunt), 
not antiquitas, which equals " the ancient age " (as a period), 
thereforc mementoes of antiquity (antiquities), monumenta an- 
tiquitatis. 

Appeal to, e. g., the tribunes, appellare tribunos plebis, not 
app. ad tr. ; the appeal, appellatio tribunorum (obj. gen.), provo- 
catio ad populum. 

Appear, often not expressed, e. g., to appear as praiser, lauda- 
torem esse ; as defender, def endere aliquem, not laudator exstitit ; 
as orator, aggredi ad dicendum, not surgere (opp. sedere) ad di- 
cendum (used of one who has been hitherto sitting). 

Apennines, Apenninus, not in plural. 

Applanse, approval, plaudere, not applaudere, which is un- 
common and ante-classical ; applause, plausus, not applausus, 
which is not a Latin word. 

Arbitrary, ad arbitrium, arbitrio, ad libidinem fiftctus; or 



LATINE. 23 

through gen. arbitrii, libidinis, not- arbitrarias (ante- and post- 
classical). 

Arise from, oriri ex, not exoriri. 

Ami, in many connections not to be expressed by brachiiim, 
e. g., to bear some one in the arms, in manibus aliquem gestare ; 
to hold in the arms, aliquem complexum tenere ; to die in the 
arms, in alicuius complexu mori. 

AB) in such expressions as '^ He distinguished himself as ora- 
tor," eloquentia valuit, dicendi arte, or eloquentiae laude floruit, 
not orator floruit As C. sa,js, ut ait Cicero, not ut Oicero 
ait. 

AssaHant, aggressor, oppugnator, or through relative clause, 
not invasor (which is as late Latin as invasio). 

Attaok, impetus, only in the forms impetu8,-um,-u, not im- 
petui, impetuum, impetibus, which must be supplied through in- 
cursio. 

AildieiLCe to, sui potestatem facere alicui, or coUoquendi co- 
piam facere, not audientia, which occurs only in the expression 
audientiam facere alicui, or orationi alicuius, to procure a hear- 
ing for 8ome one. 

Ailthory scriptor, not auctor. 

Avoidable, qui, quae, quod evitari potest, not evitabilis (post- 
classical and poetical). 

AYoidance, vitatio, devitatio, declinatio, not evitatio (post- 

classical). 

[To be corUinued,'] 

SIDE-LiaHTS IN ANCIENT HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES, 

[I have purposely omitted books not in English, like Conieille*8 Cinna, 
and Racine*s Mithridate.] 

The f ollowing books and poems are, of course, of a value very unequal, 
whether regard be had to the literary workmanship, or to their utility as 
iUustrative of ancient lif e and manners. I have not attempted to indicate 
relative worth : 

I. — ^Prosk. 

-^ Bulwer*s Last Days of PompeiL [First century a. d.] 
A Ware*8 Zenobia; or, the Fall of Palmyra. (2 vols.) [Third century 
A. D., under Aurelian.] 

V Ware'8 Aurelian ; or, Rome in the Third Century. (2 vols.) 

V Ware's Julian. 



24 LATINE. 



r^ Lockhart*8 Valerius. [Rome in the time of Trajan.] 
Eiiigsley*8 Hypatia. [Fifth century a. d.] 

> Taylor'8 (George) Antinous : a Romance of Andent Rome. [Tiroe of 
Hadrian.] 

^ MelviUe'8 Gladiators. [Time of Vitellius and Vespataan.] 

.> Sneyd'8 Cyllene. [Time of Constantine.] 

.-* Saeyd^s The Fawn of Sertorius. [First century b. c.] 
Becker'8 Gallus. [Rome under Augustus.] 
Becker*8 Charicles. [Greek private life.] 
Leatham*8 Charmione. [Athens about 400 b. c.] 

^ Eck8tein*8 (Emst) Quintus Claudius : a Romanoe of Imperial Rome. (2 
Yois.) [Close of the first oentury.] 

> Wiseman^s Fabiola. [The early Christians ; the Catacombe.] 
Lynn*8 Amymone. [The age of Perides.] 
Newman'8 Callista. [The third oentury ▲. d.] 
Eber^s (George) IJarda. [Egypt in the time of Amasis.] 

, > £ber'8 (George) The Emperor. (2 yoIs.) [Time of HadriaiL] 

n. — ^POETRY. 

^ Macaulay'8 Lays of Andent Rome reproduoe the spirit of the early times. 

To them may be added the following jE^Zays; 
'^ Shakespeare^s Antony and Qeopatra. 
^*^ Shakespeare^s Coriolanus. 
'^ ^ i -^ Shakespeare^s Julius Caesar. 

f .* * t Addison^s Cato. [The close of the Republic.] 

l < j ' Dryden's All for Loyc; or, the World Well Lost [Antony after the 

K: ^ ^Z-^^ ^*^ battle of Actium.] 

Jonson*s (Ben) Sejanus. [Time of Tiberius.] 
Jonson*s (Ben) CatUine. 

Beaumont and Fletcher^s The False One. [Caesar at Alexandria.] 
Nichors HannibaL 
Greencastle, Indiana, £6ih AprU. Edwin Post. 

EdHor Latine, 

Deab Sir: I was Yery much pleased with the interpretation of Horace, 
ch. I, 22, in the January Latinb (p. 148). It is a Yiew I haYe taken myself 
sinoe first reading Horace with a class, but I fail to find any support for it 
in any editions of Horaoe on my shelYes. I haYe those of Valpy, McLane, 
Tonge, Wickham, Page, Bentley (1826), Nauck (llth), Schutz, Orelli (sexta 
minor), Munro, and Eing, besides the American school editions. Dr. Alfred 
Wdnhold, however, supports it (" Quaest Horat., Grimae," 1882, p. 6) and his 
statement is forcible. 

Please be kind enough to indicate in the columns of Latine where similar 
Yiews may be found.' 

* Will any of our readers dte authority for that interpretation ? — ^Ed. 



> 



K: ^^ 



LATINE. 25 



Have you any objection to giving me the name of the author of the note 
in Latine above referred lo ? 

Yours, with hearty wishes for the success of Latine, 

H. W. JOHNSTON. 

Jacksonville, Illinois, SeptemJbtr J, I884, 

ARGUMENTS ON THJS SXDE OF CLASSICAL STXJDIES. 

So early as 1840, Dr. Thomas Arnold, of Rugby, in a review of previous 
criticisms, made a brilliant and efFective defense of classical studies. 

[" Although," he says, " there is not the 9ame reason now which existed 
three or four centuries ago, for the study of Greek and Roman literature, yet 
there is another no less substantial. Expel Greek and Latin f rom your schools, 
and you confine the views of the present generation to themselves and their 
immediate predecessors." — " Miscellaneous Works," p. 348.] 

The career of Dr. Amold himself , as a teacher of the classics, was a rare 
instance of the successful communication of intelligent methods of study. 
See Dr. Samuel Eliofs article, " Thomas Amold as a Teacher,** Bamard*8 
" American Joumal of Education," Maroh, 1868, IV, 645-681. 

Mr. De Quincey, in his " Letters to a Young Man whose Education has 
been neglected " (Letter III), touches forcibly upon the value of " classical" 
studies. — "Essays in Philosophy," American edition, pp. 61-64. 

[" It is not for knowledge," he declares, " that Greek is worth leaming, 
but for power." — ^P. 62.] 

Professor James Pillans, of the University of Edinburgh, in 1886, deliv- 
ered at that institution a oourse of " Three Lectures on . . . the Relative 
Utility of Classical Instmction." 

[NoTE. — These lectures were reviewed by Sir William Hamilton, in the 
" Edinburgh Review " (October, 1836, LXIV, reprinted in his " Discussions," 
pp. 328-347).] 

In 1836 were published at Oxford a series of discussions under the title 
of " The Oxford English Prize Essays," several of which (those by Hendy, 
Ogilvie, and Rickards) discussed the value of classical studies. 

A volume entitled " Classical Studies," published in 1843, as the result of 
the joint labors of Dr. Bamas Sears, Professor B. B. Edwards, Prof essor (after- 
ward President) Felton, of Harvard Oollege, comprised translations of note- 
worthy German discussions of the value of classical studies. 

[It also contained valuable original materiaL " He who cuts himself off,'* 
say the editors, " f rom the classics, excludes himself f rom a world of delight- 
ful assodations with the best minds.** Referring to a degenerate tone to be 
noticed in English literature, they remark : " One way by which this acknowl- 
edged evil may be stayed, is a return to such books as Milton, Dryden, and 
Gowper loved; to such as breathed thdr spirit into the best literature of Eng- 
land.'* — ^Page xviii] 

Compare, also, the article by Mr. George S. ffillard, in the " North Amer- 
ican Review," July, 1843, LVII, 184-196, which pronounces the volume just 



26 LATINE. 

cited one " ia which the canse of clnBaical Iwirning is advocKted with eloquenoe, 
beauty, and feeling." 

Few American schohin have done more to promote clanirical studies than 
the late President Felton. See his articles in the " North American ReWew/' 
January, 1836, and April, 1842 (XLII, 94-116, and UV, 269-283). 

[" A man may, like Franklin," he says, "acquire by laborioos practice a 
ooirect and elegant English style, without the smallest asaistance f rom Oreek 
and Latin masters. But singie examples prove nothing either way. The 
habits of mind acquired by studying accurately the elegancies of two such in- 
struments of thought as the languages of Greeoe and Bome," he maintains, 
** is of pre-eminent service."] 

In 1852, in an address at Lynn, Massachusetts (printed in part in Bar- 
nard'8 " American Joumal of Education," X, 281-284), he gave some oon- 
sideration to the utilitarian ai^gument. 

[" And what is the use of Latin and Greek ? I migfat ask, as Mr. Everett 
asked on a public occasion, * What is the use of anythkngf ' . . . It is because 
the mind and soul of man are not chained down to a narrow utHity that all 
these exalting influences are sought." — P. 282.] 

John Stuart Mill, in his inaugural address at the University of St Andrews 
in 1867, most carefuUy and logically balanced the cUims of cltiBsical and 
sdentific studies in a system of educati(m. 

[" The only languages," he says, "and the only literatore to whicfa I would 
allow a place in the ordinary curriculum are those of the Greeks and Romans ; 
and to tbese I would preserve the position which they at present occupy." 
Tet he elsewhere insists on the **indi8pensable neoessity** of scientific in- 
stniction. — " Dissertations and Discussions " (American editaon), IV, 846, 847, 
36L] 

The same year witnessed the publicationof the volume entatled *' CSassical 
Studies," by Professor Frands Bowen, of Harvard College ; andof the volume 
of " Essajs on a Libeiid Education," edited by Rev. F. W. Farrar (sinoe Canon 
of Westminster). 

In 1869 the late Professor J. Lewis Diman, of Brown University, toucfaed 
very lucidly upon the real issues involved, in his Phi Beta Kappa address at 
Amherst GoUege, on " The Method of Academic Culture." 

[" The moral and aesthetic influenoe of sdenoe is limited and indirect, but 
in converse with literature we feel a power tfaat is dose and Uving. . . . The 
Immense increase in the extent and variety of the scienoes, instead of render- 
ing the need of this distinctive culturo less, faas only made it greater." — ^*' Ora- 
tions and Essays," pp. 90, 106.] 

In 1870 was published a conveni^t oompilation entitled ** Classical Study," 
edited by Dr. Samuel H. Taylor, of Andover, and oontaining dtations from 
many dilf erent writers as to the necessity and value of tfaese studies. 

Yarious addresses and papers on this question have been presented before 
such bodies as the American Institute of Instruction, and similar organiza- 
tions. 

[Out of a great number, the foUowing may be mentioned : '* Classical Edu- 



LATINE, 27 



cation," bj David Cole, Americaii Association for the Advancement of Educa- 
tion, December 27, 1864 (in Barnard^s " American Journal of Education," 
August, 1866, VII, 66-86); "The Study of the Classics," by R. L. Perkms, 
Massachusetts Teachers* Association, October, 1866 ; ** Should the Studj of 
Modem Languages take the Place of Latin and Greek ? " by Carlos Slafter, 
Massachusetts Teachers* Association, October, 1870; "The Aim and Method 
of teaching Foreign Languages in the High-School," by Prof essor A. Williams, 
of Brown University, Massachusetts Teachers* Association, December, 1880 ; 
" Classical and Scientific Studies compared," by Professor J. L. Lincohi, of 
Brown University, American Institute of Instruction, 1867 ; " Classical Study 
and Instruction," by President Porter, of Yale College, American Institute of 
Instmction, July, 1876 (in the annual volume, pp. 109-126 ; also reprinted in 
President Porter*s " American Colleges and the American Public," edition of 
1878, pp. 887-862); " Aspects of Greek and Latm Study and Teaching," by 
Professor J. L. Lincoln, American Institute of Instmction, July, 1879 (in the 
annual volume, pp. 120-136). " The error of exclusiveness," says Professor 
Linoohi, " lies now rather on the side of the new education than of the old." 
*** Such a view as this would, in its legitimate results, banlsh f rom their native 
homes of liberal study not only dassical leaming, but all literature, and 
establish there an education which might minister only to material ends." — 
P. 122.] 

The place of the study of Greek and Latin has also been very comprehen- 
sively examined by Dr. William T. Harris, in an address at the Concord 
^hool of Philosophy, 1879, and before the American Instituteof Instmction, 
1879 (!n annual volume, pp. 91-119). 

[" The study that emancipates our youlh," says Dr. Harris, " is therefore 
that of Latin and Greek. . . . What we call a * liberal * education, that is to 
say, an education which liberates one, must provide for the elimination " of 
defects of perspective, " by taking us back through the long, silent ages, dur- 
ing which our civilization has been growing." — ^Pp. 118, 119.] 

Professor Charles Carroll Everett, of Cambridge, in his Phi Beta Eappa 
address at Brown University, 1873, on " Imagination in Life and Culture," 
touched upon this same f eature. 

M. Eraest Renan, in a paper on classical teaching, has declared that the 
"United States have created a considerable popular instmction, without any 
serious higher instmction, and will long have to expiate their fault by their 
inteUectual mediocrity, their vulgarity of manners, their superficial spirit, their 
lack of general intelligence." 

Compare Renan'8 "QuestioHs Contemporains " (1868), p. 76. 

In 1877 Professor E. Du Bois-Reymond, of the University of Berlin, in an 
address delivered at Berlin (printed in the " Deutsche Rundschau," November, 
1877), protested against the exclusive prominence given to sdentific studies 
in America, " the chief home of utilitarianism." 

In 1879 Profesaor Bonamy Price, of Oxford, in an article in the " Con- 
temporary Review " (March, 1879, XXXIV, 802-816), presented a very forci- 
ble discussion " On the Worth of Classical Education." 



28 LATINE. 



In 1880 the same fact was made prominent in the inaugural address of 
Dr. A- W. Hof mann, of the Univereity of Berlin, reviewing the peeults of ten 
yeare' experimenting in the Univeraity of Berlin, in connection with the policy 
of admitting pupils from the Real-Schulen. An English translation of the 
pamphlet has been published in this country by Ginn, Heath k Co. 

In 1883 Professor Edward R. Sill, in an artide in the ** Atlantic Monthly " 
(February, 1883, LI, 171-179), entitled " Herbert Spenoer»s Theory of Edu- 
cation," very indsively touched upon the salient points of Mr. Spencer^s 
theory. 

["His mam proposition is, in a nutshell,** says Professor Sill, "that 
' sdence* ought to supersede the classics, the modem languages, history, art, 
and literature. ... It is to be hoped," he elsewhere says, that Mr. Spencer 
" will yet revise the treatise, or withdraw it altogether, and substitute a more 
mature treatment of the subject, whenever he comes to realize that his reac- 
tion has already gone much too far." — Pp. 171, 179."| 

Perhaps by none who have written on this subject have the teachings of 
Dr. Thomas Amold, of Rugby, been so e£fectively supplemented aa by his dis- 
tinguished son, Matthew Amold. 

In 1868 in his volume on " Higher Schools and Univeraities of Germany," 
he spoke with considerable reserve. 

[** I am inclined to think that both sides will, as is natural, have to abate 
their extreme pretensions. The modem spirit tends to reach a new concep- 
tion of the aim and office of instraction ; when this conception is f ully reached, 
it will put an end to conflict, and will probably show both the humanists and 
the realists to have been right in thdr main ideas." — P. 164.] 

In 1882, advancing to a more decided declaration, he published in the 
" Nineteenth Century " (August, 1882, XII, 216-230), a paper on " Literature 
and Science " (originally delivered at the Univereity of Gambridge, as the Rede 
Lecture), which he has also delivered during the present winter in several 
American cities and towns. 

[In this he emphatically assigns to literary studies a pre-eminence over the 
natural sciences for the development of the powers of students. " Letters," 
he says, " will call out their being at more points ; will make them live more." 
— P. 229.] 

Lord Coleridge, in his address at Yale College in the same year (1882), 
supplied some suggestive arguments from his own experience. 

An article in the " Quarterly Review," July, 1883 (under the title of "The 
Study of English Idterature "), touches very f ordbly on the advantage of a 
classical training. 

[" We greatly doubt whether any one [of the physical sciences] offere the 
possibility of so thorough a training of the reason and the judgment as is 
implied in the mastery of a classical language, in all the perf ection of its 
form."] 

Of the articles and other discussions called forth in reply to Mr. Charles 
Frands Adams, Jr.'s, Phi Beta Kappa address, the f ollowing may be named : 

" A CoUege Fetich," reply by President Porter, of Yale College, "Prince- 



LATINE. 29 



ton Review," September, 1883, new series, XII, 106-128 ; "Greek in Ameri- 
can CoUeges," by J. H. Morse, in "The Critic," May 26, 1883, III, 341, 342 ; 
" Greek, a Prime and Necessary Factor of Scientific Education," by E. R. 
Humphries, "Joumal of Education" (Boston), August 9, 1883, XVIII, 87; 
a letter by C. H. Ford, " Joumal of Education," November 16, 1883, XVIII, 
309, 310 ; " The Uee of going to CoU^" " The Nation," August 16, XXXVII, 
183, 184. " Mr. Adams," aays " The Nation," " has taken no account of the 
experience of the Berlin University in the ten years since the admission of 
the pupils of the Real-Schulen (or technical schools), as well as the pupils of 
the Gymnasia (or classical and mathematical academies) to the university " ; 
— ^the result being that,' " in all kinds of university work, including the higher 
mathematics, the pupils from the classical schools surpass the non-classical 
students." [Compare Hof mann^s " Address," cited above.] — From " MoTdhly 
RefereMe lAsUy 

[Tohe conHnued.'] 

JDUAE CORONAJE, [EpierajBma, a,h Angelino Gajseo,'^ 

Elige utum malis. En auram, en spina coronae ; 

Hla nitet gemmis, sentibus ista riget. 
Cemis homo spinas, spinas insignia coeli, 

Symbohi Divinae cemis amicitiae. 
Si sapis, hanc capiti dum fas est, inde coronam, 

Quae gerit hic stimulos, post referet radios. 
Sed cave, quod lucere vides, est proditor aurum, 

Quod ferit hic radios, post adiget stimulos. 
Ergo age, quisquis ades, meliori praeditus aure, 

Haec bibe verba senex, haec bibe verba puer. 
Alteram in alterius medio latet Optima mens est, 

Per bona noUe malum : per mala velle bonum. 

THE TWO CROWKS. [From the Latin of Angelinus Gazeus.\ 

Behold two crowns, the one a crown of gold, 

The other crown of thoms ; 
This one wlth jagging prickles rough, wliile that 

Full many a gem adoms. 

Thou seest, man, the thoms, those piercing thoms 

Do heaven call to mind. 
Proofs are they of high Heaven's boundless love— 

Of Christ^s love f or numkind. 

If thou art wise, and wlule the choioe is given, 

The thoms choose f or thy head ; 
The crown now bearing thoms in after-time 

Will rays of glory shed. 



30 LATINE. 

Beware of that whicfa shines with dazzUng light 

Of gold— deceitful gold ! 
Now sending forth its rays, in time to come 

Death*8 stings it will unfold. 

Come, then, whoeV tfaou art, or young or old, 

Desiring to pursue 
The thomy path of right — ^these words regard, 

And thou wilt find them true. 

A crown of tfaoms lurks in tfais golden crown ; 

Amid the thoms is gold — 
Gfaoose not that good whicfa ends in ill, but choose 

Tfaose ills which good inf old. W. 

EBITAPH, 

This epitapfa is said to faave been taken from a tombstone in Germany, 
and was publisfaed some years ago in tfae London " Times " : 

quid tua te 

be bis bia abit 

ra ra ra 

es 

et in 

ram ram ram 

i i 

moz eris quod ego nunc. 

SOLUTION. 

tuperb^ quid mperhis ? tua 
SuperhiSi. te «up^rabit. 
Ter ra es, et in ^-ram tbis. 
Mox eris quod ego nunc. 

" man of pride, wfay dost thou boast ? 
Thy pride will surely vanquisfa tfaee ; 
For tfaou art dust — sfaalt go to dust, 
And wfaat I*m now tfaou soon sfaalt be.^^ 

A. M. Maitison. 
Bdldwin UnivertUy^ Berea, Ohio. 

NoTB. — ^Tfae selections from CScero wfaicfa occupy tfae first page are de- 
signed for sigfat-reading ; " Caesar," for students reading Gaesar ; " CScero " 
for students of Cicero's life; the "Cato," in connection with "C7«<o Maiore;"*^ 
" Antonius,*' for readers of tfae Pfailippics. Tfae Colloquium on Horace will 
interest stud^ts of tfae poet We welcome tfae interesting letters, especially 
tfaose from beyond tfae sea. Otfaers are in type. Mr. Colhir's article fur- 
nisfaes reading f or students of grammar. Mucfa interesting matter (including 
book-notices) is crowded out of tfais number. 



Iter ert Umgum per praeeepta breve et ^fflcax per ezekpla..— Sbneca. 



Latine. 



NOVI I A nn T 1VT T7 MENSE OCT. 

EBORACI. I J /V I I i\ tli . MDCCCLXXXIIII. 



> '^MuUaSoga: SetineDoeta: Jtetenta Doee.'^—CqKE]!mjB. 

Lectar: Quid tibi yis, O ephemeriB panmlal 

Lat4ne : Ut TerenU verba fleotam : LaitkU nihU a me alienmn puto. ** Non 
emm tam praedarum eet eeire Latikb quarn turpe neecire.*^ — Cio. Bbut. oxl. 

C. lULIUS CAJESAR. [Altera, ptLrs.l 

(9.) Bellum Gallicum 0. Caesare imperatore gestum est, antea 
tantum modo repulsum ; semper illas nationes nostri imperatores 
refutandas potius bello qilam lacessandas putaverunt. Ipse ille 
C. Marius, cuius divina atque eximia virtus magnis populi Romani 
luctibus funeribusque subvenit, influentis in Italiam Gallorum 
maximas copias repressit, non ipse ad eorum urbis sedisque pene- 
travit. C. Caesaris longe aliam video fuisse rationem ; non enim 
sibi solum cum eis, quos iam armatos contra populum Romanum 
videbat, bellandum esse duxit, sed totam Galliam in nostram dici- 
onem esse redigendam. Itaque cum acerrimis nationibus et maxi- 
mis Gkrmanorum et Helvetiorum proeliis felicissime decertavit ; 
ceteras conterruit, compulit, domuit, imperio populi Romani pa- 
rere adsuefecit et quas regiones quasque gentis nullae nobis antea 
litterae, nulla vox, nulla fama notas fecerat, eas noster imperator 
nosterque exercitus, et populi Romani arma peragrarunt. (De 
Prov. Consul., § 32, et 33.) 

(10.) C. Caesarem senatus et generc supplicationem amp]is- 
simo omavit et numero dierum novo ; idem in angustiis aerarii 
victorem exercitum stipendio adfecit, imperatori decem legatos 
decrevit, lege Sempronia succedendum non censuit. Harum ego 
sententiarum et princeps et auctor fui, neque me dissensioni meae 
pristinae putari potius adsentiri quam praesentibus rei publicae 
temporibus et concordiae convenire. (Pro Balbo, § 61. Cf. 
Epist. ad fam., 1, 7, 10 : Et stipendium Caesari decretum est et 
decem legati et, ne lege Sempronia succederetur, facile perfectum 
est And de Prov. Consul., § 23 : Me meus in rem publicam 



82 LATINE. 

animus pristinus ac perennis cum C. Caesare redncit, reconciliat, 
restitait in gratiam.) 

(11.) C. Caesaris landes primum populi Romani, nunc etiam 
senatus plurimis atque amplissimis iudiciis video esse celebratas. 
(Pro Plancio, § 93.) 

{^Reliqua deincqM perseqttemurj] 

M. ANTONIUS, [Altenpm,^ 

(5.) Post proelium Mutinense res publica Antoniano quidem 
latrocinio liberata, sed nondnm omnino explicata. (Epist ad 
fam., 12, 26, 6.) 

(6.) Antonius, homo amens et perditus, caedis (Caesaris) 
initium quaerit, nullamque aliam ob causam me (L e., Cicero- 
nem) auctorem fuisse Caesaris interficiendi criminatur, nisi ut in 
me veterani incitentur. (Epist ad fam., 12, 2, 1.) 

(7.) Post Caesaris caedem in aedem Telluris senatus convoca- 
tns est : praeclara tum oratio M. Antonii, egregia etiam voluntas ; 
pax denique per eum et per liberos eius cum praestantissimis cin- 
bus confirmata est. Atque bis principiis reliqua consentiebant : 
ad deliberationes eas, quas babebat domi de re publica, principes 
civitatis adhibebat; ad senatum res optimasdeferebat; nihil tum 
nisi quod erat notum omnibus in C. Caesaris commentariis repe- 
riebatur; summa constantia ad ea, quae quaesita erant, respon- 
debat . . . dictaturam, quae iam vim regiae potestatis obsederat, 
funditus ex je publica sustulit (Philipp., 1, § 2 et 3.) 

(8.) Caesar in fnnere elatus, in foro combustus laudatusque 
ab Antonio miserabiliter, servique et egentes in tecta nostra cum 
facibus immissi. (Epist ad Attic, 14, 10, 1.) 

(9.) Inspectantibns patribus toto Capitolio tabulae figebantur 
(ab Antonio), neque solum singulis venibant immunitates, sed 
etiam populis universis ; civitas non iam singillatim, sed provinciis 
totis dabatur. (Philipp., 2, § 92.) 

(10.) (Mense Novembri) Antonius ingressus urbem est, quo 
comitatu vel potius agmine ! cum dextra sinistra, gemente populo 
Romano, minaretur dominis, notaret domos, divisurum se urbem 
palam suis polliceretur. Rediit ad milites ; ibi pestifera illa Ti- 
buri contio. Inde ad urbem cursus ; senatus in Capitolium ; 
parata de circumscribendo adulescente (Octaviano) sententia 
consularis, cum repente — nam Martiam legionem Albae conse- 



LATINE. 38 



disse sciebat — adfertar ei de quarta nuntius; quo perculsus abie- 
cit consilium referendi ad senatum de Caesare ; egressus est non 
viis, sed tramitibus paludatns ; eoque ipso die innumerabilia senar 
tus consulta fecit, quae quidem omnia citius delata quaro scripta 
sont. Ex eo non iter, sed cursus et luga in Galliam, in quam 
penetranti D. se Brutus obiecit' Mutinamque illi exsultanti tam- 
quam frenos furoris iniecit (Philipp., 13, § 19 et 20.) 

EFISTUIsA^ 

w. L. c, E. s. a, S. D. P. 

Quaesis, ut ego litteras de rebus, quae ego Romae et in Italift 
viderim, scribam. Faeiam : nam quid libentius facerem, quam 
ea depingere, qaae me tam yehementer delectant. Plinius dicit, 
" Naturale est, ut ea, quae quis adeptus est ipse, quam am- 
plissima existimari velit.'' Itaque intelliges, quamobrem ego 
dicam hominem non prius vixisse, quam Italiam vidisset. Tu, 
tantum de Roma, de il]is hominibus, qui hic habitaverint, de tem- 
plis, quae nunc deleta jaceant, legisti, ut omnia, quae ad hanc 
antiquissimam urbem pertineant, tibi maxime placeant 

Cura sollicitudoque amicorum mihi cara est, quod cum au- 
divissent me aestate Romam petiturum esse, ne diutius manerem, 
monuerunt, cum urbem gravem et pestilentem putent. 

Multi, vero, febri Romana mortui sunt, sed Romani (cives) 
semper et iterum dicunt, hos homines Neapoli aegrotavisse et 
Romam venisse, ut hic morerentur. Atque adeo, ut omnem 
metum pro me susceptum ponas, accipe me prudentissimum esse, 
ita ut noctu in meo domo maneam, et edam nec nimium nec ea, 
quae ad aegrotandum proclivia sint. 

Initium facere difficillimum est, cum Roma maxima sit ; tan- 
tasque et recentes et antiquas res habeat, quae tibi auditu et 
mihi relata jucunda erunt. 

Omnes, pnto, Romam aliam esse inveniunt quam exspectave- 
rant; urbs forsitan, nimis nova videtur, sed triginta post dies vete- 
ram Romam iterum reperies, et novae urbis onmino, oblivisceris. 

Yeris clementia est mira. Semper aer auras, saepe ventos 
habet, sed aestate necesse esse ferunt, nt peregrini in montes 
Albanos aut in aliam terram eant, quia notus maxime insalubris 
est. 



84 LATINE. 



Yiator priom ad formn Romanum, aut libentius ad Capi- 
tolium it, quia turris ibi est, unde prospectus longe lateque 
patet Imaginare urbem, magnam, sordidissimam multis in 
partibus, novas domus, vias angustas et curvatas, prope un- 
dique aedificiorum reliquias, domicilia bellissima, multa palatia, 
olim pulcherrima, nunc sola rerum memoria commemoratione 
digna. 

Vereor, ne tibi baec epistula, ut tam longa, taedio sit, itaque 
ad finem veniam. Yale. 

Ante diem quartum Nonas Maias. 

BORATU I*RIMI ZJBRI ODE SECUNDA, Ihterxvg&tiOBes prmecep- 
toris et responsa discipulorum. 

De quibus scribit Horatius bac in ode ? 
Primum de ira deorum contra Romanos ob caedem Julii Cae- 
saris scribit ; deinde ostendit totam imperii spem in Augusto esse. 
Quid est metrum bujus odes? 
Metmm Sappbicam et Adonicum est. 
Qui versus Sappbici metri suntf 
Tres priores versus Sappbici sunt 
E quibus pedibus constat quisque versus ? 
E trocbaeo, spondaeo, dactylo, et duobus trocbaicis quisque 
versus constat. Caesura semper in dactylo est Quartus versus 
•constat e dactylo et spondaeo. 
Potesne scandere ? 

Censeo me posse. 

Audiamns quompdo scandas, si placet 

Satis est Bene .scandis. Nonne est metmm leve et pu- 
-cbram? 

Pulcbernmum mibi videtur. 

Nonne est leve etiam ? 

Nescio ; non est anris mibi musica. 

Cujus satis Pater misit ? 

Nivis grandinisque satis superque forsan Pater misit 

Quare dicis superque? 

Quod nix liquescens magnum diluvium fecit 

Fuitne diluvium, an Pater Jupiter, qui terrait urbem ? 

TJterque ; Pater, quia misit tantum nivis, et diluvium, quia 
tam periculosum fuit 



LATINE. 38 



Poeta dicit dextram Jovis riibentem fuisse. Quid effecit ut 
rubens efset? 

Fulgur effecit ut rubens esset. 

Meministine aliam deum qui nonnumquam fulmina projicit? 

Memini qao modo Minerva Ajacem Oileum interfecerit. Fa 
bala a Virgilio narratur. 

Quae fuit Pyrrha? 

Pyrrha fuit uxor Ducalionis, regis Thessaliae. 

Quando Pyrrha nova monstra questa est? 

" Omne quum Proteus pecus egit altos Visere montes." 

E quaiibus animalibus constabat illud pecus ? 

E marinis animalibus constabat. 

Num baec animalia anquam mare relinquunt? 

Nunquam mare relinquunt. 

Quo pacto igitur potuerunt montes visere ? 

Nando hoc effecerunt. . 

Explices, si placet, quo haeo res possit ? 

Temporibus Ducalionis et Pyrrhae magnum diluvium fuit 
qao omnes montes submersi sunt. 

Num dicis omnes montes subraersos esse ? 

Omnes, Parnasso excepto. 

Qaamobrem non Ducalion et Pyrrha submersi sunt? 

Navicula in Parnassum confugenmt. 

TJnde navicula illi? Eratne piscator? 

Nescio, sed certe navicula fuit illi, qua conferret se et uxorem 
in tutum locuni. 

Scisne fabulam Ducalionis et Pyrrhae ? 

Scio bene ; sed nolo narrare. 

Vereor ne dissimoles nunc. Forsan non possis narrare. Sed 
de hac alias quaeram. 

Quis fuit Proteus ? 

Oustos Phocarum Neptuni et magus potens, qui se in varias 
species transformabat. 

Quae fdit Hia ? 

Ilia Romuli mater erat. 

Quae est fabula de illa. 

Alii dicunt eam in . vincula conjectam esse, alii in Tiberim, 
Jassu Amalii. 

Paacis verbis fabulam conficis. Nonne erepta est e flumine ? 



36 LATINE. 

Non erepta est ; sed in matrimonium a flaminis deo ducta 
est 

Quare adeo inc^nsa erat ut maritum rogaret, 
'' . . . dejectum monumenta Regis, 
Templaque Vestae " f 
Quod Romani Julium Caesarem, ejus cognatnm clarum, inter- 
fecerant. D. H. R. 



COLLOQUIUM. [AndriM Terenti.] 

A. Nuper Andriam Terenti legi, quam comoediam, nisi molestum est, tibi 
exponere velim. 

B. Yolo sane hanc comoediam noscere. Unde indicem habet ? 

A. Olyoerium, puella Andria natu, nomen praebet. 

B. Nonne Terentius poetaa Graecos imitabatur? 

A. Ita vero ; in prologo dicit Menandrum Andriam et Perinthiam fecisse, 
duas comoedias non argumento, oratione tamen et stilo diasimilee. Fatetur 
se, quae sibi convenirent, in Andriam ex Perinthia transtulisBe. 

B. Quare prologos comici f aciebant ? 

A. Plautus, quo distinctius auditoribus fabulam explicaret; Terentius 
autem, ut se oontra criticos defenderet. 

B. Quid hi ei culpae dabant ? 

A. Accusabant eum, quod e duabus comoediis unam fecisset. 

B. Quibus verbis se def endit ? 

A. Dicit se Naerium, Plautum, Ennium auctores habere quorum negle- 
gentiam potius quam diligentiam judicum imitari malle. 

B, Quae sunt personae ? 

A. Simo senex et ejus filius, Pampkilus nomine, qui Olycerittm amat ; 
Charinus, Pamphili amicus, qui Philwnenam^ divitis Ckremis filiam, amat ; 
Sotia^ libertus ^monis ; Davos, serrus Pamphili ; Byrria^ servus Gharim ; 
ifym, Lesbia^ Criio. 

B. Narra, precor, mihi actionem fabulae. 

A, Athenis Simo cum Sosia quandam viam ambulat ; duo servi, cibo6 
Tinumque portantes, sequuntur. Jubet serros abire, Sosiam retinet, ut cum 
eo de suls rebus agat. Fretus fide et tacitumitate servi eum sua beneficia, 
praedpue libertatem datam monet. 

B. Nonne Cioero dicit genus hominum officia exprobrantium esse odio- 
sum? 

A. Dicit sane; neque Sosiae phicet haec commemoratio ; mentem autem 
senis cura perturbat. Nuptiae, ait, quae parantur, non verae sunt. 

B. Qualem senem nobis Terentius pingit ? 

A. Nempe garrulum ayidumque futuri, sed neque difficilem neque que- 
mlum. [Hor. A. P. 171.] Vitam filii, sua consilia, et quid libertum rogety 
multis yerbis explicat. Se gavisum quod filius e pueris excedens neqne 
equis neque canibus neque litteris egregie studeret et tamen his omnibus me- 



LATINE. 37 



diocriter, et per obsequium amicos pararef. Sosia, qui in verba domini sem- 
per jurat et dicta sapientium in ore habet, illud " ut nequid nimis " laudat. 
Obsequium, ait, amicos, veritas odium parit Meninistine Laelium apud Cice- 
ronem hanc sententiam reprehendere ? 

B, Dicit proprium esse amicitiae monere et moneri. Num hic tam gratus 
filius patri curae est ? 

A, Simo rem narrat : Ghremem diFitem, fama ingeni adulescentis audita, 
generum eundem petiisse. Se gavisum, despondisse, diem nuptiis dixisse. 

B, Nonne Hbertus haec jam novit ? 

A, NoTit sane, orditur autem, ut Horatius ait, senex Trojanum bellum ab 
gemino ove. 

B, Nonne has nuptias esse veras modo negavit ? 

A, Recte dids. Mulierem quandam, tribus ante annis, ex insula Andro 
Athenas venisse, cujus domum multos frequentavisse, inter eos Pamphilum. 
Se de hac re quaesivisse, sed nihil reperisse, quod filium accusaret. Gujus 
feminae nuper mortuae se ipsum, nihil mali suspicantem, cum aliis funus 
oelebrasse ; dolorem lacrimasque filii esse miratum. Denique inter mulieres 
puellam eximia pulcritudine, sororem mortuae, vidisse : ** Attat," exclamasse, 
" hinc illae lacrimae 1 " 

B, Nonne Horatius haec verba citat ? 

A, Et Horatius et Gicero et multi. Ita senex : corpore in rogum im- 
posito, sororem, ut mos est, faoem subjecisse, sed propius ignem accedentem, 
a Pamphilo complexam et ad sinum pressam : hinc rem in aperto esse. Dum 
ipse haec moleste ferret, Ghremem aggressum esse, clamantem Pamphilum 
jam uxorem habere ; se negavisse, illum confirmavisse, abnuisseque se filiam 
daturum. 

B, Quid senex, ea spe dejectus, conatur ? 

A, Dicit se, simulantem Ghremem eam daturum, nuptias parare pergere, 
ut filium ab hac Andria removeat ; vereri autem, ne servus ejus cui sit '* mala 
mens, malus animus," consilia evertat, magis ut sibi obsit quam Pamphilo 
proflit. 

B, Miror, si hoc pulcrum consilium e sententia senis evenerit. 

A, Audi. Ei cogitanti servus PamphUi obviam venit, sed, mente occu- 
pata, non dominum videt. Hic paulisper moratus, ut servum necopinantem 
obeervet, tandem eum vocat. Ita cum eo agit ; se rumorem audivisse, filium 
amare ; id quod minimi aestimaturum f uisse, nisi nuptiae jam paratae ; orat, 
nt servus se in hac re adjuvet. 

B, Gredisne servum apud adolesoentem multum posse ? 

A, Plurimum sane. Huic senex, si ullo modo nuptiis obsistat, verbera, 
molas, omnia supplicia minitatur. 

B, TJtrum servus patri an filio servire vult ? 

A, Secum agit, quid faciat. Yeretur ne adulescens relictus sibi mortem 
oonsciscat, sed minas patris metuit. Novit illum jam Glycerium pro uxore 
habere, quam esse cSvem Atticae, parvam in litus insulae e navi ejectam et 
ab incola Andrio receptam dicere. Tandem amore eri commotus, rem peri- 
culi sui f aoere constituit. 



38 LATINE. 



B. Quam oomici serns mendacibos gaudent! Fides erga dominum omnia 
excusat. 

A. Sane qoidem. Hi vix ex oculis abierunt cum Pamphilus vultu irato 
apparet. Patrem inhumanitatiB accusat, qui, se invito, diem nuptiis fecerit ; 
Ghremem deinde vituperat, qui quidem negaverit se filiam daturum, postea 
antem, magis ut sponsum laedat quam sponsae plaoeat, sententiam mutayerifc. 
Suspicatur pueHam esse deformiorem quam quae in matrimonium duci possit. 
Sibi intentus non seryam amatae ridet, quae nunc venit. 

B. Num haec serva eum oonsolari potest ? 

A. Minime yero ; ipsa cura angitur. Pamphilus in patrem ae praedpne 
inyehit, qui tantam rem tam negl^enter egerit. Hunc enim apud f orum sibi 
obviam yenientem jussisse domum abire, ut hac ipsa die uxorem duoeret; 
cui quam oboedire se malle potius se suspendere. 

B. Nonne adhuc seryam videt ? 

A. Non hercle. Haec autem non impeditnr quominos illum appellet. 

B. Quid Yult senra ? 

A. Dicit dominam miseram et sollidtam esse, ne nuptiae negatae nllo 
modo acddant, etlpsa deseratur. 

B. Galcaria currenti ! 

A. Pamphilus negat se feminam bene doctam et eductam, quae sibi omnia 
crediderit, posse deserere. 

B. Bene didt. Nonne seryae satisfadt? 

A. Haec yeretur, ut patri oogenti resistere possit. Gonfirmat dominam 
esse dignam, quae ametur. 

B. Quidplura? 

A. Pamphilus Yerba Chrysidis morientis recordotur, quibus sororem, cui 
ob aetatem et pulcritudinem opus patrono erat, sibi mandaverat ; quam ac- 
oeptam didt se servaturum. Servum dimittit, ipse de via deoedit. Chari- 
nus adulescens, qui puellam a Pamphilo spretam diligit, cum servo Byrria 
intrat. Hic e servo quaerit, si Philumena hac die Pamphilo nubat. Servo 
non negante, fortunam miseram deplorat. Servus monet, quoniam quid 
vult obtinere nequeat, ut velit quid possit ; ille autem nihil nisi puellam 
vult et proverbium dicit, '' Facile omnes, quom valemus, recta oonsilia aegro- 
tis damus.'* Gui ante oculos subito Pamphilus venit, quem condlium 
rogat. 

B. Fortuna, credo, fortes adjuvat. Non dubito, qiun Pamphilus d aurem 
praebuerit. 

A. Audies. " Dudsne," ait, " hodie uxorem ? " " Aiunt," respondet ille. 
Spe dejectus, tamen hio obsecrat ut saltem pauoos dies nuptias differat ; fa- 
tetur se sponsam illius amare. Hle declarat se nuptias effugere istas tam 
malle quam alium adipisoi. 

B. Nonne inter se oonjurant, ne nuptiae fiant ? 

A. Dum consulunt, laeti Davum, quem e servis callidissimum aestimant, 
vident. 

B. Quid nunc Davus ? 

A. Laetus dominum petit, se nuntiura boni esse olamat. 



LATINE. SQ- 



B. Quid novi ? 

A. Cognovit senem mentiri Ghremem nuptias velle. Dicit sibi cogitanti^ 
quid agat, subito in mentem venisse, Simonem nihil dignum nupUis parare. 
Suspicantem quid sit, ad domum Chremis se contulisse, quam hospitibus 
yacuam inyenisse; neminem intrare, neminem exire, nihil tumulti. Haec 
oerte non nuptiis conYenire. 

B. Quorsum pater mentitur ? 

A. Si fiiium cogat ut Glycerium relinquat, sperat se Chremi persuasurumy. 
uffiliam det. Si autem non possit, vim afferre et Andriam ex urbe ejicere 
oonstituit 

B. Nescio, quo modo hic nodus solvi possit. Nihilne auxilii in servo ? 

A. Domino quidem in rebus extremis non deest. Monet eum, ut dicat 
8e filiam Chremis ducturum, interea amori erga Gljcerium indulgeat. Non 
dubium esse quin Chi^emes negare perseveret ; Pampbilum autem patri hoc- 
obeequio placiturum, tempusque ad rem conficiendam obtenturum. Dum 
haec aguntur, ecce senex ipse adest, Pamphilum vocat, et jubet hac die nup- 
tias facere. Hic respondet, quod pater velit, id per se fieri licere, et abit, 
quasi omnia paraturus. Davus sermonem adulescentis confirmat, quem dicit 
secreto, ut adulescentes soleant, quidem amavisse, verentem autem ne sibi 
dedecori hic amor sit, esse paratum praecepta patema sequi. Pater gaudet 
sed filium tristem miratur. Servus respondet eum inoleste ferre, quod sump- 
tui nuptiarum nimis parcatur. 

B. Nonne senex aatutiam servi animadvertit ? 

A. Dicit si quicquam mali sit, hunc esse rei auctorem. Dum autem 
secum agit, per duas servas Glyceri, quae, Simone et Davo audientibus, in 
Tia loquuntur, tota res aperltur. Sed satis hodie. Quod reliqui est, ali- 
quando narrabo, si tibi placet. Precor, ut comoediam ipsam legas ; personas 
distinctas et quasi vivas, sales, dicta quae locum proverbiorum obtinuerunt, 
multum admiraberis. £. H. R. 

CARMEN.^ [Jn la,udem pontis pensilis^ Neo-Eboracensis.—JX. Kal 
JvLH,, MDCCCLJCXjujjl. 

Exegi monimentum aere perennius, 

Regalique situ pyramidum altius ; 

Quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens 

Possit diruere, aut innumcrabilis 

Annorum series, et fuga temporum. — Hor. IV, 30.. 

I. II. 

Jam satis Rivi tumidis Eoi ' Jam satis vexit geminas ad oras 

Credidit lymphis Pater has marinaa Horrida cymba * sitiens avarus 

Nobiles urbes, nebulisque, ventis, Impigros cives Moderator, actus 

Grandine pressit. Nummuli amore. 

^ Reprinted, by request, from Yol. I., with annotations. 

* The suspension-bridge. * East River. ^ Ferry-boat 



^o 



LATINE. 



Pons eDim, pendens Bolidis colosais, 
.Praegravans uncis retlnaculiBque 
Ferreis, pini trabibus politis 
Ck>ntabulatu8, 



Pondus immenaum, Rhodium ante- 

oellenB! 
Jure " Romanus labor " elocutus, 
iiesdis fati resonante linguia 
Dignus honore, 



Prout semel Trojae stupuit sub aroee 
Terra, dum muros init " Ars Miner- 

vae " ; 
Sive dum oelsae Babylonis hortus 
Pensilis halat ; 

XI. 

Os ita intentum teneat : prehendat 
Quod valet liber populus creare, 
Viribus junctis opibusque ; quaeque 
Gignere monstra. 



'Oonditus nunc est. Properate, cives. . . . 
Terra telluri sociata ... 1 En dant 
Murmur orchestrae. Tuba tympa- 
numque 
Perstrepit Euoe 1 

VI. 

Fulminans rauco catapulta * bombo 
Detonat celsis solidisque castris : 
Bellicus non est crepitus ; triumpbi 
Nuncia defert. 



Echo Eboraoo reboat NoveUo ; 
■Ohorda pervadit stimulatque vulgi. 
Insulae Longae * stygiis cavemis 
Penetrat orcum. 



Hinc Alexander, Pharao, Philippus, 
Cyrus, Atridae, Cythereius dux, 
Caesar, Henricus, Bonapars cohorsque 
Martia cuncta, 

XIII. 

Socrates magnus, Xenophon, Platoque 
Et Stagirites, Megaraeque prudens, 
Tullius, Paulus venit, ac sophorum 
Densa corona. 

XIV. 

Prodeant. Locis spatietur altis 
Qui, stylo promptus gladiove, mundo 
Prof uit, f as est : regat Archimedes 
Dummodo passus. 



Xiber inoedit populus — ^magister 
Arte, naturae domitor, creator, 
Insulas jungens, f reta ponte stemens, 
Aethera scandens. 



Hincque doctorum subit et caterva 
Quae extudit nobis operosa et usus 
Et bonas artes, hominem trahentes 
Altius arvo. 



IX. 

Xiberae incedunt animae silentum, 
lintre semoto, domito Oharonte, 
Saeculi mores cupidae celebres 
Yisere nostri 



Auctor hic pulvis pyrii,*hictyponim,^ 
Hic modi cantus,* vitreaeque hunnae* 

hic, 
Machinae "^ hic filo dupUci saentlB, 
Profluihicignis;^ 



'Gannon. 

* Printing-types. 



' Long Island. 
^ Musical notes. 



f Double-stitching sewing. 



• Gunpowder. 

•Bales. 

«Gas. 



LATINE. 



41 



XTII. 

Hic leyem mutat rigida vaporem 

Vi : ' jubet plaustrum vehere et cari- 

nam; 
Hic rapit fulmen,' radiare,* fari,* 
Pellere* mandat. 

xvni. 
Sub jugum aut pontum caveas per 

imas* 
Ferreum hic stemit biyium,^ metalli 
Hic loquens stamen.' Spatium nec 
extatl 
Ardua nec sunt ! 

zix. 
Inclyti heroes ! Simulacra grandis 
Veetra Pons gestet ; basibusque docta 
Turba quae prelo nova promit acta 
Publice et affert — 

XX. 

"Nuncius" (vulgo vocitatus "Her- 

ald") 
**Tempora"« ac "SoI"»« ac "Aqui- 

la"»^ac"Tribunus,"" 
«Mundus"» aut " Censor,"" "Graph- 

icu8"»»vel"Argus"»«— 
Rite ea ponet. 

XXI. 

Dum puer vemans tenera et puella 
Ter rosis stemimt viridique lauro 
Tramitem, ne quid subeat sinistri 
Forte viator ; 



Gandidis stellis roseisque pulchram 
Fasdis dum almae fluitat Rei hujus 



Publicae signum gemina serenam 
Turre per aethram ; 



Insulae Longae venerande Praesul, 
Fausta ab excelsis chalybi precare 
Pensili. Adstantes, manibuB supinis, 
Jungite voces : 

xxrv. 
potens Numen, sapiente cujus 
Hactenus cura Phariis stat oris 
Pyramis, surgunt tumulique prisci, 
Stantque obelisd, 

XXV. 

Laetus intersis populo Ck>lumbi 1 
Atque votivum decus hoc patemi 
Fluminis surgens opulente ripis, 
Foedus et arcus, 

XXVL 

(Iris ut quondam deoorata coelo 
Mansit in signum placiti fidelis), 
Te tuente, almae stet hic universum 
Pacis in aevum. 



Dulce sic possit " gelidis " Britannis 
Et Scythis, Scotis Alemannicisque, 
Af ricae nudis prof ugis, Ebraesis 
Undique oberrent, 

XXVIII. 

Atque Romanis aquilis, cmore 
Ebriis olim, populisque cunctis 
Libera haec Tellus, data nuper orbi, 
Reddere asylum. 

C. Staudxr, B. D. 



1 Steam-power. 
* Electric engines. 
•"Times." 
" " World." 



• Electricity. 

• Tunnels. 
" " Sun." 
""Critic." 



* Electric light. 

^ Double-track railroad. 

""Eagle." 

""Graphic." 



* Telephone. 
> Cables. 
» " Tribune." 
""Argus." 



42 LATINE. 



ENGLISH SUPPLEMENT. 

[SUPPLEMENTUM AN6LICUM.] 

FROM OLD ROME. A Teaeber^s Letter to hia Pnpils, [AdMpted 
from the OermAn,] lContinued.] 

Now, if we descend from the Capitoliiie by the nearest way 
to the Foram Romanum, we shall have on our right hand the 
present Palazzo del Senatore, erecled on the site of the Roman 
Archives, or Tabularinm. This Tabalarium was buiit after the 
plans of Sulla and Catullus, the latter of whom had restored the 
Temple of Jupiter. It connected both summits of the Capitoline. 
A covered colonnade afforded an easy communication from the 
one to the other, and a stairway ied up to the building, and on 
through to the ancient Asylum. At present the entrances to 
the Forum are walled up, and we will therefore content our- 
selves to-day with admiring the blocks of tufa and the arches of 
the Tabularium from without. But you will be much more 
charmed by thc view which we shall have over the Forum 
Romanum. 

This most beautiful and most animated square of ancient 
Rome now lies in silent sorrow, and only the ruins of its former 
grandeur remain. Once it was infinitely rich ; now it has be- 
come a beggar, and excites our compassion by its wom-out gar- 
ments. Only the proud remembrance of its youth remains. A 
wonderful thing is this Forum Romanum. If we contcmplate it 
from our present elevation, and find that, as if riveted to the 
ground, we can not turn our eyes from it, suddenly the solitude 
beneath ns will become alive. Mightv temples ariae from the 
depth beforc our enraptured gaze, and triumphal arches again 
span the sacred street. Now the people, also, are returning. 
Silently and gravely the priests are ascending the steps of the 
lofty temples ; the business-man hastens to the stall of the 
money - changer, and is soon in animated conversation with 
the greedy banker. Thoughtiess idlers are sauntering about in 
the paved square, discussing with important air the events of 
the day. But suddenly everybody tums toward the Via Sacra. 
The imperator, retuming home in triumph, is approaching from 
the eastern hills. The procession is headt^d by the senate, whot 



LATINE. 43 



in festal robes, have received the conqueror and his army at the 
gate of the city. Next come the trumpeters. Behind these are 
creaking the wagons laden with booty; aud here and there 
among them are seen, toweriog up boastfully, the litters with 
the more precious pieces of booty, carried on the shoulders of 
sturdy men. As the wagons approach the crowd, every man 
stretches his neck to read, from the tablets carried on high, what 
province has been subdued, how much booty has been taken, and 
to whom the costly weapons and coats-of-arms belonged. The 
crowd becomes comparatively silent on the approach of the 
priests, the buli adomed witb white ribbous in their midst; but 
loud shouts of joy break forth to greet the conqueror as he pro- 
ceeds on his way to the Capitol, clad in an embroidered toga, 
and seated on a triumphal chariot, which is adorned with ivory, 
and drawn by four horses. Joy and pride beam from ali his 
features in that he is permitted to enter his native city with such 
honor, surrounded by his sons, and followed by his victorious 
soldiers. 

The procession is gone, the crowd has dispersed, and we 
awake from our dream. We now hasten down the hill, and take 
a look next at the so-called Mamertine Prison. This, as is well 
known, is the name of the Roman state-prison. The upper part 
is said to have been built by Ancus Marcius, to which Servius 
Tullius is said to have added the lower, subterranean part. At 
present, the whole built over by a small church, at the entrance 
of which the apostles Peter and Paul are represented languish- 
ing behind the bars of the prison. A modern stairway leads us 
down into the upper story of the prison. This is a chamber, 
inclosed by thick walls, which originally was accessible only by 
means of a rectangular opening in the ceiling. In this cell were 
confined the great criminals, such as parricides and traitors, for 
whom the ordinary prisons were not severe enough. SaUnst, in 
ihe passage where he speaks of the punishment inflicted on the 
associatef^ of Catiline, calls this chamber a camera fomicibus 
vincta, But far more dreaded was the cellar-like dungeon under- 
neath : incultUy tenebri.% odore foeda atque terrihilis eftis faciea 
est, The stones of the walls are so laid as to form a donie, each 
row or layer projecting a Jittle over the one below it. The key- 
stone of the dome has been taken out, in order to restore the 



44 LATINE. 



connection with the upper chamber. ' Right beneath this open- 
ing there is a well, and it is evident tl^at this ancient vault was 
built to protect the well. This vault is called Tullianum, a 
name which signifies nothing clse than *' house of the well,*' and 
denotes here the well belonging to the Arx. But sincc this 
traditional name recalled the tbird King of Rome, they ascribed 
to that opulent ruler this enterprise, as well as the so-called Curia 
Hostiiia. Even if this building had been originally a prison, it 
would be difficuit to say why it was built exactly over a weil. 
From the time of Ancus Marcius it may have been used as a 
prison, especially siuce it had become a dark and damp hole, on 
account of the building placed on top of it. 

Only those CDudemned to death, however, were thrust into 
this dungeon. Here Jugurtha was starved to death. He had 
been dragged along in the triumphal procession of Marius, and 
the Roman plebs had exulted becauBC the crafty Numidian prince 
had been conquered by Marius, himself of plebeian birth. The 
prisoner is scarcely led away from the triumphal procession at 
the end of the Yia Sacra, toward the prison, when the infuriated 
multitude rushed upon him. In spite of the guards, he is struck, 
his clothes are torn, and his golden earrings, together with the 
flaps of his ears, are wrenched off. And so, bleeding and almost 
naked, he arrived at the prison. But these executioners have 
no compassion ; he is thrust down into the horrible dungeon 
below ! Well may the cold chills have run over him as he ex- 
daimed, " By Hercules, how cold your bath is ! " 

To this prison, also, Catiline's fellow-conspirators, who had 
remained behind in the city, were brought, after being con- 
demned to death, in spite of the opposition of Caesar. Cicero 
himself conducted Lentulus, who had lived in free custody on 
the Palatine, across the Forum to the prison ; the rest were led 
by the praetors. They, also, were let down into the gloomy 
dungeon, but a speedy death put an end to their lives — the vin- 
dices rerum capitalium strangled them. 

More cheerful is the Christian legend of this prison. Peter 
and Paui are said to have been imprisoned here, and to havc 
comforted themselves and their fellow-prisoners with Chrisfs 
words ;* and so great was the impression made by their preach- 
ing, that the two jailers and forty-seven prisoners were converted, 



LATINE. 4S 



and, that they might immediately be baptized, God caused thi& 
well to burst forth. 

But I see you have come to feel quite uncomfortable in this 
carcer^ which is much more dreary than the thing which we call 
a ** carcer " in a gymnasium, and will therefore take you out inta 
the open air again. To be sure, if we went into the ancient 
street, a honible sight might yet meet our eyes. For hard by 
the carcer were the so-called Gemonian steps, on which the 
bodies of executed criminals were exposed, so that the whole 
Roman Forum might see them, magno cum horrore, 
\^To be oorUintted.'] 

THE DISTINCnVE FEATURES OF ROMAN ARCHTrECTXTRE^ 
VB Pro^essor T. S, Doolittle, D. D., Rutgers CoUege.^ 

The architectural remains of the Romans are a revelation of 
national character and genius. They delighted evidently in con- 
structing works that would express their sense of irrepressible 
strength, their possession of wealth and dominion, their steadfast 
determination to exercise a many-sided and growing power for- 
ever. 

L The Arch. 

The Romans were the first to employ the semicircular arch 
in all kinds of buildings and on a grand scale. 

Its Origin. — True, it had been invented long before. Ac- 
cording to Sir Gardner Wilkinson, a tomb at Thebes bearing 




Cloaca Mazima. 



the name of Amenoph I, of the eighteenth dynasty, was covered 
with a vaulted roof erected on the principles of the true arch. 
Another tomb, discovered by Colonel Campbell at Gizeh, though 



46 



LATINE. 



of later date, exhibits the same kind of roof. The Assyrians 
also used the arch, especially for tunnels and undergronnd work. 
At Nimroud, Layard found vaulted drains and chambers ; while 
si Khorsabad the city gates were spanned by perfect semicircu- 
lar arches. The Etruscans, again, left many examples of arched 
gateways in their city walls, and of arched domes in their tombs, 
Indeed, it was from them as predecessors and contemporaries 
that the Romans derived the arch. 

Its AppUcation, — But none of tbese nations seemed eitber 
fully to admire its beauty or to trnst its strength. They may 
have felt, as the East Indians express it in thei^ quaint proverb, 
that " the arch never sleeps," and that its continuous and tre- 
mendous lateral thrust rendered it a perilous form in any critical 
place. It was, therefore, reserved for the Romans to recognize 
both its exquisite grace and its immense ntility. One of their 
earliest examples of its nse is siill to be seen in the famous Clo- 
aca Maxima, or great sewer, at Rome, fifteen f eet wide and thirty 




Fttitheon. 



feet high, supposed by some to date from the reign of Tarquin 
the Elder, 600 b. c. ; but by others, to be of much raore recent 
origin. 

Its Results, — By employing the arch the Romans were en- 
abled to utilize small stones, and especially bricks, with splendid 



LATINE. 



47 



success for the erection of the grandest edifices. The Palace of 
the Caesars on Palatine Mount ; the main portions of the Pan- 
theon ; the Temples of Peace, of Venus and Rome, and of Mi- 
nerva Medica ; the Baths of Titus, of Caracalla and Diocletian ; 
the remains of Adrian's villa and that of Maecenas ; the imperial 




Pantheon. 

palaces at Baiae and elsewhere ; and the city walls in general, 
were all of brick. The arch in these and other vast structures 
took, wherever it was necessary, the place of the post-and-lintel 
system which had been exclusively employed by the Greeks, and 
afforded an easy means of roofing broad and lofty spaces. 

Again, the arch, by being expanded into the dome, enabled 
the Romans to adopt from the Etruscans the ground-plan of a 
circle instead of the rectangular form so uniformly employed by 
the Greeks. And thus their noble domes, rising from drum-like 
walls, as exemplified in the Pantheon, became the inspiration of 
Brunelleschi, Michael Angelo, and other Renaissance builders of 
the fifteenth century. It was the proud ambition of Angelo " to 
hang the dome of the Pantheon in the air " ; and the wonderful 
dome of St. Peter's, lifted over four hundred feet aloft on a drum 
supported by arches springing from towering piers, was the out- 
growth of the Roman arch. 



48 



LATINE. 



It mast not be inferred, however, that bricks were the sole 
building Dfiaterials. As another reminds us : " The Colosseum, 
the mausoleum of Adrian, the tannel-sewer, the Temple of For- 
tuna Virilis, and the ancient bridges on the Tiber, are of traver- 




Pantheon. 

tine stone ; while the remaining columns of the more splendid 
temples, the internal columns and their accessories of the Pan- 
theon, the exterior of the imperial arches, and the cenotaph col- 
umns of Trajan and Antonine, are of marble." 

11. The Roman Orders. 
An order is made up of a stylobate or foundation ; the col- 
umn, consisting of shaft and capital ; and the entablature, embrac- 
ing an architrave, frieze, and cornice. Again, in an order, the 
lower diameter of the column is taken as the unit or standard of 
measurement by which the beight of the stylobate, the column, 
the different parts of the entablature, the intercolumniations or 
spaces between the columns, and, in short, all the proportions of 
the building, are determined. Now many, like Ruskin, deny 
that the Romans had any distinctive orders at all, and othcrs 
charge that they degraded the column from its original purpose 



LA.TINE. 



49 



as a structural support to a 
mere omamental appendage. 
Nevertheless, the columnar 
ordinance was an important 
feature in their architecture. 

Tke Roman Doric. — This 
was composed mainly of the 
Tuscan with some additions 
from the Greek Doric. Its 
best specimen is found in the 
theatre of Marcellus at Rome. 
While the colamn, eight di- 
ameters high, is more slender 
than that of the Greek Doric, 
which was from four to six 
diameters high, yet it is des- 
titute of the exquisite play of 
light and shade afforded by 

the flutings of the Greek, and of the delicate curved lines be- 
longing to the Greek capital and moldings. The abacus, for 
example, in the Roman is a simple quarter-round easily enough 




Roman Orders. 






1 



Roman Ordera. 



80 



LATINE. 



swept by a compass, whereas in the Greek it is a parabolic curve 
of exceeding beauty, which can be drawn only by a free hand, 
and under the guidance of rare taste. Sometimes, however, as 
in the tomple at Cora, the column was partly fluted, and had 
generally in addition a base, composed of plinth, torus, and fil- 
let ; while triglyphs omamented the entablature. Altogether this 
order was stiff and tasteless. But, to the credit of the Romans, 
they rarely employed it, except, for example, in the Colosseum, 
in a lower story, as a solid-looking foundation for the lonic and 
Corinthian orders above. 

Tke Roman lonic. — This, too, has been called '* a coarse and 
vulgar adaptation of the Greek original." A glance at the Tem- 
ple of Fortnna Virilis, the only existing example of the lonic at 




Theatre of MaicelluB. 



Rome, shows how inferior it is to the same order as seen in the 
Erechtheum at Athens. While the base, made up as it is of a plinth, 
a torus, a fillet, a scotia, a second fillet, a second torus, a third 
fillet, and an apophyge, is not bad, the capital is deficient in grace- 
ful lines and forms. It is destitute of the honeysuckle ornament 
which Mr. Fergusson rightly considers " as elegant an architectu- 
ral detail as is anywhere to be found " ; and, again, the band 
connecting the volutea, instead of being curved, as in the original 
at Athens, is straight and hard, while the volutes themselves are 
too much like twisted homs at the angles, '* wanting in harmony 



LATINE. 81 



and meaning." But this order was little used, except in the mid- 
dle story, between the other two. 

The Roman Corinthian, — This was really the national style 
of the Romans, just as the Doric was the national style of the 
Greeks. Their model was, of coursc, the exquisite choragic monu- 
ment of Lysicrates in Athens, but they improved and beautified 
it, untii in the Temple of Vesta at Tivoli, and of Jupiter Stator 
at Rome, it shines out as almost thc perfection of proportion, 
grace, and symmetry. Professor Lewis says that " the Roman 
Corinthian, like the Greek orders, consists of three parts — stylo- 
bate, column, and entablature ; but, unlike them, the stylobate is 
much loftier, and is not graduated, except for the purposes of 
access to a portico. Its usuai height may be taken from two and 
a half to three diameters of the column, though in triumphal 
arches it amounts sometimes to four and even five diameters. 
. . . The column, composed of base, shaft, and capital, varies in 
height from nine and a half to ten diameters." As seen in the 
fine specimen of the Jupiter Stator Temple, the base is elaborate 
and rich, the shaft having twenty-four flutings, and the lovely 
swelling curve, called " entasis," is as delicately beautiful as it is 
tall and slender ; while the capital, with its three rows of acan- 
thus-leaves, its helices, its volutes, and carved abacus, presents 
varied and pleasing forms to the eye. Nor is the entablature 
less omate and attractive. Asplendid specimen of this is afford- 
ed in the Forum of Nerva at Rome. The three projecting fas- 
cias of the architrave are crowned with decorated moldings, the 
frieze is filled with human figures, the forms and draperies of 
which are wondrously beautiful, and the cornice combines in the 
happiest manner the dentals of the lonic with the modillions of 
the Greek Corinthian. No wonder that the Romans, having per- 
fected tliis order, repeated it with certain variations of proportion 
and omamentation everywliejre, in tlieir pirovinces as well as in 
Italy. One authority says they had not less than fifty varieties 
of the Corinthian. 

, The Roman Composite is essentially the same as the Corinthi- 
an. The volutes of thc capital, however, are enlarged to nearly 
one fourth of its entire height, and undemeath there are oniy 
two rows of acanthus-leaves, unrelieved by the usual central ten- 
drils ; but having the egg, dart, and bead omamentation between 



32 



LATINE. 



the volutes. A fine example of the composite reraains in the 
Arch of Titus. Sometimes, though, the capitals embraced forms 
of different animals, or the human figure, or armor, or certain 
kinds of foliage, while the shaft was corded or cabled instead of 
being fluted. This order never came into general use. 

In regard to all the orders it may be remarked that the 
Romans were fond of placing their columns, to quote Rosen- 
garten's words, " not immediately on the floor, but on pedestals 
more Or less molded." And owing to the refractory material 
— granite, etc. — which they chiseled, they often made the 
shaft insipid in appcarance by dispensing entirely with the 
flutings ; at other times they sought variety by making the 
upper two thirds of the shaft fluted, and leaving the lower one 
third plain. 

The Columnar Ordinance, while sometimes used for the sup- 
port of porches, as in the Pantheon, and Maison Carr6e at Nimes ; 
and for peristyles, as in the circular temples of Minerva Medica, 




Maison C^rrce. 



and of Vesta at Tivoli, was far more often sought as an archi- 
tectural decoration. Columns " engaged " — i. e., a quarter or 
half built into the wall, or barely standing free from it, and ap- 
parently carrying arches, which in reaiity were upbome by the 



LATINE. S3 

wall — were everywhere regarded as a legitimate mode of display- 
ing a rich and elegant taste. 

Composite Arcades, — But " the tnie Roman order," as Mr. 
Fergusson says, " was not any of these columnar ordinances, but 
an arrangement of two pillars piaced at a distance from one an- 
other nearly equal to their own height, and having a very long 
entablature, which, in consequence, required to be supported in 
the center by an arch springing from piers. This . . . was, 
in fact, merely a screen of Grecian architecture placed in front 
of a construction of Etruscan design." At first these arcades, 
composed of the three orders superimposed one above the other, 
were commonly used, but later, as in Dioclctian's palace at Spala- 
tro, the arches were made to spring directly from the top of the 
column, while the column itself was placed without a pedestal 
upon its foundation. However much the purists may criticise 
these arcades, they formed, nevertheless, a noble and singularly 
impressive feature in Roman buildings, and were repeated every- 
where throughout the empire. 

The Homan pediment — ^that is, the triangular form made at 
the end of the roof by the rafters and the horizontal cornice be- 
neath — was considerably higher or at a greater angle than in the 
Grecian temples. The angle was from eighteen to twenty-five 
degrees, but this was no improvement, as it seems less well pro- 
portioned and pleasing. 

Tke Roman 8tereohat&-^T base from which the ceila-wall 
rose without columns — was conspicuously different from the Greek 
stylobate, which afforded room for one or two rows of columns 
all around the cella, making the peripteral or dipteral temple. 
The Roman base was also much higher, and was ascended by an 
nneven number of steps, so as to allow one the good luck of 
planting his right foot on the first step below and again on the 
platform above. 

To commemorate victories and great names they reared sub- 
iime arches and loffcy columns as the most fitting and conspicuous 
of monuments. The column in honor of Trajan speaks of his 
mighty conquests, and that in the old Forum perpetuates to this 
day the memory of the Emperor Phocas ; while the arches of Ti- 
tus and Constantine are perpetual reminders of the glory of their 
empire. 



64 



LATINE. 



The private dwellings of the Romans were in exterior, propor- 
tion, and finish, painfuUy plain and crade. Brick walls, covered 
with stacco, anrelieved by overhanging comices, and made still 




Oolanm of Tnjan. 



uglier by awkward square apertures as windows, or none at all, 
for the admission of light and air, often with a flat roof, formed 
the house of one story or of a story and a half. In the town, as 
appears from the remains of Pompeii and Herculaneum, the front 
of the house included an entrance-hall, flanked on either side by 
small shops or stalls for the sale of wine, olives, etc. And yet 
the interiors were as rich and oraate as the exteriors were unat- 
tractive. The walls were faced with slabs of alabaster, porphyry, 
jasper, and marbles, curiously veined and splendidly colored. 
The floors, too, were laid in artistic mosaic patteras, of which we 
have a fine illustration in the battle of Issus, with figures of Alex- 



LATINE. 



88 



ander and his warriors, found in the so-called house of the Faun, 
at Pompeii. 

Nor was the interior without the adornment of the inevitable 
column and statues of gods and heroes. All this magnificence 
and luxury is the more remarkable, since the rooms were often 
80 dimly lighted as to need the presence of lamps. 




Arch of Titus. 

In a word, the chief characteristics of Roman architecture 
are found in the combination, often heterogeneous and awk- 
ward, of the semicircular arch and dome with the column and 
its horizontal architrave ; and yet this combination gave oppor- 
tunity for a great variety of tremendous and enduring edifices 
marked by magnificence of details as well as massive propor- 
tions. This people seemed to build not for a day, but for all 
time ; and the world has for ages admired the grandeur of their 
bridges, fortresses, temples, basilicas, theatres, amphitheatres, 
forums, baths, aqueducts, triumphal arches, roads, colonnades, 
columns of victory, tombs, and palaces. 



«6 LATINE. 



NAMES OF COUITTRIES, 

To indicate a land, the Latinist, as is weli known, has three 
distinct ways: (1) particular names of lands — e. g., Gallia, Aqui- 
tania, Persis, Belgium, et al. ; (2) circumlocutiou through fines, 
jqajer, partes, et uL, with genitive of the name of the people; (3) 
name of the people in place of that of the land. 

The first and second ways are also characteristic of our lan- 
^uage ; the third is peculiar to the Latin. Now, as the Roman 
made brevity second onlj to perspicuity in importance, the third 
method especially commended itself to him. Had this not been 
the case, the historic style would have led to its common use, 
for, as a glance in Caesar and Livy shows, no name for the land 
occurs for the majority of names of people. In such a case as 
this, in place of the monotonous repetition of fines and ager, 
they chose in preference the simple name of the people, and 
one may note that Caesar uses the second way; indeed, tol- 
«rably often, but still oftener thc third. He does this even 
when he could have used the name of the land. Thus, for Bel- 
gium he uses oftener Belgae {Belgium, v, 12, 2, and 25, 4); for 
Venetia three times Veneti (iii, 7, 4; 11, 6 ; 17, 1) and only 
once Venetia (iii, 9, 9). On the contrary, Aquitania much oftcner 
than Aquitani. Nepos has Persae together with Persie, Medi to- 
gether with Afedia^ Ligures and Lucani, although the names Li- 
guria and Lucania are not wanting in Latin. Besides, the use 
of the name of the peoplc is not dependent upon the existence 
of such predicates as admit a reference to the people as proficisci, 
venire, mittere, exercitum^ ducere, collocare^ hiemare, and similar 
ones. It is used even more with those predicates with which a 
reference to the people and a translation through " to," " against," 
'" among " the people, must appear forced. Nepos writes tollere 
aliquem in Lucanis (Henn. 6, 3), confiigere in Paraetacis (Eum. 8, 
1) ; and Caesar dividere Oallos ah Aquitanis (B. G. i, 1, 1), via 
relinquitur per Sequanos (B. G. i, 9, l)yPhenus oritur ex Lepon- 
tiis (B. G. iv, 10, 3), navesfacere in Meldis (v, 6, 2). 

Sometimes the thought of the people is entirely shut out — 
*e. g., Caesar B. G. vi, 33, 1 : in eas partes, quae m^napios attin- 
gunt, Often in Caesar there is a graceful interchange of the three 
methods — e. g., B. G. iii, 1, 6, 7 ; so I, 2, 3 ; so i, 26, 6. With 
this idiom, as the above notes indicate, we shall lead our pupils 



LATINE. S7 



astray if we accustom their pens to- the use of the name of the 
country only or to the circumlocution alone. Let the pupil not 
translate " the Rhine arises in the country of the Lepontians " 
by RhembS oritur in finihus Lepontiorum, but by ex Lepon- 
tiis. 

ANTIBARBARUS. [Meissner,'] [Continued.] 

Banish, in exilium eicere, expellere, not mittere. 

Before, many years before, multis annis ante, not antea or 
prius. ; as before said, ut supra diximus, dictum, not ut ante dic- 
tum. 

Believe mc, mihi crede, not crede mihi, which belongs to col- 
loquial language. Cicero in speeches and essays always uses 
mihi crede. 

Blinded, oculis captus, not caecatus or occaetus, which in 
classical prose were used only figuratively. 

Bombast, bombastically, inflatum orationis genus, exaggerata 
altius oratio, not tumor verborum (post-classical) ; inflato genere 
dicendi uti, not tumide dicere. 

Break ont into words, dicere coepisse, or simply, dicere, into 
tears, lacrumas effundere, into laughter, cachinnum tollere, not 
erumpere, in verba, lacrimas, risum. War, wrath breaks forth, 
bellum, ira exardescit. But risus, vox, fletus, seditio erumpit. 

Breast, figuratively, animus, not pectus, which is used very 
seldom figuratively (toto pectc/re amare, cogitare, tremere), strong 
(of an orator), latera bona. 

Bribery, cormptela, largitio, ambitus (for oflSce), not cor- 
ruptio, whicb in Cicero is used only passively, lost condition, 
etc. 

Bridge, build over ihe stream, pontem in flumine facere, not 
trans fiumen. 

Briefly, denique (in enumerations), ne multa, quid plura? 
Sed quid opus est plura? Not breviter, which stands only in 
connection with verba dicendi, e. g., breviter narrare, exponere, 
ut breviter dicam. 

Bad cnstom, res mali or pessimi exempli, consuetudo mala, 
mos pravus ; abuse, vitium male utentium, etc., not abusus, which 
18 a law term. 

Bnsy one's self abont, studere. 



B8 LATINE. 



By no means» minime ; not in the least, ne minimum quidem, 
not ne minime quidem, nor non minimum, not a little. 
[ To be corUinuedJ] 

WORKS ON ROMAN ANTIQUITIJSS. 

Adams, W. H. D. Buried Cities of Campania. Boston, 1872. 

Adams, W. H. D. Rome: Its Ancient Temples and Monuments. Lon- 
don, 1872. 

Baedecker. Guide-Books: Italy, France, Spain. 

Becker, W. A. Gallus : Roman Scenes in the Time of Augustus. 

Bisse, A. The Draining of Lake Fudno (comparison with the Claudian 
emissary). 

Bojesen and Amold. Manual of Greek and Roman Antiquities. 

Braun. Ruins and Museums of Rome. 

Bum, R. Old Rome. London, 1879. 

Bum, R. Rome and the Campagna. London, 1871. 

Byron. Childe Harold. Canto IV. 

Dennis, G. Cities and Cemeteries of Etmria. Two vols. London, 1878. 

Dyer, J. H. City of Rome. London, 1866. 

Dyer, J. H. Pompeii. London, 1867. 

Falkener, £. Museum of Classical Antiquities. London, 1866. 

Falke, J. Ton. Greece and Rome, their Life and Art. Translated by 
W. H. Browne. New York, 1882. 

Ferguson. Ancient Architecture. 

Forbes, S. R. Rambles in Rome : Archseological and Historical Guide to 
Museums, Galleries, Villas, Churches, and Antiquities of Rome. New York, 
1882. 

Fosbrooke, J. D. Arts, Manufactures, Manners, and Institutions of the 
Romans. Two vols. London, 1843. 

Guhl and Koner. Life of Greeks and Romans described from the An- 
tique Monuments. Translated by Htiffer. New York, 1876. 

The Academy. Articles on Recent Excavations in Rome. 

The Athenaeum. Articles on Recent Excavations in Rome. 

Hare, A. J. C. Days near Rome. Philadelphia, 1876. 

Hare, A. J. C. Walks in Rome. London, 1871. 

Hare, A. J. C. Cities of Southem Italy and Sicily. London, 1882. 

Hemens, C. I. Rome, Historic and MonumentaL London, 1874. 

Hillard, G. S. Sii Months in Italy. Two vols. Boston, 1863. 

MahajQEy, J. P. Classical Antiquities. London, 1876. 

Muller, K. 0. Ancient Art and its Remains. 

Murray, J. Rome and its Environs. London, 1869. 

Murray, J. Guide-Books : Italy, Spain, Franoe. 

Parker, J. H. Archseology of Rome. Eleven vols. London, 1876. 

Parker, J. H. Architectural History of Rome. Abridged f rom Archse- 
ology of Rome. New York, 1882. 



LATINE. 89 



Poole. Index of Periodical Litcrature: Boston, 1882. 

Ramsay, William. Manual of Roman Antiquities. London, 1870. 

Reber, F. von. History of Ancient Art. Translated, with Additions, by 
J. T. Clarke. New York, 1883. 

Lippincott. Gazetteer of the World. 

Rich, A. Dictionary of Roman and Greek Antiquities. London, 1880. 

Shadwell. Architectural Hiatory of the City of Rbme. London, 1883. 

Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. New 
York, 1870. 

Symonds, J. A. Sketches and Studies in Southem Europe. 

Visconti. Iconographie Romaine. Milan, 1818. 

NOTES AND QUERIES, 

Lawrence, Kansas, April 25^ ISSJ^ 
Professor E. S. Shumwat. 

Dear Sir : You asked me some time ago to send you a class-exercise. I 
send you the inclosed ' almost exactly as it occurred to-day in my Freshman 
class. 

At the be^nning of the year, when reading ** De Amicitia," I gave the 
same class every day an exercise precisely Uke the first one in the February 
number of Latine. I have kept up the practice nearly every day since, and 
now find considerable improvement in every member of the class. Of course, 
not all show equal facility in the work, but ali evince oonsiderable interest in 
it. It is the best method for arousing and maintaining an interest in a class 
I have ever tried or heard of . It will keep alert even the duli members. I 
have tried it now for about ten years, and have no desire to retum or tum 
to any other plan. 

With kindest wishes for the continued success of Latine, 

I am, yours, most truly, D. H. Robinson. 

BOOKS RECEl VJBSD. 

Eloriooe & Bro. (Philadelphia). Cicero's Select Orations, Cicero De 
Senectute et De Amicitia, Cicero De Officiis, Cicero De Oratore, Cicero Tus- 
culan Disputationes ; Horaoe, Odes, Satires, and Epistles ; Terence, Andria et 
Adelphoe ; Juvenal, Tacitus, Livy, Sallust, Nepos, Ovid. 

GuvN, Heath & Co. (Boston). Cicero De Senectute, Cicero De Natura 
Deomm, Selections from Latin Poets, Tacitus, Germania and Agricola, Sal- 
lu8t*fi CatiUna, Ovid, Halsey*s Etymology, Shumway^s Latin Synonyms, Whi- 
ton's Six Weeks' Preparation for reading Caesar, Tetlow's Latin Lessons, 
Leighton^s Latin Lessons, Latin Method, Analjsis of the Latin Verb, Essen- 
tial Uses of the Moods, Latin Composition, Preble and Parker^s Latin Writing, 
Tomlinson^s Manual for the Study of Latin Grammar. 

S. C. Geiogs k Co. (Chicago). Jones's Latin Lessons, Latin Composition. 

A. S. Barnes & Co. (New York). Seering'3 Vergil, Latin Pronunciation. 

' Colloquium on the ode of Horace in this number. 



eO LATINE. 



Uhivkrsitt Publishino Co. (New York). 6ildersleeve*s Latin Primer, 
Fifth Book of Caesar, Perrin^s Caesar^s Civil War. 

JoHN Alltn (Boston). Pliny^s Letters, Juvenal, Uorace, Plautus Mostel- 
laria, Latin Selections, Cicero De Senectute et De Amicitia, Tacitus, Ben- 
nett^s Latin Writer, Abbotfs Latin Prose. 

HouGHTON, MiFFLiN & Co. (Boston). Andrews and Stoddard^s Latin 
Series. 

J. W. ScHERMERHOiLN & Co. (Ncw York). Fischer*s Latin Reader and 
Grammar. 

LiTTLK, Bbown & Co. (Boston). De Senectute, translated by Andrew P. 
Peabody ; De Officiis, translated by Andrew P. Peabody. 

ARGXTMENTS ON THE SWE OF CLASSICAL STUDIES. [Con- 
cludedJ] 

In the "North American Review," February, 1884 (CXXXIX, 151-163), 
is an article by A. F. West, entitled, " Must the Classics go ? " 

[See, also, for a re-examination of the question in oonnection with Mr. Ar- 
nold^s address, two papers in the " Providence Journal " of December 1 and 
December 26, 1883, respectively, by Professors Lincohi and Williams, of 
Brown University ; also December 13 of the same joumal. For still further 
discussion of the matter f rom both sides, see the oorrespondence in " The 
Nation " of the following dates : August 30, September 8, 13, 20, 27, and 
October 11, 1883. In the issues of September 13 and October 11, the in- 
teresting question of the pref erence of " the best pupils " f or the classical 
course is discussed.] 

RECOMMENDATIONS OF VARIOUS MODIFICATIONS OF THE PRESENT 
SYSTEM 0]f STUDY. 

In 1836, Professor Whewell, of the University of Cambridge, in a pam- 
phlet " On the Principles of English University Education," etc., called in 
question the effectiveness of the studies at that university. 

In the same year, John Stuart Mill, in an article in the " London and 
Westminster Review," April, 1836 (reprinted as " Civilization," in his " Dis- 
sertations and Discussions," American edition, I, 186-236), in noticing the 
statements of Whewell and Sir William Hamilton, declared, " The youth of 
England are not educated " ; and later, in the same article, that " the very 
oomer-stone of an education intended to form great minda must be the recog- 
nition of the principle that the object is to call forth the greatest possible 
quantity of intellectual power." — ^Pp. 225, 227. 

In 1842, President Francis Wayland, of Brown University, in his volume 
entitled " Thoughts on the Present Collegiate System in the United States," 
drew attention to certain modifications necessary in this oountry. 

In 1S6Y, Professor John Robert Seeley, of the University of Oxford, de- 
livered an address on " English in Schools," in which he touched incidentally, 
but very forcibly, on the place of Latin and Greek in schools. 



Iter est longum per praecepta^ brwe et ^ffteax per bzsxpla.— Sbnxca. 



Latine. 



Novi I A nn T AT 17 fii^HS^ Nov. 

EBORACI. 1 J /V I I ll H/ . MDCCCLXXXIIII. 



*•*• MyUa Boga : JSeUruDoeta: BeterUa Docey—CoMmivs. 

Lector : Quid tibi vis, O ephemeriB parvula ? 

Latine : Ut Terenti verba flectam : Latini nihil a me alicnum puto. ** Non 
enim tam praeelarum etl aeire Latinb quam turpe neecirey — Cio. Bkut. oxl. 

DIVO SCHLIEMAN 

RERUM ORASCARUM ANTIQUARUM IMDAGATORI PERITO 

QUI 

MTCBMARUM VI. ikjopa 

AOAMEMNONIS ARMATURAM EXHUMAVIT 

DITINIQUE HOMSRI NON MITOS ET PLA8MATA 

8ED YERAS PERSONAS AC HEROES 

8USCITAVIT ET PRODUXIT 

ELE6IDI0N HOC 

ILIAO. XL IMMORTALIA CARMINA 

LATIALI LOQUELA IMITANS 

AUCTOR 

CANIT ATQUE DEDICAT. 

" Nescio quid majus nascitur iliade." — Prop.S^ 54^66,. 

" When the disclosures at Tyi-inus and Hycenae were 
announced, . . . my own first impression was that of 
a strangely bewildered admiration ; . . . yet the balanee- 
. . . of rational presumption seemcd as though it might 
ultimately lean toward the belief that this eminent ex- 
plorer has exposed to the light of day, after 3,000 years, 
the MEMORIALS Rud rcmains of Agamemnon. . . ." — Glad> 
8T0NB, Preface to Mycenae. 

Dum croceum linquit Tithoni Aurora cubile, 
TJt terrae lucem det pariterque polo, 

Jupiter in Graias figit sua lumina classes : 

Sistit ; et Eumenides de Stygio amne vocat. 

Protinus excedit nutrix Discordia belli, 

Et quatit infanda barbara signa manu. 

Yipereum crinem victis innexa cruentis, 

Ad Laertiadae stat truculenta pedes.. 



«2 LATINE. 



Audire hinc Divara cunctis et ccrnere datum ; 
Prominet Herois fusca carina quidem. 

Ilinc castra Ajacis mediis imposita campis : 

Hinc Fortis puppes Haemoniique natant, 

•Cum subito horrcndum clamorcm ad sidera tollit : 
Auribus Inachiis vox animisque furit. 

Suscitat Argivo tales in pectore flammas, 

Ut quisquis poscat bellica signa sequi. 

Dulcia sic resonant tunc aspera nomina Martis, 
Ut spernat caros quisque videre suos. 

Mittit Atrides vocem. . . . Res nec causa moratur. 
Ipse una sociis arma cruenta parat. 

lam laeves ocreas electro auroquc recocto 

Fibulae ei circum crura pedcsque ligant. 

Pectore scintillat radiis lorica coruscis, 

Qaam Cinyras tribuit munere munifico— 

Cum primum Cypro vulgavit Fama per altum 
Classes Argolicas Pergama adire salum, 

Ipse hac ornavit lorica Agamemnona regem, 
Pignora grati animi ceu pretiosa sui. 

Fulvi namque decem squammis pertexitur aeris 
Bisque decem stanni nobilis iste labor ; 

Ex auro obryzo duodena toreumata pulchre 
Caelatum ditant perficiuntque decus. 

Corvata, haud secus ac Iris (quam Jupiter altis 
Nubibus immittit) pacis amica nota, 

Extrema utraque ahenos tres tenuantur in angues, 
Ut rutilis possint colla fovere globis. 

Oemmatom scapulis gladium suspendit acutum ; 
Solicita celat tegmine cura aciem. 

Ex solido argento constat vagina corusco, 

Aureus ad lumbos alligat uncus eam. 



LATINE. 



ea 



Exin laevae aptat clipeique insigne dccorum, 

Qui caput ac plantas protegit orbe Diicis. 

Hunc cingit stanni viginti vicibus umbo ; 

Circlis ex mediis aerea rota micat ; 
Quam super impressa est fera Pliorcis, barbara visu ; 

Infandum ! Horrorem quae trahit atque FQgam. 
Aeneus hanc circum in spiram se colligit anguis, 

Cui sola est cervix tergeminumque caput. 
Nexibus argenti hoc vincit Dux brachia circum 

Egregium munus, non imitabile opus. 
Post, quatuor texta virgis sua tempora cingit 

Casside, cristata crine jubisque feris. 
Inde duas astas infestas pondere stringit 

Flammas vibrantes, fulgura ut igne micant. 
Ast " hominum regem " Pallas lunoque tuentes 

Dant signum : cuncti siraul in arma ruunt. 

C. Stauder. 



COLLOQUIA HORATIANA, 

O Diva, gratum quae regis Antium, 
Praesens vel imo toUere de gradu 
Hortale corpus vel superbos 
Yertere funeribus triumphos, 
Te pauper ambit sollicita prece 
Ruris colonus, te dominam aequoris 
Quicunque Bithyna lacessit 
Garpathium pelagus carina. 
Te DacuB asper, te profugi Scythae 
Urbesque gentesque et Latium ferox 
Regumque matres barbarorum et 
Purpurei metuunt tjranni, 
Injurioso ne pede proruas 
Stantem columnam, neu populus fre- 
quens 
Ad arma cessantes, ad arma 
Ck>ncitet imperiumque frangat. 
Te semper anteit saeva Necessitas 
Clavos trabales et cuneos manu 
Gestans aena, nec severus 
Uncus abest liquidumque plum- 
bum. 



Te Spes et albo rara Fides colit 
Velata panno nec comitem abnegat, 
Utcunque mutata potentes 
Veste domos inimica linquis. 
At vulgus infidura et meretrix retro' 
Perjura eedit, diffugiunt, cadis 
Cum faece siccatis, amici 
Ferre jugum pariter dolosi. 
Serves iturum Caesarem in ultimos: 
Orbis Britannos et juvenum recenff 
Examen Eois timendum 
Partibus Oceanoque rubro. 
Eheu cicaitricum et sceleris pudet 
Fratrumque. Quid nos dura refugi- 
mus 
Aetas ? quid intactum nefasti 
Liquimus? unde manum juven- 
tus 
Metu deorum continuit ? quibus 
Pepercit aris ? utinam nova 
Incude diffingas retusum in 
Massagetas Arabasque ferrum I 
Car, I, XXXV. 



64 LATINE. 

A. Nonne Horatius multa de Fortuna scripsit ? 

B. Multa : hoc carmine illam colit et veneratur ; aliis autem culpat et mi- 
nimi aestimat. 

A, Dicitf memini, se fortunam mancntem laudare ; si autem pennas qua- 
tiat, quae dederit, resignantem se sua virtute involvere et pauperiem probam 
sine dote quaerere (G. iii, 29). 

B. Didt etiam fortunam saevire et semper novos movere tumultus (Sat. 
ii, 2, 126), semper gaudere humanis rebus illudere (Sat. ii, 8, 62), laetam saevo 
negotio et ludum insolentem ludere pertinacem esse (Car. iii, 29). 

A, Num credis Horatium hoc carmine hanc mutabilem et crudelem deam 
precari? 

B. Non credo ; meministine Cicero dicere sceleri ac furori Catilinae for- 
tunam populi Romani solam obstitisse ? (Cat. i, 6). Alio loco dicit hanc ur- 
bem deorum immortalium nutu ac potestate administrari. Tale numen, ut 
mihi videtur, poeta invocat. 

A. Cui erat Antium gratum ? 

B. Ut Cyprus Veneri, ut Samos Junoni, Fortunae erat Antium gratum. 
Templum Fortunae ibi erat, ubi responsa deae per sortes dabantur. Duae 
Imagines, Fortunae Antiates appellatae, in hoc templo usque ad Theodosi 
Magni tempus servabantur. 

A. Nonne alia templa Fortunae erant ? 

B. Cicero de sortibus Praenestinis scribit (De. Div. ii, 85) ct alio loco de 
jmtiquissimo fano Syracusis, Fortunae sacro. 

A. Antium, antiquissimum oppidum Volsoorum, erat in saxeo promonto- 
lio litoris maris Tyrrheni situm, nonne ? 

B. Ita erat. Cicero ad Atticum scribit Antio nihil quietius, nihil alsius, 
nihii amoenius (iiii, 8). Nero, imperator crudelissimus, Antii natuB est, et 
^* domum auream " aedificavit. 

A. Poeta dicit fortunam praesentem esse mortales et toliere et deprimere. 
Nonne vult dicere fortunam posse omnia humana mutare ? 

B. Bt posse et velle. Ita Cicero Herculem tantum et tam praesentem 
deum appellat (Tus. i, 12). " Praesentia," ait Porphyrius, " dicuntur numina 
deorum, quae se potentiamque suam manifeste ostendunt." 

A. Quare fortuna mortale corpua toUere dicitur ? 

B. Poetae corpora hominum in loco hominum saepe dicunt. Vergilius 
dicit dilecta corpora virum caeco lateri equi inclusa. Non poetae solum ; 
apud Livium Hannibal promisit se corpora civium et conjugum et liberorum 
inviolata servaturum, si inermes e Sagunto exire vellent. Corpus autem ho- 
minis morbis, casibus, morti obnoxium est : poeta docet fortunam posse 
quemvis mortalem etiam infirmam ad fastigium gloriae tollere. 

A. Cicero, vir sine commendatione majorum, per omnes gradus honorum 
jtd summum imperium elatus est (Cat. i, 11). 

B. Ita sane. Tarquinius Priscus etiam captiva et serva natus est. De 
omnibus dicere longum est. 

A. Mihi in animum multi veniunt, quorum triumphi a Fortuna in funera 
Tersisunt. 



LATINE. 68 



B, Gioero dicit Pompeium tot triumpbos habuisse, quot orae sint par- 
tesque terranim (Balb. it, 9). Cui autem adolesoenti et equiti triumphare 
licuit, ejus tnmcus vadosis aquis huc illuc jactabatur (Luc, Phar. viii, 700). 

A, livius dicit, triumphum Aemili Pauli, bello Macedonico confecto, duo- 
rum filiorum morte funestatum esse (Lio. xt. 14). 

B, Apud poetas triumphus saepe vietoriam significat (Hor. C. iii, 1, 7) et 
Jvntu dadem (ib. i, 16, 9). Poeta alio loco eadem oonstructione utitur: rer- 

tere seria ludo (A. P. 226). 

A, Nonne agrioolae semper solliciti sunt ? 

B. Ita est ; pluvii, grandines, venti, solis aestus, sitis, detrimento messi- 
bu8 Bunt Pauper colonus, cui parvus ager est, praecipue timidus est, et For- 
tunam €unbire recte dicitur. 

A. Hemini Sallustium dicere candidatos Romae singulos e senatu ambire 
solere (Jug. xiii, 8). 

B, Lege Calpumia ambitus puniebatur. Ambire autem Fortunam non 
8olum coloni, sed etiam nautae audaces dicuntur. 

A., Nonne Horatius pericula maris praecipue timebat ? 

B, Dicit illi robur et aes triplex circa pectus fuisse, qui primus pelago 
ratem commiserit. Nauta laeenere pelagus dicitur: Tacitus etiam Batavos 
aquis insultare dicit : Oyidius, hominum aetatis ferreae carinas fluctibus in- 
sultavisse. 

A. Credisne pelagus Carpathium praecipue ventis agitari aut nautas Bi- 
thjnas eximia audacia f uisse ? 

B, Horatio placuit maribus, urbibus, navibus, etc, nomina propria dare 
<vide Car. i, 1, trabes Cypria, Myrtoum mare, etc). 

A, Yult dicere, credo : Te, O Fortuna, pauperes agri cultores precantur ; 
nautae mercatoresque in omnibus terrae partibus te colunt. 

B, Paene haec. Quare Fortnnam dominam aequoris appellat ? 

A, Credo, quia, causis tempestatum ignotis, motus aequoris casu nobis 
administrari videntur. Nonne ? 

B. Ita credo. Fortuna in nummis fingebatur, dextra tenens gubemacu- 
lum, quo cursum navis regat. 

A. Nonne Daci, similes Paenis, belli studiis asperrimi erant? (Ver. Ae. i, 14). 

B, Daci his temporibus imperium incursionibus vexabant ; Daci et Scy- 
thae hostes barbari erant. 

A. Quare ScjthBS profitffoa appellat? 

B. Scythae, in plaustris habitantes, campos latos peragrabant ; copias in 
silvas abdere, impetum e Bilvis in hostes subito f acere, et se ad suos oeleri- 
riter referre solebant: in fugiendo saepe jaculabantur. 

A, Num barbaris urbesque gentesque sunt ? 

B, Barbari alio aliam signifieationem habet. Credo poetam hoc looo in 
«nimo populos e Dacis et Scjthis moribus remotos habere. 

A: Quare Latium/mMB appellat? 

B Latium erat ferox bellL Horatius Romam ipsam /eroeem appellat 
<a iii, 8, 44). 

A, Quare de matrUnu regum loquitur ? 



ee LATINE. 



JB. Apud Asianofl matres praecipue honorantur. MemiDisti Atossam, ma- 
trem Cyri, et matrem Siserae in libro judicum Hebraeorum. 

A. Quid metuunt tyranni ? 

B. Tyranni metuunt, ne populus rebua novis studeat, et auctoritatem ipso- 
rum evertat. Nonne gladium seta equina aptum a lacunari Dionjsi demis- 
sum in animo habes ? (Cic. Tus. v, 21). 

A. MeminL Nonne columnae aedificia sustinent ? 

JB. Ita sane ; dux saepe quasi columna, quae civitatem sustinet ; quid pro- 
fuit Thebanis Tictoria Mantineaca, duce interfecto? Columna etiam quasi 
monumentum yictoriae stat, alta, decora, splendida : credo talem esse '*8tan- 
tem columnam " poetae. 

A. Quare poeta de pede injurioso Fortunae loquitur ? 

£. Seditione orta, plebs excita se insolentius gerere, arma in civitatem 
vertere, prioribus r^bus in calamitate insultare solet. 

A, Sic saepe ; qui etiam otiosi suntf eos cires turbulenti ad arma incitare 
solent. 

B. Quae Fortunam antecedit ? 

A. Necessitas praecedit ; utrum dux an ministra ? 

B. Nonne Horatius aliis locis de Necessitate loquitur ? 

A. Dicit aequa lege Necessitatem insignes et imos sortiri (Car. iii, 1, 16). 

B. Cicero dicit humana oonsilia divina necessitate esse superata (Pro. Lig. 
vi). Dicit idem deos immortales suo numine fata flectere nequire (Cat. iii, 8). 
Num credis Neoessitatem Fortunae servire ? 

A. Non credo : quid gerit manu Necessitas ? 

B. Clavos, cuneos, uncos, plumbum ; instrumenta, credo, opificis. 

A. Nonne opifices trabes clavis ferreis religabant ? 

B. Apud Caesarem Yeneti clavis ferreis, pollicis digitis crassitudine, ute» 
bantur. Horatius aiio loco (C. iii, 24) de adamantinis clavis Necessitatis lo- 
quotur. Cicero dicit oportere beneficium figere, quem admodum dicatur, tra- 
bali clavo. 

A. Nonne tigna navium, cuneis intrusis, religabantur ? 

B. Sic vero : saxa autem ferreis uncis continebantur, et plumbum liqua- 
tum in excislones infundebatur. 

A, Nonne alii credunt haec instrumenta camificis esse ? 

B. Sunt multi, qui hoc credant ; mibi autem alia interpretatio placet. De 
hac imagine multa jam dicta sunt. Lessing, scriptor Germanus celeber, Ho- 
ratium graviter reprehendit. Imaginem Atropi, malleo clavum infigentis,.alii 
credunt ante oculoe poetam habuisse. 

A, Quae Fortunam colunt et comitantur? 

B. Poeta Spem et Fidem comites Fortunae esse dicit ; tibine ita videtur f 

A. Scio omnes sperare se nova et meliora munera fortunae recepturos, 
sed, Fortuna domum linquente, non velim credere Fidem fortunam comitari.. 

B, Nonne poeta dicit infidum vulgus et perjuram meretricem amicum in 
calamitate relinqnere ? 

A. Yerum est ; dicit autem Fidem non Fortunae linquenti domum se co> 
mitem abnegare. 



LATINE. 67 



B, Quando Romani vestes mutare solebant ? 

A, Dolorem, ut nunc, mutandis Testibus exprimebant. Bei etiam causas 
apud judices sordidati agebant. 

B. Nonne fortuna prospera domum nonnunquam relinquit, et fortuna ad- 
versa manet ? 

A. Saepe ; mutata veste, fortuna inimica manet. 

B. Nonne credis Fidem manere comitem Fortunae inimicae ? 

A, Credo : amici dilFugiunt, ut ait poeta, qui iufidiores sunt, quam qui 
pariter jugum paupertatis ferant. 

B. Qui Spem et Fidem habet^^ei Fortuna non est inimicissima. Bene 
dixit Socrates nihil nisi bonum bono contigere posse. 

A. Nonne poeta ipse Fortunam precatur ? 

B. Precatur Fortunam, quae reges et imperia deprimit et tollit, ut Au- 
guBtum servet. 

A. Num Augustus iter in Britannium fecit ? 

B. Non fecit. Longum in ultimos orbis Britannos iter erat. 

A. Vergilius dicit Britannos penitus toto orbe divisos (Ec. i, 67). De 
qno recenti examine juvenum loquitur ? 

B. De militibus loquitur, qui nuper belli Orientalis causa conscripti erant. 
ExercituB populi Romani, ut scia, erat terrori gentibus remotissimis. 

A. Quare pudebat poetam cicatricum belli ? Konne cicatrices adversae 
militi honori sunt ? 

B. Ita sane; dulce et decorum est pro patria mori (C. iii, 2, 13); sed poe- 
tam cicatricum fratrum pudebat : in civilibus bellis cives a civibus vulnera 
accipiunt ; cacdem civilem scelus appellat ; discordiae et caedis inter cives 
Horatium pudebat. 

A. Nonne acerbissime in suos cives invehitur ? 

B. Dicit eos audaces, legum neglegentes, immoderatos, impios esse. Ni- 
hil tantum esse quin id conentur; leges et deorum et hominum contem. 
nunt. 

A. Quis primus dies fastos et nefastos fecit ? Unde nomen ducitur ? 

B. Jura fari fastis diebus licebat, nefastis, non licebat. Numa legem 
fecit, putans aliquando nihil cum populo agi utile esse futurum (Liv. i, 14). 

A. Nonne scriptores laudatores temporis acti, castigatores praesentis 
saepe sunt ? 

B. Mala, quae videmus, nobis maxima videntur. Cicero dieit maturita- 
tem omnium scelerum in tempus sui consulatus erupisse (Cat. i, 13). 

A. Qua prece carmen concluditur ? 

B. Poeta precatur, ut, contentionibus civilibus demum sedatis, Romani 
iterum in gentes remotas et potentes signa inferant. £. H. R. 

C. lULIUS CAESAR. {Terti& pars.] 

(12.) C. Caesari ex Hispania redeunti Antonius factus est ei 
rursus familiaris. Labebat lioc omnino Caesar: quem plane per- 
ditum aere alieno egentemque, si eundem nequam hominem auda- 



68 LATINE. 



cemque cognorat, hunc in familiaritatem libentissime recipiebat. 
(Philipp. 2, § 78.) 

(13.) In hac pace (a. u. c. 709) multa sunt, quac ne ipsum 
quidem Caesarem delectant. bellorum enim civilium ii semper 
exitus sunt, ut non ea solum fiant, quae velit victor, sed etiam, ut 
iis mos gerendus sit, quibus adiutoribus sit parta victoria. (Epist 
ad famil. 12, 18, 2.) 

(14.) Caesari certum erat, Romae manere (a. u. c. 709), ne se 
absente leges suae neglegerentur, sicut esset neglecta sumptuaria. 
(Epist ad Attic. 13,7,1.) 

(15.) Cogitabat Caesar (a. u. c. 709) a ponte Mnlvio Tiberim 
ducere secundum montes Vaticanos, campum Martium coaedifi- 
care, illum autem campum Yaticanum facere quasi Martium cam- 
pum. (Epist. ad Attic. 13, 33, 4.) 

(16.) SuUam secutus est is (i. e., Caesar), qui in causa impia, 
victoria etiam foediore, non singulorum civium bona publicaret, 
sed universas provincias regionesque uno calamitatis iure compre- 
henderet. (De Offic. 2, § 27.) 

(17.) L. Sullae, C. Caesaris pecuniarum tsanslatio a iustis 
dominis ad alienos non debet liberalis videri ; nihil est enim libe- 
rale, quod non idem iustum. (De Offic. 1, § 43.) 
{^Reliqua deincepi persequemur.^ 

CICEBO. [Altera. pars.} 

(7.) [675 = 79] Erat eo tenipore in nobis summa gracilitas 
et infirmitas corporis, procerum et tenue collum : qui habitus et 
quae figura non procul abesse putatur a vitae periculo, si accedit 
labor et laterum magna contentio, eoque magis hoc eos, quibus 
eram carus, commovebat, quod omnia aine remissione, sine varie- 
tate, vi summa vocis et totius corporis contentione dicebam. 
Itaque cum me et amici et medici hortarentur, ut causaa agere 
desisterem, quodvis potius periculum mihi adeundum quam a 
aperata dicendi gloria discedendum putavi. sed cum censerem 
remissione et moderatione vocis et commutato genere dicendi me 
€t periculum vitare posse, et temperatius dicere, ut consuetudi- 
nem dicendi mutarem, ea causa mihi in Asiam proficiscendi f uit 
Itaque cum essem bienoium versatus in causis et iam in foro 
celebratum meum nomen esset, Roma sum profectus. Oum 
venissem Athenas, sex mensis cum Antiocho veteris Academiae 



LATINE. 69 



nobilissimo et prudentissimo philosopho fui studiumque philo- 
sophiae Dumquam intermissum a primaque adulescentia cultum 
et semper auctum hoc rursus summo auctore et doctore renovavi. 
Eodem tamen tempore Athenis apud Demetrium Syrum veterem 
«t non ignobilem dicendi magistrum studiose exerceri solebam. 
Post a me Asia tota peregrata est, fuique cum summis quidem 
oratoribus, quibuscum exercebar ipsis libentibus, quorum erat 
princeps Menippos Stratonicensis meo iudicio tota Asia illis tem- 
poribus dissertissimus, adsiduissimeque autem mecum fuitDiony- 
fiius Magnus ; erat etiam Aeschylus Cnidius, Adramyttenus Xeno- 
-cles : hi tum in Asia rhetorum principes numerabantur ; quibus 
non contentus Rhodum veni meque ad eundem, quem Romae 
audiveram, Molonem applicavi cum actorem in veris causis scrip- 
toremque praestantem tum in notandis animadvertendisque vitiis 
«t instituendo docendoque prudentissimum. is dedit operam, si 
modo id consequi potuit, ut nimis redundantis nos et superfluen- 
tis iuvenili quadam dicendi impunitate et licentia reprimeret et 
quasi cxtra ripas diffluentis coerceret Ita recepi me biennio 
post non modo exercitatior, sed probe mutatus : nam et conten- 
tio nimia vocis resederat et quasi deferverat oratio lateribusque 
vires et corpori mediocris habitus accesserat. (Brut, § 313-316.) 

[B^iqita deinceps penequemur.] 
JEPISTULAE, 

J. K L., E. S. S. Editori Latine, S. P. D. 

Cum de arce Heidelbergensi in cpistola priore mentionem 
fecerira, ampliore modo nunc scribam. Ut arces antiquae, quae 
in Germania sunt, paene omnes fractae sunt, ita haec arx ruina 
est. Cum eae ad usus belli munitae essent bello sunt deletae. 
Galli, qui saepe hanc terram rapuerunt raptamque tulerunt, sem- 
per fere arces, quas ii tenuerunt, deleverunt, nam, quas sibi reti- 
nere non possent, eas hostibus castella futuras esse noluenint. 
Haec arx oppugnata in bello quod nominatura est " bellum tri- 
ginta annorum," est in magnam partem fracta. Mox refecta, 
anno miUesimo sexcentcsimo octogesimo ab Gallico imperatore 
Melac est capta, post quod tempus, turribus pulvere mortifero * 
dejectis, nunquam renovata est. Electori Carolo Theodoro in 
mentem venit arcem renovare, sed cum ille ad opus parabat, anno 

' Powder. 



70 LATINE. 



millesimo septingentesimo sexagesimo quarto arx fulgore icta est 
et quae pars inflammari poterat est consumpta. Nunc arx, facta 
ruina magna splendidaque, anno frequentia hominum crebra est. 
£i sitae pedes trecentos fere supra fluroen in clivo, loco amoeno, 
olim horti pulcherrimi circumdabantur, nunc autem arbores so- 
lae circum crescunt, per quas viae curvae opacaeque apertae sunt 
Ab his viis et per vacuas fenestras ipsae arcis colles, prata, vici, 
silvae, flumina, loca omnia pulcherrima videri possunt Non est 
dubium quin homines qul huius arcis situm legerint, rebus pul- 
chris locisque amoenis afficerentur. Hic Electores Palatini habi- 
tare solebant. Intra muros arcis, dum stabat, multae res laetae 
multacque res horridae actae sunt. In aulis viri mulieresque mu- 
sica, cantn, choro, epulis gaudentes colligebantur ; f ortasse autem 
in eodem tempore captivi variis criminibus accusati, eculeo mul- 
tisque aliis modis atrociter torquebantur. His paucis annis multi 
in societate se sociaverunt qui, ne arx varia tempestate, calore, 
gelu, pluvia plus laberetur, prohibere conaretur. Ab omnibus, 
ubicumque locorum sunt, socii ad arcem reficiendam pecuniam 
petunt. Cum arcem restaurare non cupiant, se in quo statu nunc 
sit eam servaturos sperant Nemo qui semel arcem viderit par- 
vam pecuniam dare pro tam bona causa dubitare potest. Omnes^ 
non possunt quin sperent illos in tali labore prosperos successus 
habituros esse. Vale. 

Datum Heidelbergae, a. d. XV. Kal. Oct. MDCCCLXXXrV. 

Dabam Romae, aate dieiu V. KaL Apr. 
W. L. C, E. S. Shumway, S. D. P. 

Sepulcrum memorabile in Via Labicana prope portam, quae 
dicitur " Maggiore " anno post Chr. millesimo octingentesimo 
duodequadragesimo inventum est. Murus ab Honorio exstruc- 
tus id per multos annos adeo celaverat, ut ex hominum memoria 
paulatim plane exstingueretur. 

Aedificium quattuor lateribus per tria tabulata disceruitur, 
quorum primum omamentis caret : secundum constat e lapidibus, 
qualibus pistores ad panem subigendum uti solebant. In supe- 
riore parte haec inscriptio ter repetita conspicitur. 
EST HOC MONIMENTVM 
MARCEI VERGILEI EVRYSACIS PISTORIS 
REDEMTORIS APPARET. 



LATINE. 71 



Tam cognoscimus Eurysaceni non solum pistorem, sed etiam 
redemptorem fuisse. Super hanc inscriptionem tres series lapi- 
<ieorum mortariorum ita positae sunt, ut forauiina viatorem spec- 
tent 

Multae reliquiae caelaminum in zophoro (in margine) adhuc 
conspiciuntur : quae varias actiones coquendi, vasa coquendis 
cibis utilia, furnum, pistrinum, homines farinam pendentes, dis- 
tributionem panis exhibent. Viator Pompeiis nunc eundem 
pistrinum invenit, cujus imago in hoc monumento est. 

Juxta est caelamen hac inscriptione ornatum. 

FVIT ATISTIA VXOR MIHEI— 
FEMINA OPTVMA VEIXSIT— QVOIVS CORPORIS 
RELIQVIAE— QVOD SVPERANT SVNT IN— 
HOC PANARIO. 

Reliquiis hujus panarii, quod cineres Eurysacis et uxoris con- 
tinebat, confirmatur extremo tempore rei publicae aut primo im- 
perii f actum esse. 

Hoc monumentum cum multis aliis planius quam omnes libri 
explicat Romanorum vivendi agendique rationes. Quamobrem 
nunc diligentissime a curiosorum manibus custoditur. Si litto- 
rarum ductus extricare potueris, parvam hanc epistulam haud in- 
vitum te lecturum esse spero. Vale. 

JLFFINES. [Er&smus.^l 

Affines dicuntur, qui non sanguinis, sed matrimonii conjunc- 
tione copulati sunt. 

Socer, uxoris meae pater est mihi. 

Gener, filiac meae maritus. 

Socrus, uxoris meae mater. 

Nuras, filii mei uxor. 

Levir, Mariti frater — levitur dicitur ab uxore ut Helena Hec- 
torem levirum vocat, quod esset nupta Paridi. 

Fratria, fratris mei uxor. 

Glos, Mariti soror. 

Vitricus, matris meae maritus. 

Noverca, patris mei uxor. 

Privignus, uxoris aut mariti filius. 

Privigna, filia alterutrius. 

Rivalis qui amat eandem. 



72 LATINE. 



ENGLISH SUPPLEMENT. 

[SUPPLEMENTUM ANGLICUM.] 

MUSARUM SACERDOS. [K&thsLrine Lee B&tes.^ 

Wlio called himself your priest, Imraortal Choir ? 

Not Dante, though in ruddiest altar-flame 

He planged his torch, and bore it through the shame 

Of deepening hell to domes of starry fire, 

In steadfast temple-service. Not that sire 

Of glorious chant, our Milton ; he who came 

With solemn tread and vestments purged from blame, 

To swing the censer of divine desire. 

But HORACE, sipping at your crystal spring 

As lightly as he quaffed his Sabine wine, 

Caught up that lute, about whose golden string 

The rose and myrtle he was deft to twine, 

And sweetly sang, in pauses of the feast, 

" The poet is the gods' anointed priest ! " 

From " The LUerary World:^ 

FROM OLD ROME. A Tea,cher's Letter to his PupUs, [AdApted 
trom the Germ&n.] [Continued.] 

In order to reach the Forum from this side, we muat descend 
a series of wooden stairs temporarily constructed here. We now 
obtain a view at the right, through the middle one of the three 
arches of the Arcus Triumphalis of Septimius Severus. This 
somewhat clumsy edifice was erected in the year 203, in order to 
celebrate the victories over the Parthians of the emperor just 
named. When still adomed with all its dccorations, this edifice 
indeed must have been much fincr. Above the main passage 
there was a long inscription, in metal letters, glorifying the 
achievements of the imperial family. In the fourth line we now 
read, " Optimis fortissimisque principibus." But originally, as 
may be concluded from the vestiges left by the way in which 
the letters were attached, it must have read, " P. Septimio Getae 
nobilissimo Caesari opt." But when, after his father'8 death, 
Caracalla had glutted his hatred toward his brother Geta by 
making away with him, he caused the odious name to be re- 



LATINE. 73 



moved f rom this monumejit of victory, on the pretense that it 
was too shocking for him to be continually reminded of his mur- 
dered brother. Trophies were fastened to the right and left of 
the inscription, and above the arch there stood a gilt currus seju- 
gis of brass, seemingly rushing headlong, in triumphant course, 
in which was the emperor, crowned by a Victoria. Close to the 
triumphal chariot strode Caracalla and Geta, whom their father 
had permitted to share alike the glory of the house. At the cor- 
ners of the superficies, we at present see so barren, were placed 
equestrian statues, so that the whole might well have produced 
an imposing impression. 

We now enter the middle portal, in order to escape the Ital- 
ian November's sun, and have before us the colossal substruct- 
ure of the Concordia Temple. It was vowed in 367 by Camil- 
lus the dictator, in gratitude for the restoration of unity among 
the Patricians and Plebeians. After Camillus^s death it was con- 
structed by the senate and people. In consequence of decay, it 
was renovated and enlarged by Tiberius in compliance with Au- 
gustus^s wish. Even in times of the republic it was a spacious 
temple, as the senate oftentimes assembled here. The splendor 
6f the pillars, indeed, has passed away, buf still we distinctly make 
out stairs ascending in terraces and leading to an ante-structure, 
behind which the broad temple jutted out on both sides. In it 
the senate had convened in crowded assembly on that memo- 
rable 3d of December, when Cicero held in his hands the evi- 
dences against the Catilinarians, obtained through the embas- 
sadors of the Allobroges. The conference lasted until evening. 
Impatiently the populace streamed up and down before the 
stairs of the temple, when at last the consul, emerging from the 
mysterious cell of the temple, informed the apprehensive Quirites 
of his having removed the impending danger. ^' £ut not I myself 
have accomplished this — that were saying too much — nay, Jove 
on high hath withstood. It is he that desired to see saved his 
Capitol, these temples here — ay, the entire city, and all of you." 
Imagine for a moment, you had with the Eoman citizens been 
fearing for your property and life, that you had already seen in 
your minds the houses of the city being consumed by flames : 
would not that man, whose majestic form shone down from 
..above into the dusk of eve like that of a god ; who so calmly. 



74 LATINE. 



and yet inspired with the joy of victory, was speaking to you — 
would not he necessarily appear to you a savior, a father of his 
fatherland ? Most likely you would not have suffered yourselves 
to be sent home with soothing words ; you, too, as brave Quirites, 
would have lighted torches and formed an escort of honor for 
the deliverer of the city. 

[7b be continued.] 

THE EDUCATION OF THE ROMAN BOY, [Bjr X. T Tomlinson, 
Hea,d Master of Rntgezs College OrammarSchooL] 

The Roman life was a growth. It was marked by change, 
marked and strong in spite of the natural conservatism of their 
power. Those walls of to-day, at once our bulwark of defense 
and our means of progression — the press and the printed page — 
could not check wild growths or draw out and develop much of 
the latent power ; so that the term Roman life and Roman edu- 
^ation is a broad one, and covers rauch that is misty in the early 
history, on through the growth of power down to the time when 
Christianity came to triumph over paganism, and Rome found her 
ancient walls and foundations crumbling and falling from be- 
neath her. 

The Roman life was essentially an outgrowth of the old pa- 
triarchal form of govemment. Abraham finds his counterpart in 
Anchises. It was the paterfamilias that was and continued to 
be the man of power. While the Greek father could only banish 
his child from his home, and refuse him the protection of the 
family name and arms, and could not affect his liberty or his 
life, the Roman father was the absolute master, and held the 
powers of life and death. His power was almost more unlimited 
than that of the Eastern despot over his subjects. In his own 
home (domus) he was the absolute master (dominus), And yet 
his power was restricted. Among his people law was not more 
binding than custom, or rather law was only the expressed cus- 
tom (mo«). The father's power was only over his legitimate 
children {liheri ingenui) ; the father'3 power (patria potestas) 
was mitigated and regulated by many of these customs. The 
exposure of infants, that barbarous practice so common among 
the ancients, was restricted if not prohibited, and the adoption of 
children was so common and held so sacred and binding that 



LATINE. 73 



marriagc between adopted children was sternly and strictly for- 
bidden. Another fact must be taken into account in dealing 
with the elemcnts that entered into the young boy's life. The 
position of his mother, of the Roman woman, was far abovc that 
of other nations of antiquity. In the home (domus) she was the 
dotnina (mistress). 

The position and the dignity of the Roman matron made the 
mother's influence in the education of her children greater than in 
any of the surrounding nations, or, indeed, among any of the na- 
tions known to history. Browning says : " One of the chief char- 
acteristics of Roman education was the influence of the mother. 
The Roman wife was the worthy companion of her husband, and 
she was often the best stimulus and example to her sons." 

With the dignity and the f ear and the love so of ten displayed 
by the father, and the respectful care and attention of the mother, 
the young boy was thrown into life in a dififerent condition than 
that of any of his neighborly brothers — a freedom, and yet restric- 
tion ; with a private as weil as a public life to aspire to, and more 
of the home influence than could reasonably be expected of the 
times, he must have gained a view of living never dreamed of by 
others. And this was largely due to the law or custom that pro- 
hibited his father from trying the evils of polygamy. 

The Germanic nations shared with the Romans the honor of 
treating their women in a comparatively dignified manner. 
Becker's "Gallus" records that' the Romaiis seemed to have 
ascertained what leamed wives were, what tyrants wealthy ones 
were apt to be. 

At the birth of the child, the custom common in Greece and 
Rome alike prevailed, whereby the father declared whether he 
would bring up the child as his own or not. Nine days after the 
birth of the boy, and eight after that of the girl, foUowed the 
Ittstratio, and at the same time they received their name [noTnen 
accipiebant), Small gifts were made at this time, and each suc- 
ceeding birthday saw new gifts bestowed. 

Affcer the lustratio {dies lustricus) there came the formal an- 
nouncement in order that the boy's name might be entered in 
the public registers. In those old tiraes, and the same was true 
of the Greeks, there were no wet-nurses, but the mother nursed 
the child herself. Only little is known of this early period of 



76 LATINE. 

his life. It was probably entirely domeatic. We do know, how- 
ever, that great care was taken in the selection of attendants, lest 
the childrcn iearn improper words, incorrect speech and expres- 
sion, poor pronunciation and enunciation, etc. IIow well this feat- 
ure couid be imitated to-day ! Our Catholic f riends say that, give 
them the first seven years of a child'8 life, and they care not who 
has the rest of it. And while this is, of course, an extreme, does 
it not show us how important the care of the early years, and 
how well the Romans did to guard weli the opening life of the 
Roman boy ? 

FoUowing these ceremonies, the life of the child, we can imag- 
ine, flowed on as does that of the children of other times. But, 
when the age of seven had been reached, a marked point had been 
attained in the child^s life. Then his education was to begin. 

The curriculum, or course of study, embraced the following 
subjects, which we wish to touch upon briefly in detail : 

Grammar, dialectic, rhetoric, music, arithmetic, geometry, 
astronomy. These were really divided, although not with the 
same sense as is our higher educational work, into preparatory 
and coUegiate — the first three forming the trivium and last four 
the quadrivium, I would not be understood as claiming that at 
all times in the history of Rome was this course in vogue, but in 
no cases did it exceed what was included in this list. 

The elementary schools, which the boys first attended, were 
something after the manner, although not the plan, of the modern 
kindergarten. The teachers were called ludi muffistri, although 
this name was afterward changed to gramm^atistes or literatores, 
There were not the stiff, formal ways which were prevalent in the 
more advanced schools, nor in all probability the same strict dis- 
cipline, for the rod played no small part in the correct training 
of the boy. In these elementary schools the children learned 
their letters, and then to read and spell. The Greeks built up 
their knowledge by beginning with the letters and then combin- 
ing them. The Romans, however, worked more on the syllabic 
method in vogue to-day. They leamed the whole before they 
analyzed. This method met with opposition then as it does 
now. In the schools were wax tablets with grooves in them, and, 
by foUowing the marks, the boy learned to make the figures and 
trace the letters for himself. Ofben the teacher would hold his 



LATINE. 7 7 

papil's hand in his, and guide the weak and unwilling fingers in 
the way marked out. 

As soon as a fair knowledge of the letters had been gained, 
came the learning of words. Passages were chosen which the 
boys learned by heart. The least slip in accent or in quantity 
brought the correction of the master. Their ears were trained 
to a wonderful nicety. 

These elementary schools were usually managed by one 
teacher, although the having an assistant was common ; but, if 
help was needed, it was more common that some exceptioually 
bright or advanced pupil assisted. 

Simple arithmetic, or reckoning, followed the reading and 
writing. This, as it was also among the Greeks, was carried on 
in two ways. One plan was by making signs with the fingers. 
Each bend, or each joint, denoted a separate value ; every bend- 
ing a distinct number. The skill the deaf and dumb of to- 
day gain, and the nimbleness with which they move their fingers, 
show us what can and so what could have been done in this work. 
The teacher, from the constant practice of years, would move 
his fingers with lightning-like rapidity, and woe be to the unfor- 
tunate lad unable to follow ! Another method of teaching arith- 
metic was by the use of a counting-table and stones. Often this 
was done under the form of a gamc. Severai Italian games are 
prevalent to-day which are nothing but modified forms or rem- 
nants of the old school-days of the little Roman fellows. The 
boys gathered about a table ; on the table lines had been drawn, 
and a differcnt value attached to each line, so that the value of 
the stone depended upon its position. It was the same prin- 
ciple that is employed in the abacus of to-day, without which no 
primary-school is considered complete. 

This training usually was completed about the twelfth year. 
Up to this time play was no small factor in the boy's life. His 
books were carried for him daily by a slave. This, although a 
pleasant manner, for the boy, of getting his books to school, had 
one great drawback. Can the lif e of any boy be said to be com- 
plete who has never had the opportunity of rising in class, and, 
in the f ull consciousness of his importance, the envy of his class, 
cry out that he was not prepared ; that he had leffc his books at 
home? 



78 LATINE. 



At about this age he was turned over to the tender mercies 
of the grammaticus or literatus, 

These elementary teachers did not have the privilege or gain 
the reputation of those engaged in the higher branches. 

With the gramm^tici or literati the study of Greek was 
added to that of Latin. Standard authors were studied ; selec- 
tions were leamed " by heart," and great attention was given to 
etymology and the gaining a clear insight into the meaning of 
the author. A common manner was for the teacher to read aloud 
to his class first, and then have them read after him, and, as soon 
as possible, for each to commit the entire selection to memory. 

These teachers prepared the way for the rhetareSy as the 
gramm^tistes had prepared the way for them. " Rhetoric was 
to Roman education what music was to Greek." It seems to 
have been a mingling and union of many elements, imparting 
not only discipline, but what we to-day term " cultnre " as well. 
We must bear in mind, however, that the Roman was an intense- 
ly practical man. Nothing was of any value to him unless it 
tended directly to further the youth in his chosen work. The 
Greek mind delighted in fine distinctions and keen subtilties, 
and we know from the accounts we have of Socrates's life and 
manner of teaching, and of his foUojifers as well, that a general in- 
terest on certain subjects could bea roused at Athens that among 
the Romans would, as a rule, be passed by unnoticed, save perhaps 
with contempt They had the genuine element which we claim 
to-day as a Yankee trait, of testing the value of everything, and 
hardly being willing to wait f or results. So it came to pass that 
as the Romans came more in contact with the Greeks, as the re- 
sult of battle and conquest, some saw at once the value of Gre- 
cian culture and arts ; but among the many a storm was raised 
against the impracticability of such studies as occupied the 
mind of the aesthetic Greeks. But Grecian seed was planted 
and a union was formed which, though like the cloud of the size 
of a man's hand, soon spread and produced a fruit on Roman 
soil which it never could have gained among the Greeks. There 
was at Rome, perhaps, less of pure culture than at Athens ; less 
of the keen mental shading in regard to philosophical matters ; 
but there was more of a sturdy strength, of solid reliability, less 
intense individual selfishness, more results manifest. 



LATINE. 79 

So it was that the higher mathematics never gained great 
favor at Rome. Geometry and mathematics were valued so long 
as they were practical, but no longer. Grammar and rhetoric 
were more highly esteemed. Thc musical language of Italy, 
which to-day is the delight of visitors there, which by its melody 
and its smoothness charms the ear and inclines a man to believe 
that which he hears, was as highly esteemed then as now. The 
power of the orator was recognized and feared or courted by all, 
people and rulers alike. Hence, all that tended to train or de- 
velop an orator, to enlarge his vision, or give him command of a 
wider range of subjects, was regarded as practical. It could be 
measured by the standard of results. 

Grammar was more than the study of technical terms. It 
was a wide field, and contained all the elements of the sciences. 
According to Quintilian, it had two parts — the training to speak 
accurately, and the critical study of the poets. Now, this criti- 
cal study of the poets required a knowledge of the subjects, 
themes, allusions, figures, etc, used by the writer ; and so the 
thorough study of the standard productions led to more than 
a mere study of written language. Among the writers whose 
works were standard we find Aesop^s fables popular at all times, 
and, in later days, the same authors that engage the attention 
and much of the time of the school-boy and collegian alike were 
used. Orthography and the rules of grammar were frequently 
dictated ; and, indeed, we know that the dictation exercise played 
no small part in the school-work. As it is considered the thing 
in many homes to-day for the boy to learn the Ten Command- 
ments, so in these schools the laws of the Twelve Tables (the 
leges duodecim tabularum) were learned by the boys. 

It seems strange to us that with the suuny skies, the earth 
and air combining in an effect that must have been conducive to 
poetic sentiment and feeling, and with a language excelled by 
few in its musical power and attraction, music shouid have been 
so lightly esteemed. We know that singing must have been 
•somewhat common, but the use of instruments to produce music 
in early times was comparatively restricted. The legends of the 
songs at the banquet when Aeneas tarried at Dido's table, were 
preserved, and the lyrics have been handed down to our genera- 
tion. Bnt the introduction of musical instruments, at least many 



80 LATINE. 



forms of them, was received with disfavor. Thc flute in par- 

ticular was regarded as calling for a waste of breath. The an- 

cient songs, particularly those of a national or patriotic charac- 

ter, were sung at the meals, and the practice was in all probability 

kept up through the later times. 

The study of rhetoric, as has been said, did not gain any 

ground in Italy, or, rather, among the Romans, until after the 

fiubjection of Lower Italy. Greek rhctoricians came to Rome, 

either at personal invitation, or becanse of the opening that they 

f ancied they saw for themselves at the capital of the nation. The 

increasing power and demand they gained gradually led up to the 

demand for teaching rhetoric in Latin. There was strong oppo- 

sition, but the opposition gradually gave way. The power of 

Greek may be slightly judged by the complaint of Quintilian 

(after the fashion of complaints heard in our schools to-day) 

that children were taught Greek before they knew their parent 

tongue. The knowledge of Greek, while common among a cer- 

tain class, never became widely spread. 

ITobe continved.] 
HES, 

Mes occurs in seven books of Caesar 375 times, in Nepos 
284. (For its manifold use, see Lexicon ; also see Nagelsbach, 
p. 34.) 

Preble and Parker say (p. 13) : " A brilliant instance of the 
Roman fondness for the simple is the use of re», ratio^ etc, with 
such manifold shades of meaning. Bes is a blank check, so to 
say, to be filled up from the context to the requisite amount of 
meaning." Rothfuchs says, " The ancient Roman was so in. 
clined to look at things as concrete that he won from the most 
abstract notion a concrete side and beheld it as re«." Of the stu- 
dent of Latin composition Rothf uchs says that he oft^n makes 
the mistake of translating " case " by cams ; " function," by /unc- 
tio ; " respect," by respectus ; " action," by actio ; " history," by 
historia, etc. Rothfuchs gives the foHowing rules : 

1. An adjective used substantively always has res if thc neu- 
ter form can not be distinguished from the masculine ; there- 
f ore, not praeteritorum memor, but rerum praeteritarum memor. 

2. This circumlocution with res often occurs with the expres- 
fflons "some(thing)," «no(thing)," "this," "that," "therefore," 



LATINE. 81 



«tc. — e. g., cdiqua res, nulla res^ ed res, ea in re^ qua de re, qui- 
bus rebus, etc. 

3. " Matter," " thing," " work," " circumstance," etc, are ex- 
pressed by res if tlie meaning of the word is clear from the con- 
text (the connection, or an adjective or pronoun). 

4. The substantives that are compounded with wesen (which 
may perhaps be rendered by our " affairs " or " matter ") are ex- 
pressed by res in singular, but still oftener in the plural, with 
the corresponding adjective — e. g., res publica, militaris, mari- 
iima, frum^taria, dom^stica, etc. 

^ANTWARBAJiUS. [Meissner,] [Continued.] 

Call (loudly), clamare, not vocare, which = call to one's self. (?) 

Capacity, captus, but always in the expression ut captus est 
-alicuius, otherwise mens, intelligentia, not capacitas, which means 
capacity of a vessel. 

Capitaly urbs nobilissima, pnmaria ; caput only with the geni- 
tive of the land or the people. Rorae as capital, simply urbs. 

Carry off the victory in the fight, proelio vincere, not pugnan- 
tom victoriam reportare. Over some one, victoriam reportare ab 
^quo, not de aliquo. 

Carry out a plan. Propositum (but without genitive, adjec- 
tive, or pronoun), peragere, consilium exsequi, not consilium per- 
ficere. 

Cease from, mittere, omittere, praetermittere, desinere, et al., 
not intermittere, which = to lay something aside for a longer 
or shorter period — e. g., studia. I can not refrain from — = 
facere non possum quin. 

Challenge. Invitatio, evocatio, or by verbs (hortari, provocare, 
etc.), not provocatio, which in classic prose means appellation. 

Cite a place from Plato et al., locum Platonis afferre, laudare, 
not citare, which means **^call forth as a witness" (testem). 

Classic. 1. Concerning the Greek and Latin — e. g., the 
classic writers, the old classics, veteres scriptores (Graeci et La- 
tini) ; 2. Meaning " choice," equals optantissimus, praestantissi- 
mus ; hence, in this meaning, scriptores optimi, praestantissimi. 
Do not use classicus. 

Comical, ridiculus (homo ridiculus), not comicus, which = 
appearing in comedy, senes comici. 



82 LATINE. 



Command, iussum, but usually only in the plural; on com- 
mand, iussu, not iusso. 

Commit suicidey mortem sibi consciscere, manum sibi affere, 
se interimere, not se interficere. 

Communicate somethiug to some one — i. e., to narrate, nar- 
rare, tradere alicui aliquid, certiorem facere aliquem de aliqua re 
or alicuius rei, not communicare aliquid cum aliquo, which means 
to share with any one for common use. 

Complain. To some one about something, expostulare or 
conqueri cum aliquo de aliqua re, not apud aliquem. 

Compound words, verba copulata, iuncta, coniuncta, not com- 
posita, which is wcll-ordered words. 

Concern. As far as concerns — , should be expressed by 
placing the thing to be emphasized first (with foilowing, qui- 
dem, not by quod attinet in epistolary style), or quod — perti- 
net, which equals " as far as is conformable with my duty." 

Condition. On condition, ea condicione, hac lcgc, not sub 
ea condicione. 

Conduce to health, or hurt, salutem, perniciem afierre alicui, 
not saluti perniciei esse ; to advantage, usui, ex usu essc, not utili- 
tate esse. 

Connection of the thought. Ratio, qua sententiae inter se ex- 
cipiunt, not nexus sententiarum, since nexus, in Cicero, is limited 
to the two meanings, first, combination (atomorum), second 
(nexus se obligare). 

Consecrate to. Consecrate one's time to literary pursuits, tem- 
pus in litteris consumere ; one's life to literary pursuits, aetatem 
in litteris ducere, agere ; to entirely consecrate onc's self to lit- 
erary pursuits, se totum litteris tradere, dedere, not tempus lit- 
teris consecrare (which = to make sacred or holy to). 

Consider (i. e., have regard to) something. Respicere ali- 
quid, not ad aliquid, which = to look back after something. 
With regard to — , si respicimus, rationem habemus (with geni- 
tive), or respiciens (see concern), not ratione habita nor ratione. 

Consolation. Solacium, consolatio, which = the act of con- 
Boling, not solamen (poetic and post-classical). 

Console. Consolari (aliquem de aliqua re an se consolari 
aiiqua re or de aliqua re), not solari (poetic and post-classical). 

Consnme (time, labor, money) in something, conferre tempus> 



LATINE. 83 



ad aliquid ; consumere, coUocare, pOnere operam in aliqua re, not 
in or ad aliquam rem. 

Content. Rebus suis, sorte sua contentum esse, not absolutely 
contentum esse. I am content with (participle), satis mihi est 
with infinitive, not contentus sum. 

Continuatioii (further discussion, narration), reliqua pars, 
pars altera, tertia, etc., not continuatio, which equals, 1, un- 
broken continuation (imbrium) ; 2, unbroken chain (causarum). 
Continuation and conclusion, res instituta porro tractatur et ab- 
solvitur. Continuation follows (i. e., to be continued), reliqua 
deinceps persequemur. 

Contract a disease, etc, morbum, malum, poenam contrare, 
not sibi contrare. To bring upon one's self one's hatred, alicuius 
odium subire, suscipere, in se convertere, sibi conflare or in alicuius 
odium incurrere ; to draw upon one's self enmity, inimicitias 
suscipere ; to bring upon one's self vituperation, in vituperatio- 
nem cadere, venire, vituperationem subire, not odium, inimicitias 
vituperationem contrare. 

Contradict some one, contra aliquem dicere, not contra dicere 
alicui. 

Cormption, of manners, mores corrupti or perditi, not cor- 
ruptela morum. 

Conrt. To bring one before the court, in ius, iudicium vo- 
care aliquem, so in iudicium venire, in iudicio adesse, to appear 
before the court, not ante — ; certain, so much is certain, hoc 
certum est, not tantum certum est. 

Cradle, poetically for origin, incunabula, orum, not cunabula. 

Create the world, procreare, aedificare, condere munduro, not 
creare ; creator, procreator, not creator, 

Crime, scelus, not crimen, which = accusation, charge. 

Cmelty. Toward any one, crudelitatem exercere in aliquo, 
Bot in aliquem. 

Cnltivate the mind, excolere animum, not colere, which in 
connection with animum is used only figuratively. Cicero uses, 
however, " Artes et studia, amicitiam, iustitiam colere " (foster). 

Cnltnre, animi ingenii cultus, not cultura (only united with 
agri), and not cultus without genitive. 

Cnre, aegrotum sanare, not curare. 1. Care for in the ca- 
pacity of physician ; 2. To nurse, foster. 



84 LATINE. 



SWE-LIGHTS ON VIRGIL. 

I have found it helpful, with my owa Virgil class, to devote one hour in 
the week to the reading at sight of other Latin poetry bearing on their work 
as Horaoe*! Ode to Mercurj or OYid*s Wooing of Polyphemus. The time 
usually spent in the preparation of the lesson the students devote, on this 
day, to the reading of English tales or poems, like the following, suggested 
by allusions in the Aeneid : 

Homer. Iliad. Bryant^s or Chapman^s translation. 

Odyssey. Bryant'8 or Cbapman's translation. 

Hymn to Mercury. Shelley's translation. 
Dante. The Inferno. Selections. Longfellow's translation. 
Milton. Paradise Lost. Selections. 

(Both these in connection with Virgirs description of Hades.) 

Mrs. Browning. The Dead Pan. 
A Mnsical Instniment. 
Hector in the Garden. 
Tennyson. To Virgil, 
Oenone. 

The Lotus-Eaters. 

Dream of Fair Women, (Helen and Iphigenia,) 
The Higher Pantheism. (Aeneid VI, 724-729.) 
vShelley. Prometheus Unbound. Selections. 
Hymn of Pan. 
Hymn of Apollo. 
Keats. Endymion. Selections. 

Hyperion. 
Wordsworth. Laodamia. 
Xewifl Morris. Epic of Hades. 
'William Morris. Life and Death of Jason. 
Fram The Earthly Paradise : 
Atalanta'8 Race. 
The Doom of King Acrisius, 
Cupid and Psyche. 
The Love of Alcestis. 
The Death of Paris. 
The Golden Apples. 
Bellerophon at Argos. 
Bellerophon in Lycia, 



LATINE. 85 



Hawthorne. The Marble Faun. 

The Wonder Book. 

Tanglewood Tales. 
Byron. Childe Harold. Selections. 

Prometheus. 
Andrew Lang. Helen of Troy. 
Jean Ingelow. Persephone. 
Xingsley. Andromeda. 

(Yalaable, alao, as an introduction to Latin scanning, its dactylic hex- 
ameters, the most exoellent known to me in English verse, accustoming the 
pupil naturally to the heroic measure.) Eatharine Les Bates. 

Dana Hall, WellesUy. 

(NoTE. — I have made no mention of Macaulay^s Lajs of Ancient Rome 
and Shakespeare'B Antonj and Cleopatra, because they were included in the 
general list given by Professor Post.) 

SORATZAN ALLEGORY. [Trtaislated trom the German hy SAm^ 
uel M, Otto.J 

Is Horaoe*s ode " navis referent " an allegory ? Of the critics a small 
minority declare against an aliegory, whiie the large majority f avor that view. 
Since the question is an important one for Horatian as well as for other Ro- 
man, for Greek and modem poetry, I desire to lay a f ew grains into the scales 
of the negative side of the question. 

It is said that under the figure of the ship the Roman state is represented. 
But now the dififerent parts of the ship again reappear under the figure of the 
different parts of a human being. The mast, for example, is tcoundcd like a 
member of the human body ; mast and sail-yards groan and utter a plaintive 
cry such as issues from the breast of man, and the fore part of the ship is 
naked and exposed or defenseless like the breast of a combatant. These are 
single or isolated expressions, but through the whole ode there runs the 
idea of a spiiitual personality. The ship is addressed like a hearing and ra- 
ti<mal being ; it sees and perceiyes ; it has f ree energy, and a free will to seek 
and to avoid ; it appears proud ; it is perhaps not f ree f rom guilt in the eye 
«f Fate, and it calls upon the gods. In the first place, then, thc state is rep- 
resented under the figure of a ship — an ethical association of human beings 
beoomes a non-ethical thing ; but in the next plaoe the ship again is repre- 
sented under the figure of a single person — ^the non-ethical thing becomes an 
ethical personality. AUegorical personifications, as ia well known, are noth- 
jng unusual ; an impersonal, actual thing is raised by allegory into a person- 
ality. But here, on the contrary, something allegorically impersonal is by 
allegory made personal in the allegory. Uhland, for example, represents the 
assodation of the Swabian poets of nature under the figure of an apple-tree, 
MaoA the apple-tree again under the figure of a good landlord — wliich would 



86 LATINE. 

be an allegory of the second degree, like the Horatian, if it were on the whole 
possible. 

The ship is the Roman state. Very well ; what, thcn, is meant by the 
mast, sail-yards, and cables ? For suppose the hcarer has in the first lines of 
the ode understood the aliegory, and consequently has recoguized under the 
figure of the ship the state, under the figure of the billows ciyil oommotions, 
under that of the harbor peace and harmony ; and then he necessarily sees 
the hull of the ship of state without a rudder, coosequently, so to speak, 
without a state rudder, without the mcans of moving and guiding itself on 
the sea of poiitics ; and he sces the mast of the ship of state half broken ofiF, 
consequently — ^yes, what is the mast of the sltip of state ? What, therefore, 
does the hearer see in the ship of state ? A moment ago, with the terms 
ship, waves, and harbor, the sensc was tolerably clcar. The metaphors were 
otherwise already familiar to the fantasy or could be easity formed one from 
the other for the imagination, and interpretcd by the understanding. With 
stem and rudder the sense would be clcar if the power of the imagination 
were not too lively and active ; so in the case of hull and sails the mcaning 
would be tolerably plain. But mast, yards, and cables — what constituent 
parts of the ajffairs of state, forsooth, is the imagination accustoraed to see 
in these things ? And what is the riddle-solving intellect hastily to guess and 
divine — some haste being necessary in the apprehension of poetical state- 
ments ? Only oompare, for ezample, the nearly related rcpresentation of 
Theognis v, 667 ff. Here, as in the case of every good mctaphor, one can 
instantly translate every figurative ezpression into that which is literal ; and 
yet the poet says he has spoken in riddles. But Horace indeed speaka in 
insolvable riddles when he speaks allegorically. 

But we must not in this ode, they say, follow up the allegory in its de- 
tails ; for in that case it would be a poor allegory, or no aliegory at alL Per- 
haps our expounders confound allegory and sunile. Of course, in the splen- 
did simile of the tired and hungry plowman which Homer makes in his pow- 
erful representation of the restless longing of Odysseus for his journey home 
— ^there no hearer needs understand all the individual traits of the simile as 
emblems of particular incidents and occurrences in the narration of Odys- 
seufi. Why not ? Because the idea is not conveyed to the hearer that the 
hufibandman in the whole is Odysseus, and that his retum home at supper- 
time is really the hero'8 return home to Ithaca. Suppose Homer to have said : 
''Odysseus sat at the farewdl banquet in the hall of Alkinoos, and the 
minstrel Demodokos sang and played in his Lonor. But the plowman often 
tumed his face toward the sun, for he longed for his evening meal. AU day 
long the two reddish-brown oxen had drawn the plow for him through the 
new fallow ground." Here the plowman would be none other than Odjrsseus, 
and his retum home to his' evening meal nothing else than the retum to 
Ithaca — oonsequently an allegory, and all that foUows would undeniably be 
allegorical, and the hearer would have to exert himself to conjccture what 
"was meant by the new fallow ground, what by the two reddish-brown oxen, 
«tc. From the same necessityan accurate listencr to Horace will have to de- 



LATINE. 87 



•flire to understand what the mast and its appliances signify^ what is meant 
by the cables of the ship of staie^ with which in the open sea it can set the 
violence of the waves at defiance, etc, provided the listener referred the 
opening lines of the ode to the ship of state, and accordingly was carried 
forward ailegorically. 

Provided : but with what right can we make that supposition ? In the 
illustration given above, the plowman, as a matter of course, from the very 
beginning, could have been none other than Odysseus, because Odysseus only 
was spoken of. So in Theognis, every one knows from the first word of the 
sea-voyage tbat it is allegorical, and represents the course of the civil com- 
motions, for in the preceding verses, as well as in the principal clause of the 
allegorical sentence, political affairs are under discussion. But in Horace 
the very first word of an independent poem is " ship." How does the 
hearer, even Horace*s nearest friend, so f ar as I am concemed, know that by 
ship is meant the state ? Only a f ew pages bef ore there is an ode of Horace 
beginning, " So may the heavenly goddess of Kypros guide thee, my ship ! " 
There the hearers or readers are to understand by ship only a ship. Pre- 
«isely 60 here. But assuming also that at the time this ode was written it 
was customary to understand such words as ship and voyage allegorically — 
that is to say, metaphorically — it would be so much the more hazardous, since 
Horace more frequently uses the metaphors ship and voyage of quite other 
things than of state affairs, and so one reader might understand this, an- 
other that, and even the same reader different things in succession. But in 
this way the allegory would be turned into an cnigma or common puzzle ; 
and yet a good enigma can in the end have only one sense. It belongs to 
the unity of the allegorical fonn that the relations of the allegory shall 
be given from the very beginning, either throiigh a coherence of preceding 
literal thoughts, or by explicit mention of the hteral thing. An example of 
the first kind is given by Theognis in the allegory ah*eady mentioned of the 
flhip of Btate ; of the second, in Geibers " Der schnelhie Reiter ist der Tod^ 
Otherwise we shall have a disorderly mixture of enigmatical forms. 

The objection may be made that this ode in fact was intended to be an 
aUegorical-lyrical riddle, and that at first, in view of the circumstances con- 
nected with its origin and publication, it was solvable, and adapted to lyrical 
pnrposes, a riddle in the sense in which Eomer calls SchiUer^s ^^ Madchen 
am der Fremde " a riddle. But such riddles of a lyrical nature always pre- 
pare ns beforehand for the perception of the sense, exciting in us a medita- 
tive frame of mind from the beginning by an intimation of the enigmatical, 
or by directly challenging us to think and interpret. Of the one kind we 
have Schiller's " Ein Mddchen schon und tounderbar " ; of the other, Schwab's 
*^Nenne mir die siiUe Stadt." Allegorical riddles, then, like other allegories, 
present only such f eatures of the image as can be translated conclusively, one 
and all, into the literal, of which the two poems just referred to are fair ex- 
amples. And, finally, allegorical riddles llke those mentiohed set forth the 
features of the image in a calm, clearly arranged, narrative or descriptive 
In this way the hearer^s imagination is able to construct the image 



88 LATINE. 



line after line, and at the same time the underetaiiding can adyance without 
disturbance and embarrassment to an ever-clearer perception. All o£ the 
three foUowing characteristics of an allegorical enigma are wanting in this 
ode of Horace : There is wanting, in the first place, every intimation of an- 
other sense than the literal ; secondly, everj incitement to reflect and inter- 
pret, 80 that mast, yards, cables, decorated stem, do not admit of a solution ; 
lastly, the representation is so vividly lyrical and dramatic that the hearer 
has no time for reflection, and instead of advancing step by step from the 
mysterious darkness into the hopeful twilight, and from this into the fuU 
daylight of peroeption, he is evermore powerfuUy urged on into a Tiyidly 
lyrical participation or feeling, and drawn into the dramatic situation of the 
struggling ship as into an actual one — that is, a non-allegorical one. 

But, then, can the objects of an allegory as they are under discussion in 
this ode be attained if, as we haye just seen, all ihe /omu of the allegoiy are 
wanting ? It is the ob ject of an aliegory, they say, also in this case, to make 
what is less ciear more oonspicuous. If, now, as has just been argued, the 
▼ividly dramatic representation causes me more and more to sympathize with 
the situation of the shipf as if this were the poetically actual situation, can the 
situation of the stcUe by this means become apprehensible to me ? If my 
/eelinffs for tbe ship are ever more and more Tiolently aroused, can my oon- 
templation of the siate become more lively ? And if I am obliged continu- 
ally to bring to my consciousness the fact that this ship is no ship, and if I 
am suddenly to give that sympathy which I feel for the struggUng ship to 
the imperUed state, can the eftect on me be an undivided one, an earnest one ? 
No, at best only one rendered sprightly through contradiction, as in the case 
of those allegorical representations in sculpture, where the dramatic action is 
more powerf ul than is compatible with the sesthetic character of aUegorical 
transactions. 

But may our aUegory perhaps serve tbe purpose of characteristic inter- 
pretation ? Metaphors, you know, ought to give us a definite representation 
of the particular species of the individual thing in a better and UveUer man- 
ner than any natural mode of expression whatsoever can give. Thus, for ex- 
ample, the whole carrying out of rudder, mast, sail-yards, etc, might make 
diaracteristically clear to us the general idea of the wretched condition and 
immediate peril of the ship of state ; quite right. If we knew from the be- 
ginning that in general the ship of state was meant, we could in a measure 
obtain a clear idea of the peeuliar state or oondition of the ship of state ; 
and if it had been stated bef ore that the country was in a miserable condition 
of def enselessness and threatening danger, like a ship which, after the course 
of a former storm, was exposed to a second — ^then, indeed, the particular 
representation of the defenseless condition of the ship would give us a char- 
acteristicaUy clear conception of the condition of the state. So we should 
have an appropriate aUegory, or, again, an ^)propriate simUe, instead of an 
inoongruity in pretty verses. 

Again : perhaps our aUegory serves rather the purpose of the sense of 
beauty than that of characteristic interpretation. Beautiful Horace'B repre- 



LATINE. 89 



aentation certainly is, for in all its relations it appears rhythmically touched, 
and it draws us inyoluntarily into its symmetrical raovement. But how can 
we give ourselves up to this rhythmical moTement, to this sense of beauty, if 
in view of an aUegorical interpretation we must excrt our powers of divina- 
tion 80 vigorously, and are tossed miserably and irregularly hither and thither 
between immediate feeling and calculating judgment ? 
[Tobe corUinued.] 

NOTES AND QUERIES, 

2. Who was the Roman writer who gave a description of Divitiacus before 
the Senate ? 

3. Has De Sauley's " Campaigns of Caesar in Gaul " been translated into 
English ? 

4. Is it a book that would be of use to a teacher of Caesar ? 

6. Professor EUis, in his " Hints on Quantitative Pronunciation of Latin," 
says on the subject of the study of the quantity of Latin syllables, " This is a 
task absurdly difficult for leamers, and all Latin books now printed . . . 
ought to have the long yowels distinguished by the sign of length." Is there 
any series of Latin text-books in which this suggestion is acted upon ? Is the 
distinction made by Professor EUis between pitch and accent observed by any 
Latm teachera in this country ? 

6. What do you consider the best edition of Caesar f or teachers' use ? 

Professor Shumwat : 

Dear Sir ; I am so glad to see' the new September number of Latine, 
that I propose to devote a portion of this evening to making out a list of the 
English referenoes used by my Virgil class, thinking that such may possibly 
be of use to some of your readers. 

Tho " Side-Lights in Ancient History and Antiquities " embrace a number 
of the books which I have used with my Caesar aud Cicero classes, but I am 
florry that Professor Post did not include " Ben Hur," ^ by Lew Wallace, a 
Jewish-Roman story of the first century, which seems to me admirably fitted 
to fix and deepen a student^s impression of the masterfui Roman character, 
to say nothing of its other points of interest to the Latin scholar, as the vivid 
presentation of Roman chariot-races, the painfully gi^aphic picture of the 
lives of the wretched galley-slaves, who in silence and bondage and despair 
swept the proud vessels on to victory, and the most truthful representation 
of the attitude of conquered provinces toward their Roman rulers. For its 
strong portraitnre of Roman character alohe the book deserves a mention. 

And speaking of books, I do not remember ever having seen in Latine 
any notice of H. W. Preston^s translation of " The Georgics," in which I take 
the greatest delight, so wonderf uUy has it caught the ever-varying melody 
and fresh spirit of the original. 

I wish Latine might sometimes give us critical articles on selected text 

' [Professor Post has also written to add " Ben Hur" to his list — £d.] 



90 JLATINE. 



of Cicero or Virgil, with a view to bringing out the charactcristics of style 
and the beauties of thought and phrase. And sincc I am wishing, I, for 
6ne, would like to see Horace'8 " Exegi monumentum " and Ovid'8 " Jamque 
opus exegi,'* and Herrick^a curious " Pillar of Fame," printed together and 
oompared. 

Wishing you all success in your good work, 

Believe me sincerely yours, 

Katharine Lee Bates. 
Wellbslkt, Dana Hall, Odober 11, I8S4. 

BOOK NOTICES, 

Dr. Peabodt's Taanslations of De Senectute and De Officiis are 
marked by their clear English — a quality frequently exchanged for Latin- 
English in so-called translations. Little, Brown k Co., Boston. 

BiNGHAM^s Latin Grammab shows on every page evidence of the care- 
ful scholarship of its reviser, W. Gordon McCabe. It is to be regretted that 
a general indez has not yet been added. We hope the publishei-s will remedy 
this defect £. H. Butler & Co., Philadelphia. 

ToMLiNSON^s Manual for the Stttdy of Latin Grammar will prove of 
especial value to students who are pursuing the study without personal class- 
room work. For this purpose it has been introduced into the correspondence 
work of the Chautauqua University. It will also serve as a constant test of 
accuracy in Latin grammar. It has ref erences to Allen and Greenough, Chase 
and Stuart, and Harkness. Ginn, Heath & Co. 

Tbtlow*s Latin Lessons is, it seems to us, one of the most important 
works yet written in its results on instruction. The inductive method is 
there applied with remarkable tact and success. Every Latin teacher should 
see the book — ^if only for the impulse to better methods. Ginn, Heath & Co. 

Preble and Parker^s Hand-Book of Latin Writino abounds in good 
directions to the writer. The exercises are good, but would have been ren- 
dered more practicable, it seems to us, had each exercise, or, at least, the 
earlier exercises, been accompanied by references to directions. Ginn, Heath 
&Co. 

Hand-Book of Latin Stnontms gives, in condensed form and with con- 
▼enient arrangement, the principal synonyms as used by the classic writers. 
Derivations are made use of in marking distinctions. Frequent ezamples 
are given. Cautioiis are Inserted to help the student to write correctiy. We 
. are glad to know that the book has already been recommcnded for students* 
use in leading coUeges and Latin schools. Ginn, Heath & Co. 



lUr e$i longwn per praeeepta^ breve et ^ffkax per bxbxfla.— Ssnxoa. 



Latine. 



Novi I A T^ T 1VT 17 ^^^^^ °^^' 

EBORACI. 1 J j\ I I PN Vj m MDCCCLXXXIin. 



'* IfuUa Boga ; BeUiM Docta : HeterUa 2>(w»/*— Comxhius. 

Ledor: Quid tibi vis, O ephemerifl parvula? 

Laiine : Ut Terenti verba flectam : Latini nihil a me alienum puto. " Non 
emm tam praedarum eet aeire Latins quam turpe neeeire.^^ — Cio. Brut. oxl. 

GAVDIA ImINTRIS. 

O lacus corusce, cui mille colores 
Dat occidens Phoebus post curras labores, 
Tu nubium pulcher sublimem coronam, 
Benigne pro votis lintrem accipe bonam : 

Lintrem gratam, undis natam, 

Remis laetis incitatam. 

Laetitia, roseis advola pennis, 
Delicias nobis da manibus plenis, 
Decorae dum surgunt e gremio lymphae 
Impelluntque lintrem caeruleae Nymphae : 

Lintrem gratam, undis natam, 

Remis laetis incitatam. 

Tranquillam laudamus in fluctibus horam, 

Sed fugat Venatrix Argentea moram. 

Incumbite remis clareque canentes 

Ad ripas impelUte Hntrem gaudentes : 

Lintrem gratam, undis natam, 

Remis laetis incitatam. 

Katharine Lee Bates. 

LYCUROUS SCHILLERI^ 

TJt de ratione, quam instituit Lycurgus, recte iudicare possi- 

mus, tempora illa civilia Spartae nobis revocanda sunt et status 

civitatis, quem Lacedaemone invenit, cum leges in lucem protu- 

lit, cognoscendus est. 

* Translated from Schiller, by Herbert Weir Smyth, Ph. D. 



92 LATINE. 



Bini enim rcges, pari auctoritate, administrabant rem publi- 
cam, quorum alter invidebat alteri ct sedulo sibi factionem com- 
parabat, ut potentiam collegae minueret. Haec invidia a Procle 
et Eurysthene, primis regibus, in utroque stirpe usque ad Lycur- 
gam tanquam hereditate tradita erat ut Sparta per illud magnum 
spatium temporis perpetuo factionibus conturbaretur. Uterque 
enim rex, magnis commodis permissis, populum ad suam causam 
traducere studebat ; qui fons erat primum licentiac denique mo- 
tuum. Nam res publica vacillans inter potestatem regiam et po- 
pularem praecipite mutatione saepe in contraria ruebat Atque 
inter iura libertatis, quae populo concessa erant, et regiara potes- 
tatem fines certi nondum constituti erant. 

A civibus locupletibus superbe crudelitcrque pauperes tractati 
sunt, ut, summa desperatione affecti, tumultos moverent. Domes- 
ticis ita turbis civitas divulsa, non est dubium quin aut praedae 
gentibus finitimis bellicosis esset aut in plares tyrranides minores 
laberetur. 

Hunc Lycurgus Lacedaemone rerum statum vidit esse. Fines 
potestatis regiae et popularis non definiti ; bona fortunaeque civi- 
bus non aequaliter distributa ; defectus communitatis et concor- 
diae ; opes civitatis penittis attritae ; horum omniura malorum, 
quae auctori legum gravissima esse videbantur in legibus conden- 
dis rationem habuit. 

Die, quo Lycurgus leges promuigare voluit, triginta cives no- 
bilissimos, quos antea rationi suae conciliaverat, armatos in forum 
descendere iussit, ut terrorem iis inferrent, qui forte absisterent. 

Atque rex Charilaus, his rebus terrore percussus, in templum 
Minervae confugit, opinatus tota re se peti. Sed hoc metu li- 
beratus commotus est, ut rationem ipse Lycurgi acriter adiuvaret. 

Atque prima constitutio ad summam rem ordinandam specta- 
vit. Ut enim in posterum perficeret, ne civitas inter dominationem 
regum et potestatem populi, legibus salutam, fluctuaret, tertium, 
qui auctoritate pari esset, senatum medium interposuit. Sena- 
tores enim numero duodetricenos et cum regibus tricenos ad 
populi causam se adiungere si reges potentia abuterentur, contra 
vero si potestas populi nimium magna videretur esse, reges ab illa 
defendere voluit. 

Quae vero institutio egregia «rat, qua Lacedaemonii in per- 
petuum ab omnibus domesticis tempestatibus seditionum ac 



JLATINE. 93 

discordiarum, a quibus civitas usque ad illud teinpus labefactata 
erat, liberati sunt. Quo modo factum est ut pars neutra alte- 
ram opprimere posset. Nam contra senatum populumque reges 
non multura perficere potuerant neque magis populus praevole- 
bat, si senatus cum regibus consilia communicaret. Sed alii 
periculo Lycurgus non praevertit, ne senatus ipse potestate sua 
abuteretur. Senatus enim, cum in civitate medius interpositus 
esset, nullo periculo tranquillitatis publicae et cum regibus et 
cum populo se iungere poterat, sed contra non sine magno dis- 
crimine rei publicae, reges consilia sua cum populo contra sena- 
tum communicare non poterant. Quae cum ita essent, mox 
coepit senatus hac opportunitate intellecta potestate sua abuti. 
Et hanc ob rem, quae ab iis agitabantur, eventum facile habe- 
bant quod in numero parvo senatorum facilius ut inter se con- 
sentirent, factum est. Propter ea qui Lycurgo successit lacunam 
explevit, Ephoris institutis qui senatum reprimerent atque coerce- 
rent 

Quod vero Lycurgus secundum instituit periculosius atque 
audacius fuit. Voluit enim regionem totam in partes aequales 
divisam civibus distribui ut discrimen inter locupletes ac pau- 
peres in perpetuum tolleretur. Laconia igitur omnis in triginta 
milia et agri circa Spartam ipsam siti, in novem milia partum dis- 
tributi sunt, quorum quaeque tanta fuit, ut uni familiae victum 
praeberet Tum vero omnis regio aspectum tam gratum prae- 
buit ut ipse Lycurgus cum regionem peragraret, spectaculo 
oculos posceret atque exclamavit, " Lacedaemon agro similis est, 
quem fratres fraternis inter se animis distribuerunt," Atque ut 
agros ita etiam res moventes distribuisset, nisi huic consilio 
difficultates, quas superasse non posset, obstitissent. Quae tan- 
quam aliquo anfractu tentavit ad id quod sequeretur pervenire, 
nt ea, quae lege imperiosa ipse tollere non posset, suam per vim 
caderent. 

Itaque eam ob rem primum pro nummis argenteis et aureis, 
quibus cives uti vetuit, f erreos substituit. Atque pondus magnum 
et grave ferri minimi pretii esse iussit ut non solum spatium 
minime exiguum, quo pecunia parva servaretur, sed etiam ut 
transportaretur equi multi opus essent. Praeterea ne quis esset, 
qui hanc pecuniam propter ferrum ipsum magni aestimaret et 
corraderet iussit id, quod huic rei inserviret, antea candens aceto 



94 LATINE. 



tingi at duratum cuique usui alii non iam aptum esset. Quis, 
eis rebus perfectis, aut furaretur aut se alicui venderet, aut divitiis 
parandis se daret, praesertim cum nemo lucellum celare aut uti 
eo posset ? 

Sed Lycurgus non solum ita instrumenta luxuriae civibus 
ademit, sed etiam res ipsae, quae eos commovere possent, ne ob 
oculos versarentur, prospexit. Aliam enim pecuniam Lacedae- 
monii non habebant, quam darent eis peregrinis, qui negotiaren-. 
tur et lucrum facere vellent, ferrea vero pecunia uti npn possent. 
Artifices igitur omnes, quorum opera luxui inserviret ex finibus 
abierunt nulla navis peregrina in portus venit, nulli, qui casibus 
iactati, suis rebus ibi consulere veilent, ibi commorati sunt, nulli 
mercatores commeaverunt ut ad vanitatem libidinemque quaestui 
haberent, cum nihil secum auferre possent nisi ferreos nummos, 
qui omnibus in regionibus despicatui erant. Quae cum ita cssent 
luxus existere desiit, cum nemo adesset, qui materiem ei praeberet. 
[Beliqua deincepa persequemur,'] 

EPISTULA. 

J. K. L., E. S. S., Editori Latine, S. P. D. 

Heidelbergae est clara quaedam Universitas. Ea, quae in 
Germania propria est antiquissima, anno millessimo, trecentes- 
simo, octagesimo sexto condita est. Duae Universitates Grerma- 
nae solae, in Austria conditae, aetate superiores sunt, quarum 
altera Pragensis anno milessimo, trecentessimo quadragesimo 
octavo, altera Yiennana anno millessimo, trecentessimo sexa- 
gesimo quii^to condita est. Huius Universitatis conditor fautor- 
que fuit Elector Rupertus L 

Initio parva iam ea multos adlexit. Duobus annis plus quin- 
genti studiosi literarum Heidelbergam advenerunt. Dissentio- 
nes, quae mediis in saeculis de religione ortae sunt, Universitati 
valde nocuerunt. Electores Palatini alii alio modo credebant, 
qui omnes, ut regna sua Universitasque religionem suam seque- 
retur, decreverunt. Multi professores, quia aliter quam electores 
credebant, ex cathedris pulsi sunt. Doctores novi, postquam 
alter Elector in potestatem venit, eodem modo sunt pulsi. Pro- 
fessoribus saepe mutatis et temporibus inquietis Universitas 
fracta est Gradatim per annos refecta iterum valde florebat 
donec res novae Gallorum ortae sunt. 



LATINE. 93 



In illis bellis quae ferro et igiii Europam vastaverant haud 
multum abfuit quin Universitas deleretur. Professores discipu- 
lique disiecti, aedificia igni consumpta, agri, qui apud Rhenum 
iacuerunt, quorum fructu expensa XJniversitatis ferebantur, erepti. 
Omnia aegra, deiecta, acta esse viderentur. Tunc Elector Caro- 
lus Fredericus potestati successit, qui tantis beneficiis meruit ut 
is alter conditor vocaretur. Revera in memoriam eius beneficio- 
rum XJniversitas post illud tempus est vocata " Ruperto-Carolina 
Universitas." Ille ei agros, pecuniara, gratiam dabat. 

Praesenti tempore sunt mille fere discipuU, et centum et vi- 
ginti quinque professores doctoresque. Numerus discipulorum 
per annos et in diversis partibus anni variat. Hieme numerus 
ducentis minor quam aestate esse solet. Eorum maior pars dili- 
gens est, sed multi, hic quam ubique, esse diligentes non amant. 
Discipuli pro honore vel pro gloria inter se saepe certant. Hic 
amor certandi quam in aliis Germanis Universitatibus maior est. 
Quandoque quis per vias ambulat in omnibus partibus discipulos 
videt, qui in genis cicatrices magnos ferunt. 

Universitati aedificia pulchra non sunt (in qua re ea multis 
collegiis Americanis est dissimilis), sed quaedam sunt nova et 
apta ad rem suam. Sunt quattuor senatus academici, in theolo- 
gia, in philologia, in iurisprudentia, in medicina, quorum is for- 
tasse, qui medicinam docet, in praesenti tempore est claiissimus. 
Pueri Germani in hac Universitate et in aliis similibus ab viris 
doctissimis artibus maximis instrumentur. Jam satis. Vale. 
Datum Heidelbergae pridie Id. Oct. 

"ROCK OF AGES:*^ 

Fissa mei causa, saecionim conscia Rupes, 

Sit mihi fas gremio delituisse tuo ! 
Nec tantum latebris opus est : simul unda cruorque, 

Quae fossimi efif udit militis ense latus, 
Peccatis duplicem praestent bene mizta medelam, 

Absolvant animum purificentque meum. 



Haud implere tuae legis mandata valebit 
Quantumvis peraget f essa labore manus ; 



^ The above beautiful translation of the hymn beginning ** Rock of Ages '* 
into Latin eleglac verse is contributed to the " Scottish Church Review " by 
tbe Right Reverend Dr. Charles Wordsworth, Bishop of St. Andrews. 



96 LATINE. 



Mcns licet in studio nunquam curaque quiescat ; 

Moesta licet nuUo lacrima line fluat ; 
Omnia vana manent : non ulla piacula culpae, 

Te praeter, prosunt ; te sine, nulla salus. 

Non tibi dona fero ; satis est haec unica cura, 

Dilectam amplecti nocte dieque cruoem ; 
Me nudum f ateor ; sed tu mihi oonfer amictum 

(Nam potes) ; atque inopi tu mihi oonfer opem ; 
He f ateor foedum ; sed, te purgante malorum 

IHuviem vitae flumine, mundus ero. 

Hauriet incertas payidus dum spiritus auraa, 
Seu premet extremus lumina f essa sopor ; 

Seu ferar ignoto volitans super aethera cureu, 
Seu coram attonitus Judicis ore cadam ; 

Fissa mei causa, saeclorum conscia Rupes, 
Sit mihi f as gremio delituisse tuo I 

COLLOQUIX7M, [Andria TerenU.] [P»rs jLZtara.] 

B. Velim, nisi molestum est, reliquam Andriae Terenti fabulam audire. 

A. Mihi vero placet narrare ; dum omnia breviter expono, quaeso, atten- 
de. Pamphilo et Andriae filius natus est ; Simone et Davo audientibus, duae 
servae in via de re loquuntur; laudant Pamphilum, qui se sublaturum natum 
poHiceatur. 

B. Nonne Simo filio succenset ? 

A. Quam famam ad suas aures venit, eam se credere negat. Snspicatur 
Davum ancillis esse auctorem, ut haec mentiantur, sperantem, his anditis, 
fore ut nuptiae non fiant. 

B. Servusne hanc suspitioncm a se removere potest ? 

A. Consilio subito mutato, senem astutiam filii patefecisse declarat. 
Monet, ut, nuntio neglecto, nuptias facere perseveret. 

B. Num senex iterum decipitur ? 

A. Nescit vero, cui credat ; constituit autem filium cogere, ut, quod pol- 
licitus sit, perficiat. Servum intra domum mittit, quasi omnia paratumm ; 
dicit se Chremem petiturum, et filiam rogaturum. 

B. Nonne f ama ad Ghremem venit, nuptias quas recusaverit, niliilo minus 
paratas? 

A. Ita vero. Qua de causa Simonem verbis increpat ; is autem per deos 
et amicitiam a pueris inceptam orat, ut sibi in hac re adjuvet. 

B. Quid respondet Chremes ? 

A. Commotus amici precibus, non negat se filiam daturum, si plns boni 
quam incommdi utrique ita fiat. 

B. Quibus argumentis Simo utitur? 

A. Didt Pamphilum et Gljcerium inter se jam esse tam alieno animo, nt 
minimum absit, quin amicitia in gravem inimicitiam convertatur. 



LATINE. 97 



jB. Quid nunc Ohremes ? 

A. Amantium irae, ait, amoris integratio est. 8imo autem flagitat, ut 
nuptiae fiant, priusquam lacrimae dolique Andriae Pamphilum commoyeant. 
Sed Chremes negat se credere Pamphilum Giycerium repudiaturum, neque 
▼elle filiam dare viro qui aliam amet ; rogat, a quo sciat eos nunc inter se 
discordare ? 

B, Habetne Simo, quod respondeat ? 

A. Dicit Davum, cui orania consilia filii nota sint, sibi totam rem aperu- 
iisse, et monuisse, ut nuptias quam maturrime conficiat. Quibus verbis ad- 
ductus Chremes pollicetur, si nihil doli lateat, «e filiam daturum. 

B. Astutia servi mihi in eundem verti videtur. 

A. Ita hercle. Yenit autem inscius, simulat se vehementer nuptiis stu- 
dere, quo melius consilia tegat ; rogat, cur uxor, cum jam advesperascat, non 
domum ducatur. Sed cum Chremem et Simonem, re composita, eadem velle 
videret, obstipescit, sentit se astutia victum ; Simo haud invitus perturba- 
tionem servi videt, laetitia autem celata, jubet eum ad Pamphilum ire, nt 
huic omnia, quae audiverit, nuntiet. 

B. Quomodo adolescens hunc nuntium acdpit f 

A. Molestissime vero; sibi primum rei culpam tribuit, qui fortunam 
:8ervo commiserit Secum quaerit quid patri dicat ; num posse, modo polli- 
citus, negare se filiam Chremis ducturum. Deinde servum exsecratnr, cujus 
•consiliis se perditum putet. 

B. Quomodo servus se domino excusat ? 

A. Se quidem stultitiae accusat, sed pollicetur se erum hac molestia expe- 
diturum. Interea Charinus intrat, sed perturbatione mentis neminem videt. 
rSecum quaerit adeatne ad Pamphilum et cum eo hanc in juriam expoetulet ; 
praesentit se nihil effecturum, placiturum autem molestum ei fuisse et ani- 
mum suum satiasse. 

B. Utra sententia valet ? 

A. Dum cogitat, Pamphilus eum ultro aggreditur, didt se imprudentem 
-ambobus calamitatem attulisse. 

B. Haecne excusatio Charino justa videtur ? 

A. Minime vero : hoc " imprudens " non audit ; se culpat, qui amid ani- 
mum ex suo animo spectaverit. 

B. Quomodo Pampliilus se defendit ? 

A. Culpam totam penes servum esse declarat, qui vehementer institerit 
ut patri dicat se puellam ducturum. Charinus Davum praesentem rogat, 
num haec vera sint? Is respondet rem ita esse; se autem quamvis de- 
•ceptum nondum salutem desperare. Boni servi esse, noctes diesque pro 
■domino laborare; domini justi esse, servo ignoscere, si quid praeter spem 
«venerit. 

B. Persuadetne domino, ut sibi ignoscat ? 

A. Pamphilns eum omnia in pristinum locum restituere jubel Dum 
loqnitur, ancilla Glyceri venit, ut Pamphilum vocet ; dominam jam pridem 
eum videre cupere. 

B. Vultne Pamphilus sponsam videre ? 



98 LATINE. 



A. Infelix aegritudinem ejus praesentit, iterumque seryum Terbis casti- 
gat. In quem Charinus etiam se acerbius invehit ; Davus autem, qui vitupe- 
rationes eri patienter tulit, alienas invitus accipit, et maledicendo vinoere 
oertat Pamphilus confirmat se fidem cum Andria servaturum ; sperare se 
effecturum, ut pater per se stetisse non credat, quominus nuptiae fi&nt, quas 
aperte recusaturum, nisi melius possit. 

B. Non pofisum facere quin servi miserear. 

A. Non omni spe dejicitur. Subito exclamat, consilium novum sibi in 
mentem venire, quod nondum dioere velit Charinus exsultat, quasi victoria 
parta ; Davus autem decUirat, quod in animo habeat, ut Pamphilo prosit, alte- 
rius nihil referre. Pamphilus decedit, ut sponsam oonsoletur, Charinus aequi- 
tur, serva et servus manent. 

B. Nonne Davus servae oonsilium aperit ? 

A. Imperat, ut puerum e domo portatum ante januam Simonis apponat 
Quo sine mora f acto, Chremes improvisus venit, qui nuptias paratas nuntiet. 
Puenim videt, miratur, ex ancilla quaerit, num illa hunc posuerit. lUa nihil 
habet, quod dicat ; consilium a Davo exspectat, qui, ira simulata, exquirit, 
cujus sit puer. Serva respondet, Pamphili. Davus eam vehementer incusat, 
quod in hac re mentiatur. 

B. Quorsum hoc ? 

A. Credit, puero viso, Chremem non filiam daturum. Dicit tanquam 
casu, se audivisse Gljcerium civem Atticam esse. Hoc audito, Chremes ex- 
clamat, quem Davus nunc primum videre simulat. 

B. Quare exclamat ? 

A. Legibus Atticis oportet Pamphilum Glycerium uxorem duoere. 

B, Nunc consilium servi intelligo. Intelligitne serva? 

A. Nunc tandem. Culpat eum, qui sibi praedicere potuerit, quid in animo 
habuerit. 

B. Quomodo Davus se defendit ? 

A. Dicit multum interesse, faciasne omnia ex animo an de improviso. 
Non putat, credo, f utunim fuisse ut serva talem perturbationem animi simu- 
lare potuisset 

B. £t recte. Quid tamen plura ? 

A. Crito, consanguineus et heres Chrysidis mortnae, Andro venit, ut here> 
ditatem persequatur. Non vult Glycerium, quae eoror mortuae habebatur, 
despoliare ; scit autem ei cognatos in Attica esse, quos sperat eam invenisse. 
Haec cum servis communicat. 

B. Davus Glycerium Atticam esse civem jam pridem oognovit, nonne ? 

A. Ita vero ; rem comprobatam laetus audit. Nova spe elatus, adven- 
tum Critonis Simoni et Chremi, quibus una occurrit, nuntiat. Tristis veritas, 
ait, in vulto et fides in verbis ejus inest. 

B. Invitus, credo, senex nuntium Critonis aodpit. 

A. Non modum irae habet. Jubet ministros Davum rapere et Yinctum 
auferre. Dicit et huic ostenturum quam sit periculosum dominum fallere, et 
filio patrem. 

B. Nonne filium graviter virtuperat ? 



L.ATINE. 99 



A. Gravissime sane. Chremes ipse precatur, ut veniam filio det. Dicit 
paulum supplicii satis patri pro magno peccato. Dum loquuntur, Grito venit. 
Quem Simo rogat, Glyceriumne civis sit necne? Respondet, rem ita se 
habere. Atticum quendam oiim naufragum ad Andrum ejectum cum parva 
virgine, quam patrem Chrysidis inventam aluisse. Multos alios in Andro 
haec cognovisse. 

B. Creditne ei Simo ? 

A. Non potest facere quin aures huic tam integro testi praebeat Chre- 
mes nomen naufragi statim rogat, et, hoc audito, num virgo ejus fuerit. 
Crito respondet, hunc dicere eam f ratris filiam. Chremes exclamat, Glyce- 
rium certe suam filiam esse. Se in bellum proficiscentem filiam fratri com- 
mendasse, quem fugientem infantem non relinquere ausum. Kunc primum 
scire quid ambolus factum sit. 

B. Ita, credo, nodus solvitur. Pamphilus patri oboedire et sibi placere 
potest, cum filiam Chremis, jam dudum sibi dilectam, ducat. 

A. Omnes gaudent, Simo, Chremes, Pamphilus, Charinus. Davo, vincu- 
hs liberato, negotium datur, ut Glycerium ad amicos oonducat. Quod restat, 
intus transigitur. *^ Nunc, spectatores," ait cantor ultimus, ** plaudite." 

E. H. R. 



*ART THOU WEARY?" 



Tune fessus, tune pressus 

Cura stas edaoe ¥ 
" Ad Me veni, sisque leni " 

Est Quidixit"pace." 

" Ecquid habet Hic, quo stabit 

Signo Dux notatus ? " 
Vide laesa, quondam caesa, 

Manus, pedes, latus. 

" Huicne tegi, tanquam regi, 

Gestit auro crinis ? " 
Fronti bona stat corona, 

Tenta tamen spinis. 

" Agnituro, secuturo 
Quis in terra fructus ? " 

En labores, en dolores 
Oculique fluctus. 

" Per tot demum quid supremum 

Servaturo manum ? " 
Vis victorls, pax doloris, 

Via per Jordanum. 

" Dic an, orem si favorem, 
Spemet quae petantur." 



lOO LATINE. 

Terrae, caeli, cuncta deli 
Prius destinantur. 

*' Tum si surgam, sequar, pergam, 

Hicne beaturus ? " 
Quot et quanti dicunt sancti, 

" Sis de hoc securus ! " Baiwdeof Jianew, 

C. lULIUS CAESAR, [QuArta, p&rs,^ 

(18.) C. Caesar omnia inra divina et humana pervertit prop- 
ler eum, quem sibi ipse opinionis errore finxerat principatum. 
<De offic. 1, § 26.) 

(19.) Caesar in eo senatu, quem maiorc ex parte ipse coopta- 
rat, in curia Pompeia, ante ipsius Pompei simulacrum, tot centu- 
rionibus suis inspectantibus, a nobilissimis civibus, partim etiam 
iib eo omnibus rebus omatis, trucidatus ita iacuit, ut ad eius 
corpus non modo amicorum sed ne servorum quidem quisquam 
accederet. (De divin. 2, § 23.) 

(20.) Caesaris acta e commentariolis et cbirographis et libel- 
lis a M. Antonio, eo uno auctore, prolata sunt. (Philipp. 1, 
§16.) 

(21.) (Post Caesaris interitum) consulibus et lege et senatus 
consulto permissum est, ut de Caesaris actis cognoscerent, statu- 
•erent, iudicarent. (Epist ad Attic. 16, 16, B, § 8.) 

(22.) Caesar tyrannus, quem armis oppressa pertulit civitas 
paretque cum maxime mortuo. (De offic. 2, § 23.) 

[ReiUqita deineeps persequemur,] 

dCERO, [Tertia pars,] 

(8.) [678 = 76] Unum annum, cum redissemus ex Asia, 
causas nobilis egimus, cum quaesturam nos, consulatum Cotta, 
aedilitatem peteret Hortensius. (Brut, § 318. Cf. in Pison. 
§ 2 : Me quaestorem cunctis suffragiis populus Romanus fecit.) 

(9.) [679 ss. = 76 ss.] Interim me quaestorem Siciliensis ex- 
-cepit annus, Cotta ex consulatu est profectus in Galliam, prin- 
•ceps et erat et habebatur Hortensius. (Brut., § 318. Cf. in 
Verr. 5, §35: Sic obtinui quaesturam -in Sicilia, ut omnium 
oculos in me coniectos esse arbitrarer; ut me quaesturamque 
zneam quasi in aliquo terrarum orbis theatro versari existimarem. 



L.ATINE. lOl 



And pro Planc, § 64 : Non vereor ne quis audeat dicere ullius in 
Sicilia quaesturam aut clariorem aut gratiorem fuisse. vere me 
hercule hoc dicam : sic tum existimabam, nihil homines aliud 
Romae nisi de quaestura mea loqui. Frumenti in summa cari- 
tate maximum numerum miseram; negotiatoribus comis, mer- 
catoribus iustus, mancipibus liberalis, sociis abstinens, omnibus 
eram visus in omni officio diligentissimus ; excogitati quidam 
erant a Siculis honores in me inauditi. Itaque bac spe decede- 
bam, ut mihi populum Romanum uitro omnia delaturum puta- 
rem. At ego cum casu diebus eis itineris faciendi causa de- 
cedens e provincia Puteolos forte venissem, cum plurimi et 
lautissimi in eis locis solent esse, concidi paene, cum ex me 
quidam quaesisset, quo die Roma exissem et num quidnam esset 
novi. cui cum respondissem, me e provincia decedere : * Etiam 
me hercule,' inquit, * ut opinor, ex Africa '. huic ego iam sto- 
machans fastidiose : '' Immo ex Sicilia ", inquam. tum quidam, 
quasi qui omnia sciret : * Quid ? tu nescis ?' inquit, * hunc quaes- 
torem Syracusis fuisse?' Quid multa ? destiti stomachari et me 
unum ex eis feci, qui ad aquas venissent. Sed ea res haud scio 
an plus mihi profuerit, quam si mihi tum essent omnes gratulati. 
Nam postea quam sensi populi Romani auris hebetiores, oculos 
autem esse acris atque acutos, destiti quid de me audituri essent 
homines cogitare ; feci ut postea cotidie praesentem me viderent, 
habitavi in oculis, pressi forum, neminem a congressu meo ncque 
ianitor meus neque sonmus absterruit. Ecquid ego dicam de 
occupatis meis temporibus, cui fuerit ne otium quidem umquam 
otiosom? nam quas tu commemoras, Cassi, legere te solere ora- 
tiones, cum otiosus sis, has^ ego scripsi ludis ct feriis, ne omnino 
umquam essem otiosus.) 

IBdiqua deinetpB peraeqttemur. ] 

1. Amphibolia. 

*' Num quis peccat qui patrem mum necat ? " 

2. Aenigma. 

^ lOtto tibi navem prora puppique carentem." 

8. Epanodofi. 

If onachus ad diabolum. 

^Sgna te vigna: temere me tangis et angis." 

IJBio yersqs prorsum lectus iterum est legendus retrorsum.] 

F, a. 



102 LATINE. 



NON LlCUrr PEB OCCUPATTONES UT TE VLSEREM. {ErasmxLS.^l 

Non licuit per otium. Volui quidem, at non licuit mihi per 
mea negotia. Hactenus non sinebant negotia ut te viserem. 

Non patiebantur undae negotiorum quibus involvebar ut te 
salutarem. Negotiis meiis imputabis, non mihi. 

Non defuit voluntas, sed vetuit necessitas. 

NUQAE.^ 

Heic sepultus 

Sempitema oblivione jacet 

Tom-^lurus 

illuBtri felina melitensi muricida stirpe natus : 

qui 

culinam, praeaertim, et triclinium assidue ooluit, 

puerulos, ut decet, scabit, 

tumentem arcuans caudam, exsibilans atque exspuans 

in canum nasum indignanter acutissimas ungues tenta?it, 

mordaoes pulices indef essa cura vexavit, 

sed praecipue 

in exitu murium de foraminibus in pariete 

venit, vidit, vicit, voravit ; 

ast, proh dolor I 

dormientium aures sesquipedalibus modulis longas per noctes affligendo, 

evulaos juba pilos longe lateque dispergendo, 

late se diffudentem candam pedibus cujuscumque inopinantis supponendo, 

impinguatus et incrassatus et somniculosus, 

venerabili tardaque senectute caecutiens 

(non adeo tamen ut, natus dolis, 

delicatiora fercula non videi«t, olfaoeret, subrepticia calliditate abriperet) 

res noxia f actus, 

eo implacabilis in odium offensionemque coqui incurrit 

ut 

in cado (lateribus drca coUum primum ligalis) submersus, 

recalcitrans 

et sacril^as in Isidos et Osiridis sacrosancta nomina blasphemias 

felino idiomate ejaculans, 

plenam, ut patet, meritis ehu ! ehu ! vitam finierit ; 

lunari aetatis suae anno sexto decimo, 

a Balahami asinae eloquio. 

MMMCCCXXXV. 

1 Appended to an old fir-tree in the campus of St. Stephen^s College, An- 
nandale, New York, is the above epitaph, written by an alumnus of that seat 
of leaming, the Rev, C. Stauder, on the occasion of the slaughter bj an angry 
oook and burial of the andent ooUege cat : 



LATINE. 103 



CARMEN, 

Studiosonim Collegii Ludodiciani, alias UiiiTersitatis Noroniensis 
(In Agro Northfieldiensi Vermontum sita). 

AD 

OTIUM GAUDIUMQUE 

DIEI FERIATI. 

Senarius consonans 
Versuum extremae syllabae inter se consonant. 

Salve, professores ! 
Salve, praeceptores I 
Pede ter pulsanda 
Terrae quae iucunda. 

ToUe commandantem ^ 
Gaudium vetantem 
Grocul sint prof ani 
Ludoviciani ! 

Tolle creditores 
Tolle vexatores ! 
Adsint iam iocosi, 
Absint nunc morosi ! 

Adfer, musa, gaudium 
Cordi nobis otium ! 
Salta, puer clama ! 
Terra quam iucunda ! 

F. G. FoDiNA, T. 0. D. 
Mense Martio, MDCCCLXXXII, Northfieldii, Yermontes. 

QUO IS? {Erasmus,'^ 

Quo tu nunc abis? — Quo tu tam celeri gradu tendis? — 
Qnonam te confera ? — Quo nunc iter est ? 

Anditu minime est dignum — indignum est auditu. — Haad 
dignum est quod audiatur. — Est ut audiatur indignum. — ^Leyins 
est quam quod audiri debeat — Vix operae pretium est refeixe. — 
Non tanti est ut audiatur. — Ineptius est quam quod audiatur. — 
Non est operae pretium narrare. 

1 Tfae military commandant, who in West Point and similar military col- 
l^es — as Lewis College, formerly Norwich University — ^has charge of the 
studentB' conduct. 



104 LATINE. 



ENGLISH SUPPLEMENT. 

[SUPPLEMENTUM ANGLICUK.] 

PHAETHON. [Josephine A. Cass.] 

" Propositumque premit ; flagratque cupidine cumis 

Occupat ille levem juvenali corpore cumim, 

Statque super ; manibusque datas contingere habenas. 

Gaudet." Ovid. 

Fling open the glittering gates, 
And yoke me the far-flaahing steeds ! 

The ruby-wronght chariot waits; 

To-day in the face of the Fates 
ril win me renown by my deeds I 

In spite of the stern-frowning Fates 
ril win me renown by my deeds I 

Make haste ! for l fain would arise ! 

The chargcrs with hoofs of red fire 
Stamp fiercely ; the swift moment flies ! 
Their breath to the breathless blue skies 

In mist-wrcaths of gold doth aspire ; 
They long to be gone, and their eyes 

Are aflame with thc eager desire ! 

Exulting, I grasp now the reins, 

And forth, like a cry of delight, 
They leap into space : what remains ? 
Forgotten are losses and pains ; 

Airs mine from a mom till a night ! 
Whate'er be the losses or pauis, 

Mine, mine, for a mom and a night 1 

THE LAMEKT. 

" Nec minus Hetiades lugent et inania morti 
Munera dant lacrymas et caesae pectora pahnis 
Non auditurum miseras Phaethonta querelas 
Nocte dieque vocant." OviD.. 

Ah ! fallen and dead and defiled ! Nevermore 
To rise through the roses of mom ! 



LATINE. 108 



Alas ! we who wamed thee, lament thee full sore. 

Is this, then, the end of thy scom ? 
One wish was attained at the cost of the whole ; 
But was this the passion supreme of thy soul ? 

Man knows not, alas ! as the high gods may know, 

What longing is king of his heart. 
Pursuing he gaineth the guerdon, and lo ! 

What need for his toiling and art ? 
He cries in despair : " I have put on the throne 
A schemer; the tme king still wanders alone." 

FROM OLD ROME. A Teacbei^s Letter to his Fupils, [Adapted 
irom tbe Oenaan,} [Continued,] 

Just at the side of the lef t-hand portal therc has been brought 
to light a cone-shaped brick structure, which evidently served 
as a basis for something or other. Probably the Umbilicus, an 
imitation of the Delphic 'O/ie^aXof, stood in this place. This 
was a white stone in the form of a trancated cone, standing near 
Apollo'8 altar, and considered by the Greeks as the center of the 
earth. The Roman emperor located the center of his empire at 
this place, where the people daily passed by, that in this manner 
they might become cognizant of their high position in the world. 
A circular structure, which formed the front of a stage, adjoined 
the base of this. At the southern extremity of this stracture, be- 
low the Temple of Satum, stood the Milliarium aureum, erected 
by Augustus in 28 b. c. It corresponded entirely in form with 
the Roman mile-stone, which you may see in the museum at Wies- 
baden. This mile-index, however, was not of stone, but of gilt 
bronze, and therefore it beamed forth from its elevated stand- 
point over the entire foram. Most likely the distances of the 
principal localities of the empire from the center of the city were 
marked upon it, so that the center of the empire was represented 
by the Umbilicus. Upon the platform erected between these two, 
foreign ambassadors, in times of the empire, would listen to the 
orations addressed to the people from the stage lying directly 
in front. You must not confound the antique rostra with these. 
The former stood on the Comitium, which lay to the north of 
the Forum. But this place had long since become too small 
for the public conventions, and Augustus therefore removed the 



106 LATINE. 



rostra to the western end of the forum, where the orators had a 
vast expanse before them. The Via Sacra terminates at the Mil- 
liarium aureura, to be continued bj the only highwaj leading to 
the Oapitoline hill, i. e., the Ciivus Capitolinus. This highway 
was among the first that were paved in Rome (174 b. c). A1- 
though these tiles, now exposed to daylight, as well as the pave- 
ment preserved in other parts of the city, date back only to the 
latter times of the empire, one part of this vicus below the Tem- 
ple of Saturn is distinguished A*om other streets by the more 
careful joining of the thick blocks. If we follow this ancient 
road, we have, to the left, one of the most stupendous ruins, situ- 
ated at the upper end of the Forum. I mean the substructure 
of Satum^s Temple, with its eight lonic columns still standing. 
These, as well as the entire decorations, date back to a restora- 
tion that was undertaken in the third centnry of the Christian 
era. The lower part of the temple, as is well known, was used 
for the treasury. Its lofty and firm walls are doubtless of great 
antiquity. Tradition ascribes this edifice, and the introduction 
of the Satumalia, to TuIIus Hostilius. Others relate that Tar- 
quinius Superbus erected it. It was probably begun under the 
kings, completed during the republic, and consecrated by the 
first Dictator of Rome, Titus Lartius, in 601. 

Opposite the high stairway, which led to the Temple of Sat- 
urn, a small temple had been built by Domitian in honor of 
Vespasian. As there was also set np in it an image of Titus, 
the people were wont to call it after the two Flavii. Of the in- 
scription there remain only the letters E8TITVER, which must 
be read as a part of RESTITVERVNT. These relate to the 
restoration of the sanctuary by Septimius Sevems and Caracalla. 
The front of the temple, which once was adomed by six columns 
of Carrara marble, faces the Fomm. Its sides, which were sup- 
ported each by eleven pillars, ran parallel with the Concordia 
Temple. The rear leans on the Tabularium. At present three 
columns are yet standing on the front at the right-hand comer. 
They support part of the molding adorned with the heads of 
oxen and sacrificial impleiaents. We can not notice that they 
had been puUed down for a time. When, in the beginning of 
this century, an attempt was made to excavate them to their full 
length, the foundation proved too frail for the pillars. After it 



LATINE. 107 

had been strengthened, they were again put up, and with great 
pains and trouble the molding was recomposed of the fri^ments 
found. 

Passing by this small temple, several stairs conduct us down 
from the Clivus to a row of cbambers. Both these and those 
lying above served as offices for the scribes and town-criers of the 
aediJes. Before the latter charabers, a narrow portico surround- 
iog a small space at the southem side, sacred to the twelve chief 
Olympic gods, leads along. Even though the stracture of which 
these ruins remain is of the latest times, it may still be concluded, 
from a passage of the second Philippic, that already in the days 
of Cicero the Curulian aediles had their rooms here. Antonius 
had charged the consul, in the year 63, with having the whole 
of the Ciivus Capitolinus occupied by armed slaves while that 
decisive session in the Concordia Temple was going on. This 
charge is thus refuted by Cicero, in just indignation : " O thou 
miscreant, either those proceedings are unknown to thee — ^thou 
knowest, indeed, nothing that is good — or, if they are, how canst 
thou speak so impudently in presence of such men ? " " Quis 
enim eques Romanus, quis praeter te adulescens nobilis, quis ullius 
ordinis, qui se civem esse meminisset, cum senatus in hoc templo 
esset in clivo Capitolino non f uit ? " Who in those days would 
have been loath to have his name enrolled as one ready to guard 
with arms the fatherland's weal? Ay, there were not scribes 
enough, the tablets sufficed not for recording the names of those 
that presented themselves ! 

The place, laid with iimestone flags, has the form of a trape- 
ziuniy the shortest side of which forms the east border. On the 
north side, the rubbish-heap reaches even yet to a height of 
several metres, and it is only recently that they have begun to 
lay bare here the ancient soil. There still repose, in the deep 
sleep of the centuries, the most important public buildings of the 
Romans. Yonder, as has already been said, lay the voting-place 
of the people (the Romans), the Comitium, together with the 
City Hall ; there stood the speaker's platf orm of the republic. 
Yonder was built the first court of justice, which was shortly 
foHowed by a secoiid and grander one. Perhaps it will be pos- 
sible, at no distant day, to foUow out more distinctly the remains 
of these foundations. The houses which are still standing over 



108 LATINE. 



them have been purchased by the ItaliaD Government, and look 
as somber and neglected as if thej had a premonition of their 
speedy destruction. 

From the Forum the square blocks of stoue, which project 
from the embankment of the modern street, can be examined to 
better advantage. They served as foundation to the speaker'8 
platform of the imperial period. This must have been very 
spacious. Augustus not only caused the insignia of the repub- 
lican platform, the ships' beaks of Antium, to be attacbed to the 
new one, but he brought here, also, all the marble statues and 
decorations which the people had erected in that place to men 
of renown. Many a piece, weak with age, had then to be re- 
placed, as also the inscription on the column in honor of Gaius 
Duilius, the fragments of which have been dug up in this place. 

Only one antique art-work is preserved intact in the Forum, 
and remains in the same place, at the northwest of the place 
where, ten years ago, it was uncovered. That is the so-called 
marble boundaries. The two pieces, each five metres long, stand 
opposite each other, as if they formed the railing of a narrow 
bridge. On the inside of each three stately sacrificial beasts — 
swine, sheep, and bullock — are making their last journey. On 
the outer sides the Emperor Trajan is represented, as he pro- 
claims in the Forum his gift for the education of poor children, 
and as he orders the lists of unpaid taxes to be burned. Whetber 
these remarkable stones were originally erected here, and what 
end they served, are questions that can not be answered with 
certaiuty. We can apply the term boundaries with gi*eater cer- 
tainty to the eight bulky, square structures along the south side, 
for to them were fastened the rope and the rows of boards by 
which the place was inclosed during the assemblies. 

In old times the city market had a very different appearance, 
beiug surrounded on all sides by shabby booths. The butchers 
had their shops here, which certainly did not make the ground 
cleaner, nor the air purer. Next door clanked the coins of the 
money - changers ; and in this noisy neighborhood were also 
school-rooms, or, as the Romans called them, ^' ludi puerorumJ^ 
How often the children must have stopped at those " tabemae^^ ; 
and among the butchers, certainly, they must havc had their 
special friends ! It would be interesting to know if the Bomaa 



LATINE. 109 



boys then coald beg so winsomely for an " as " as now for a 
^'Boldoy Once the cbildren, on their way to school, were greatly 
terrified. A servant of the dreaded decemvir, Appius Claudius, 
led away from there their playmate Virginia, and brought her 
before the neighboring tribunal of his patrons, while he asserted 
that Virginia, as tbe daughter of one of his slaves, belonged to 
him. But a still more fearful experience awaited them on the 
morrow. As early as daybreak the whole body of the citizens 
stood in the Forum in anxious curiosity, for on that day the fate 
of the maiden was to be decided. Virginius, also, who had been 
brought from the neighboring camp, appeared long before the 
beginning of the trial, and sought by his grief to arouse the sym- 
pathy of the by-standers. He stepped up to different individuals, 
pressed their hands, and spoke to them in a loud voice, so that 
all might hear, of the danger whicb threatened them also, if they 
would not protect him. Of the trial itself not every word reached 
the ears of the listening boys, but tbey soon saw that something 
altogether out of the common must follow the violent altercation 
between the judge and the defendant. 

[To he coniinued,'] 

THE EDUCATION OF THE ROMAN BOY. [By E. T. Tomlinson, 
Head Master of RvLtgers College Or&mmar^chooJ.] [Concluded.] 

The Roman boys, as a rule, attended the school of the rke- 
tores before they put on the toga virtlis. The instruction here, 
as among the Greeks, began very early in the moming. Solon, 
80 the story runs, passed a law forbidding schools to open be- 
fore sunrise. There was no mild reciting, either, as regards the 
tone. We read of the complaint of certain Romans who left the 
city because of the din of the scholars, which began so early in 
the moming as to disturb their slumbers. We read, too, of the 
complaints of certain parents at the harshness of the teachers, 
and some of the Roman writers strongly contend f or the benefits 
to be gained from a pleasant manner and friendly dealing of 
teacber and pupil ; but the best authority I can find does not 
allow that the mild practice was a common one. A stem, almost 
Spartan, rigor was maintained, and the rod played no small part 
in accelerating the tardy steps of Roman boys up the steep and 
difficult hill of learoing. It is impossible to define the exact 



IIO LATINE. 

limits of the term rhetoric as osed at Rome. Browning, wfaom 
we bave quoted before, says that it rcally included nearly every 
branch of mental activity. Certain it is that the first work of the 
rhetore» was to review the previous work. 

The philosophical studies were never popular with the masses. 
There were a certain few of the order of Cicero who delighted 
in searching to find out God; but the great stress laid by 
them on trifles, and thc firmoess and tenacity with which both 
sides of a disputed question clung to their own ground, only to 
be compelled at last to relinquish their points and accept a 
third, of course destroyed much of the confidence felt in such 
work. 

Soon came the time when the choice of a profession must 
be made. To-day the field is broad. A hundred lines are open 
where one greeted the Roman boy at the threshold of his man> 
hood ; a time which, by-the-way, was celebrated by a festival, as 
were the other important days in his life we have mentioned. 
He must now say whether he would take the life of a country 
gentleman — tilling the fields as his ancestors had before him, a 
calliug honorable and manly — or whether the army sh^jiild re- 
ceive his efforts, or the senate or the forum ; or, as Browning 
says, that ^' complex of pursuits to which the nobie Roman was 
called by virtue of his birth." 

Here, too, the intensely practical spirit of this people again 
entered. He learned his lessons in no theoretical way, but by 
being upon the ground. They had no agricultural coileges. 
The Roman boy learned to be a farmer by "farming it." The 
young man leamed the ways of the senate by watching its pro- 
ceedings. Day after day he took his seat near the door, and lis- 
tened to the deliberations of the body. It was no new thing, 
when he entered in a different way, to play his part. 

In his training for the army the same practical lessons were 
leamed. It is true that some of the military tactics and move- 
ments were imitated in the schools, but his real insight into the 
science of military things was gained by serving under some 
commander more or less eminent, and gradually coming to take 
a share in councii and in action. But it was for the forum that 
the great stress came to be laid. In the training f or the orator 
no light task or small amount of patience was called for. We 



LATINE. 1 1 1 



bave not the space to enter into the details of the training, but 
it was long and careful. We can form some idea of minuteness 
when we remember that the schools of orators were divided 
sharply and bitterly on the point as to whether it was right for 
a speaker, in a moment of great excitement, to stamp his foot or 
to remain quiet and calm. The siightest variation from the rule 
in accent or slip in quantity was known and noted not only by 
the critics, but by the audience that greeted the Roman orator, 
and often hissed him f rom the stage for his mistakes. We can 
wonder, then, the more at the grace and polish, and, above all, the 
naturalness, in spite of the arbitrary rules, of the great orator, 
Cicero. 

In the later days, there came to be the same relation between 
Rome and Athens that exists to-day between England and Amer- 
ica and Germany. The young American, who wishes to perf ect 
himself in almost any line, crosscs the water and listens to the 
German masters. So the young Roman, eager for a higher cult- 
ure and a keener training than Rome afEorded, when his work of 
preparation at home was completed, went to Greece for the 
higher polish and the finishing touches. 

I wish now, in conclusion, to briefly outline the growth of 
the schools. This training of which we have been speaking was 
largely confined to the higher classes. 

Little is now known of the educational attainments of the 
masses, but they must have been limited« It is supposed, how- 
ever, that a knowledge of reading and writing was comparatively 
common, from the inscriptions found in nearly all the unearthed 
homes of Pompeii which could not have been done by artists, 
and from the fact that the orders in the army were written on 
tablets and passed from hand to hand« 

As we have said, the training of the Roman boys at first was 
a domestic af[air. Each father trained his son, and this con- 
tinued to be a rule with the higher classes, there being prevalent 
something of the feeling to-day felt by certain people toward 
public schools. It was in 92 b. c. (662 a. u. c.) that the magis- 
trates at Rome resolved that schools should be opened where 
rhetoric should be taught in Latin. I have told you of the 
opposition this aroused, but its steady growth continued, although 
the Greek rhetoricians still flourished. 



112 LATINE. 

It was the duty, according to Pliny, of the father to take the 
place of the teacher to his son, but most fathers were content, as 
they are and ought to be largcly to-day, that their work should 
be done by proxy, and so they obtained an educated slave. This 
slave, however, did not teach to any great extent, but conducted 
his charges to and from their schools. These school-rooms were 
fumished in a simple and plain manner. Those of the poorest 
character had benches for the pupils, while the instructor sat, 
crowned with his dignity, upon a chair. In some cases, always 
when possible, globes and blocks and cubes were used in geome- 
try, and it was an extra piece of luxury if the walJs were adomed 
with grammatical charts. This was as Rome came toward her 
later and last days, and, as has been said, in the time of Trajan, 
the military movements of the army were often imitated in the 
schools. The private instmction of the Greek rhetoricians — for 
their work at first was confined to private families — ^gradually 
spread, and many of the schools at Rome became great private 
ventures, in which fortunes were frequently made. Sometimes 
the cities took charge of the schools, arranged for the work, and 
paid the teachers. According to the best authorities I can find, 
the growth of Roman schools can be plainly divided and clearly 
traced to and through three periods of growth : the individual 
instruction ; then the individual city or municipal instruction ; and, 
thirdly, the instraction over which the Roman Govemment took 
charge, or state instmction. This last stage was only reached, 
however, when the barbarians destroyed the Western Empire. 
During tho time of Augustus and Tiberius, education was prac- 
tically in the first stage I bave mentioned. 

It was frequently the case that a teacher of promise was 
taken in charge by some great family as a client, and his finan- 
cial strength and standing were then assured ; but during these 
times the Roman teachers were often at extremes, some of them 
very wealthy, and others as far at the other extreme. One poor, 
pitiable fellow tells us that he foUowed a baker^s man, who was 
carrying some eatables with bim, for a long distance, thc smell of 
" something to eat " arousing his hunger to even a greater than 
common degree. We wonder what was the fate of the little 
fellows over whom he held sway ! 

The time of Yespasian brought in a new feature in Rome's 



LATINE. 113 



'edacational system, for he was the' first to give the rhetoricians 
pay f rom the public treasury ; but, down to the f ourth century, 
there was great irregularity in the payment of teachers by the 
cities. However, some of the teachers, who enjoyed the favor of 
the influential men, received great pay and became numbered 
among the wealthy. They married wealthy wives and lived in 
great style, although, as a rule, thc Roman teachers were unmar- 
ried. The reason can be plainly scen. At this time the grow- 
ing power of Ghristianity began to be felt, and the only restric- 
tion placed on the employment of teachers was that they should 
not be Christians. But this was as useless as Canute lashing the 
waves of the sea. The time soon came when its power would 
be and was felt. It was light, and so it must illaminate. 

I neglected to speak of one feature of the teaching. It was 
often the case that the boys passed the most of their time with 
their masters, eating with them at their table, walking with them 
in the fields, and improving the time. 

VILE FOTABIS, [A TranslAtion.] 

Dining with me, merc Sabine shall you drink from common clay, 
Sealed by my hand inGrecian jar, when rose the appiause, that day, 

For you at Rorae, 
Which spreading, dear Maecenas, reached, at last, your ancestral 

shore, 
Where sportive Echo took it up, and said it o'er and o'er, 

And sent it home. 
Por, while your Formian and Falernian daily ripen in the sun, 
And Calenian and Caecubian daily from your wine-press run, 
My smaller fortunes sternly warn that humbler wines or none 

For me must foam. 

Mbs. Fredkrica Phillips. 

ANTIBARBARUS, [Meissner.] lContinued.'] 

Day, bef ore day, daybreak = ante lucem, not diem ; at day- 
break = prima luce. Day is breaking, lucescit ; illucescit (dies), 
not lux fit 

Dear. Carus, or possessive pronoun, not amatus or delectus. 

Debts, aes alienum, only used in sing. 

Declamation (oratorical delivery). Pronuntiatio, not decla- 



114 LATINE. 

matio, which = an oratorical exercise for practice. So to deciaim. 
Pronuntiare, not declamare, means to practice oratorj. 

Declaration of war. Belli denuntiatio, or through bellum 
indicere, denuntiare, not belli indictio. 

Declare. Dicere, not declarare, which means make cle&r or 
evident by act Declare war. Beilum indicere, not bellum de- 
clarare. 

Deem worthy, dignum habere, ducere, judicare aliquem ali- 
qua re, not dignari (which, by Cicero, is used only passirely — 
e. g., toli honore dignati sunt). 

Deep, figuratively, magnns, summus, et aL— «. g., deep peace, 
summa pax ; deep night, multa nox ; deep (prof onnd) leaming, 
subtilis, exquisita doctrina, not profundus, which is nsed only of 
space. 

Defmicty mortuua, not defunctus, as defungi in classical prose 
is not used absolutely for mori, but defungi vita means to end a 
life which has been f ull of trouble. 

Deify, referre in numerum deorum, not in numero. 

Depart to the war, proficisci ad bellum, not in bellum. 

Depend on. Pendere ex, not ab ; also not dependere (post- 
class., and unusual, only once in Livy). 

Dedre (greediness for). Cupiditas, not cupido, which is uot 
used by Cicero. 

Diflcontented. Sorte sua non contentum esse, also fortunae 
suae paenitere, not incontentum esse, which is not Latin. 

Disdain to, nolle, non curare, not aspernare with inf. 

Disobedience = immodestia, contumacia, not inoboedientia 
(post-class.). 

Diaobedient^ non oboediens, dicto non audiens, et al., not 
inoboediens (post-class.). 

Dispute for and against. Disputare in contrarias partes, not 
pro et contra. 

Diflsertation. Disputatio, not dissertatio ( which is post-class. ) . 

Disanasion. Dissuasio, not dehortatio (late Latin). But we 
may use dehortare aliquem ab aliqua re or ne. 

Do we not see? Videmusne? not nonne videmus? so vi- 
desne ? viditisne ? 

Doubt^ without any doubt, sine dubio, not sine ullo dubio. 
On the other hand, sine uUa dubitatione, without any besitation. 



LATINE. 115 

Bream, in a dream, per somniam, in somnis, per quietem, in 
■quiete, not in somnio. 

The East. Tlie west as country, orientis, occidentis (solis), 
terrae, partes, regiones, gentes, not simply oriens, occidens. 
Eastward, westward, qua x>r ea pars quae ad orientem, occiden- 
tem (solem) vergit, not orientalis, occidentalis (post^^lass.). 

Edncatedy vir or homo doctus, not doctus alone. While " a 
wise roan " is sapiens (may be used without the homo), the wisest 
man, sapientissimus. 

Election, to assemble for election, comitiis (ablat.) convenire,^ 
not ad comitia convenire. 

Emigration, migratio, demigratio, not emigratio (post-class.). 
Emigrare may be used, however. Emigration or cessation of the 
Plebs, secessio in montem sacrum. 

Emotion, animi motus, commotio, perturbatio, not affectus. 

Employedy to be employed in something = occupatum esse 
in aliqua re, not aliqua re. 

Endy the end of the book. In extremo libro, not in fine librL 
The end of life, finis vitae, To end, finera facere alicuius rei, 
conficere (bellum), not finire, which = limit or hem in. 

Endowed (gifted). Bona indole (always in sing.) praeditus, 
not praeditus alone. 

Endure (last), manere, vigere, esse, tenere, not durare which 
= make hard (used first by Livy (i, 19) in the meaning " last," 
and only of objects instead of things, not about circumstances or 
events). 

Eigoy a good education = liberaliter, ingenue, bene edu- 
cari ; enjoy some one's instruction = disciplina alicuius uti, 
magistro aliquo uti, not frui, which is only used when there is 
actual enjoyment — c. g., voluptatibus, otio frui. 

Ei^joy life. Vita, hac luce frui, not gaudere. 

Enmity. Inimicitiae in the plu., not in sing., except when 
the abstract meaning is desired. 

Enter a city. Intrare urbem, not in urbem. 

Eq^nal, parem esse (alicui), not aequare, which = to make 
equal. To place on a par with, aequare aliquem cum aliquo. 

Eqnip an army, or ship. Instruere exercitum, navem, not 
exstniere, which = construct. 

Eq^nipment. Apparatus in sing., not in plu. 



116 LATINE. 



Eacape. It escapes me, fugit me, not effugit me. 

Estrange from one*s self, aliquem or alicuius animum, volun- 
tatem a se abalienare, aliquem a se alienare, not animum sibi 
alienare. 

Etymolog^, hominum interpretatio, not etymologia. 

Eyerlastiiigy of earthly things, perpctuus, diutumus, not 
4ietemus or sempitemus. Forever = in perpetuura. 

Every one who, quisquis or quicumque, not omnis qui. 

Everjrwhere, omnibus locis, nusquam non, not ubique, except 
jifter relatives. 

Example, good example, exemplum praeclaram, clamm, lu- 
culentum, illustre, not ex. bonum, which = a good model. Give 
.an example, exemplum edere, prodere, not dare. ** For exam- 
ple," usually ut, sicut, velut, not exempli causa, which is to be 
used only in a complete sentenco with verbs like ponere, afferre, 
«et al. To give Socrates as examplo of virtue = a Socrate exem- 
plum virtutis petere, not Socratem exemplum virtutis offerre. 
To use as an example = ut hoc utar, oSeram, not ut exemplo 
ntar. 

Ezceed moderation (or temperance), modum transire, exce- 
dere. 

Ezception, all, without exception, omnes ad unum, not sine 
^xceptione, which = without limitation, unconditioned. 

Ezeoution, when it = completion, confectio or by a circum- 
locution, not exsecutio (post-class.). 

Ezert one^s self, operam dare, tpithout sibi ; to exert one^s self 
greatly, studiose, enixe operam dare, not magnam operam dare. 
Without exertion, sine negotio, labore; without any exertion, 
nullo negotio, sine uUo labore ; with light exertion, facile, not 
facili negotio. 

Ezert one's self to secure an officc. Petere magistratum, 
jiot ambire, which is used only with the accusative of the person 
(aliquem). 

Ezisty esse, not existere, which = step forth, arise. 

Ezperience, usus, not experientia, which in classic prose = 
test, trial. 

Ezpoie one^s life to danger, vitam suam (salutem) in discrimen 
•offerre, not exponere. 

by words, dicere, not exprimere, which = express 



LATINE. 117 

clearlj and plainly (in technical tenninology of art — e. g., imag- 
ines exprimere). 

Eyes, all eyes were turned toward — = omniiim ocuH con- 
versi erant, not omnes oculi — . Place before your eyes = ante 
oculos vestros proponite, not vobis ante oculos pr. 

HORATIAN ALLEOORY, [TranslAted from the Germa,n hy StLm- 
uel M. Otto.] lConcIuded.] 

But, witbout regard to the forms and aims of the allegory, the poem of 
Alkaios, iurw^Ttifu r^ i»4fiofy trraurtify neoessitates our accepting the allegory 
in the case of Horace, who imitated or translated Alkaios. Alkaios^s poem 
is an allegory ; theref ore— ! 

Now, the fact of our ode being an imitation or a translation has been just. 
as inaccurately observed, and as rashly asserted, as in the case of Horace^s 
f^ides ut alia, The situation of the speaker, and his relation to the ship, the 
form and style of the representation, the immediate condition of the ship — 
oonsequently, everything which oounts in the end — ^is entirely different as re- 
gards the two poets. And, further, that Alkaios^s poem is an allegory is, 
indeed, the opinion of the so-cailed Herakleides Pontikos, in his Homeric 
allegories ; but tMs opinion has just as much, or as little, warrant as the ex- 
planation of an Homeric myth by the same voucher. It is only our fondness, 
in aocordanoe with the spirit of the times, for historical ezplanations that 
cherishes and countenances such errors nowadays of those ancient allegori- 
cal expounders. Our ode,therefore, is no imitation of Alkaios ; and the poem 
of Alkaios is hardly an allegory, and so, for the sake of Alkaios, Horace need 
not be allegorical. 

But Quintilian says the Horatian ode is allegoricaL I do not doubt that 
it appeared allegorical to him and many of his contemporaries. There cer- 
tainly was a tradition of the poet^s having received the inspu-ation for tbis ode 
through circumstances or events in the Roman state, and through meuacing 
civil wars ; and this tradition ezisted certainly not without reason. Now,. 
when Quintilian could not make anything else of this tradition tban that the 
ship signified the state, the billows the civil war, and the harbor concord, of 
ooorse, to him the ode was nothing but an allegory. In this way, you know, 
many beanliful poems in German literature are ezplained allegorically by 
higiilyedacated critics, because to them they are nothing better, and because 
somewhere the " historical " information has been beaten up of the " actual " 
drcumstanoes which lie at the foundation of the poems. 

Yery welL Alkaios and Quintilian do not compel us to an allegorical con- 
oeption ; but, it is said, the lyrical style of Horace himself compels us to seek 
another sense behind the literal sense ; for a ship with broken mast, tom 
sails, etc, is in itself no subject for Horatian lyrics. Now, is some spring or 
other, with pure cold water, wliich readily quenches the thirst of a pIowman*s 
oxen, a projecting rock over which the water flows, beside a shady tree — ^is 
this, then, in itself a fit subject f or Horatian lyrics l^ And yet the ode to the- 



118 LATINE. 



fountain of Bandusia appears to us quite Horatian, and, even to this day, 
Horace'8 Bandusia is worthjof consideratioa to thousands of people to whom 
the higtoriccU^ real Bandusia is entirely a matter of iadifference. Whj t Be- 
cause Horace did not describe any particuiar historical fountain, with inci- 
dental attributes, in itself. Nay, rather, in his fountain of Bandusia, he has 
delineated the beautiful, universal, or ideal picture of a species of idyllic, rural 
fountain scenery ; and this delineation, again, was not with him an end, but 
a means. The end or object of a lyric poet is the graceful representation of 
a relation of soul, of f eeling, as it is experienced by the poet and the congeniai 
hearer. But now, since poet and hearer do not stand in poetical relation of 
soul in regard to an actual, indindual thing, a fountain-scene, for example, as 
such, but only in relation to the universal, ideal capacity for the perception 
of the thing or event, so Horace has giren expression to that univerBal, ideal 
capadty of peroeption which an idyllic scene had for him and his time, and 
in Uke manner yet has for us. The poet ever longs for outer and inner re- 
pose ; the turmoil and excitement of poiitical and court life are ever sources 
of weariness to him. Rural life is full of charms and interest to him and 
his associates, f rom custom and experienoe ; the sight of the fountain of Ban- 
dusia ever produces a beneficent effect on him, and becomes to his imagina- 
tion and hb soul the essence of repose, of extemal and internal peace. And 
he expresses his longing after this peaoe by a representation of his sympa- 
thetic leiation to this individual rural scene in particular. Thus, the lyric 
poet does not represent things, events, in themselves ; and Horaoe, also, has 
not represented the ship, or the incidents of the ship, in itself. The poet 
here rather paints an ideal picture of a large number of individual, actual 
transactions, different from each other, which he has observed, and which his 
readers and hearers can ever obsenre — a beautif ul, proud ship, which, in a 
stormy passage, has been almost beaten into a miserable wreck, and is like 
to f all a prey again to the raging sea, even in sight of a sheltering harbor. 
The portraiture is only a means and form ; the object is the representation of 
the emotions which poet and hearer have for the struggling ship. These 
emotions, again, do not hold good for any particular ship, nor even for the 
mass of ships that suffer such misfortunes, but for the sentimental or suscep- 
tive idea, as a combatant full of spirit and courage, but already wounded and 
partially disarmed, tums once more on an overpowering antagonist, although 
certain of destruction in a second encounter. Those very expressions which 
liken the ship to a wounded combatant show clearly that the poet contem- 
plated the struggling ship with that sympathy and just fear with which he 
would observe the spectacle of a human contest with superior powers ; and 
therefore, also, with an aesthetically ideal sort of the same fear and pain with 
wliich he endures real contests with such powers in actual life. Is it, now, 
unworthy of Horaoe if his fear of the severe conflicts of life expresses itself 
in his representation of his sympathetic relation to this particular inddent of 
life at sea? In how lively a manner the sea and its perilous life came home 
to the f eelings and sympathies of Horace'6 time is shown by the innumerable 
ref erences, in contemporaneous literature, to the sea and navigation — ^ref er- 



LATINE. 119 



ences partly of a palpablj poetic and partl)r of a f ormally poctic kind, like the 
numerous metaphors. 

Therefore the unworthmess of the subject-matter, also, does not compel 
us to accept an allegorical interpretation. Or is, perchance, Goethe*s beauti- 
ful ** Seef ahrt '* an allegory, since, on the one side, events in Weimar, which 
in reality had absolutely nothing to do with the sea and ships, gave the poet 
the foundation for the poem ; and since, on the other hand, a sea-voyage in 
itself is not a subject f or lyric art ? 

I suppose occurrences of political life made the poet capable of feeling 
the universal interest of his time for ship and sea, at this particular moment, 
in a liyelier and profounder way, and of making his sympathy for a struggling 
ship a seasonable poetical expression of his fear before new oonflicts of des- 
tiny. And I may suppose this, in view of that ancient tradition, according to 
which the ode is said to relate to the dangers of the civil war to the Roman 
state. The dread of a new dyil war, for example, after the close of the Sicil- 
ian war, mi^ht yery easily haye found its ideal or symbolical image in this 
ode. The extemal impulse, namely, the idea of a struggling ship appearing 
to the poet, might haye been giyen by the aocidental sight of a ship hovering 
in similar danger on some coast ; it might, also, have been an incidental sug- 
gestion from the ode of Alkaios. The thought of naval warfare, such as the 
Sicitian war had been, and the battle at Actium was to be, might have awak- 
ened the remembrance of former transactions experienced at sea. 

A large number of beautiful poems, in Latin, Greek, and German, are un- 
fortunately explained allegorically, instead of symbolically. May tbis essay 
on Horatian allegory be a oontribution to a psychologically morc correct and 
sesthetically more fruitful conception of poetic productions ! 



WORKS ON ROMAN LAW, 

Abdy, J. T. and Walker B. Institutes of Justinian. Translated, with 
Notes. Cambridge, 18*76. 

Amos, S. History and Principles of the Civil Law of Rome. London, 1883. 

Qark, E. C. Early Roman Law. Regal Period. London, 18Y2. 

Coulanges, F. The Andent City. English translation by W. Small. Bos- 
ton, 18*74. 

Cushing, L. S. Introduction to Study of Roman Law. Boston, 1854. 

Fanton, M. A. Tables of Roman Law. English translation by C. W. Law. 
London, 1869. 

Gibbon, E. Decllne and Fall of the Roman Empire. Chapter xliv. 

Goudsmit, J. E. The Pandects. English translation by R. D. T. Gould. 
London, 1873. 

Grapel, W. Sources of the Roman Law. Philadelphia, 1867. 

GUterbock, C. Bracton and his Relation to the Roman Law. Transla- 
tion by Brinton Coxe. Philadelphia, 1866. 

Hadley, J. Introduction to Roman Law. New York, 1874. 

Halifax, S. Elements of the Roman Civil Law. London, 1818. 



120 LATINE. 



Hearn, W. £. The Aiyan Household. London, 1879. 

HoUand, T. £., and Shadwell, G. L. Select Titles from the Digest of Jus- 
tinian. Oxford, 1881. 

Hunter, W. A. The Roman Law in the Order of a Code. London, 1876. 

Hunter, W. A. Introduction to Roman Law. London, 1880. 

Irving, D. Introduction to the Study of the Giyil Law. London, 1837. 

Mackeldey, F. Roman Law. Edited and translated by M. A. Dropsie. 
Philadelphia, 1888. 

Mackenzie, Lord. Studies in Roman Law, with Comparatiye Views of 
the Laws of France, England, and Scotland. Edinburgh, 1870. 

Maine, H. S. Anclent Law : its Gonnection with the Early History of So- 
ciety, and Reiation to Modem Ideas. New Tork, 1867, 1876. 

Maine, H. S. Early History of Institutions. New Tork, 1876. 

Maine, H. S. Early Law and Gustom. New Tork, 1883. 

Maine, H. S. Roman Law and Legal Education, in ** Gambridge Essays " 
(1856), aIso in *' Village Gommunities ** and Miscellanies. New Tork, 1873. 

Morey, W. G. Outlines of Roman Law ; comprising its Historical Growth 
and General Principles. New Tork and London, 1884. 

Ortolan, E. History of Roman Legislation. Translated by I. F. Prichard. 
and D. Nasmith. London, 1871. 

Phillimore, J. O. Introduction to the Study and Histoiy of the Roman 
Law. London, 1848. 

Phillimore, J. G. Priyate Law among the Romans from the Pandects. 
London and Gambridge, 1863. 

Poste, E. Elements of the Roman Law, by Gaius, with Translation and 
Gommentary. Oxford, 1871. 

Roby, H. J. Introduction to the Study of Justinian^s Digest, with a full 
commentary of one title (De Usufructu). Gambridge, 1884. 

Sandars, T. G. Institutes of Justinian, with English Introduction, and. 
Notes. London, 1869. American edition with an Introduction by Willlam 
G. Hammond. Ghicago, 1876. 

Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. New Tork,. 
1865. Articles on Roman Law, by George Long. 

Tomkins, F. J., and Jencken, H. D. Gompendium of Modem Roman Law. 
London, 1870. 

Walker, B. Fragments of the Perpetual Edict of Salvius Julianus. Gam-^ 
bridge, 1877. 

BOOKS RECEIVED, 

From CkXL Schoenhof (Boston): 

Hand'8 Lehrbuch des lateinischen Stils. 

Hand^s Lateinisches Uebungsbuch. 

Heinichxn^s Uebungen im lateinischen Stil 
A. S. Babnes & Go., New Tork: Satires of Persius, H. G. Johnson. 



Iter ett longum per pratcepta^ breve et ^fftcax per kzcmpla.— Sbnbca. 



NOVI 
EBORACI. 



Latine. 



MENSE JAN. 
MDCCCLXXXV. 



*^MultaSoga: SetinsDoeta: Betenta Dooey^CouKinvt. 

Zeetor: Qaid tibi vis, O ephemeriB parvnla? 

Latine : Ut TerenU verba flectam : Latini nihil a me alieiium puto. *^ Non 
enim tam praedarum eet eoire Latikb quam turpe neecire.^^ — Cic. Brdt. cxl. 



EPISTX7LA, 

J. K. L., E. S. S., Editori Latink, S. P. D. 
Horatius, poeta lauriger, scripsit : 

** Pone me pigris ubi nulla campis 
Arbor aestiva recreatur aura, 
Quod latus mundi nebulae malusque 

Juppiter urget." (Od. I, 22, 17-20.) 

Horatius in Italia natus est nec unquam terram de qua 
scribebat viderat. Oum is inter coUes Italiae apricos et sub 




caelo Italiae claro vitam ageret, illas nebulas pluviasque noscere 
nunquam pot^rat. Sed eum fortasse militem quendam vetera- 

niustration: Gapitoline Temple of Jupiter, page 17. 



122 LATINE. 



num, qui Caesare imperatore in Hibernis vel in Gallia vel apud 
Rhenum positis hiemes longas egisset, convenire acciderit, et 
quae mala intemperie coeli passus esset ex iilo audire. Necesse 
erat, miles, quem puto, qui Itaiiam aestivam amoenamque desi- 
derabat, qui algorem caliginemque Germanicae patiebatur, multa 
quae iis qui ibi incolebant non placuissent, narraret. 

Miles, quem puto, sine dubio Horatio multa de ventis, pluviis, 
nebulis narrabat — quam die ex die sol videri non posset, donec 
ipse, neque sole neque sideribus diebus multis apparentibus et 
tempestatibus non exiguis semper imminentibus, exclamaro so- 
leret : " Dulce lumen, et delectabile est oculis videre solem." 
Itaque putare, milite audito, Horatium poema scripsisse, et illam 
terram quam diceret Germaniam esse nobis licet. In aestate 
omnia sunt pulchra, coelum clarum, aer aestivum, die sol splen- 
didus, nocte stellae apparent Sed in hieme omnia mutantur, 
coelum obscuratur. Nebulae, pluviae terram urgent, et cum 
frigescit nix cadit, glaciesque iners per duos menses in partibus 
altis stat. 

Hae res mihi in mentem venerunt cum iam paene toto mense 
Bolem vix videam. Aliud ex alio de coelo audio. Omnes inter 
se contrarii sunt. Hic calorem, ille frigus prodicit. Non possum 
aliter quam " quid sit futumm cras " f ugere quaerere, " et quem 
fors dierum cunque dabit lucro " apponere. Sed versuum Hora- 
tionim reminiscor et putare me ex qua origine Horatius versos 
quosdam duxerit invenisse mihi placet. Ignosce huic levitati 
meae, et vale. 

Batuin Heidelbergae, a. d. V. Eal. Dec. 

CARMJEN MZLTONU BE NATIVITATE CHRXSTI LATINE RSD- 
DITUR. [Prof. Thomas J. Gusson, Loyola, College,] 

Jam mensis adstat, prospera lux adest, 
Quo cara summi progenies Dei, 

(Quam mater eoixa est puella), 
Detulit ad miseras salutem. 

Gentes beatam ; sic veteres canunt 
Vates, fore olim crimina qui luat 
Humana, qui terrisque pacem 
Perpetuam, duce Patre, reddat. 



LATINE. 123 



Quid Musa, cessas ? munera quin dabis 
Nato recenti ? Dic age carmina 
Queis laeta grateris Satori 
Sive lyra citharave plena. 

Dic dum jugales sol cohibet citos, 
Dic dumque splendent aethereae faces, 
Hospes salutem des, novisque 
Sedibus excipias lesum. 

Da, Musa, cursum ; carmine praeveni 
Demisso reges ; Illius ad pedes 
Munuscula auctoris repone, 
Tuque prior Dominum saluta.* 

DE CONSUETUDINE CLABE LEGENDI, [Prof. SAmuel Brooks.] 

Recte et commode legere vel Anglice vel Latine non levis 
momenti putandum est. Non omnis autem qui studia Latina 
exercet aut ipse bene legit aut legendi consuetudinem satis magni 
ducit. Quendam novi cotidie in manus Novum Testamentum 
Graece sumere solitum, quem autem, vix mihi ipse credo narrans, 
facultas legendi desuetudine longa jam paene deseruit. Quan- 
tom vero, hac consuetudine deficiente, disciplinae et humanitati 
deest ! Non enim tam praeclarum est legere scire quam turpe 
nescire. 

Non est quidem necesse ut clare semper legamus, sed ut hoc 
facere semper possimus. Nerao tamen sine voce recte legit nisi 
qui multum ac diu voce uti consuevit. Causae plures quae ad 
lianc consuetudinem adipiscendam impellunt mihi in mentem 
venerunt 

Primnm haec consuetudo, quae non oculis solum sed etiam 
voce utatur, facit ut vocabula seriesque verborum facile atque 
firmiter meraoria coraprehendantur. Lingua enim, ea corporis 
pars quae non modo ad sermonem accommodata est sed etiam 
sermoni suum nomen dedit, vi naturali phis quam oculi in verbis 
tenendis saepe valet. In primis quidem annis verba nostrae 

* Simt tredecem aliae crpotffai istius carminis quas postea remittam. Kon 
transtali omnia quae scripsit Miltonius noster hac de re propterea quod lon- 
gom est omnia vertere et deinde varietas plurimum confert ad reddendos ho- 
mineB f elioes et studii amantes. 



124 



LATINE. 



ipsorum linguae ab ore alicno fere omnia accipimus. Neque ea 
de causa iraprobanda est haec consuetudo, quod lingua Latina 
jam pridem de usu cotidiano tamquam de vita decesserit. Si de 
vita deccssit, ita deccssit ut vires vitales non amitteret. Nibil 
ipsa amisit. Amiserunt ei, si quid est amissum, qui Latine legere 
omiserunt Qualis erat talis immutata manet, hodic aeque ac 
olim linguis huraanis aptissima. Viva voce dici etiam nunc eam 
juvat. Quamobrem gratiam cum ea inire studeamus. Voce et 
auribus, dum praesertim memoriae ines tvis juvenilis, cotidie 
utendum, ut copiam verborum quam maximam et in usum prae- 
sentem et in auxilium perenne quaeramus. Non sane mirabile 




est quanto in honore apud quosdam sit is disciplinae modus qui 
naturalis appellatus est. Is enim pro certo habet linguam Lati- 
nam sicut ceteras linguas in labris sedem libentissime habere, et 
auribus laetissime in memoriam manare. Discipulum idem vigi- 
lantem facit, alacrem ad audiendum, promptum ad intellegendum, 
paratum ad dicendum. Illud autem eis qui hanc linguam in ser- 
mones coUocutionesque revocare volunt praecipiendum, ut sic 
loqui studeant ut ad Ciceronem adducti videantur, neque ab ejus 
latere umquam disccssisse. 

niustration : Room in ancient ba^hs, page 14. 



LATINE. 128 

Deinde qui legendi exercitatione assuefacti sunt eo facilius 
tim sententiamque sermonis cognoscunt. Aiiud quidem est 
legere, aliud inteUegere, sed auxilio haec altenim alteri sunt. 
Neque solum qui bene intellegit bene legit, sed nonnumquam 
bene legisse est bene intellexisse. Qui enim scripta intellegere 
cupiens per singula verba pedetentim ad finem progressit ncque 
ex sententia evasit, haud minime adjuvabitur si ad initium re- 
versus legat relcgatque verba universa. Nec mirum si in rele- 
gendo contextus sermonis plane intellegatur. Nam in composi- 
tione verborum non minus quam in verbis ipsis sita est signi- 
ficatio. Etiamsi verba quaedam in obscuro fuerint, attamen in 
legendo per totum lux saepe manabit. Mens praeterea cum in 
cogitando tum in legendo, si a Quintiliano vocem mutuari licet, 
" repetito spatio sumit impetum," et per diflScilia fertur. 

Tum huc addendum est linguae Latinae esse proprietates 
ejus modi quae voce aptissime exprimantur. Nam ut cetera 
omittam, verborum collocatio tam varia, tam subtilis, tam sen- 
tentiae conveniens, mire cum vi vocali in dicendo congruere 
YidetuT. Dicet quispiam illa ipsa de causa uon esse opus auxiiio 
vocali, quod verborum collocatio oculis tam clare in scriptis pro- 
poBtta f flciat ut sine voce percipi omnia possint ? Minirae vero ; 
etenim baec res non declarat voce non esse opiis. Potius declarat 
quam varia, quam sollers, quam subtilis vox ea esse debeat quae 
verba dlgne et perfecte exprimat, quamque accoramodatus auribus 
aubtilibus dit sermo Latinus. 

Hoc denique dicendum, hanc linguam auribus eruditis multis 
de causis egregie apta nisi in legendo non oranem venustatem 
ostendere posse. Quis tandem dulcedinem illam Yergilianam 
capiat totam, nisi qui voce per pedes ac versus perfacile currere 
potest ? Nec poesis solum sed oratio etiam soluta, in qua modum 
qnendam et numerum servari oportet, et meretur ut voce idonea 
decoretur, et aures delectare ac implere potest. 

IJt autem in musicis fieri potest ut in silentio numeri et modi 
cum voluptate percipiantnr, sic saepius dicendum est non semper 
esse in legendo necesse vox audiatur, dummodo mentis aures ad 
numerum atque dulcedinem pateant. Qui autem, nisi fallor, 
lon^ssime ac laetissime in studiis Latinis provecti sunt, et voce 
legere malunt, et ab hac consuetudine partim ortum quicquid 
venustatis cultusque adepti sint fatentur. 



126 LATINE. 

Illud ergo mihi quisqae curet, nt quae verba ^ numeros in 
saeculo litterarum aureo scriptores et oratores Latiii£ optimi dixe- 
runt, ea voce sua quam commodissime legere labom^ Ne quis, 
si elegantia Latini sermonis perfrui veiit, rainoris (]uam deceat 
hanc consuetudinem aestimet, neve qua temporis .dsHpeDdia tanti 
sint quin firma facilitas in legendo paretur. DiiHi^^dia ea non 
pereunt ; in compendium se convertunt ; cum faw2i«ur« cumulata 
postea redeunt. Facultas legendi multa iteratioae v^^rfecta prae- 
mium amplum affert 

REXTHXJUiE, aoetheirAustns^parsI. [LMtine rmgfUHait Eraestus 
Huberus, JPh. D.^ 

Rex Thulae pia cura 
Colebat aureum, 
Quod dedit moritura 
Amica, poculum. 

Nec ultra cariora ! 
Non deficit epulis, 
Potoris hument ora 
Prof usis lacrimis. 

Cum esset moritunis 
Carissimo heredum 
Regna omnia daturus 
Erat nec poculum. 

Sedere et cenare 
Et rex et equites 
In atrio alto ad mare 
Stant patrum imagines. 

Tum potor assuetus 
Bibit delicias 
Postremas, atque vetus 
In undas jecit vas. 

Praecipitari vidit, 
Immergi poculum ; 
Potorem mors cecidit 
Bibit tum ultimum. 



LATINE. 



127 



<X)NDUCEIUS ST LOCARX. [Frof. O. B. Sopson.] 

Hic est domas locanda, universa, vel in partibus. Ingredia- 
mur et eam scrutemur. Salve, Domine Smith. Velim nobis tua 
•cubicula ostendas, si placet. 

Perlubentur. Domum ingredimini. Quot conclavibus et 
<;ujus generis vobis opus est ? 

Sex et culina, optimo statu. 

Supellectile instructis, necne ? 

Certe, instmctis : Si minus, inutilia sunt. 

Vobis cubicula ostendam. Scalas, ultis, ascendite. Secun- 
dum tabulatum incoletis, quandoquidem primum jam est loca- 
tum. Scala, videtis, ampla est 

Oleatum textile in scalis tolerare non possum. 

Hoc ad te gratificandum libenter mutabo. Sellae istae re- 
center opertae sunt Quoque cubiculo orbem mensae, armarium. 




sex sellas, omnia denique necessaria invenies. Supeliex est nitida. 
Onmes lecti sunt ferrei et nuper purgatL Quot vis? 

Duo lecti spatiosi, et tres grabati pro pueris, et cunabula pro 
infantulo sint. 

Speculum est antiqui generis. 

Estne unius laminae ? 



lUustration: Room in ancient baths, page 14. 



128 LATINE. 



Certe ; et prorsus nova aulaea. AquimiDaie marmoreuin est : 
aqua f rigida et calida adest 

Candelabra ruinosa sunt 

Reficientur : nisi lucemas malis. 

Non ; reficiantur. Nemo in urbe lucemis in praesenti utitur. 

Morem tibi geram. 

Cupio videre lectos, quoniam hi sunt maximi momenti. 

Profecto si quis bene dormit, aiia minus curat. Qui bene 
dormit, non peccat, vulgo fertur. 

Num fenestrae ad viam spectant ? 

Haec ad viam, illa ad hortum. 

Propter rotamm strepitum, in priore aedium parte dormire 
non libet. Pretium autem constituendum est 

Minimum quidem pretium est ; tantum centum thaleri singu- 
]is mensibus. 

Medius fidius 1 mangnus opibus dormitur in urbe. Quanti 
indicas tria cubicula et culinam ? 

£a semper locavi septuaginta thaleris singulis mensibus. 

Ego quindecim thaleros singulis hebdomadibas dabo. 

Exiguum nimis. 

Plus justo exposcis. 

Percara non sunt Domus enim in pulcherrimo urbis vico 
sita est ; et vicini suas domos majore pretio locant. 

Bis centum thaleros quoque trimestri spatio solvam. Sed 
partem cellae penariae, iocumque pro carbone, et Hgnis, et cine- 
ribus, habeam necesse erit. 

Optime, Domine, diaeta sub sera claveque erit. Quando, 
opinaris, eam capies. 

Haud scio an, hac eadem nocte : sin autem negotia impediant 
quominus hac nocte veniam, non dubito quin sequente hebdomade 
diaetam occupare possim. Num pecunia, nondum debita, mihl 
solvenda est ? 

Oerte ; nummos praecipio ; id est moris. 

Sit ita ; cura autem ut omnia tempori sint parata. 

Sicut jubes. Quando voles, venies. 

Oportet nunc aliam supellectilem emam. 



De Lusu. — Jamdudum et animus et coelum et dies invitat ad 
ludendum, sed praeceptor non invitat 



LATINE. 129 



LYCUROUS SCHILLERL [La,tine redditit Herbert Weir Smyth, 
JPb. D.] 

Sed Lycargus etiam alio inodo cavit ne luxus existere posset. 
Nam non solum cives omnes loco communi una cenare et cibis 
lege praescriptis eisdem vesci iussit, sed etiam vetuit ne domi, 
samptuosis cibariis paratis, ad moUitiam laberentur. Necesse 
enim erat cuivis singulis mensibus edulium certam partem ad 
cenas communes conferre qua coliata ei victus a civitate praebe- 
batur. Cuique vero convictori ut in quinorum denorum, qui ad 
singulas mensas cenebaut, numerum reciperetur, sufEragiis om- 
nium opas est. Atque nemini licitiuu fuit abesse nisi excu- 
sationem idoneam aJOEerret. Quae lex tam severa erat, ut ipsi 
Agidi, uni ex regibus aevi posterioris, Spartam post bellum bene 
gestum reverso atque postulanti ab ephoris ut una cum uxori soli 
cenare liceret, recusaretur. Inter cibaria vero Spartiatas ius ni- 
gmm omnibus notum est, quod ita laudatum est, ut Lacedae- 
monii se fortes facile praebere posse dicerentur, cum mori eis 
non maius malum esset, quam iure illo vesci. Sed cenae hilari- 
tate et facetiarum leporibus conditiores factae sunt, cum ipse Ly- 
corgus hilaritatem ita amaret, ut deo ridenti domi aram statueret. 

Hac igitur consuetudine victus instituta multum ad sua con- 
silia perficienda consecutus est. Nam luxus, qui ad sumptuosa 
mensae vasa spectavit, existere desiit, cum nemo in communibus 
cenis eis uti posset Deinde heluatio repressa est et facta sunt 
corpora sana robustaque hac moderatione certoque vivendi modo^ 
ut civitati parentes sani liberos sanos procreare possent Deinde 
cena communis assuefacit cives familiariter vivere et omnes tan- 
quam partes unius corporis se habere, ut omittamus quod ratio 
vivendi aequalis multum ad aequales animorum sensos efSiciendos 
contulit. 

Atque cives cum omnibus soUicitudinibus rerum privatarum 
per Helotom operam immunes essent, vitam in otio degebant. 

Itaqae adulescentes operam exercitationibus dabant artiam 
militarium in quibus et spectaturi et iudicaturi aderant seniores^ 
cum ab hia ludis abesse dedecori esset 

Qao modo factom est ut Spartiatae, cum rei publicae uni se 
darent, omnes res pro publicis haberent. In oculis omnium iu* 
ventas maturait atque aenes languerunt Assidue serviebat civis 
patriae, patria ut commodis suis serviret Testis ipse rerum ab 



180 LATINE. 



sliis gestaram, vitae suae testes cives omnes habebat. His insti- 
tutis cupiditas gloriae perpetuo stimulata, mores ingeniumque 
gentis proprii continenter alebantur ; patriae caritas studiumque 
rerum communium quasi in medullis civium ac visceribus haere- 
bant 

Ardori virtutis inflammando etiam dies festi inserviebant, qui 
apud Spartiatas otiosos permulti erant Quibus diebus carmina 
popularia, quae ad belium spectarent, canebant, quae aut gloriam 
virorum pro patria mortuorum praedicabant aut ad virtutem ad- 
hortabantur. His diebus festis etiam cives secundum aetatem 
in choros tres dividebantur, quorum primus ex senioribos con- 
stans haec canere coepit : '* Nos fortes olim fuimus I " Deinde 
iuvenes responderunt : " Fortes nunc sumus I qui animos nostros 
experiri voluerit, venito ! " Postremo aduiescentes : " Et nos 
aliquando fortes erimus gloriamque vestram factis obscurabi- 
mus ! " 

Considerantes igitUr nos strictim instituta legesque Lycurgi 
admiratio quaedam grata tenet. Neque enim licet dubitari, quin 
omnia similia instituta antiquitus tradita praestantia sua Lycurgi 
leges multum superaverint, Mosaicis solis exceptis, quae multis 
in rebus, praecipue autem fundamento illarum non dissimiles 
erant. Omnibus vero numeris partibusque haec instituta aptes 
inter se et convenientia esse videntur ; nec melioribus Lycurgus 
uti potuit, quibus ea, quae vellet, consequeretur, ut civitas sua a 
ceteris separata, sibi sufficeret atquc suis viribus integra maneret. 
Post Lycurgum nullus legis lator effecit, ut in re publica tanta 
concordia, tantus amor patriae, tantus communitas animorum 

^*- IFinis.] 

CXCERO. iJPars qnarta,,] 

(10.) Cum e Sicilia me recepissem, iam videbatur illud in 
me, quidquid esset, esse perfectum et habere maturitatem quan- 
dam suam. (Brut., § 318.) 

(11.) [684 = 70] Me aedilem priorem cunctis sufiragiis popu- 
lus Romanus fecit (in Pison. § 2. Cf. Brut § 319 : Cum essem 
in plurimis causis et in principibus patronis quinquennium fere 
versatus, tum in patrocinio Siciliensi maxime in certamen veni 
designatus aedilis cum designato consule Hortensio. And in 
Yerr. 5, § 36: Nunc sum designatus aedilis; habeo rationem, 



LATINE. 13 1 



quid a populo Romano acceperim ; mihi ludos sanctissimos maxi- 
ma cum cura et caerimonia Cereri, Libero Liberaeque faciundos, 
mihi Floram matrem populo plebique Romanae ludorum celebri- 
tate placandam, mihi ludos antiquissimos, qui primi Romani 
appellati sunt, cum dignitate maxima et religione lovi, lunoni 
Minenraeque esse faciundos, mihi sacrarum aedium procura- 
tionem, mihi totam urbem tuendam esse commissam. ob earum 
rerum laborem et sollicitudinem fructus illos datos: antiqui- 
orem in senatu sententiae dicendar locum, togam praetextam, 
sellam curuiem, ius imaginis ad memoriam posteritatemque pro- 
dendae.) 

(12.) [687 = 67] Me praetorem primum cunctis suSragiis 
populus Romanus fecit (in Pison. § 2. Cf. de imp. Pomp. § 2 : 
Propter dilationem comitiorum ter praetor primus centuriis cunc- 
tis renuntiatus sum. And Brut § 321 : Praetor primus et in- 
credibili populi Romani voluntate sum factus. nam cum propter 
adsiduitatem in causis et industriam tum propter exquisitius et 
minime volgare orationis genus animos hominum ad me dicendi 
novitate converteram.) 

[^EeliqtM deinceps per8equemur,'\ 

C, lULIUS CAESAR, {Pats quinta.,'\ 

(23.) De Caesare saepissime audio, illum omnium fere orato- 
rum Latine loqui elegantissime ; nec id solum domestica consue- 
tudine, ut dudum de Laeliorum et Muciorum familiis audiebamus, 
sed, ut esset perfecta illa bene loquendi laus, multis litteris et eis 
quidem reconditis et exquisitis summoque studio et diligentia 
est consecutus : qui etiam in maximis occupationibus " de ratione 
Latine loquendi " adcuratissime scripsit (Brut, § 252 u. 253.) 

(24.) Caesaris orationes vehementer probantur. Atque etiam 
commentarios quosdam scripsit rerum suarum, valde quidem pro* 
bandos ; nudi enim sunt, recti et venusti, omni omatu orationis 
tamquam veste detracta; sed dum voluit alios habere parata, 
unde sumerent, qui vellent scribere historiam, ineptis gratum 
fortasse fecit, qui volent illa calamistris inurere ; sanos quidem 
homines a scribendo deterruit : nihil est enim in historia pura et 
inlustri brevitate dulcius. (Brut, § 262.) 

[Fim8,'\ 



132 



LATINE. 



ENGLISH SUPPLEMENT. 

[SUPPLEKENTUK ANGLICUM.] 

THE STXTDY Or ROMAN LAW, [rrofessor WiUiAm C, Morey, of 
Rochester Unijrersity.] 

The time has come vrhen it seems hardly necessary to say 
very much to emphasize the importance of the study of the 
Roman law in American coUeges. Since the lamented Hadley 
was accustomed to read his " Twelve Academical Lectures " to 




the seniors in Yale College, this study has gradually found an 
entrance into a considerable number of our best institutions of 
leaming. In some places it is presented, after the manner of 
Professor Hadley, in a brief course of lectures, as a merely inci- 
dental part of the currictilum, In other places it has become a 
more important part of the course of study. Facts which any 
person may observe, by looking over the " courses " marked out 
in various colleges, f umish a sufficient evidence that the apprecia- 
tion of the Roman law, as a liberal study, has been rapidly increas- 
ing in this country within a very few years. I make no notice of 
the fact that it has also been introduced into certain professional 
schools, as an accessory to the technical study of the English 
and the American law. 

It is quite certain. that there must be important reasons which 

Illustration : Standards, page 43. 



LATINE. 



133 



have led to the introduction of this study in those coUeges where 
it has already becn adopted, and which are worthy of considera- 
tion on the part of those faculties by whom it has not yet been 
accepted. It is, of course, impossible, in a brief statement like 
the present one, either to enumerate all these reasons, or to dis- 
cuss adequately any one of them. The following points may, 
however, indicate certain considerations which in some places 
have led, and in other places should lead, to the adoption of the 
Boman law as a liberal study. 

1. It is quite evident that the revolution in the study of the 
^' classics " has, in some cases, led to this result I do not refer 
to the improved and more systematic method of teaching the 
Latin and Greek languages ; but to the tendency to regard lan- 
guage as the expression of thought, and literature as the index 
of social life and civilization. 

The scientific impulse of recent times has not been success- 
f ul in excluding ^' classical " studies from the course of liberal 
education. But this impulse has certainly called the attention 
of educators to the question whether the old method of teaching 




these studies is the proper one. The idea which seemed to be 
impressed upon the benighted student of a f ormer age, that Livy 
and Horace and Tacitus wrote, and, in f act, that Boman litera- 
ture existed, chiefly to justify the correctness of the rules and 
«xceptions of Andrews and Stoddard'8 " Latin.Grammar," has, 

Hlustration: Triumph, page 48. 



134 LATINE. 



fortunatcly, to a great extent, passed away. This method of 
Rtudying literatnre for the sake of grammar is giving way to the 
disposition to study thingSy not instead of words, but in con- 
nection with words ; to regard grammar as a science having to 
do with the expression of thought ; to regard language as a ve- 
hicie of ideas ; and, ultimately, to regard literature as the product 




and index of civilization. The tendency thus to look through 
literature to the substance of national life has inclined all ^' clas- 
sical " teachers who are alive to spend a part of their time in 
directing the minds of their pupils to the social, political, and 
legal institutions of ancient peoples, and to suggest the connec- 
tion between these institutions and those exbting in modem 
timea. It is thus possible to see that there is a Greek and a 
Roman element in modem life that every intelligent student of 
thesc languages should understand and appreciate. 

Such considerations have led certain teachers of Latin to em- 
phasize the study of the various phases of Roman society and 
institutions, and, as prominent among these, if not the most im- 
portant, the Roman law. The reading of a part of the " Insti- 
tutes" of Justinian or of Gaius has been, in some places, intro- 
duced as a part of the Latin course. This has not necessarily 
been attended by any minute study of the details of the law ; but 
it has been sufficient to set forth the character of the legal lan- 
guage and the main outlines of the legal systenL It seems cer- 
tainly true that, if the Latin literature is worthy of a place at all 
in our modem education, its study should comprehend those dis- 
tinctive forms of thought which made Rome what she really was»- 

Dlustratioii : Triumph, page 43. 



LATINE. 



138 



and by which she still retains a grasp upon modern life and in- 
atitutions. 

2. Another tendency which has doubtless led to a greater 
appreciation of the Roman law as a liberal study has grown out 
of the new methods employed in the investigation and the teach- 
ing of history. 

As history comes to be treated in a more scientific way than 
formerly, its merely personal and narrative features give place to 
the study of those principles and institutions which enter into 
the organization of society. The analysis and significance of in- 
stitutions are considered more important tban the biograpby of 
individuals, or the mere picturesque description of events. In 
fact, the historical significance of men and events is judged by 
their relation to the growth of permanent institutions which 
enter into the structure of the state, and affect the well-being of 
society. The growth of political and legal institutions has thus 
come to form an important part of historical study and instruc- 




tion. The historical student, as he directs his attention to the 
growth and organization of European society, can not help being 
convinced of the important place and the all-pervading influence 
of the Roman Uw* Its surviyai in Europe afber the fall of the 
Westem Empire ; its coexistence with the Germanic law during 
the early mediseval period ; its indirect contribution to the feudai 

Hlustration: Triumph, page 43. (The Golden Gandlestick.) 



136 LATINE. 

and its direct infiltration into the canon law ; the support that it 
fumished to the power of the mediseval emperors and popes ; its 
cultivation as a science throoghout Westem Europe since the 
twelfth century ; its preservation in the modem civil law on the 
Continent of Europe ; its incorporation into many portions of 
the English Uw ; its direct and indirect influence upon the juris- 
pmdence of different States of the American Continent — are suJQB- 




cient to show that a knowledge of the legal history of Europe 
and America is impossible without some knowledge of tbe Ro- 
man law. On account of the perpetuity and diffusion of this 
system throughout the civilized world, it is not too much to say 
that its importance as a constituent factor of civil society is even 
greater in modem than it was in ancient times. What has con- 
tributed so largely to the growth of civilization ought certainly 
to be regarded as a worthy subject of historical study, and hence 
as forming an indispensable part of a iiberal education. 

In view of this historical significance of the Roman law, its 
study has already been introduced into a few colleges as acces- 
sory to the department of history. And every advance which 
is made in the direction of historical study, as a branch of lib- 
eral education, must necessarily lead, if the study is pursued in 
a scientific manner, to a greater appreciation of the Roman law 
as an essential element in the growth and organization of Euro- 
pean society. 

3. The organization of distinct departments or schools of 
political and legal science has, furthermore, tended to bring this 
subject within the range of liberal studies. 

niustration: Triumph, page 43. 



LATINE. 



1^7 



The disposition shown in certain quarters to recognize the 
general science of law as a means for giving breadth and disci- 
pline to the mind, and hence, as a branch of stndy, well suited 
to the purposes of a liberal education, can not be too highly com- 
mended. By the " science of law " is here meant something 
more than the technical knowledge of the professional lawyer, 
It includes a knowledge of the broad and fundamental principles 
which lie at the basis of all jurisprudence, whether public or 
private, intemational or municipal. The emphasis which has 
been given to the liberal study of law has required a greater 
degree of attention to be paid to the Roman system. This sys- 
tem not only shows, in the best possible way, the mode in which 
the general principles of justice may be applied to the specific 
and complex relations of civil society; but it also illustrates, 
better than any other, the successive stages of a normal legal 
growth. In its earlier stages it indicates how the custom of 
"self-help," which prevails in barbarous society, comes to be 
restrained and supplemented by regular judicial processes. In 
its development it shows how the extremely technical processe& 




of the primitive law are broken down by the use of " legal fic- 
tions," and are at first modified and finally superseded by more 
equitable modes of administeiing justice. And, in its complete 
scientific stage, it sets forth in a clear light those rational prin- 
ciples by which the value of every system of positive law must 
be finally tested. 



niastration: Triumph, page 48. 



138 



LATINE. 



Tbe important place which the study of tbe Roman law has 
occapied in the education of Continental Europe is well known. 
This is, in some respects, due to the close relation which the 
Continental law sustains to tbe Roman. But, for a similar reason, 
the indirect relation which the Roman system sustains to the 




English and the American law should give to it a greater educa- 
tional significance than is now accorded to it A system of 
^ucation should certainly bear some relation to the general 
needs of society. The vulgar belief that law is a wboUy profes- 
sional and technical subject, from the knowledge of which the 
**laity " should be entirely excluded, is, no doubt, an obstacle to 
the study not only of the Roman law, but of jurisprudence in 
general. But it hardly seems necessary to say that, especially 
under a democratic govemment, should the educated classes at 
least be able to judge of the character of the legislation which is 
to control the people, and the extent to which the administration 
of justice is adequately realized in the actual processes of litiga- 
tion. 



JLUaUSTUS. 

To contemplate the Emperor Augustus with the eyes of 
ihe poets of his time, his tyranny is at once explained and par- 
doned. He was able, happy, necessary, and indispensable ; he 
jhad studied the feeble and bloody side of all the tyrannies which 

lUiistntion: Triiimpli,page48. 



LATINE. 139 



had preceded his ; he had great hatred for the insolence and 
contumcly of Sulla, the savage brutality of Marius, the unre- 
strained vices of Antony ; he had in great emulation the gentle- 
ness and majesty of Oaesar. After his example, he had admitted 
to public honors sons of the exiled and proscribed. Absolute 
master, he preserved the attitude of a pliun citizen ; he had en- 
larged, without trouble and without noise, the boundaries of the 
empire; he had covered with magnificence and noble monu- 
ments the Etemal Oity. The people had seen him, with gen- 
tie hand, dress the dreadful wounds of the civil war ; teach this 
nation of soldiers respect for peaceful prosperity ; give honor to 
commerce, to trade, to travel, to navigation, to poetry, to bdleS' 
lettres ; to all, the arts of peace so well, that finally he had 
blotted out all his crimes, and won pardon for his treason. To 
lighten that load, heavier than Aetna, it was thrown upon his 
two coUeagues, the murderers of the Triumvirate. Glory is ab- 
soiution f or so many things ; good fortune is so good an excuse. 
He would not have wished for pardon, he counted so much upon 
the remembrance — Idnd remembrance— of history ; he even com- 
manded history. Augustus, tho emperor, had all the tastes, all 
the instincts of cultured minds: he knew philosophy and an- 
tiquity ; he could tum well an epigram ; he excelled in dictat- 
ing neat little verses ; he loved spectacular entertainments, and 
showed his favor to the comedians. Augustus was good sense 
in person, with a bit of irony. He never laughed so heartily as 
on the day when his attendant, who was marching before his 
majesty, on seeing a fierce bull rushing toward him, left his 
master in the lurch, and hid himself behind him. He was the 
prince beloved of bright minds, firiend of the elegances ; a good 
judge, in short, of productive genius. There would gather in 
the palace of Octavia, Augustus, Livia, Agrippa, Maecenas. 
Having heard with delight the reading of the ^^ Georgics," Au- 
gustus was preparing to listen to the ^' Aeneid,'' which he had 
been asking f or so of ten for eleven years. A poem as great as 
the *' Iliad " I Augustus was convinced of it The first book was 
read by Vergil. Maecenas, to permit the poet to rest, took the 
maDOBcript, and recited the second book. They came to the 
sixth, in the midst of the most rapt attention ; and when the 
poet reached these words, solemn as an ode, and touching as an 



140 LATINE. 

elegy, " Youth, you shall be Marcellus," Octavia fell senseless 
into the arms of her brother. Now Livia was there, full of fever 
and anguish, pale and panting beneath the eyes of the poet, as 
if the poet was about to point out the murderer of Marcellus. 
Gentle Vergil ! he was appalled at his triumph, and soon in all 
haste took leave of lofty Rome, of her temples, of her palaces, 
of her porticoes, of her soldiers, of her priests. He retumed 
calm aud silent to the orange-groves of his Parthenope, enamored 
of Nature, worshiping her as did Lucretius. He was the last 




friend, a last confidant, of the expiring polytheism. He aban- 
doned himself^ with all his soul, to those enchantments which 
were a part of his genius. He had chosen the most gentle as- 
pects to sing about ; his lif e had consisted in blessing them ; 
dying, he left them a part of himself. At this moment still, if 
one seek well for this great Yergil, you will find him at Naples, 
escaped from Cape Maecenum, at the shore of Cuma, where 
Aencas landed ; and, yet lower, in the cavem (antrum immane)^ 
by the shores of Lake Avemus. — From the French of Janin. 

niiistratioii: Spirit of Angastus as an eagle. 



LATINE. 141 



NOTES AND QUSRIES, 

In the Latin language there rules the striving after a con- 
crete conception, on the other hand, a lack of abstractness, which, 
however, it supplies in such various ways that enough of clear- 
ness and perspicuity is supplied. The lack of abstractness shows 
itself (a) in the small number of substantives and the wealth of 
verb forms. Suhstantives^ indeed^ are cthitractions already com' 
pleted ; while, on the other hand, verbs mark a contemplation 
ont of which alone an abstract expression of the universal can be 
made. (6) Moreover, there is a lack of abstract adjectives ; as 
there are only a few adjectives which are to be used for substan- 
tives, as sapiens, amicuSy familiaris. (c) The language also fails 
in aptness for forming compounds. 

Latin developed as a language for the people and in public 
business served a cautious statesmanship, and gidned its com- 
plete perfection in intelligent prose : hence it was f ar removed 
from the phiy with partly obscure conceptions — ^from the varia- 
ble and uncertain. With this clearness of thought was united 
cleamess of expression. 

Peculiar to it is a temperate and measured step (oratio com- 
posita). Seneca says of the orator, " Haheat vires magruis^ mode- 
ratas tamen: perennis sit unda, non torrens,^^ 

Since the Latin language had gained its perfection through 
actual use as a spoken language before it was applied to writing, 
it retained an oratorical character. As speech which was de- 
signed for the hearer, it allowed to number a ruling importance : 
the arrangement of the thought, the order of the words, the 
methods of uniting clauses aimed to be easily and accurately 
apprehended by the ear ; especially useful for matters of state, 
for circumstances of public life, for intelligent expression, it be- 
came a complete organ of eloquence. — From the German. 

" Such rules as * any noun, not an appositive, qualifying the 
meaning of another noun, is put in the genitive,' or * many ad- 
jectives take a genitive to complete their meaning,' seem to me 
injnrious to the beginner. He will be sure to give the former 
whenever he finds a genitive limiting a noun, and the latter 
whenever he finds a genitive limiting an adjective, and will fail 
to see the genitive idea. I can see no difference in the f orce of 
the genitiye in ^patiens lahoris ' and ^patientia lahoris.^ " B. 




Foram. 



LATINE. 143 

FROM OLD ROME, A Te»cher's Letter to bis rupils, [Ad&pted 
from the Germ&n.] lContinued,] 

SuDDENLY they heard Appius cry, with a voice of thunder : 
^^IActor sumtnove turbam et da viam domino ad prendendum 
manidpium ! " Great and small scattered when it was seen that 
the servants of the state were in eamest to fulfil the command 
of their master. Yirginius alone preserved his composure. 
With seeming calmness, he begged of the Decemvirs permission 
to speak a word or two of farewell to his daughter. Then he 
led Yirginia a little way apart from the crowd to the butchers' 
shops, which lay near by the Comitium^ then snatched up a 
knife and plunged it into his daughter^s heart, with the words, 
" Thus only, my child, can I save thee f or freedom I " but, turn- 
ing to the tribunal, he cried, ^^ Te, -^ppij tuumque caput eanguine 
hoc consecroP^ Then he rushed forth, breaking his way through 
the midst of the lictors, to arouse his comrades in the camp to 
take vengeance upon the tyrants who had driven him to so ter- 
rible a deed. 

The place in which such exciting scenes could be enacted 
was certainly not a favorable place for schools, and the Romans 
did well to put them at a distance. The stalls of the fishermen 
also had to disappear as more attention was given to the beau- 
tifying of the market-place ; only the bankers might remain. 
Instead of the low shops, the beautif ul pillared halls of the ba- 
silicas, built after the Greek model, now adomed the Foram. 
Caesar laid the f oundation for the most beautiful at the south 
side ; Augustus built it up and called it after his uncle, Basilica 
Julia. It was separated from the gathering-place of the peo- 
ple by the Yia Sacra, from which a few steps lead to the por- 
tico : if you entered at the upper end, you needed to mount only 
three steps ; but at the lower end, seven. This riddle would be 
difficult to solve so long as you did not know that the surface 
of the Forum sank somewhat toward the east, but that the f oun- 
dation of the basilica had the same height throughout. The 
roomy interior was used for the transactions of the courts, and 
could be shut off from the surrounding porches. In these, and 
npon the steps, the children abd wandering musicians moved 
about, as in the Bome of to-day they lounge upon the church- 
steps. That these not only chatted and slept here, but also played 



144 



LATINE. 



•eagerJy, is made evident by the many gaming-boards which are 
scratched on the marble slabs of the pavement In the open 
squares, in the coffee-houses, upon the streets, in the barracks, 
everywhere, one sees little circles, with six radii equally distant 
£rom each other, scratched in stone. In the Basilica Julia it is 
iisually a circle with eight radiL The decorations at the ends of 
the diameters, which look like little hats f or the stones, are, with- 
out doubt, for the game itself. £ach of the two players receives 
three pieces of different shape or color. These are placed alter- 
nately at first, then pushed fEurther along the lines. He wins 
whose stones occupy the three designated points of the same 




diameter. This game, which I have often played with Roman 
children, was an especial favorite of the ancients, because it so 
quickly decided gain and loss without the players being obliged 
to overexert themselves. 

Some, who found no pleasure in the serious matters within 
the basilica, practiced another kind of round game. In the por- 
tico extending toward the Forum is a table scratched into the 
marble. I will leave it to you yourselves to decipher the par- 
tially destroyed inscription. Apparently the players pushed a 

Hlnstnttion: So-ealled Arch of Constantine. 



LATINE. 1 48 

f 
little stone over tbe lines with the toe, and he conquered who 

bronght his tessera just where fT ^ was written. This sign, 

which is found in the most different patterns, means nothing but 

the Palma Feliciter, and represents here the picture of a palm, 

Ihe symbol of victory. 

If we step down to the Yia Sacra, at the east of the basilica, 

we are but a few paces from the ascent to the Temple of Castor 

and PoUux. The foundation is well preserved, and also a part 

of the mosaic floor of the cella, but only three columns are 

standing on the side, which are now bound together with iron 

bars. Certainly they are old enough to be supported, for they 

date from the time of Tiberius, who rebuilt this temple after a 

fire. It was founded by the young republic in honor of the two 

knightly youths who, in the fight on Lake Regillus, had helped 

to gain a wonderful victory. It was built on this spot because 

those Dioscuri had suddenly appeared here afber that battle, had 

announced the victory, and watered their sweating and thirsty 

horses in a little pond, the Lake of Jutuma. The temple was so 

spacious that often the sessions of the senate were held there, and 

the statesmen liked to address the people from the steps of the 

sanctuary. Caesar especially liked to talk here, and, in remem- 

brance of that, Augustus had a rostrum placcd near the temple, 

which he buHt directly opposite, in hobor of DivusJulius, The 

front (of the same) was adomed with beaks of ships captured at 

Actium. On the farther side of the square below the Capitol 

stood the rostra^ with trophies of the victories of the republic ; 

here shone the evidences of the glory of the Julian family, who 

through their buildings also always strove to draw the attention 

of the people more and more to themselves. On account of the 

erection of Caesar^s temple, a rearrangement of this place became 

necessary, which could not but affect the direction of the street 

At least it is certun, that the Yia Sacra went beyond to the cir- 

<:ular Temple of Vesta, but the ruin of that building is generally 

pointed out at the east of the Temple of the Dioscuri. 

JLNTIBARBARUS. lContinued.} 

Fable, thisfableteachesus, '^haec fabuladocet," without '^nos." 
Farewelly to bid one fisirewell, " valere iubere aliquem," not 
*^ vale dicere alicui " (poet and post-class.). 



146 LATINE. 



Fearlei% nsually by a circumlocution with "metus" or 
" timor," not by ** intrepidus " (postr<;lass. and poet.). 

Feel pain about something, *' dolorem capere ex aliqua re,*' 
not "de aliqua re." So " voluptatem capere," "percipere ex 
aliqua re." 

Fellow-cituen, " civis," not " concivis." 

Few, ** how few there are that are satisfied ! " " quotus quis- 
que est quin sua sorte contentus sit." " Only a few," simply 
" pauci." 

Fignrea» " geometric," " formae geometricae," not " figurae." 

Filled wiih joy, " gaudeo affici," or stronger, " perfundi," 
not " compleri," which is used only seldom by Cicero, while 
" gaudeo impleri " does not occur at all in his writings. In gen- 
eral, " complere," " implere," " explere," are not to be used in 
connection with substantives of emotion. 

Finally, when introducing the iast portion of discussion, 
"restat" or "reliquum est," not "postremo" or "ad extre- 
mum." 

Find, idiomatically— e. g., "find belief" — equals "fidem 
habere," " find satis&ction " equals " acquiescere in aliqua re," 
" fimd approval," " probarL" 

Fine opportunity, simply "occasio" or "occasio ampla," 
" praeclara," not " opportuna." 

First^ second, in counting, "unus" {not "primus"), "alter" 
(not " secundus "), " tertius," etc. 

Firstly, secondly, in enumerating, "primum, tum, deinde," 
not " primum, secundo, tertio." 

Flonriiliy " literature, arts flourish," " litterae, artes vigent," 
not " florent," which is used only of persons (usually with the 
ablative of cause) — e. g., "landibus, honoribus, gratia, auctori- 
tate vigent." 

Flnent of speeoh, " oratio expedita est et facile currit," not 
" fluit." But " flumen verborum, orationis " is classic. 

Fly on highy " sublime ferri," not " in sublime " or " sub- 
limiter ferrL" 

FoUowing, " in the f oUowing year," " in sequenti anno," not 
"sequente anno." He spoke as foUows, "haec dixit," not "se- 
quentia." 

It followi that» henoe, "sequitur ut," not "ex quo sequitur." 



LATINE. 147 

On the other kand, we say, " ex ^uo," " unde," " hinc efficitur 
ut," or acc. c. inf. 

Four, " within the f our walls," " intra parietes," not " intra 
quattuor parietes." 

Fn^^ents of writings, " reliquae " or " quae restant," not 
" fragmentum," which equais " a piece which is broken ofE." 

Free choioe, simply " optio," not " optio libera." 

Freely speak, " Hbere dicere," not " liberaliter." So frank- 
ness, " libertas." 

Fulfill one's duty, " officiura exsequi," ** tueri," " officio fun- 
gi," et al. ; " a promise," " promissum solvere," " ex-, persol- 
vere," "promisso stare," " satis&cere," not "officium, promissum 
explere." 

Oentlest, to use the gentlest expression, " ut levissime di- 
cam," not " ut lenissime dicam." 

Oesticulatey " gestum " (always in the sing.) " agere," not 
" gesticulationem " (post-class.). 

To giye laws, "lege scribere, condere, facere, constituere 
(leges dare " occurs Verr. 2, 49, 121 ; in RulL 2, 19, 52, and 20, 
54 ; Legg. 3, 2, 4). 

61ad to pennit, etc, " facile — e. g., pati — concedere," not 
" libenter." 

Go oyer to flome one, "transferri ad a]iquem,"no/ "transire" 
— e. g., the command goes over to — , " imperium transfertur 
ad— ." 

Grade, in many connections by " magnus " or " summus " — 
e. g., highest grade of authority, " summa auctoritas, gradus " — 
used only in connection with verbs, to picture a stairway or 
ladder, sucli as " ascendere, efEerri, collocari," etc. 

NXW YORK LETTBR. 

New York, TJumktgiving-Day, 188^, 

Mt dxas FaovBSSOR : A big jar (doiium) has just arrived here in New 

York from Rome. . Please do not say, '* Timeo Danaos etiam dona ferentes," . 

becanae it seems to be neither f or religious nor for political purposes that it 

has been brought over. It was dug up last year in the ezcavations newlj 

opened eztra muroe, and evidentlj belongs to the dassic periods of old 

Kome^ when the temples were stored with such kind of receptaclea contatn- 

ing wine, flonr, oil, and good meats for the feeding of the " gods." Dona fe- 

runt, onerantque aras, miictantque jwencos. 

- The jar landed at GasUe Garden, where all such scoriae of the Oid Worid 



148 LATINE. 



geQerallj do land ; and it was carted in a large wagon purpoeelj made for its- 
transportation. Fertur plaustro praeda trementL 

From the very first it attracted the attention of the crowds passing along 
Broadwaj, and an impromptu procession was formed behind it while it was 
wheeled up that thoroughfare. Mediaeque minans illabitur urbL 

There was a halt at the intersection of Broadwaj and Elerenth Street, 
where laborers were at work abating a portion of the iron fenoe that sur- 
rounds the cloister of Graoe Church. Through the breach went the jar, ac- 
oompanied bj the shouts of the multitude. £t monstnim infelix sacrata sisti- 
mus aroe. 

While the workmen were making ready to hoist the dolium on a marble 
pedestal, the crowd indulged in many a merry joke, which, intermingled with 
the remarks of the better dass, formed the good mixture of the '* utile dulci " 
of Horaoe. Some one sarcastically remarked, " More of that stnff from Cy- 
prus for the Museum." Another profanely added, ** That is the tiara of the 
old Pope put upside down by Victor Emanuel, sent to America for safe-keep- 
ing as a thing of the past.'* A third said, " Give the thing a shower-bath " ;. 
and, indeed, it looks as if the jar needed one, for evidently it has imbibed 
a good deal of moisture percolated through the cracks of Cloaca Maxima. 
Preaently a stout gentleman, who would have made a good Martial, added, 
^ Amphora non meruit tam pretiosa mori." To whom a coUege-boy, evidently 
quoting^ a classic, repUed, ** YiDa bonus quae deinde cadis onerarat Acestis.*' 
But as soon as the word ** vina " was pronounced, a half-drunken feUow ejacu- 
lated, '^Deprome quadrimum Sabina, o Roosevelt, merum diota," winking at 
an ex-Senator and his bUL Juvenal made us all laugh when, eying some 
tramp, subjoined : " Lata testudine doUa nudi. Non ardent cynici, si frege- 
ris altera fiet Gras domus.*' But a very good joke was that of some Tammany 
poUtician who, quoting VirgU, shouted, " Stat ductis sortibus uma 1 " and every- 
body laughed at the hint that the concem was brought there for the presi- 
dential campaign. The humor was checked by a gentleman in derical garb, 
as Bolemn as Zechariah of old, who, raising his umbrella as an intimation of ' 
sUence, in a stentorian Toice repeated, '* Et levaverunt amphoram inter terram 
et cadum ; . . . ut aedificetur ei domus in terra Sennar, et stabiUatur, et- 
ponatur ibi super basem suam 1 " AU the people, knowing not what else to- 
say, repUed, " Amen ! '* 

At this point the Rev. Dr. Huntington, the rector of Grace Ghurch, who- 
haa brought the jar aU along with him from Rome, entered the yard, ap- 
proached the yase, patemaUy patted its capacious beUy, mounted a ladder 
and, fadng the crowd, took out of a carpet-bag a big cap and a stout coUar 
to dress with them the newly-arriyed ** emigrant " in America's fashion, where, 
of oourse, eyery gentieman is expected to wear hat and ooUar. Both these- 
articles were marked, to be sure they should not be lost passing throngh the^ 
lanndry. The marks on the coUar were read by Dr. Huntington himself, and 
van in this hexameter : ** Roma dedit, pelagus vexit, me Gratia tenet." AU the- 
people cried aloud, **Pulchre, bene, recte!" The marks on the cap read 
'* Post fata resurgo,*' which, of oourse, everybody understood, in the Yankee 



LATINE. 149 



language, that the emigrant, after many fkilures and depressiona, had gonO' 
West to grow up with the country. 

But now things were getting pretty hot with the people, and everybody 
wanted to tell the story of the jar at one time, and each in his own way ; and 
you should haye heard the big jug literally bombarded with more names than 
the Hibemians erer invented to designate a man who has just been celebrat- 
ing St. Patrick*8 Day. One would say, ** That*B an amphora, a labrum, a ca- 
dum '* ; another, '* No, it*8 an oUa, an uma, a labes." A third would put. 
in, '* *Ti8 a dolium, a yas, a chonca, a hydria, a cupa, a cantharus, a cratera, 
a lagena, a seria, a testa, a diota, a cacabus ; . . .*' and it was well that one 
of the ** finest polioe in the world " should just appear on the spot, club in 
hand, smashing heads right and left, as it is a pious custom of the New 
York polioe, and, in less time than it takes to tell, disperse the mob : concus- 
sitque suis omnes assensibus undas (populi). 

By this time your oorrespondent, like metuens virgas jam grandis Achilles, 
had, by a back door, stolen into the yard ; and, as a wide-awake reporter of the 
" Herald*' or of the "Tribune" would do, began to make himself familiar 
wlth the yase. He sharply scrutinized the thing from head to foot, but not. 
even a mark, a sign, a date, or a name, oould he disooyer— only a big crack, 
and nothtng more. Not accustomed to our way of doing business, the " emi- 
grant *' was at the be^nning quite non-committal ; but when it was made to un- 
derstand that it was a reporter from Latine who was desirous to know its pedi- 
gree and futnre moyements, it was really coaxed into the bargain, and told its 
story in the foUowing distichs, which your correspondent did not repute " in 
pertusum ingerere dicta dolium " to transcribe and send to you. Here are 
the yery words that the crack spoke, ore (not much) rotundo : 
*' Quaerere signa, aetatem in me desiste, viator, 
lCatemasque rotas artificesque meos. 
Fieta tenere fayos, unguenta oleumve merumve 

Amphora ab initio tam pretiosa fui. 
Snb sacros abscondi Urbis per saecula colles ; 

Indignans sceptro degenerans patrio. 
Ast me mderibus nuper deduxit amica 

Hocque Americano transtulit orbe manus. 
En, patulis recubans claustris sub tegmine templl, 

Myrtos et hederas nbere yentre colam. 
Hac cnm yeste preces yotiyaque tura piorum 
Bectius accedent numina magna DeL'* G. Staudkr. 

The foDowing distich was oifered by the Bev. C. Stauder, to be inscribed 
at the foot of the marble spire of Graoe Ghurch in the city of New York,. 

jnst oompleted : 

MDCOOXLn 
Nata polo, mansi dudum. En, mea fata reviso, 
Mortali aetherias indicatura domoe. 
MDCCCLXXXrV. 



IBO LATINE. 



CHRIS7TAN LATZN UTERATURE. 

Augustine. Confessions. Edited by W. G. T. Shedd, with Biographicai 
Sketch. New Tork, 1864. 

Augustine. De Civitate Del Two vols. Leipsic, 1867. 

Bright, W. H. Dies Irae. TranBlated into English Verse. New York, 
1868. 

Gharles, Mrs. Christian Life in Song: Hymns and Hymn Writera of 
lCany Lands and Ages. New Tork, 1859. 

Coles, A. Thirteen Original Yersions of Dies Irae. New Tork, 1869. 

Coles, A. Latin Hymns, with Original Translations. New Tork, 1882. 

Cowan, W. Poems, chiefly Sacred, including Translations from Andent 
Latin Hymns. London, 1879. 

Holden. Minudus Feliz, with Introduction and Notes. London, 1863. 

France, J. F. Latin Prayers and Hymns. 

Fraser, 39, 627. Sacred Latin Poetry. 

Loftie, W. J. Latin Tear: Hymns. London, 1873. 

March, F. A. Latin Hymns, with English Notes. New Tork, 1874. 

Milman, H. H. History of Latin Christianity. YoL VIII, Book XIY, 
chaps. iii, iv. New Tork, 1861. 

Ozanam, A. F. History of Christianity in the Fifth Century. Trana- 
lated by A. C. Glyn, Vol. 11, chaps. vi, vii. London, 1867. 

Schaff, P. History of the Christian Church. VoL I, chaps. iii, viii; 
VoL II, chap. ii; VoL lU, chap. x. New Tork, 1867. 

Seven Great Hymns. Seven Great Hynms of the Mediseyal Church. 
New Tork, 1867. 

March, F. A. Selections from Tertullian. New Tork, 1876. 

Trench, R. C. Sacred Latin Poetry. London, 1879. 

Woodham. Apology of Tertullian, with Introduction and Notes. Lon- 
don, 1860. 

Wrangham, D. Sw Liturgical Poetry of Adam of St. Victor, with Trans- 
lation into English in the Original Meters and Notes. Three vols. London, 
1881. 

JReview ArHcUi (chiefly on the Dies Irae and Stabat Mater) : 

Am. Ch. Rey., 26, 203. 

Blackw., 87, 440, 369. 

Houra at Home (by Dr. P. Schaff). 

Macm., 19, 167 ; 28, 334 ; 30, 456, 668. 

Month., 22, 273. 

Ref. Quart, 27, 442. 

Scribner, 11, 797 (by General Dix). 

Fraser, 13, 497. 



Ittr e»t Umgum per praeeepta, tn-eve et ^ffleax per bzbioxa.— Sbnsoa. 



Latine. :c 



NpVI I . A rp X XT T? MENSE FEB. 

EBORACI. 1j A I I r\ rLi . MDCCCLXXXV. 



**Multa Soga: Bdine Docta: Betmia Z^."— Combnius. 

Leotcr: Quid tibi vis, O ephemeriB parvula? 
-' Laiine : TJt Terenti verba flectam : LaUni nihil a me alienum puto. ^' i^ 
«ntm ^om ^WYMC^arttm «<< t0»r« Latinb j^im»» ^«17« 7iefc«>«." — Cio. Bbut. oxl. 

XPISTULA. [Dat. Heidelherg&e,^ 

J. K. L., E. S. S., Editori Latine, S. P. D. 

Naoc hiems est. Nix cadit. Tantum frigoris est ut flumina 
constiterint, nec iam folia, flores, fructus, fruges apparent. La- 
bores hominum mutantur, nec agricolae in agris videri possunt. 
Hodie, dum de hieme putabam, mihi in mentem venit Horatii 
carmina cursim lcgere, ut quod is de hieme diceret, viderem. 
Expectandum non est ut poeta, qui terram habitabat qua sol 
paene semper lucet nec glacies fieri solet, multos versus de 
hieme scribat, sed Horatius, exceptis singulis verbis, quae per 
carmina dispersa sunt, quattuor carmina quae ad hiemem vel ad 
hiemem actam pertinent, scripsit. Neminem, qui Horatiana car- 
mina legit, carmen nonum primi libri non delectat. Quam belle, 
quam laute poeta terram niveam depinxit, ut omnes videant '* ut 
alta stet nive candidum Soracte '' I Quam eleganter silvae *^ la- 
borantes " dicuntur, cum rami onere nivis nondum vento motae 
ad humam pendent ! Arbores velut gigantes frigore stupefacti 
onus patienter subferunt Etiam flumina constiterunt. Sonus 
lymphae fugacis iam audiri non potest. TJbique silentium quies 
hiemalis. Ex rebus exteris ad domum intimam poeta se vertit. 
Ibi frigui, hic calor ; ibi gelu, hic ignis relucens. Ligna magna 
multaque super foco reposita frigus dissolvebant, et sodales cari 
▼ino curas pellebant. Is, qui nunc vitam agit, carmen legens, 
partem loquendi, canendi, bibendi paene sumere potest 

Carmen quartum eiusdem libri gratam vicem veris et Favoni 
describit. Arator, qui igni gavisus est, cum pecore per aprica 
prata, quae non iam canis pruinis albicant, incedit Pueri 
paellaeqae coronati capita flore *' terrae quem ferunt solutae " 



182 



LATINE. 



inter se choros ducunt, Venus lusum dirigit et per pectora amo' 
rem diffundit 

Adventus veris modo alio sed aeque jucundo in carminibus 
septimo et duodecimo libri quarti depingitur. Horatius de ho- 
minibus et de rebus in quibus homines versari solent, Bcribebat, 
sed omnes qui eius opera legunt non possunt quin confiteant, 
eum res naturae observitavisse et recte descripsisse. Yale. 

CARMKN MILTONn DE NATUriTATE CHRISTI CONTINUATXm. 
Jam bruraa tristis, jamque pruina adest, 
En obvolutus tegmine sordido 
Praesepe in agresti recumbit 
Filius ipse Dei colendi 



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Et terra mutat, flebiliter gemcns 
Carum Magistrum, purpureas vices ; 
Mittitque lascivos amores, 
Ludere cum Lycio nec ausa: 

Ambitque blandis alloquiis Notum, 
" Sis tu benignus, sparge nives solo," 
Suspirat, " Eheu, ne Creator 
Flagitium aspiciat scelusque. 

Terrae timores pelleret ut Deus, 
Pacem remisit, quae foliis comas 



inastration : ** Murmura proelii ^ [barbarians attacking Boman f ortificatkins]. 



LATINE. 188 

Ornata compostas olivae 
Labitur huc facilis salutis 

Optata Christi nuncia ; dividit 
Ut turtur alis nubila amantia, 
Lateque praetendens olivam, 
Foedera constituit per orbera« 




Non audiuntur murmura proelii 
Ullis in oris ; spicula postibus 
Affixa cum scuto : cientur 
Nec lituis equites ad arma. 

Defunctus armis quadrijugus stetit — 
Jam non ut olim sanguine sordidus ; 
Regesque praeseutem verentur 
Qui premit imperiis tyrannos. 

At nox colebat sacra silentia, 
Quum regna pacis diva Salutifer 
Aeternus in terris inivit; 
.puo Zephyrus stupet, et benignus 

Ldbat serenis oscula fluctibus, 
Et mira f austns gaudia praedicat, 

Iliustration : Romans attacking. 



184 



LATINE. 



Stridore sublato frementi; 
iDBuper et cubat ales undis. 

Mirantur et stant astra micantia, 
Sublimis ono Legiferi sui 

Defixa in obtutu ; retorquent 
Non alio validasque vires — 




Quae luce prima non capiunt fugam, 
Spreto minaci Lucifero, micant, 

Dum Numen aetemum profatur 
Se diare et in tenebras jubentur. 




Nox jamque pallens flammiferis equis 
Cedit ; sed illos sol rapidus tenet, 



lUustratioii r Romaii soldiers, and' LUuus, 



LATINE. 138 

Vultumque velavit, locutus : 
*' Terra mea face jam minore 

NoD indigebit, nam latet hic Deus, 
Lucis repertor, cui similis viget 
Lux nulla, Solis tu creator ! 
En tibi lumina nostra pallent'' 

Prof. THOifAfl L Gasson. 

PUONA LEXmaTONIENSIS ET ILJLA COLLIS BUNKERU. 

Longa mora esset * dicerc, quant& pervicaci&, quant&que lite 
a Senatu Britannico colonias Americanas jus tazandi arrogatum 
sit Nunc vero ad Martis horrentia arma maturemus. . . . 

Dux Gage, qai, ineunte anno millesimo, septingentesimo, sep- 
tuagesimo quinto, exercitui Anglico Bostoni». prsefuit, certior 
factus, vim magnam' instrumentoram apparati^sque belli, Con- 
cordiae, apud Novanglos, coactam fuisse, manipulos ' nonnullos, 
qui vim istam delerent, misit Hancockium Adamiumque, Gon- 
gresstU provincialis, qui tunc temporis Concordise convenerat, 
virod principes, apprehendi jussit. Hi manipuli, die Aprilis un- 
devicesimo, anno supr^ dicto, prim& Ince, iter Bostoni& facere 
coeperunt, snmmo silentio prof ecti, apprehensoque quoque obvio,^ 
ne adventu improviso vicinitas commoveretur ; qui tamen, armo- 
rum ignivomoram tintinabuloramque sonitu assiduo, consilia sua 
k colonis patefieri viderant. 

Hor& quint4, Lexingtoniam, quindecim milliaria Bostoni& dis- 
tantem, pervenerant. Militia, viridi in campo, juxta oppidulum 
8upr4 dictum, k prsafectis provincialibus, armoram ignivomorum 
ad usum, exercebatur. Legatus Pitcairaus, qui manipulo Britan- 
nico prsBfuit, magn& voce clamavit, '^fugite, rebelles, arma ab- 

1 [LoDguin est] 

• Vim magnam. By the noun vimj is here implied ** quantity," " num- 
her," or " multftude." 

' Ifanipulos, " detachments " or *' oompanies of troops " ; somewhat shni- 
lar to what we commonlj call a captun'8 company in modem armies. 

* Quoque oMo, '* Each " or ** every one ihey met " ; qttoque being the 
ablatiye case of the compounded pronoun quitque^ pUced absolutdy with the 
participle apprehenao, The cause of their arresting all whom they met, and 
proceeding with such drcumBpection, was with a view of not aJarming the 
mistutemen in the vidnity. 



186 LATINE, 

jicite, inque fugam ▼osmetipsos abripite/* Militi& provinciali 
iisdem vestigiis inliaorente, locoque cedere nolente, Pitcairnus 
milites regios militiam provincialero armis ignivorois petere jus- 
sit, quibus displosis, mnlti ex Americanis aut interfecti, aut vul- 
nerati sunt. Copias inde Concordiam duxit, ubi belli instruroenta 
ibi recondita deleta sunt. Militia colonica contra copias regias 
acerrime velitabatur, qu& certatione multi utrinque occisL Co- 
pias regias Concordi& sese Lexingtoniam recipientes, per sex mil- 
liarium spatium, magno impetu insequebantur Americani, qui, de 
lapideis muris, tuti, eas mir& celeritate incidentes, omui telorum 
genere, petebant. Copiis r^is laborantibus recentes nonnulli 
manipuli, cum duobus tormentis majoribus,' Lexingtoni» subre- 
niebant. 

Sub Maii mensis finem, regi» copise plurim» Bostoniam ad- 
rentabant, Howe, Burgoyne, Clintonioque, ducibus inclytis, im- 
perantibus. Haud long^ a Bo8toni&, collis, nomine Bunker, 
situR est, quem colonorum manipulus, Junii die decimo sexto, 
cepit, eumque munire instituit ; tant&qne diligenti& operi incu- 
buit, ut, priusquam lucesceret, munimentum rallumque castris 
pen^ circnmjecerit Quod ut vid^re copi» regi», a8sidu& tormen- 
torum majorum, omnigenorumque Hrmorum ignivomorum, op- 
pugnatione, opera solo »quare, propugnatoresque vallo f oss&que 
depellere enixe conabantur. Coroni, tamen, ab opere non cessa- 
bant, meridiemque circiter mnnimenta omnia perfecerant: qu» 
Americanorum audacia duces Anglos adeo efferavit, ut ad coUis 
Bunkcrii radices peditum legionem exponerent* 

Copi» regise summli virtute coliem ascenderunt ; cum autem 
Americanomm vallo castrisque appropinquarent, tantus glandium 
plumbearum imber in eos subito est effusus, ut torrentis ritu,* 
per semi-horam, caderet. C»des tam infinita facta, ut milites 
reterani, se stragem terribiliorem nunquam vidisse confit^rentur. 
Dux Howe, cujus virtus hac pugn& clarissime perspecta, paulisper 
fere solus permansit, prsefectorum miiitumqne parte maxim& aut 

' Tormeniu fnajarUm». By these are implied ^ cannons *' or " groftt guns '* 
of any capacity, in which sense they wQl be understood throoghout the work. 

* BqxmermL *'They landed" (d§ nanlnu sdlioet), literaUy, **they put 
out (o/ iheir tkyM). 

' TorreniU riht, ^ After the faahion or manner of a land-flood or tor- 
rent" 



LATINE. 187 

occifllL, aut valneratli. At tandenif copiia recentibus adventanti- 
bosy Americani dare terga coactL Oppidulam, quod de domibus 
oopisB colonic» propugnabanty quodque eis, inter pugnandum, 
perfugio erat, incenaum fuit 

In hoc prselio, pro numero pugnantium, c»des major utrinque 
facta, quam in nWk aiili pugnli, qu» totius belii spatio obtigit. 
£z parte Britannorum, milie homines cadebant; quingenti insig- 
nes viri de numero Americanorum, eo die, luce* carebant; in 
liis f uit Warrenius, medicus prseclarus, orator disertus, vir patri» 
amantissimus, qui cives suos in Anglorum dominationem injustam 
accendere haud desUtit Hoc prffilio facto, copise colonicae pro- 
pugnacula aggeremque loco excelso contra Carolopolim fec^re ; 
agilitate audacilique hostium animos perculsere, eo magis, qu6d, 
Teterani Britanni suam iaudem' virtutemque pr»dicantes, mili- 
tiam provincialem ez animo despicere solebant Prffisidium 
Bostoniense, ad inedi» extremum, jam diutum& obsidione de- 
ductum. — Glass. 

J}X JPUONA TAURORUM* [Protessor D. H. R., Unijrersity ot 
KansAS,] 

O Editor nobilissime omnium editorum qui unquam atramen- 
tum adsperserunt, quoniam tu amator disciplinae et morum reo- 

1 ZiMe. ^* lif e " ; ha ia f requently used, figuratively, for life, espedally 
«mong the poets. 

' Laudem, ** Gommendable or praiseworthy actions " ; for lcnu means 
often, not so much praise^ as thote deeds which merit it Thus, Virgil : " SutU 
4iiam hie eua praimia laudiy^^ " Noble deeds have their own rewards, even 



s Anni aestate prioris, quo tempore, 

" Procyon f urit, 
£t stella Yesani Leonis, 
Sole dies referente siccos," 
«d ocddentalem hujus dTitatis partem, ut operam darem negotio, profectus 
flom. Eodem fere tempore forte eTenit ut cives Urbis Dodgensis pugnam 
tsarorum Hispanicam ezhiberent. Itaque quidam editores insimulabant me 
urfoe ezivisse ad hoc speotaculum yidendum. Editor ** Temporum Urbis Ean- 
«ensis ^ praedpue saepe hoc dioebat. Domum revertens inclusam narration- 
em seribebam ad illum editorem missurus, sed bis reputans non misi. Nunc 
Tenit ad te, quft utaris si TeHs ; si non, ad me remittas. Vale. D. H. R. 
Kalendis Febmariis, Laurentiae Kans., MDCOGLXXXY . 
PkMoeptori E. a SHincwAT. 



1«8 LATINE. 

toram es, et semper cupidus juveaes in viam virtutis ducendi, 
tibi lectoribusque veram fabulam de pugna taurorum urbe Dod* 
gensi narrabo. Multi rumores faUi a malevolis ^el invidis vul- 
gati sunt, sed utiiitas veritatis et classicorum iudorum poscit ut 
fiicta dicantur. 

Ignoscas mihi, si scribam latine, quod illa lingua est sola 
apta, ut tu bene scis, ad pugnam taurorum narrandam. 

Claras pugnas cum tauris commissas priscis temporibus noa 
est mihi in animo commemorare ; — nec quo modo Jason sube^ 
gerit tauros flammas exspirantes, nec Tbeseus Minotaurum inter- 
fecerit. Nec mentionem etiam faciam tauri quem papa contra 
cometen quondam edidit, nec adversus Lutherum, nec aliorum 
taurorum raticanorum. 

Nunc erit satis, superque forsan, pugnam Dodgensem explicare. 

Magnae fuerant praeparationes a magistratibus ut hospites 
benigne acciperentur. Webster, praetor urbanus prudens vir, in 
cella reposuerat magnam vim spiritus frumenti, vini, et validae 
cerevisiae ; nam bene sciebat quam valde spectatores hoc tem- 
pore vellent bibere. 

Benevolus vir putabat neminem frustra sitire debere ! Hones- 
tus Lucas Brevis et confratres etiam praeparaverant ut custodes 
boum deiectarentur. Omnes apparatus fraudandi in conspicuis 
locis ostendebantur ut nulla occasio lucrum acquirendi deesset» 
Multae puellae pictae aderant ut pocda porrigerent, instrumenta 
musicae punirent, et aliis miris modis ministrarent. Mareschallus 
urbis etiam praeparaverat Pueri, qui boves custodiunt, dice- 
bant,— et qui debent melius scire ? — illi esse magnum atrium quo. 
pulcherrimae puellae scflerent elegantissime saltare, et amatoribua 
dulcissima basia dare. ^^ Ille sagax vir,*' inquiabant pueri, ^' in 
urbom importaverat eo tempore puelias pulchras multas, ut urbs 
gratior omnibns amicis videretur.'' Magnopere eum pueri lauda- 
bant Nobilis vir est mareschallus, et dignus urbe ! 

. Quinque tauri ad pugnam destinati empti erant Veteres et 
viles scilicet, sed forsitan fcroces ! Mugientes f erociter, pulve- 
rem projicientes tauri pugnam expectabant. Quisque custos 
boum cum optima puella in magno amphitheatro sedebat. Tur* 
bidum fluraen quidem constitit ut certamen spectaret. Expecta* 
tio ingenti ore inhiabat. Subitp tuba clare sonuit Taurus in 
arenam saluit, et instanter omnes matadores et picadores super 



LATINE. 189 



yallun] projecit cornibus. Magnis clamoribus theatrum resonuit. 
Haec res ita terruit niatadores ut in arenam non reverterent, sed 
se celarent post vallum. Sic ille taurus victor exiit. Primus 
sanguis tauro ! 

Tum intravit macer, mitis taums. NuHam vim liabuit. Non 
voluit pugnare ; potius maluit gramen edere. Nunc matadores 
fortissimi erant. Hunc timidum ausi sunt pellere, et hastis pun- 
gere ; sed jussi sunt desistere a spectatoribus. 

Pueri hoc facere possunt ipsi. Vulnerare talia animalia facile 
est Pugnam volunt videre. Primum taurum igitur poscunt. 
Iterum intrat ille taurus ferox, exeunt perterriti pugnatores pas- 
sim I Taurus est magister. Matadores conf ugiunt in tabemas, 
pueri sequuntur, et magistratus celeriter festinant ut hospitibus 
ministrent. Mox omnes tcmulcnti, pueri puellaeque, bacchantur 
et inter se pugnant usque ad mane. 

Hanc esse veram fabulam multi Kansensis Urbis, et Laurentiae 
editores, qui pugnam viderant, testabuntur. 

CrCXRO. [JPars quinta,,^ 

(13.) [690 = 64] Me cuncta Italia, me omnes ordines, me 
nniversa civitas non prius tabella quam voce priorem consulem 
declaravit (in Pison. 1 § 3. Cf. pro Mur. § IV : Mihi ipsi ac- 
cidit, ut cum duobus patriciis, altero improbissimo atque auda- 
cissimo, altero modestissimo atque optimo viro, peterem consula- 
tum ; superavi tamen dignitate Catilinam, gratia Galbam.) 

(14) [691 = 63] £go qualem Kalendis lanuariis acceperim 
rem publicaro, intellego : plenam sollicitudinis, plenam timoris ; 
in qua nihil erat mali, nihil adversi, quod non boni metuerent, 
improbi exspectarent : omria turbulenta consilia contra hunc rei 
publicae statum et contra vestmm otium partim iniri, partim 
nobis consolibus designatis inita esse dicebantur. Sublata erat 
de foro fides, non ictu aliquo novae calamitatis, sed suspicione 
ac pertnrbatione iudiciorum; extraordinaria non imperia, sed 
regna qnaeri pntabantur. Quae cum ego non solum suspicarer,! 
sed plane ceraerem — neque enim obscure gerebantur — , dixi in 
senatu, in hoc magistTatu me popularem consulem futnram» 
Quid eniin est tam populare quam pax t qua non modo ei, quibus 
natura sensum dedit^ sed etiam tecta atque agri mihi laetari viden-^ 
UUi qnid tam populare quamlibertas? quam non solum ab homi- 



160 LATINE. 

nibua, verum etiam a bestiis expeti atque omnibus rebns auteponi 
videtis etc. (de iege agr. 2 g§ 8, 9). 

(15) £go Kalendis lanuariis senatum et bonos omnis legis 
4igrariae maximarumque largitionnm metu liberavi; ego agrum 
CSampanum, si dividi non oportuit, conservavi, si oportnit, me- 
lioribus auctoribus reservavi ; ego in 0. Rabirio perduellionis reo 
XL annis ante me consulem interpositam senatus auctoritatem 
-sustinui contra invidiam atque defendi ; ego adulescentis bonos 
«t fortisy sed usos ea condicione f ortunae, ut, si essent magistratus 
adepti, rei publicae statum convolsuri viderentur, meis inimicitiis, 
nuila senatus mala gratia, comitiomm ratione privavi ; ego An- 
tonium conlegam, cupidum provinciae, multa in re publica mo- 
lientem, patientia atque obsequio [meo] mitigavi ; ego provinciam 
-Galliam senatus auctoritate exercitu et pecunia instructam et 
ornatam, quam cum Antonio commutavi, quod ita existiroabam 
tempora rei publicae ferre, in contione deposui reclamante populo 
Bomano ; ego L. Catilinam, caedem senatus, interitum urbis non 
obscure, sed palam moUentem, egredi ex urbe iussi, ut, a quo 
legibus non poteramus, moenibus tuti esse possemus ; ego tela 
•extremo mense consulatus mei intenta iugulis civitatis de coniu- 
ratorum nefEiriis mauibus extorsi ; ego faces iam accensas ad huius 
iirbis incendium comprehendi, protuli, exstinxi. Me Q. Catulus, 
-princeps huius ordinis et auctor publici consilii, frequentissimo 
senatu parentem patriae nominavit ; milii vir clarissimus L. Gel- 
lius his audientibus civicam coronam deberi a re pnblica dixit ; 
mihi togato senatus non, ut multis, bene gestae, sed, ut nemini, 
conservatae rei pubiicae singulari genere supplicationis deorum 
immortalium templa patefecit. £go cum in contione abiens 
magistratu dicere a tribuno plebis prohiberer ea quae constitu- 
eram, cum is mihi tantum modo ut iurarem permitteret, sine una 
-dubitatione iuravi, rem publicam atque hanc urbem mea unius 
opera esse salvam, ac mihi populus Romanus universus illa in 
contione non unius diei gratulationem, sed aetemitatem immor- 
"talitatemque donavit, cum meum ius iurandum tale atque tantum 
iuratns ipse una voce et consensu approbavit ; quo quidem tem- 
pore is meus domum fuit e foro reditus, ut nemo, nisi qui miecum 
esset, civium esse in nnmero videretur. Atque ita est a me con- 
sulatus peractus, ut nihil sine consilio senatus, nihil non appro- 
lante populo Romano ^erim, nt semper in Rostris curiam, in 



LATINE. 161 



senatu populum defeQderim, ut multitudinem ctim principibus,. 
equestrem ordinem cum senatu coniunxerim. exposui breviter 
consalatum meum. (In Pison. §§ 4 — 7.) 

(16) Fuit mihi commodum curare, ut meae quoque essent 
orationes, quae coilfltilaxes nominarcntur. Quarum una est in 
senatu EaL lanuariis; altera ad populum de lege ag^raria ; tertia 
de Othone, quarta pro Rabirio ; quinta de proscriptornm filiis, 
sexta, cum provinciam in contione deposui ; septima, qua Catili- 
nam emisi ; octava, quam habui ad populum postridie quam Cati- 
lina profugit ; nona in contione, quo die AHobroges invocarunt ; 
decima in senatu Nonis Decembribus. Sunt praeterea duae bre- 
ves, quasi diroaTrcuTfidTia legis agrariae. (Epist ad Attic. 2, 1, 3.) 

(17) [692 = 62] In senatu Ealendis lanuariis sic cum Me> 
tello de re publica disputavi, ut sentiret sibi cum viro forti et 
constanti esse pugnandum A d. IIL Nonas lanuarias cum agere 
coepisset, tertio quoque verbo orationis suae me appeliabat, mihi. 
minabatur; neque ilii quidquam deliberatius fuit, quam me,. 
quacumque ratione posset, non iudicio neque disceptatione, sed 
vi atque impressione evertere. Huius ego temeritati si virtute 
atque animo non restitissem : quis esset qui me in consulatu non 
casu potius existimaret quam consilio fortem fuisse ? (Epist. ad 
famil. 5, 2, 8.) 

(18) [696 = 68] Promulgantur uno eodem tempore roga- 
tiones ab eodem tribuno (P. Clodio) de mea pemicie et de pro- 
vinciis consulum nominatim. hic tum senatus sollicitus, vos,. 
equitee Bomani, excitati, Italia cuncta permota, omnes denique 
omnium generum atque ordinum cives summae rei publicae a 
consulibus atque a summo imperio petendum esse auxilium arbi- 
trabantur. . . . Tum vir incredibili fide, magnitudine animi, 
constantia, L. Ninnius, ad senatum de re pubiica rettulit sena- 
tusque frequens vestem pro mea salute mutandam censuit (Pro 
Sest §§ 25, 26.) 

(19) Erat igitur in luctu senatus, squalebat civitas pubhco- 
consilio veste mutata; nullum erat Italiae municipium . . . 
nullum conlegium aut concilium aut omnino aliquod commune 
consiUnm, quod tum non honorificentissime de mea salute decre- 
visset, cum subito edicunt duo consules, ut ad suum vestitum 
senatores redirent (Pro Sest § 32.) 

(20) Cum viderem, senatum, sine quo civitas stare non posset,. 



162 LATINE. 



omnino de civitate esse subUtam, consules, qui duces publici 
consilii esse deberent, perfecisse nt per ipsos pablicum.con»ilium 
funditus toUeretur etc. . . . haec ego et multa alia cogitans aer- 
▼avi rem publicam discessu meo ; caedem a vobis liberisque ves- 
tris, vastitatem, incendia, rapinas meo dolore luctuque depuli, et 
unus bis rem publicam servavi, semel gloria, itcrum aerumna 
mea. (Pro Sest. § 42 ss. ; 40.) 

(21) Decrevit senatus freqnens de meo reditu Ealendis luniis, 
dissentiente nullo, referente L. Ninnio, cnius in mea causa num- 
quam fides virtusque contremuit Intercessit Ligius iste nescio 
qui, additamentum inimicorum meorum. (Pro Sest § 68.) 

(22) litterae mihi a Q. fratre cum senatus consulto, quod de 
me est factum, allatae sunt. mihi in animo est legum lationem 
«xspectare, et si obtrectabitur, utar auctoritate senatus et potius 
vita quam patria carcbo. (Epist ad Attic. 3, 26.) 

(23) [697 = 57] Veniunt Ealendae lanuariae : quae tum 
frequentia senatus, quae exspectatio populi, qui concursus lega- 
torum ex Italia cuncta, quae virtus, actio, gravitas P. Lentali 
consulis fuit, quae etiam conlegae eius moderatio de me. Tum 
princeps rogatus seutentiam L. Ootta dixit id, quod dignissimum 
re publica fuit, '^ Nihil de me actum esse iure, nihil more maiorum, 
nihii legibus ; non posse quemquam de civitate tolli sine iudicio ; 
de capite non modo ferri, sed ne iudicari quidem posse nisi 
comitiis centuriatis; vim fuisse illam, flammam quassatae rei 
publicae perturbatorumque temporum iure iudiciisque sublatis ; 
magna rerum perturbatione impendente declinasse me paullum 
et spe reliquae tranquillitatis praesentis fluctus tempestatemque 
fugissc. qua re me, qui nulla lcge abessem, non restitui lege, 
sed revocari senatus auctoritate oportere.'' Hunc nemo erat quin 
Yerissime sentire diceret. Sed post eum rogatus On. Pompeius, 
approbata laudataque Oottae sententia, dixit ^^ Sese otii mei causa, 
ut omni populari concitatione defungerer, censere ut ad seoatus 
auctoritatem populi quoque Bomani beneficium erga me adiun- 
geretur.*' . . . Oum omnia mora, ludificatione, calumnia senatus 
auctoritas impediretur, venit tandem concilio de me agendi dies 
.VIII Ealendas Februarias ; sed cum Olodius et eius asseclae, cnm 
forum, comitium, curiam multa de nocte armatis hominibus ac 
servis plerisque occupavissent, ca^edes in foro. maxima facta est. 
(Pro Sest. §§ 72— 76.) 



LATINE. 168 

(24) Tandem in una mea causa-post Romam conditam factum 
est ut litteris consularibus ex senatus consulto cuncta ex Italia 
omnes qni rem publicam salvam vellent convocarentur. Lentulus 
consul senatum in Oapitolium convocavit, ibique in templo lovis 
Optimi Maximi senatus consultum de me factum est in Pompeii 
sententiam, qui de scripto sententia dicta mihi uni testimonium 
patriae conservatae dedit. Decrevit eodem tempore senatus, ut 
eis, qui ex tota Italia salutis meae causa convenerant, agerentur 
gratiae. (Pro Sest. §§ 128, 129.) 

(25) Pridie Nonas Sextilis lex de nobis lata est, eodemque 
die Dyrrhachio sum profectug ; Brundisium veni Nonis Sextili- 
bus. Ante diem VI. Idus Sextilis cognovi, cum Brundisii essem, 
litteris Quinti, mirifico studio omnium aetatum atque ordinum, 
incredibili concursu Italiae legem comitiis centuriatis esse perla- 
tam. Inde a Brundisinis honestissimls omatus iter ita feci, ut 
undique ad me cum gratulatione legati convenerint. Ad urbem 
ita veni, ut nemo ullius ordinis homo nomenclatori notus fuerit, 
qui mihi obviam non venerit, praeter eos inimicos, quibus id 
ipsum non liceret aut dissimulare aut negare. Oum venissem ad 
portam Oapenam, gradus templorum ab infima plebe completi 
erant, a qua plausu maximo cum esset mihi gratulatio significata, 
similis et frequentia et plausus me usque ad Oapitolium celcbravit, 
in foroque et in ipso Oapitolio miranda multitudo fuit. Postridie 
in senatu, qui fuit dies Nonarum Septembr., senatui gratias egi- 
mus. (Epist ad Attic. 4, 1, 4, et 5.) 

[Religiia deinceps penequemur.'] 

BLANDIOR SALUTATIO INTER AMANTES, [ErAsmus.^ 

Mea Oorneliala. 
Mea vita. 
Mea lux. 
Meum delicium. 
Meum suavium. 
Salve -( Mel meum. 

Mea voiupta unica [singularis ?J. 
Meum corculum. 
Mea spes. 
Meum solatium. 
Meum decus. 



164 LATINE. 



ENGLISH SUPPLEMENT. 

[sUPPLBICEirrUH ANGLICUH.] 

LATiN WRimra, 

Thb writing of Latin not only presopposes a tborough knowl- 
edge of the language, but also produces it. '^ Without tbis prac- 
tice we evidently should not have gained so complete knowledge 
of the oid Latin, not so mucb familiarity witb its peculiarities, 
witb the delicate sbades of meaning in the words, with the rules 
for the position of words and clauses, and the entire arrange- 
ment of the period. For only he who writes masters entirely 
the foreign manner of expressing his thoughts ; vfhile with pa- 
timt industry he handUs the dead language <u a living ane, he 
acquires, so far ae this is possible, the ahility to perceive delieate 
distinetions in the same.'*^ 

By the study of Latin style, one^s style in bis native language 
is perfected. The chief requirements of good style, cieamess 
and elegance, the writers of the so-called golden age entirely ful- 
fiU. Whoever writes Latin to-day must therefore try to come 
as near as possible to them, and, if he does not succeed in reach- 
ing them, yet he will make himself familiar with the properties 
of a good style, and will strive to bring the same into vogue in 
the employment in writing of the mother-tongue. Practice in 
writing Latin is a school of clear thinking^ of precision^ and ele- 
gance of expression, 

In Latin, a dead language, a supply of words has been giyen 
which can be increased only by the discovery of lost books ; in 
general, the words have so fixed a meaning that they pertnit no 
confused playing with obscure conceptions ; in the connection and 
arrangement of the words, in the arrangement of the clanse and 
period, the Latin has many peculiar properties differing from the 
modern languages, and which lay a certain constraint, it is true, 
upon the writer of Latin, but also impel him to earnest study 
and sbarp inspection. For tbis reason also, exercises in Latin- 
writing should not be ncglected in our higher institutions of 
learning; moreover, they have a pedagogical worth not to be 
lightly esteemed, since tbey accustom, through the limitation to 



LATINE. 168 

a field which is hedged, the yoathfiil spirit (apt to transgress), 
to be temperate and submit itself to rule and law. 

Finally, the view that Latin is no longer rich enough for the 
treatraent of modern sciences rests principally upon incomplete 
knowledge of the language. Latin is not so poor that it ia un- 
dble to express every clear thought of to-day ; nay, in many cases, 
the expression is more concise and pithier than in the modem lan- 
guages, — Selected/rom the German of Hand. 

ANTIBARBARUS, [Continued.^ 

Handed down to ns, " memoriae traditum est, proditum est," 
not " nobis traditum est," still less " memoriae mandatum est," 
which equals " it has been committed to memory." 

Happy life, "beata vita, beate vivere, beatum esse," not 
" beatitudo " or " beatitas " (occurring only once). 

Healthfiilness, " valetudo bona, prospera," not " valetudo ^ 
alone. 

Hear well, " auditu valere, acri esse auditu," not " bene an- 
dire," to be in good repute. Not to hear — i. e., to be deaf — 
" auribus captum esse," not " non audire." 

Hexameter, " versus herous," not " heroicus," but " aetas be- 
roica, tempora heroica," the age of myth. 

Hinder from, " impedio quominus hoc facias," not "impedio 
te quominus — y 

I am £eur from doing, "longe absum ut," not "mnltnm 
abest," etc. 

Ig^ominionsly, " per ignominiam," iu)t " ignominiose " (late 
Lat.). But " ignominiosus " is classic. 

I have to do with yon, " res mihi tecum est." 

Lnmeararable, of abstract things, " ingens, incredibilis," not 
" immensns," which is used almost entirely with concretes. 

Immobility, " stabilitas," not " immobilitas " (poslrclass.), bnt 
immovable, "immobilis." 

Immortal, the immortal Schiller, " Schillerus poeta divinns," 
not " immortalis." The immortals is " dei (di) immortales,'' not 
" immortales " alone. 

Inanimate, "inanimus," not " inanimatus." On the other 
hand, animate is " animatus." Cf. " armatus — inermis." 

Indnbitable, " non dubius," not " indubius." 



166 LATINE, 

Induce one'8 ael^ '* animum inducere/' with inf., not ^' in 
animum ducere, persuadeo mibi." 

Inglorioufly the Latin word " inglorius " (opp. " gloriosus), 
not " ingloriosus." Our Piato, our writer, our place, hic or ille 
(hic de quo nunc agitur, or agimus) Plato, scriptor, locus, not 
noster [but Cic. says, Orat 28, 99, hic noster]. 

Ingratitude, " animus ingratus." 

Inhabit a place, " incolere iocum " (of a body of people), 
not " habitare," which equals " to dwell " (with preposition " in, 
apud, cum," and used of individuals). 

In honor of, " honoris causa " or " ad honorem," not " in 
honorem." 

Inhospitable, " non hospitalis," not " inhospitalis " (poetic, 
post-ciass.), but inhospitality, ** inhospitalitas." 

Injarions to, " inutilis, qui nocet," et al., not " noxius," which 
is only used absolutely (" homo nozius " equals evil-doer). 

Innumerable, " innumerabilis," not " innumerus" (poet. and 
post-class.). 

Instinct, " appetitus, appetitio," not " instinctus," which 
equals incitement, impulse, etc»— e. g., " instinctus divinus." 

Instruct 8ome one in — ^ " erudire aliquem litteris," not " in 
litteris," but " erudire aliquem in iure civile, in re militari." 

Infltmction of children, " disciplina puerorum or puerilis," 
nol " liberorum." 

Into the midst of the enemiea» "in medios hostes," not 
" medios in hostes." 

Introdnction in an essay, treatise, or oration, " proemium, 
exordium," not " introductio," which occurs only once in Cicero 
(Letters) in a local sense. 

Innndation, " eluvio," not " inundatio " (poslrclass.). 

Invasion, " incursio," not " invasio," which is late Latin, as 
is " invasor." Note " invadere in hostes." 

Involved in many occupations, "implicatus multis negotiis," 
not " in multis negotiis." 

Italy, Upper Italy, " Gallia Cisalpina " ; Lower Italy, " Grae- 
cia Magna," not " Italia Superior, Inferior." 

It was long ago that, " diu est cum," not " diu est quod." 

Keep one'8 word, " fidem servare " (opposite " fEdiere "), not 
^* fidem tenere." 



LATINE. 167 

Kind, meD of every kind, ** bmne genos hominam/' not 
" homines omnis generis " [but Cicero uses the latter, according 
to Georges]. 

Know, " novisse," not *' cognoscere," which equals leam to 
know. 

KnoWy " we know " (i. e., it is handed down to us by his- 
tory about historical deeds), " memoriae " or " memoria prodi- 
tum est," "traditum est" (without "nobis"), "accepimus," 
" tradunt," " dicunt," " ferunt," not " scimus." " I know quite 
well that — ^" equals " non ignoro," " non sum ignarus," " nes- 
cius " (not " inscius "), " probe," " plane " {not " bene ") scio. 

NoTE. — Who does not know, " quis ignorat '* ? no< " ^oret." After a clause 
b^iimiiig with "quod," meaning "aa to the fact that,'* the imperative 
" know '* should not be translated. Otherwise the imperatiye is " scito '* 
("scitote"), no<"scl" 

Late, too late, " sero," not " serius," which equals later than. 

Latin, good Latin, " sermo Latinus," not " sermo bene Lati- 
nus, bene Latine dicere." To translate into Latin, " in Latinum 
vertere," not " Latine vertere" [but " Latine reddere" (see D. 
Or., 1, 165)]. 

L^slator, " legum scriptor, conditor, inventor, qui leges scri- 
bit " [" legislator " occurs three times in Cicero's ** Orations "]. 

Life or Biography, " vitae descriptio, enarratio," or simply 
*^ vita," not " curriculum vitae." 

Liking, according to one^s, " ad libidinem, ex libidine, ut 
libet, arbitrio, etc.," not " ad libitum," which is entirely un-Latin. 
Only Tacitus has " libita, libitorum " in the plural. 

Little, " non multum," " non magnopere," " paulum " — e. g., 
" differre," not " parum," which equals " non satis," which equals 
" too little " ; " so little " equals " ita non," " adeo non " ; " how 
litUe " equals " quam non " ; " no little," " non mediocriter " ; 
** how few there are who are satisfied " equals " quotus quisque 
est qui sua sorte contentus sit " ; " only a few," simply " pauci." 

Liye, in chronology, "esse," not ''vivere," which equals (1) 
to be alive, (2) to conduct one'8 life — e. g., "laute, in otio." 

Live well — i. e., sumptuously — "laute vivere," not "bene 
(honestly) vivere." 

Make a bridge over, " pontem in flumine facere," not " trans 
flumen." 



168 LATINE. 

Gratitude, ^^animas gratus/' or even *' pietas/* no^ *' grati- 
tudo/* which is not a Latin word. 

Make better, ** corrigere mores alicuius/' not ^' corrigere ali- 
quem." 

The matter has gone to &r that, ^' res eo '* or '< in eum 
locum deducta est, ut.*' The matter has come to war, '* res ad 
arma venit." 

Hatter whicli is diiKmaiied or disputed abont, " causa," not 
"rea." 

Many, miioh money, " magna pecunia " ; roany troops, 
'^ magnae copiae," not <' multa pecunia, multae copiae." Many 
weighty reasons have compelled me, '* multae et graves causae 
me impulerunt ut — " . 

Mediterranean, ^'mare medium, intemum" (the Romans 
said *' mare nostrum "), ¥iot *^ mare mediterraneum." 

Mention something, "mentionem facere alicuius rei or de 
aliqua re," not " commemorare," which equals ^'to bring some* 
thing back into the remembrance of one*s self or others." 

MemoirSy Xenophon's '* Memoirs of Socrates," *^ Xenophon- 
tis dictorum factorumque commentarii," not ** Xenophontis me- 
morabilia Socratis." 

Merit (worthy of, because of a characteristic)) '*dignum 
esse " with ablative, or " dignns esse qui," not " merere " with 
accusative, which means eam by labor. To put one under obli- 
gation, " bene mereri e aliquo," not simply " mereri de — ^," 

Merity noun (as characteristic), "laus, virtus," not "meritum 
(in aliqnem)," which equals an obligation based npon a deed. 

More in detaH, " uberius," " pluribus dicere," not " longius." 

Moming lionrBy " tempora matutina," not " horae matutinae.' 

Mortalfl, " homines," not " mortaies," except in connection 
with " omnes * multi ' plurimi." 

Mother-tongne, " sermo patrius," not " lingna vemacula." 

Mythology, " fabulae, historiae f abulis," not " mythologia." 

Neck, 'in Cicero and Sallust, " cervices," not " cervix." 

Neighbor, L e., fellow-creature, " alter homo," not " proxi- 
mus." 

Nervea» not " nervi," which equals sinews or muscles. 

Veuter, word of neuter gender, " vocabulum generis neutri," 
not " neutrius." 



LATINE. 169 



Never did any one or anything, " nemo umquam, nihil um- 
quam," more common than " numquam quisquam, quidquam." 

No should be translated by " non," a single notion is nega- 
tived, for example, e. g., " amicum non habet," he has no friend, 
not " nuUum amicum habef 

And not even, " ac ne — quidem " or " et ne — quidem," not 
" nec — quidem." 

Not to say, " ut non dicam — ne dicam " means to use no 
stronger expression. 

Nonrishment, " alimentum, pabulum " (figuratively, " inge- 
nii"), «o< "nutrimentum" (late and poetic). So, to nourish, 
better "alere" than "nutrire," which does not occur till 
Livy, 

Nxunerons army, " ingens," " maximus exercitus," not " nu- 
merosus," which, in Cicero, is used only in the meaning " rhyth- 
mic" (" numerosa oratio "), but» in the meaning "numerous," is 
post-classical. 

NoTK. — An interesting glimpse of class-room methods in a Qennan gym- 
nasium Is given in a letter written from Heidelberg bj Frof. John E. Lord, 
of Bartmouth, and published in the coUege paper. The gymnasium course 
prepares students' for the university, and corresponds to the American pre- 
paratory school and the first two jears in coUege. Frof . Lord writes as fol- 
, lows of what he saw : 

" I attended recently an exercise bf the upper dass ; it was a recitation in 
the satires of Horace. The exerciae began with the redtation of a passage 
f rom one of the satires, one boy repeating a few lines and another immedi- 
ately foUowing. No hesitation was allowed. At a moment'8 delay another 
was caUed. After this the teacher b^an to ask questions and make remarks 
in Latin upon some passage or subject ab«ady studied. First one and then 
another were called to answer in German. Few failed to understand what 
was said. This practice, begun as early in the course as practicable, trains 
the ear as the book trains the eye, so that the students, when they leave the 
gymnasium, though they may not be able to taUL in Latin, yet understand it 
when it is spoken. A Latin sentence is more to them than a juggler's <ibra- 
cadabra, This exercise is supplemented by Latin composition. - What is true 
of Latin is true of Greek. After the talking came reading of passages at 
sight. The teacher first pronounced the Latin and then the scholars trans- 
lated. In most of the cases they understood the passage. About fifteen 
minutes, at the close of the hour, was deyoted to the redtation of a lesson 
previously assigned. A recitation of a lower class, which I attended, was 
oonducted more as one is with us, by translation, question, and an8wer."~ 
Tke Timet, 



170 



LATINE. 



FROM OLD ROME. A ToMcher^a Leiter to his PupUs. [Adapted 
trom the GermMn.] lContinued,] 

Here Horace meets iis, as, in his costomary walk, he comes 
dowD the Via Sacra. But to-day the poet, usoally so cheerful, 
is in bad huraor; for a disagreeable, persistent man, entirely 
unknown to him, has intruded himself upon him, wishes to be- 
come his friend, and asks in a very inquisitive way ailer Mae- 
cenas. Horace has, indeed, alrcady told him that he should not 
need his company, as he wishes to visit one of his acquaintances 
on the farther side of the Tiber. But the fib was of no avail, 
for the new friend will go so far as to let a summons to court 
be disregarded, if he may only accompany the poet. Horace 
is in the greatest perplexity, and is besides very angry that the 







Veeta Temple [foand at Tivoli]. 

roguish Fuscus, whom he had secretly greeted as his deliverer, 
makes merry over him, and will not understand grimaces and 
winks, but hastens away with a very poor excuse. The new 
friends have just reached the Temple of Yestay and Horace 
knows that he must endure the persistent man an honr longer, 



LATINE. 171 



in case that bore succeeds in getting by the court-house unno- 
ticed into the Tuscan quarter. Fortunately, just there the enemy 
of this deserter meets them, and drags him before the nearcst 
tribunal. But Horace continues his walk, and laughs now him- 
self over his misfortune. His gay spirits have retumed, and let 
him find amends for the lost time by working out some charm- 
ing verses,* with which he will, at the earliest opportunity, relate 
his experience to a gay circle of friends. 

We were so curious as to foUow the poet, and have, in con- 
sequence, come back to the Temple of Castor. But now he has 
suddenly vanished from sight into the crowded Tuscan street. 
We will not seek him, for we know that he likes to be alone ; 
but I will lead you from the Fornm to the Palatine near by, to 
the hill upon which the poor hut of Faustulus must have stood^ 
which later bore the stately palace of the Caesars. So we go 
up by the Temple of the Dioscuri to the modem high-road and 
to the present entrance-gate of the hill. At the right of our way 
rise up, in three stories, high arches, and daily new walls come 
to light here, for at this place, also, the mbbish will be moved 
away, and the non-Roman masonry be blown up with powder. 
These raios belong to the immense palace which Caligula built 
at the northwest side of the Palatine. The iront of the same 
faced the Fomm. For Suetonius relates, in the biography of this 
emperor, that he had eztended this part of the Palatine, by the 
help of mighty buttresses, to the Fomm, and had made the Tem- 
ple of the Dioscuri a vestibule of the royal palace. Often the 
emperor placed himself between the celestial brothers, and al- 
lowed himself to be worshiped by the passers-by. We go 
through the principal modem entrance, which formerly led to 
the gardens of the Faraese family, and come speedily, affcer tura- 
ing to the right at the end of the high staircase, to the Hill of 
Yictory. The top of the Palatine was united with the lowest 
part of the Fomm and the surrounding valley, the so-called Vela- 
bram, by this passage. This Caligula overarched with his numer- 
ous buildings ; and so it happens that we now, at the right and 
lefi, look into rooms large and small, which have served for the 
rooms of the royal servants and guards. In some the stone beds 

^ See MiBS Amrtin^s translation in voL ii, Msy [p. 278]. 



172 LATINE. 

are stili preseryed which are foand elsewhere in the Roman guard- 
hoii8e& In others all the belongings are wanting ; in only a few 
have the decorations of ceiling and walls been partially preserved. 
If we venture as near the side of the hill as possible, we have just 
below us the Temple of the Dioscuri, and over to the west the 
hill on which standB the Capitoline Temple of Jupiter. From 
this northwestem point of the Palatine, Calignla bridged over 
the valley which separated him from his brother Jupiter. Yery 
often he had held conversation with tbe divinity of tbe Capitol, 
whispering in his ear, and receiving answers in the same way. 
They did not end without some altercations, for the mad kiug 
at last cried out, '* rj fjJ d,vdup ^ ky^ ae" Yet he suffered him- 
self to be quieted again through the invitation of the god to 
live with him. In order to carry out this command as soon as 
possible, he united the two bills by means of tbe famous bridge ; 
later he laid the foundation for a palace on the Capitoline Hill 
itself. Three high brick walls still stand at the foot of the 
Palatine, which apparently belonged to the foundations of that 
wonderful passage. Naturally the bridge must have gone close 
over the roof of the Basilica Julia, and so it might have hap- 
pened tbat the capricious ruler, when he visited the Capitol, 
threw gold from the roof of the Judgment-Hall to the people 
below. On this account, when he had exhausted the public 
treasury, through his thoughtless extravagance, he condescended, 
on New-Year's-day, to accept gifts from his subjects, and most 
graciously received the richest gifts at the entrance of his paiace. 
It is a hard but deserved judgment that all the colossal under- 
takings of this prince, who always planned wbat seemed foolish 
to the sound understanding.of men, have either entirely vanished, 
or are destroyed past recognition. 

A level path went along the northwest side of the hill. Be- 
fore this side was occupied by royal residences, many illustrious 
Eomans had already built their houses there, for tbe Palatine, 
with its reminders of the origin of the town, was always a 
favorite quarter. Three famous orators lived upon the hill — 
Crassus, Hortensius, and Cicero ; also the latter's client, Milo, 
and his opponent, Ciodius^ Cicero had bought a place here for 
more than nine hundred thousand marks ; but his good neigh- 
bor Ciodiiis surpassedhim, and paid two and a haif miilion for 



LATINE. 173 



his. Where each of these possessions lay can no longer he estah- 
lished with certainty. From Cicero'8 own evidence only this 
can he learned, that his house could he seen from the open place 
here, and that it was in the neighhorhood of the official residence 
of the Pontifex Maximas, which was situated at the Forum he- 
tween the Temple of Castor and the Palatine. 

Along the whole region which runs parallel with the Vela- 
brunij ancient and modern walls meet our way, which, however, 
awaken no great interest. It is only at the southwestem angle 
of the hill that we encounter a remarkahle ruin, the remains of 
the oldest wall of Rome. The material for the well-hewn hlocks 
of stone was ohtained from the Palatine Hill itselfl A portion 
of the waJl, soroe five layers, is still standing upright, in which 
the stones are placed alternately length- and breadth-wise, with- 
outmortar. Thegreat- 
est thickness of the 
wall is fourteen feet, 
a thickness which was 
very efEective where 
the wall made a right 
angle. In the con- 
struction of the first 
fortification, such a 
wall was built around 
the whole hill, inclosing an irregular square, the so-called Roma 
Quadrata. From this point remains of the ancient wall are seen 
at other places along the edge of the hill, but at this particular 
point it is best preserved ; while, for example, beside the main 
gate, in front of the Temple of Jupiter Stator, it is fast crumbling 
to pieces. 

This part of the Palatine along which we have just passed, 
tbe Romans called Oermalus^ in remembrance of the wonderful 
rescue of the twins, Romulus and Remus. The Tiber near by, 
into whose raging floods they were to have .been thrown, had 
just at that time overflowed its banks and filled the hollows be- 
tween the Capitoline, Palatine, and Aventine Hills. So the royal 
servants placed the basket with the two brothers in the shal- 
low water at the first convenient slope of the hiU, where a fig- 
tree projected from the water, supposing that the litUe ones 




Wall [of Roma Quadrata]. 



174 



LATINE. 



would meet their death here as well as in the main current At 
that time this region was still very wild, with wolves roaming in 
the forest. Is it any wonder, then, if one of these hungry ani- 
mals, hearing the children cry, trotted thither to spy out the 
unexpected hooty ? But at sight of the weeping hrothers the 
she-wolf forgot her fierceness, herself, and her young ones, and 
nourished the two hungry creatures with her milk. Faustulus, 




Circus Maximtu. 

who just then had stepped out of the thicket, observed this sin- 
gularly affecting group with astonishment, carried the children 
home to his Laurentia, and raised them up into strong, brave lads. 
For a long time a shepherd*8 plain hut was carefully preserved 
on the Palatine, the wood and straw being replaced when they 
had begun to decay. Also the games in honor of Lupercus, 
the god of shepherds, which had already been celebrated by the 
founders of cities, were renewed by Augustus; and the grotto 
sacred to Lupercus, which had tumbled in, was restored. We 
are reminded of still more ancient times by an inscription on an 
altar, which still stands on the spot where it was discovered in 
1820, at the southwestem comer of the hilL The stone itself 
was replaced about one hundred years before Christ, and the 
first words of the inscription evidently were a tradition, dedicat- 



LA.TINE. 



17S 



ing this sacred place to that mysteri- 
ous divinity which was supposed to 
protect the place, but whose name no 
one knows : 

SEI-DEO-SEI-DEIVAE-SAC. 

Below our feet lies the valley be- 
tween the Palatine and Aventine Hills, 
in which, during the celebration of the 
games, the young Romans seized and 
carried ofE the daughters of the Sa- 
bines. From the top of the Palatine 
down to the Circus there was a stair- 
way, called Cacus, probably in honor 
of that Cacus who is said to have 
stolen Hercules^s cattle and driven 
them to his cave in tbe Aventine. 
We can no longer ascend the steps, 
as most of them have been destroyed, 
and besides, we must not yet leave 
the southern slope; there are still 
many things here to be secn. On 
the lef t appear many traces of private 
houses, which shows that the Romans 
were fond of living in this neighbor- 
hood. For it was no small gratifica- 
tion to a Roman to be able to \iew the 
sports in the Circus from the roof of 
his house. The imperial palaces which 
completely occupied the rest of the 
hill never extended to this region. It 
seems to me quite natural that impe- 
rial freedmen especially should them- 
selves have purchased property in the 
vicinity of the Palatine, and this also 
ezplains how Augustus could look at 
the races in the Circus from the resi- 
dences of his friends and freedmen. 

lUastration : Flan of a circus. 





LATINE. 17T 



Oaligula regaled himself with the Hvely scenes in the valley from 
the damus Oelotiana. The adjective GeloUana, derived from the 
name of a former inhabitant, was retained even after the rebuild- 
ing of the house, to distinguish it from the other parts of the pal- 
ace. The arrangements of the house, of which there are still re- 
mains, indicate that it dates from the time of Hadrian. Thi» 
emperor is also supposed to have founded here the Paedagogium. 
In an establishment of this kind, however, you must not imagine 
a Latin school, nor even a gymnasium, but rather a training- 
school, where youths were instructed in polite manners and in 
the art of fawning. These institutions often turned out the most 
influential courtiers. For this reason aspiring young men were 
eager to enter, as we leam from the epitaph of a boy of seven- 
teen, a student in one of these schools. He complains of being 
tom away from his studies too soon : discesei ab urhe in praetorio^ 
Caesaris, ubi dum studerem fata miki inviderunt raptumque ab 
arte tradiderunt hoe loco, The jmeri Caesarum are repeatedly 
mentioned in inscriptions, as are also their teachers, the prae- 
ceptores Caesarum or paedagogi puerorum. 

In this Paedagogium we still recognize the pillared court, 
flanked on opposite sides by small rooms. Only those on the- 
left, grouped around an ancient salon or exedra^ are preserved.. 
They excite a peculiar interest on account of the inscriptions 
found on the walls. The words scratched on the walls are for 
the most part the work of young men leaving the Paedagogium^ 
as, for example, the foUowing : 
(X)RIN 
THVS EXIT 
DE PEDAGO 
GIO 

The method of instruction in this Paedagogium does not 
seem to have suited Oorinthus, whose departure is recorded once* 
more at another place. His two " exits " sound very much like 
a triumph on having at last outgrown the power of the peda- 
gogues. 

Many names have appended to them the letters YDN, and 
several times the word beginning with V is written out in full, 
YERNA, 80 that the abbreviations must be read vema dominH 
nostru In this imperial inatitute the children of the court ser*- 



178 LATINE. 

yants chiefly were trained, but they did not constitute the only 
inhabitants of the house ; there was in it also a gaard of soldiers, 
rendered necessary on account of the isolated position of the 
hill. Some of these also have immortalized their names, at the 
aame time disclosing tbe fact by the addition of ^^peregrinus " 
of their belonging to that part of the army consisting of for- 
eigners. Since these had their chief rendezvous on thc neighbor- 
ing Caelian Hill, it Ls probable that the post in the damus Gelo- 
iiana consisted of soldiers from that place. There must have 
been in the Paedagogium^ also, servauts for the heavy work, and 
slaves intrusted with the management of the whole establishment. 
It isy consequently, quite a lively picture that is unfolded be- 
fore our eyes in these deserted chambers. In the sroall, cool 
rooms the boys are leaming their peneum ; yonder, at the en- 
trance, soldiers are loitering about, while others are sitting in the 
airy exedra^ relating to each other, multis cum verbis, their various 
adventures. During the narration of these tales, probably not 
quite new, the listeners had time to think of other things and 
scratch their " happy thoughts " on the walls. Sometimes they 
drew pictnres of circus-horses, fighters in nets, or other reminis- 
cences from the arena. The pupils appear to have been as fond 
at that time of teasing each other as they are to-day. At any 
rate, in a small room is the name LIBANVS, and under it, in 
a different hand, is written EPISCOPVS. Libanus, without 
doubt, had the bad habit of " telling *' of his fellow-pupils, and 
so they nicknamed him the " overseer." I do not think it can 
be inferred from this nickname that he was a Cbristian. The 
one that wrote the Greek word underneath had perhaps just 
leamed it, and felt glad that it suited the unpopular Libanus so 
well. More uncouth, but more good-natured, is tbe joke on the 
wall of the last room, where, with a few bold strokes, the picture 
of an ass tuming a mill-stone is carved into the plaster, and be- 
low it are these words : Labora, aeelle^ quamodo ego laboravi, et 
proderit tUn (" Work, little ass, as I have worked, and may it 
do you good 1"). This witticism may have been perpetrated by a 
slave who formerly had to tum the mill himself, and is now lei- 
aurely looking at the ass doing it But yet I would rather 
ascribe the jest to one of the departing pupils. He has become 
^^ soured," and is now laughing at the complaints of one of those 



LATINE. 179 



remaining behind, and draws this neat little picture behind his 
back. Of all these scrawls the well-known caricature of the 
Crucified has become the most noted. To a cross drawn by a 
few lines is affixed a man with the head of an ass, and, by his 
side, as if engaged in prayer, is a horribly deformed man, and 
these words: ^Ake^dfievog oifhre (aiPeTcu) ^eov ('^Alexamenos 
worships God"). As Alexamenos in another inscription is called 
a ^^fdelis^^^ it is established, beyond a doubt, that this picture 
represents a praying Christian mocked by his wicked compan- 
ions. It was cast in the facc of the Jews originally that they 
worshiped an ass^s head. In the wildemess they are said to have 
foUowed the wild asses to see where they went to drink, and to 
have worshiped the ass afterward in the Temple in thankfulness 
f or this guidance. And since the Christians at first were regarded 
as a sect of the Jews, they had to endure this senseless reproach. 
Tertullian, in his defense of Christianity, repels this imputation 
with much force. The " mock crucifix " belongs to the time of 
this Church father, at the end of the second or beginning of the 
third century, and shows that the habit of deriding the Chris- 
tians, which was so extensive at that time, had penetrated even 
into the youthful circle of the Paedagogium, 

ROMKS MZSSION. [Aeneid vi, 847-663,} 

Be it f or others to f ashion the breathing bronzes more nicely, 
I will believe, and to draw the features of lif e out of marble, 
And to plead cases better, better the pathways of heayen 
Mark with the wand, and declare the rising stars and their seasons ; 
Thou, Roman, remember to rule, in authority, nations — 
These are thy destined arts — ^and the terms of peace to establish, 
And the submissiye to spare, and to humble with warf are the haughty. 

Samitel y. COLE. 
LEXICA CAESARIANA, 

Quite remarkable actiyity in the preparation of special lexicons is being 
shown in Germany. 

No less than three lexicons to the works of Gaesar are being put forth : 
One by Menge and Preuss, another by Meusel, and a third by Merguet. The 
special characteristics of Merguet are those of his Lexicon to Gicero^s Ora- 
tions (now complete). The book quotes all the occurrences of the word with 
the connection. These citations are classified so as to render ref erence con- 
yenient. The typography and arrangement are excellent for the teacher^s 
use. Merguet includes in his plan the so-called Pseudo-Gaes., i. e., Caesar*8 
oontinuers. Meusel^s Lexioon represents the careful labor of many years, 



180 LATINE. 

•nd will probably be issued less rapidly than Merguet'8. Meusel exdudes 
rigidly aU Paeudo-Caefl. He dtea, alao, ▼arious readiiiga, whUe Merguet 
foUows Nipperdey. Each ia worthy of a pUoe in eyecy teachei^s Ubraiy. 

NOTES AND QUERIES, 

Hkidklbero, Gntif ant, Jamuary tJ^ 188S. 

Mt dear PltonssOR Shumwat : Day after to-morrow I start for Italy, 

where I ezpect to be for two months. I shall prolong my stay by an excursion 

to England. But before I go I send you one more remembrance for Latimb, 

thougfa I f ear I am a oontnbutor it wiU be glad to forget. Howeyer that may 

be, I Bend a parting letter, as, while I am gone, I do not think I can do much 

in the way of Latin writing. I hope to take in inspiratioiL Wish me joy in 

my trip. Very truly yours, Johk K. Lord. 

Who was the author of the foUowing lines f 

" Quadrijugifl invectus equis sol aureus exit, 

Cui Beptem TariiB circumBtant ▼estibus Horae. 
Ludfer anterolat Rapidi fuge Lampada SoUb. 
Aurora umbrarum yictrix, ne ▼icta recedas I ^ 

A oommon proverb frequently quoted is, "The exoeption proves the 
rule"; and it seemB universally assumed that **prove8" here means "estab- 
Ushes** or "demonstrates.** It iB perhaps more likely that *'pro^e8" here 
means "testfl'* or ''trieB,** as hi the injunction, <*Pro^e all things.** [The 
proverb in fuU runs : Exoeptio probat regulam in caflibuB non exoeptis.] 

The words ** nihU tetigit quod non omavit " are perpetuaUy offered as a 
supposed quotation from Dr. Johnson^s epitaph on GoldBmith. Johnson wrote : 
" Qui nuUum fere scribendi genua 
Non tetigit, 
Nullum quod tetigit non oraa^it.*' 
It has been Baid that there is a doubt as to the propriety of the word "teti- 
git," and that " oontigit " would have been better. 

It seems impoeBible to prevent writers from uaing ** cui bono f " in the 
unolassical senBe. The oorreot meaning is known to be of this nature : sup- 
pose that a orime haa been oommitted ; then inquhre who has gained by the 
crime— ''cui bonor"' for obviously there is a probabiUtj that the person 
benefited was the criminal. The usual senBe impUed by the quotation is 
this : What is the good f the question being applied to whatever is f or the 
moment the objeot of depredation. Those who use the words inoorreotly 
may, howe^er, shdter themBdves under the great name of Leibnitz, for he 
takes them in the popuUr sense : see his works, volume ▼, page 206. 

A ▼ery favorite quotation consistB of the words "laudator temporis 
acti " ; but it should be remembered that it seems ▼ery doubtf ul if these worda 
by themsd^es would form oorreot Latin ; the *'8e puero " which Horaoe putB 
after them are required. — ^Ex. 

' Oeariy shown, PhU. H., g 36 : '' Cui bonof' *< Otfmilmt 6ofio.'*— Ed. 



Iter e»t Umgum per praaeepim^trtve et ^fflcax per xxnfPLA.— Sknsca. 



NOVi 
EBORACI. 



Latine. 



MENSE MART. 
MDCCCLXXXV. 



^'MtdtaSoffa: JtetineDoeta: Setenla Doee.^^^CoxEJxiVB. 

Ledor: Quid tibi vis, O ephemeris parvula! 

LaUne : Ut TerenU verba fleotam : ZaUnd nihil a me alienum puto. ** Non 
enim iam praedarum e$t eeire Latikx qwtm turpe neecireJ*^ — Cic. Bbut. oxl. 



NASCZTUR DEUS FUER. {CArmen Fastomle &d modum Vergilii 
Eclog&rum scripsdt TbomtkS I. Gusson,'} 

Amri. Mkred. Subjlel. 

Amri. Huc ades, Meied, cur maestus, amice, recumbas ? 
En pecudes ludunt musoosi margine fontis, 
Atque gemit sponsam quercu jam turtur ab alta, 
Yocibus et placidis Zephyri levis aura susurrat : 
Tempora, mi Mered, fallamus anmdine dulcl 




Mered, Desine plura, precor, luctus me deprimit, Amri, 
Nocte silente lupus clausum penetravit ovile, 
Surripuitque agnam : gratum quam munus avebam 
Ferre meae Naomae; Naomes lux namque propinquat 
Natalis. Teneram mater fera depulit agnam, 
Hanc ego nutrivi ; me post erat usque secuta, 
£t surgente comes fugienteque lumine solis. 

Illustration : The Flavian Amphitheatre (Coliseum), p. 197. 



182 LATINE. 

Amri, Tibia, quin aadi, muloebit tibia maestos, 
Eluet et curas, dabit et solatia fessis, 
Felix qai Musam meditari possit avena. 
Dic age, laetitia ▼oces mittamus ad auras ; 
Experiamur utrum cantu me vtncere possis. 
Et tibi, si yincas, balantem largiar Bgnam. 
. Aspice, mi Mered, matris nunc ubera sugit. 

JferecL Unde recuaem, Amri ? Ante alioB tibi caruB amicua 
Esse Tolo. Ast agnum nequeo deponere tecum. 
Nesoio quid — damae tamen est mihi laotea pellis, 
Deponam hanc equidem, felix quam victor habebia. 
Ecce prope est Subael — ^nobis esto arbiter ille. 

8ubad, An ▼ultis, pueri, calamo contendere agresti ? 
Dicite. Carminibus yestris sit Musa benigna. 
Indpiet Mered, quem tu sectaberis, Amri ; 
£t toUant salioes, resonentque cacumina montis, 
Et nemora et ooUes mellitum nomen lesu: 
Qui decus est ooeli, qui summa est gloria Judae, 
Qui coraa minuet, praebebit et otia nobis ; 
Quo nascente, aetas mortatibus aurea surget. 

Mertd. Quales sunt agno per devia lustra Taganti 
Pastoris TOceB, sitienti quale canorum 
DesilientiB aquae murmur de vertice saxi, 
Vel qualis matri subolis vox prima pusillae, 
Tale fuit carmen praeconis ab aethere missi, 
/ Gum subolem peperit divam sanctiBsima yirgo. 

Amri, NoctiB erat medium, fulgebant aethere stellae, 

Imum jamque cadens quaerebat Vesperus orbem, 
Panduntur subito r^lia Umina coeli, 
Alipedes astris dilapai, luce micantes, 
Gaiminibus refenmt ooeli nova nuntia nobis : 
"" Jam yenit in terras Divini Patris imago.*^ 

Mered. Egrediens Aurora Eoo littore pulchra est, 

Lunaque pulchra nitet radiis dimti nubila findit, 
Goelestisque oohors nobis pulcherrima Tisa est, 
At risus pueri longe spedosior illis. 

Amru Tempore quo primnm vidi te, candida prolcB, 
Eoi r^^ tibi munera larga ferebant : 
Gare puer, mihi sunt flores, sunt aurea mala, 
Haec tibi donabo, fidi munuscula amoris. 

Mertd. De coelis yenit jam vera salutis origo, 

. GhristuB adeet, olim praedicttts carmine vatis ; 



LATINE. 

Quo daoe, terra feret fruges mtacU ligone, 
£t cunctae gentes aetema pace fruentur. 

Amri, Ast ego pastorum conspexi primus lesum, 
Me, me pastorum primus oonspexit et ille ; 
Provolyor genibus, blandis arridet ocellis, 
Laetus et haec refero : " Salve, Rex gentis Hebraeae." 



188 




Mered, £x animis nostris labetur tempore nuUo 
Ridentis nobis facies pulcherrima matris ; 
Ductori pecoris veluti sunt pascua laeto, 
Sic tua, Yirgo parens, pastoribus ora f uere. 

Amri, Ut sola in campo quercus quae projicit umbras, 
Ut platanus gelidi virides prope fluminis oras, 
Ut montis Dbani fragrantes culmine cedri, 
Sic nobis pueri mitissima lumina divi. 

Mered, Regia progenies, robustas indue vires, 

Atque referre tuis properes solamina grata ; 
Huo ades, ahne puer, nolito sistere gressum, 
Aethere missa salus, ah, te gens nostra requirit. 

Amri, Parvule, solve metus ; f allent nec dextra fidesque, 
Nec fallet te noster amor : non firmior ilex 
Telluris gremio, ramis nec vitis adhaeret, 
Quam tibi pastoruiQ junguntur pectora fida. 

lUustration : Coliseum, p. 197. 



184 LATINE. 



Subad. En, palantur OTes, pueri ; oohibete yagmiites. 

Quid de canninibus dicam f Quib munere dignus ? 
Duloe canit Mered, respondet suaviter Amri, 
Hic spoliis dignus, dignus tu, Hered, et agna : 
«Tudice me, puero donanda baec munera divo, 
Accipiet gratus, dignus majoribus ille, 
Incipere, oh, faustus dignetur regna beata. 
Septimo Idus Martii—Carmen scripsi in GoUegio Loiolaeo, Baltimori. 

COLLOQJTIXTM, [Quibus Jibris ontori opns est?] [Vid. Quintili' 
aniim, JT.-/.] 

A. — Contigitne tibi, QuintiJianum huic quaestioni responden- 
tem legere ? 

B. — ^Minime vero. Mihi gratum feceris, si sententiam hujus 
scriptoris praeclari exposueris. 

A. — Faciam, ut potero. Primum dicit nonnisi optimum 
quemque esse legendum. Non omnia autem, quae optimi dix- 
exint, esse perfecta. 

B. — Nonne Horatius dicit bonum Homerum nonnumquam 
dormitare ? 

A. — Ita est (A. P. 359) : Quintilianns dicit Demosthenem 
interim Ciceroni donnitare videri, ut Horatio Homerum. 

B. — Nonne putat oratoris interesse, legere poetas ? 

A. — ^Theophrastus, ait, ita judicavit. Ciceronem etiam ad hanc 
rem citat. Meministine ipse eum dicere omnes artes, quae ad 
humanitatem pertineant habere quoddam commune vinculum? 
[Pro. Arch., i.] 

B. — ^Memini. Legendis poetis animum ex forensi strepitu 
refici et aures convitio defessas conquiescere. 

A. — Recte dicis ; Quintilianus autem monet, non per omnia 
poetas esse oratori sequendos. Non decere oratorem libertate 
verborum et licentia figurarum uti, ut poetam. 

B. — Nonne de singulis loquitur, qui oratori utiiis sunt? 

A. — Coepit ab Homero, ut Aratus a Jove incipiendum putat; 
hunc omnibus eloquentiae partibus exemplum et ortum dedisse. 

B. — Nonne Horatius Homerum laudat ? 

A. — Dicit eum nil moliri inepte (A. P., 140). Versus Odys- 
seae citat, quibns Musam invocat. Non polliceri, modo Cycli- 
corum se magna illustriaque cantaturum ; precari, ut Musa sibi 
virum dicat, qui mores et urbes hominum multorum viderit 



LATINE. 



188 



Hoc modo non fumutn ex fulgore sede fumo lucem dare. Quinti- 
lianus eundem laudat, quod in utriusque operis sui ingressu 
legem prooemiorum constituerit 

B. — Quae hic maxime in Homero comprobat ? 

A, — In magnis rebus sublimitatem, in parvis proprietatem. 
£um et laetum et pressum, jucundum et gravem, non poetica 
modo scd oratoria virtute eminentissimnm appellat. Verbis, sen- 
tentiis, figuris, humani ingenii modum excedere dicit. 

B, — ^Amplissimis quidem verbis honorem reddit Suadetne 
discipulis, ut se ad alios poetas legendos dcdant ? 




A. — Hesiodi, Theocriti, Arati, tanquam fratrum nobilium, 
mentionem facit, quibus modicam laudem reddit; Homerum 
autem omnes procul a se relinquere. Mens, ait, multa magis 
quam multorum lectione formanda. Sununam vim elocutionis, 
vibrantes sententias, plurimum sanguis et nervorum apud Archi- 
lochum invenit. 

B, — Nonne Archilochus primus iambos scripsit ? 

A. — Archilochum, ait Horatius, proprio rabies armavit iambo. 
Horatius se Sapphus et Alcaei exemplo defendit, quod eum imi- 
tatus sit. 

Hlustration : Stracture of Goliseam, p. 197. 



186 LATINE. 



B. — Nonne lyrici oratori prosnntf 

A, — £ novem Ijricis praecipuis laadibus Pindarum extoUit. 
Meministi Horatium credere eundem nemini imitabilem. [G. iv, 
2.] Stesichorum reprehendit, quod nimium effundatur, cui nisi 
id vitii esset, fore ut proximus Homerum aemulari posset. 

B. — Nonne de antiqua comoedia loquitur? 

A. — Ita vero. Dicit se nescire an uUam poesin post Home- 
rum aut similiorem esse oratoribns aut ad oratores ^aciendos 
aptiorem. 
• B, — Quid de tragicis ? 

A. — Sophoclen et Euripiden Aeschylo anteponit Euripiden, 
quod sermone magis oratorio generi accedat, atque dicendo et 
respondendo illis comparari possit, qui in foro diserti sint, dicit 
utiliorem oratoribus. 

B. — Nonne oratoris refert cognoscere historias ? 

A. — Ita sane; Quintilianus autem putat plerasque horum 
virtutes oratori esse vitandas. Hunc neque Sallustianam brevi- 
tatem, neque Livii lacteam ubertatem decere. 

B. — De quibus scriptoribus rerum loquitur ? 

A. — Thucydiden densum et brevem et semper sibi instantem 
appellat, Herodotum dulcem et candidum et f usum, Xenophonta 
inter philosophos habet. 

B. — Quos oratores laudat ? 

A. — Demosthenen praecipue, quem pcune Upem crandi appel- 
lat ; in eo nec quod desit uec quod redundet invenit. Aeschinen 
plus camis, minus hicertorum habere dicit ; Lysian subtilem esse 
et elegantem, Isocraten in inventione facilem, in compositione 
adeo diligentem, ut cura ejus reprehendatur. 

B. — Nonne oratorem praecepta philosophorum cognoscere 
oportet ? 

A. — Oicero, meministi, dicit se oratorem non ex rhetorum 
ofiScinis sed ex Academiae spatiis exstitisse. [Orat IIL 12.] 
Quintilianus etiam de divina quadam et Homerica eloquendi 
facultate Platonis loquitur. Stoicos probat, quod honesta suase- 
rint, quanquam minus eloquentiae indulserunt. 

B. — Nonne scriptores Romanos dignos, qui legantur, aesti- 
mat? 

A. — Ita sane ; per eos eandem ordinem sequitur. De Yei^- 
lio verba Afri Domiti citat, quo praeoeptore adolescens utebatur; 



LATINE, 187 



eundem sibi interroganti queni crederet Homero inaxime accedere 
respondisse Yergilium secundum esse propiorem tamen primo 
quam tertio. Putat Lucretinm qnidem legendum, quanquam 
difficilis sit ; Varronem non spemendum ; Ennium, sicut sacroB 
lucos vetuBtate adorandum; Ovidium in partibus laudandum; 
Lucanum sententiis clarissimum et magis oratoribus quam poetis 
imitandum. 

B. — ^Hoc judicium mihi placet Quid de aliis f 

A, — Dicit in Lucilio eruditionem miram cum acerbitate 
conjunctam ; Horatium esse tersiorem et puriorem (in saturis) ; 
Persium multnm yerae gloriae meruisse. Lyricorum autem 
Horatium fere solum esse dignnm, qui legatur. 

B. — Nihilne de comicis Latinis ? 

A, — ^Yarro, ait, dicit Musas Pkutino sermone locuturas 
fuisse, si Latine loqui vellent; scripta autem Terenti sibi ele- 
gantiora videntur. 

B, — Quid de historiis ? 

A, — Non dubitat Sallustium Thucydidi, Livium Herodoto 
opponere. Laudat etiam Servilium et Aufidium ; dicit superesse 
adhuc virum sacculorum memoria dignum; non dubium est, 
quin Tacitum vivum in animo habuerit. Oiceronem maximis 
laudibus afficit, qui vim Demosthenis, copiam Platonis, jucundi- 
tatem Isocratis effingere sciat, ut jam Oicero non hominis nomen 
sed eloquentiae habeatur. Dicit in Oaesare tantam vim esse, ut 
«odem animo dixisse, quo bellaverit, videatur. Post eos, sed 
longe, multos alios ponit In Seneca multa admiratur, multa 
iiutem reprehendit Utinam, ait, suo ingenio dixisset, alieno 
judicio. Haec fere noster Quintilianus. Dicit modesto et cir- 
<2um8pecto judicio de tantis viris pronuntiandum, ne damnemus 
qnae non intellegamus. Operae pretium est, totum librum 
cognoscere; de copia vcrborum, de cogitatione, de imitatione 
acribit: exponit, quomodo scribendum, quae scribenda maxime, 
qnem ad modum facilitas loquendi paretur. E. H. R. 



CARMKK. 



Hunc olim solitus findere caespitem 
Rivus cur scatebris spargere desinit 
Herbas, cur pede clivum 
Praeruptum tacito premit 



188 LATINE. 



Horrena canitie ? Nai, volubiles 
A qaa desiliont non sine murmare 
Lymphae, cur levis urnam 
Cessaa vertere ? Fors mihi 

Quaerenti gelidum per nemus obvia 
Splendebis niveo marmore purius 
Frondes inter et ulvam 
Conversa in glaciem dea. 

Qualis dam Niobe plorat amabiles 
Gnatos et lacrymis busta lavat suis 
In pulchram lapidescit 

Luctus effigiem pii. 

Pborssob Wiuom, Kinff'» CoiUge, H^iubor, N, S. 

dCERO, [Pars soxtJi.] 

(26) [703 = 51 ] £t contra voluntatem meam et praeter opi- 
nionem accidit, ut mihi cum imperio in provinciam (Ciliciam) 
proficisci necesse esset. (Epist. ad famiL 3, 2, 1.) 

(27) Maxima exspectatione in perditara et piane eversam in 
perpetuum provinciam nos venisse scito pridie Kal. Sextilis, morar 
tos tnduum Laodiceae, triduum Apameae, totidem dies Synnade. 
Audivimus nihil aliud nisi civitatum gemitus, ploratus, monstra 
quaedam non hominis, sed ferae nescio cuius immanis. Levantur 
tamen miserae civitatea, quod nullus fit somptus in nos neque in 
legatos neque in qoaestorem neque in quemquam; scito non 
modo nos foenum aut quod de lege lulia dari solet non accipere, 
sed ne ligna quidem, nec praeter quattuor lectos et tectum quem- 
quam accipere quicqoam, multis locis ne tectum quidem, et in 
tabernaculo manere plerumque. Itaque incredibilem in modum 
concursus fiunt ex agris, ex vicis, ex domibns omnibus ; meher- 
cule etiam adventu nostro reviviscunt iustitia, abstinentia, cle- 
mentia tui Ciceronis : ita opiniones omnium superavit. (Epist. 
ad Attic. 5, 16, 2 et 3.) 

(28) Quaerenti mihi multumque et diu cogitanti, quanam re 
possem prodesse quam plurimis, ne quando intermitterem consu- 
lere rei publicae, nulla maior occnrrebat qaam si optimarum 
artium vias traderehi meis civibns ; qnod compluribus iam libri» 
me arbitror consecutum: nam et cohortati sumus, ut maxime 



LATINE. 



18^ 



potuimus, ad philosophiae studium eo libro, qui est inscriptus 
HorteiudTUi ; et, quod genus philosophandi minime adrogans 
maximeque et constans et elegans arbitraremur, quattuor Acade- 
micis libris 08tendimu{>. Oumque fundamentum esset philoso- 
phiae positum in finibiu bononun et malorem, perpurgatus est 
is locuB a nobis quinque libris, ut, quid a quoque et quid contra 
quemque philosophum diceretur, intellegi posset. Totidem sub- 
secuti libri Tnaonlanamm dispntationnm res ad beate vivendum 
maxime necessarias aperuerunt : primus enim est de contemnenda 
morte, secundus de tolerando dolore, de aegritudine lenienda 
tertius, quartus de reliquis animi perturbationibus ; quintus eum 




locnm complexus est, qui totam phiiosophiam maxime inlustrat, 
docet enim, ad beate vivcndum virtutem se ipsa esse contentam. 
Quibus editis tres libri perf ecti sunt de natnra deomm, in quibus 
omnis eius loci quaestio continetur. Quae ut plane esset cumu- 
lateque perfecta, de divinatione ingressi sumas his libris scri- 
bere; quibus, ut est in animo, de £Etto si adiunxerimus, erit 
abunde satis £actum toti huic quaestioni. Atque his libris adnu- 
merandi sunt sex de re pnblica, quos tum scripsimus, cum gu- 

Hlustration: Colwmbariwm (btirial-place of Livia^s freedmen), p. 196. 



190 



LATINE. 



^ernacala rei publicae tenebarous : raagnus locus philosophiaeqae 
proprius, a Platone, Aristotele, Theophrasto totaque Peripateti- 
corum familia tractatus uberrime. Nam quid ego de CoiiBOla- 
tione dicam ? quae mihi quidem ipsi sane aliquantum medetur, 
ceteris idem multum illam profuturam pnto. Interiectus est 
•etiam nuper liber is, quem ad nostrum Atticum de aenectnte 
misimus ; in primisque, quoniam philosophia vir bonas efficitur 
•et fortis, Cato noster in homm librorum numero ponendus est. 
-Cumque Aristoteles, itemque Theophrastus, excellentes viri cam 
subtilitate tum copia, cum philosophia dicendi etiam praecepta 
coniunxerint, nostri quoque oratorii libri in eundem librorum 
numerum referendi videntur : ita tres erunt de Oratore, quartus 
Bratna» quintus Orator. (De divin. 2 § 1 — 4.) 

[Finia.] 




CARMEN. 



Hestemi tibi sordeant amores 
Orastinique : hodierna amoris hora est 
Quod juramor amoris invocantes 
Numen, Lesbia, dexterisque junctis 
Sic laet& simul hac fruemur hora. 

lUustTation: View of Via Appioy p. 1»6 



LATINE. 191 



Naper si fuit, aut erit quid olim, 
Flores praeteritos, nives faturas, 
Haec flocci faciamus atque amemus. 
Tellus areat alma puUuletne 
Quid ad nos, mea vita, quts jubet ver 
Amor perpetuum nitere. Possunt 
Sole9 occidero et redire, quorum 
Lumen nil revehitve praeripitve : 
Cur luces numcremus aut tenebras 
Quls amantibus una lux perennis. 

Professor Wilson, King^s CoUege, Windaor^ N. S. 

MAGNOPERE, [Erasmus.] 

Mirum in modum — ^miris modis — majorem in modum — mi- 
randum in modum — supra modum — ^plurimum — ^non mediocriter 
— summopere — ^maximopere. 

ME, [Erasmus,'\ 

Animum meum — pectus meum — oculos meos — cor meum — 
Ohristianum. 

HTMNUS nr RESUBRECTIONE DOMINI, AB AUCTORE VETERE 
LNCERTO, 

i: 

Pone luctum, Magdalena! 

£t serena lacrimas ; 
Non est jam Simonis cena, 

Non, cur fletum exprimas ; 
Causae mille sunt laetandi, 
Causae mille exsultandi. 
Alleluia ! 

IL 

Sume risum, Magdalena ! 

Frons nitescat lucida ; 
Demigravit omnis poena, 

Lux coruscat fulgida ; 
Christus mundum liberavit, 
£t de morte triumphavit 
Alleluia ! 



192 LATINE. 



IIL 

Gaude, plaude, Magdalena 1 

Tumba Christos exiit ! 
Tristis est peracta scaena, 

Victor mortis rediit; 
Qaem deflebas morientem, 
Nunc arride resurgentem. 
Allelaia ! 

IV. 

Tolle vnltum, Magdalena ! 

RediviFum respice ; 
Vide frons quam sit amoena, 

Quinque plagas inspice ; 
Fulgent, sicut margaritae, 
Omamenta novae vitae. 

Alleluia I 

V. 

Vive, vive, Magdalcna! 

Tua lux reversa est, 
Gaudiis turgescat vena, 

Mortis vis abstersa est ; 
Moesti procul sunt dolores, 
Laeti redeant amores ! 

Alleluia ! 

VERSIO QRAECA, IK USUM " LATINEr AB AUCTOBE RECEN- 

TIORR^ 

f 
a. 

Ilaurov Xv7ra% MaySaXrjvi^ 

Sct iKiJudxr<r€iv hoKffva* 
auTO? l^ri <roi Ec^vi;* 

Tt Ikt€lvw KXavfuiTa; 
fivpuL, d^' wv ^Scor^at, 
fivpuif atf> iav r€pir€Kr6aL. 

AAXi^Xovta. 

' Editori " Latiiie '' S. P. D. Presbyter et Professor indigniasimus, S. H. 

Hymnum veterem Latinuim, quem tibi mitto, vere duloem et laetum, vereor 
ne videar in lusum vertisse, cum oonaverim Oraeoe vertere, metrum rhythmi- 



LATINE. 193 

/3'. • 

*Ev y€A.a>Ti, MaySoXi/v^, 

hnXdfiirg o/*/Aara* 
fl>pov^ coTt ^ovov a-Krfvrj, 

i$aaTpdirT€L aKorva: 
Koc/JLOV dmjktvOipijMcev, 
Xpurroi9 ixOpbv ScSovX^oiccv. 
'AXAi/Xovca. 

7' 
Xmp€ <T<fi6hpa^ May8aA,i;vi7* 

vvv d^#ccv TfpCov 
fiTfKm CKvOfHinrb^ <l>iiyVy 

y€vucrfK€ Odvarov 
tv cSoJcpvcs OvrjaKovra, 
TOVTOV V/AVCt dv€A.^ovTa. 

'AXXtfXovuL. 

*Avaicv^ov, MaySaA.i;vT7* 

dva^ctfVTa ^Xeiro/tcv* 
vdcrrfS cort )(apas Kprfvrf 

ct yof) TrXiyyas Xcvo-o-o/icv, 
Siair€p crdpStoi a-riXPova-LVj 
(wfv Koiv^v irfHxrKoa-fJLova-w, 
'AXXiyXovta. 

€. 

Zoi^v kapiy MaySaXiyviJ- 

Xa/Airpos <l>aiv€i ^Xto9* 
;(af>^ jica/>3tav €Vff>prfvrjf' 

dTTt^XcuXc ^dvaTo9. 

XVTTCU TTOppia iXjOLVVOVTai, 

oXPoi irdvTcs dv^x^^''*^^- 

'AXXiyXovta. 

cuin serTans, et yersionein, immo vero vapijppwriv, Anglicam eodem metro 
faoere. Non is som, facile videas, qui versus scribere debeam. Attamen 
" h&be tibi quioquid hoc est, qualecunque,'* et yaleas. 
Dabam I OoLL. SS. TBnr., 
Prid. KaL Hart 



194 LATINE. 



ENGLISH SUPPLEMENT. 

[SUPPLEMENTUM ANGLICUM.] 

VXRSIO ANQLICA PARATHRASTICA, 

1. 

Magdalena, stay thy weeping, 
Wipe away the flowing tear ; 

Now no more sad vigil kceping, 
Pat from thee all grief and fear. 

All things call for joy unceasing ; 

All, for triumph still increasing. 
Alleluia ! 




Tomb of Caecilia MeteUa, Fia Appia. 

2. 
From His smile a glad smile borrow, 
Let thy brow with radiance beam ; 
Passed away is all His sorrow, 

Rays of brilliant lustre beam. 
To the world true freedom bringing, 
Triumph over death He'8 singing. 
Alleluia ! 
3. 
Joy and shout ! for, vanquished never, 
Ghrist hath left the fast-closed tomb ; 



LATINE. 195 



Days of sadness passed foreTer, 
Victor over death He's come. 
Dying, thou didst weep before Him ; 
Rising glorious, now adore Him 1 
Alleluia ! 
4. 
Lift thy raptured eyes to heaven, 
Look at Him who lives again ; 
In His face what sweetness given, 
Who once suffered mortal pain ! 
Now, from wounds like jewels gleaming,. 
Brightness of new life is streaming. 
AUeluia ! 
5. 
Live, oh live, blest heir of glory ! 

He is come, thy souPs true Day ; 
Let thy heart swell at the story, 

How death'8 power is wiped away. 
Far removed each cause of sadness, 
Fill thy soul with love and gladness ! 
Alleluia ! 

FROM OLD ROME, A Te&chei^s Letter to his Pupils. [Adapted 
from the . Oerma,n,] [Continued,] 

The domus Gelotiana stands at the end of a hollow which 
formerly separated the northwestem part of the Palatine from 
the southeastem. Up to this time we have passed along the 




Via Appia^ below Ariccia. 



northwestem edge of the hill, and are now entering on that part 
which eztends toward the south, and was occupied only in later 
tim«s by imperial buildings. Septimius Severus built himself a 



196 



LATINE. 



palace here similar to the ODe of Caligula on the northero slope. 
Endless rows of lofty arches and innamerable chambers occupy 
our attention here, but it is no longer possible to tell the original 
use of each room. Lofty corridors, small, damp rooms, baths, 
splendid halls, are joined one to another, and ' we are glad to 
reach the summit of the ruins without losing our way. Here 




Tia Appia^ pavemeiit (consisting 
of polygonal blocks). 



SSde Tlew, 



OroM-flection. 



-we stand on the floor of the main hall, and the gloomier our 
•way was through the lower story the more charming is the 
view from above. Irresistibly attracted by the landscape which 
is unfolded around us, we forget the niins beneath onr feet 
Directly in front of us, toward the Tiber, is the Aventine, now 
the most deserted of all the hills, being occupied by monasteries 
and vineyards only ; and, although it has no stately palaces and 



UUUUUJUJUJJ ' JJJJUJ ' JJ ' JJJ'J ' JJUU ' JUIJUU ' JUJ ' J ' JIJJULILI 



i»aiiiE3i»i3in 



S(^n*MCCPTT-SVSIClT-OMIC-L0YCMtA-0PSI0e$a 




SarcophagnB of Scipio Barbatns. 
magnificent churches, the eye rests with satisfaction on its many 
green gardens. Far toward the south stretches the forsaken 
Campagna, traversed by the Via Appia with its ruins and tomba. 
I am at a loss with what to compare this region, which is so 
highly prized on account of its peculiar beauty, and so mnch 
dreaded on account of the unhealthiness of its atmosphere, so 
iis to give you some faint idea of it. One must see it to feel its 



LATINE. 107 



attractiveness. To me it appears, with its monuments and half- 
broken-down arches of aqueducts, like a lonely graveyard. No 
matter how warm the sun shines down upon it, how clear and 
blne the sky above it, it always retains its raelancholy hues ; 
only a sad brightness is diffused over it. How gayly the Alban 
Hills rise up in the distance, and how charmingly the villages 
and towns nestle on their slopes ! But above and beyond the 
hills tower up, skirting the horizon, the jagged, treeless summits 
of the Apennines, already clad in their winter garments of snow. 
If we tum our eyes back from this distant view, they will rest in 
the near vicinity on the most stupendous ruin of Rome, on the 
Flavian Amphitheatre. The side toward us has disappeared 
down to the first story, while on the other the circles tower up 
one above the other to the highest gallery. From our position we 
have a view into the interior of the structure. It rises up bef ore 
us, with its gigantic masonry, like a city on the slope of a hill. 

During the games and shows there was still more to be seen 
from this height Theo, even early in the morning, the people 
swayed hither and thither in the long rows of seats in the Oir- 
cus, which rested against the Palatine and Aventine, in order to 
secure the best seats ; and in the boarding-houses and tavems 
there wcre lively scenes. It must have had a peculiar charm 
for a Roman to see the different parties, adoracd with their re- 
spective colors, in eager suspense, and to be able to follow the 
green, blue, red, and white charioteers in their headlong course. 
For this reason Septimius Severus built himself, on this side of 
his palace; a spacious lodge, from which he could completely 
survey the games. To this lodge were joined small chambers, 
of which a rotunda is particularly noticeable. In the walls are 
still seen the niches which were adoraed with statues. Into this 
splendid hall the emperor may have retreated with his friends 
doring the intervals to recover from the excitement of the games. 
The valley, which once was filled with the cries and applause of 
a crowd of anxious spectators, has now become silent The rows 
of stone benches have disappeared. The place where once the 
carceres confined the restless horses is now occupied by quite a 
modem building — ^a gas-factory ; and on the ancient race-course 
itself, where once rushed along the Roman bigas, rope-makers are 
now with thoughtful steps twisting their many-stranded ropes. 



198 LATINE. 

Septimius Severus was very fond of building. We are in- 
formed by his biographer, Spartianus, that, in addition to his 
new buildings, he restored all the public buildings of Rome that 
had been daraaged. His palace he is said to have located on 
this side of the Palatine, not only for convenience of residence, 
but also for the purpose of showing his countrjmen, who might 
approach the citj by the Via Appia^ how powerf ul a monarch he 
was. And this impression he strenirthened still more by the 
Septissonium^ an edifice of seven stories, part of which was still 
standing in the sixteenth century, but was at length removed by 
Pope Sixtus y. This singular building was finished in the year 
203, after the emperor's retum with his victorious army from 
Asia, where he probably conceived the idea of such a tower. At 
any rate, the seven stories remind us of the well-known ruins in 
Babylon, whose terraces were adorned with various colors, and 
which were dedicated to seven planets. 

I do not, however, purpose to write to you of that which has- 
been destroyed, but rather to teach you to understand that which 
has survived the storms of time. Unfortunately, we can not 
make the circuit of the whole Palatine, as there are still two 
cloisters on the hill whose gates are closed against us. Let u& 
retrace our steps, therefore, to the domus Gelotiana, and cast a 
brief glance at the stadium. 

By stadium is meant a race-course, in which runners, boxers,. 
and wrestlers exhibited their skiU. Athletes originally were not 
admired by the Romans. The first were introduced into Rome 
in 186 by Fulvius Nobilior. The gladiatorial contests were bet- 
ter suited to the rude tastes of the time. But the more Greek 
cultnre found its way into Rome, and the oftener Romau youths 
went to Greece and visited the Palaestra, the more athletic sports 
came into vogue. At first they were held in temporary race- 
courses or in the Circus. Domitian first established a stone sta- 
dium in the Campus Martius^ which had a capacity of about 
thirty thousand. This one on the Palatine appears also to date 
from the reign of Domitian, and, when we consider his passion- 
ate fondness for shows of every kind, it is not surprising that he 
should have built himself another near his palace on the Palatine. 
At that time all young men practised the Greek games. Box- 
ing and vaulting were fashionable. It is a litde singukr, to be 



LATINE. 



199 



«are, that the two court poets, Statius and Martial, who other- 
wise could not suflSciently celebrate the splendors of their mas- 
i;er*s reign, make no mention of a stadium on the Palatine. Per- 
haps they expected us to take the existence of oue for granted, 
since everj wealthy Roman had a place for gymnastics near his 
vilU, or perhaps Domitian was unable to finish it. You can yet 
«ee where the straight line was where the athletes began their 
race, and the curve {<jdev66vri) which closed the upper end of 
the course. The seats evidently rose in tiers toward the walls, 
l>ut the plan of the stadium itself was entirely changed by later 
alterations. The larger part was transformed into an oval space 
which certainly was still large enough for gymnastic exercises, 
while the other part was turned into a pillared court. It is prob- 
Able that the whole stadium was arranged rather for the private 
use of the imperial family. The princes took vigorous exercise 
in all sorts of games, and then refreshed themselves in the shady 
corridors of the court, or sought repose in the adjacent halls. 

JLD ZBSUM. 



Jesu dulcissime ! 
E throno gloriae 
Ovem deperditam 
Yenisti quaerere ; 
Jesu suavissimei 
Pastor fidissime ! 
Ad te trahe me, 
Ut semper sequar te. 

II. 
Ego, qui perii, 
Ovis sum misera ; 
A fauoe tartari 
Me Jesu libera ! 
In ttto sanguine 
Ab omni crimine 
Jesu lava me, 
Ut mundus amem te. 



Jesus, thou loveliest, 
From heaven who cam^st in quest 
Of me, a self-lost sheep, 
Astray in wilds unblest ; 
Jesus, thou sweetest, best, 
Shepherd the f aithf ulest ! 
draw me constantlj 
To follow after thee. 



A wretched sheep am I, 
Undone and sore afraid ; 
From heU*8 wide jaws I fly, 
Lord Jesus, to thine aid. 
In that all-healing flood 
Of thine atoning blood, 
Jesus, wash thou me, 
That I may love but thee. 



m. 
Solamen flentium, 
Dulcedo mentium, 
Amor, f ons gratiae, 
Terrae deliciae ; 



thou who driest all tears, 
Who givest hope for fears ; 
Fountain of love and grace, 
Joy of a ransomed raoe ; 



200 LATINE. 



Salvator optime, Jesus, SaYkrar blest, 

Pastor fidissime ! Shepherd the faithf ulest 1 

Ab hoste protege, Fr(»ii all my foes defend, 

Po8t mortem eripe. And save me at the end. 

IIII. UII. 

Jesu pulcherrime, Chiefeat of all thou art, 

Sponfle Buavissime, Sole lord of this poor heart ; 

Sole sereniorf Fairer than aun or moon, 

Et melle suavior ! Sweeter than honeycomb ! 

Da quaeso gratiam, Be gradoua, Lord, I pray ; 

Erranti veniam, Pardon thou me who stray ; 

Po8t vitae terminum, And grant, life*s goal being passed, 

Perenne gaudium. Bliss while the ages last 

J. B. G. 

CURRICULUM m LATIN STYLE iSTZLISTIK). ITor rive Years^ 
HeynachBr.'^ 

It should be premised that : 1. The scholare even of our lower 
and middle classes should be beld to writing their Latin compo- 
sitions with close adherence to Latin style. 2. Like the Pensum 
of the Latin grammar, the elements of stilUtik should be r^u- 
larly distributed over the five years. 3. This instruction in Latin 
stilistik should be connected not only with oral and written 
translations into Latin, but also with the readiog of Latin. 4. 
The teacher is to take care, by wisely planned repetition, that 
these occasional lessons be not f orgotten. 

Penmm o/ Sexta. 

1. Arrangement of words. 

(a.) Subject at beginning, predicate at end. 

(6.) Pronomina possessiva and appositives after their sub- 
stantive. 

(c.) Si laboravissetiSy nunc pauperes non essetis : the nega- 
tive before the word which is denied. 

2. Pronomina. 

(a.) Exercete memoriam^ pueri, *' yon boya." Bnt to empha- 
size or contrast, vos manetis, ego abeo, 

(6.) Lavo manus, Amicum tuum vidi. The possessiva trans- 
lated only when necessary for perspicuity. 

1 In this number we give the portion for the preparat^Ny BehooL The 
April Latins will contain that which belongs to the coUege. 



LATINE. 201 

3. Substantiya. 

Animi motuSj " emotion " ; fluctus maris, '* tide " ; marum 
severitas, ** austerity." 

4. Adiectiva. 

(a.) Solu^ f In Deo solo spem habent homines miseri, 

(6.) " Yet," " still," with comparative = etiam, 

(c.) Superiative = "very." Bes humanae sunt incertissimae. 

5. To be trandated only once : 

(a.) The object of both of two vcrbs : virtus conciliat ami- 
citias et conservat. 

(6.) Pronomen possessivum or adiectivum with substantives 
connected by "and." Frater meus et soror hodie venient, 

Pensum of Quinta, 

1. Substantiya. 

(o.) Eex Persarum, " Persian king," " King of Persia" 
(b.) In Persos proficisd, In Volscis, " Rome declared war 

against Tarentum." In Latin the name of people for name of 

country (often, see Latine, page 56). 

(c.) At the time of any one : temporibup (or aetate) alicuius, 

2. Adiectiya. 

(o.) " No Roman," nemOy nulliuSy nullo. But imperatorem 
Augustum non wMgnum ducem fuisse putant^ " no great general." 
Nives non cadunU If '^ no " negates an adiectivum] or only the 
clause, it must be non. 

(6.) Alexander magnus, but Socrates^ vir sapiens, 

(c.) Comparative = positive with "too," "quite," "rather," 
etc. Superlative = positive with " very," " fuUy," " thoroughly," 
etc. 

(d.) Zonge (or multo) optimus ; vel optimus ; quam celer- 
rime = " so quickly as possible." 

3. Pronomina. 

Amicus m^us, " my friend," " one of my fiiends." 

4. Yerba. 

Translation of the Latin participle by a relative or dependent 
clause. 

5. Adverbia. 

(a.) C. is not industrious enough, 0. parum diligens est. 
(6.) Distinction between plurimum and maanme. 



202 LATINE. 



(c.) " Only one," unus ; " but i^yr^^^ pauci ; " but once," 
semel, 

6. Praepositio. 

(a.) Mecum, quibuscum. Cum affixed to tbe persanale and 
relativum. 

(6.) Versus, tenus, causa^ gratia^ after their words. 

(c.) C7«m militihus ex Graecia profectis. Two prepositions 
never come next each other before a substantivum. 

7. Conionctio. 

(a.) " So — ^as," tam—quam ; " so great — as," tantus — quan- 
tus ; talis — qualis ; tamdiu — quamdiu, 

(6.) Sed, namj itaque in the first place in claose ; autemj vero, 
enim, igitur in the second. 

8. Arrangeinent of worda. 

Troiani, eum aciem instruxissent, Oraecos aggresei sunt, The 
word which is the common subject of both the principal and 
subordinate clause stands as the beginning before the conjunc 
tion. 

{b.) Note : Ceteri omnes, reliqui onines, alii multi, alii plures. 

(c.) Inquit is slipped into the "direct discourse" (Orat. 
rect.). 

Pensum of Quarta. 

1. Snbstantiva. 

(o.) Animos addere militibus. Milites terga vertunt, corpora 
eurant. Latin plural for singular, " if not one but several ob- 
jects are meant." 

(5.) The Latin uses concreta for abstraeta — 

(a.) To indicate period of life : puer, senex, " in boyhood," 
" old age." 

(p.) Cicerone eonsule ; post Ciceronem consulem. Method 
of naming the year. 

(c.) Latin substantivum in place of an adjectiye : eastra hos- 
tium ; impedimento esse. 

(rf.) Our substantiva replaced — 

(a.) By a verbum in ablativus absolutus : Croeso regnante, 
" in the reign of C." 

()3.) By a relative clause : ab omnibuSf qui aderant (by all 
present), eolladatus est. 

(y.) By a participium : Sol orienSf " rising of the sun " ; 



LATINE. 203 

occisus Caesar, " the marder of C." ;* " a thing necessary for the 
caltivation of the fields," res ad agros colendos necessaria. 

(8.) By acctisativus cum infinitivo : Nego hoc fi^ri posse, " the 
possibility." 

2. Adieotiva. 

(a.) As substantiva : 

(o.) Plural genetivus masculinus : boni, docti, but homo doctus. 

(p,) Gen. aing. ; with est ; e. g., stulti est ; partitive, as ali- 
■quid novi, 

(y.) In the Casus which can be distinguished as neutra 
(i. e., from Af. and i^.). ITumana despicere, '* to despise human 
affairs " ; but summis rehus studere (why ?). 

(&) In phrases: aliquem de m^io tollere. 

(b.) As adverbs. 

(a.) Names of localities : Thebanus, "from Thebes" ; pugna 
Salaminia, " at Salamis " ; in summa arbore, " up in the top " ; 
per mediam urbem. 

(fi.) Indicating emotion : Socrates venenum laetus hausit. 

(y.) Physical condition : Milites exanimati in castra perve- 
nerunt. 

(8.) Time and order: "first," "later," "last." 

(c.) Only = unus: Multi Athenier^es unius Pericules sen- 
tentiam seguebantur. 

Note: Copulas for uniting subj. and pred., adj. or subst. : 
^sSy fieri, exsisterCy evadere, manere, videri, nasci, mori. 

(c.) Veneti^ gens Galliae potentissim^, " one of the mightiest 
peoples of Gaul." 

(d.) "Much money," magna pecunia ; "many troops," 
magnae copiae ; " rich booty," magna praeda. 

8. Pronomiiia. 

(a.) Qui = nam is, et is, is autem. 

(b.) Ipse = ("the very") "directly," "merely" (?). 

(c.) Quis after si, mtf, n«, num. 

4. Verba. 

(a.) Pontem/ecit, "caused to be built." 
(b.) Fundijugarique, "fully rout." 

5. Arrangementofwordfl. 

Paros insula opibus elata. Substantivum, adverbial expres- 
sion, partidpium. [Translated Jrom " OymnasiumJ'^] 



204 LATINE. 



rROSSRJPmA ON KARTS TO PLUTO IN HADBS, 

" Nec repetita seqai curet Proserpina matrem." 

Gboboigs, bk. i, 89. 

"Someof the mythologists have hinted that it was 
not without reluctance that Proaerpina aasented to 
the decree of Jupiter that she ahould paas six months 
of the year with her mother Geres on earth, or, aa 
8ome aay, in heaven.*' Hcluer. 

I think on thee amid the apring-tlme flowers, 

On thee, my emperor, my aorereign iord, 
DwelUng atone in dim Tartarean towers 

Of thy dark realm by earth and heaven abhorred, 
Wandering alone by that Avemian river 
Where dead kings walk and phantoms wail forever.^ 

I thlnk of thee in that stem palaoe regnant, 
Where no sweet voioe of aummer charms thc air, 

Where the vast solitude seems ever pregnant 
With Bome dark dream of unforetold despair. 

Thy love, remembered, doth heaven'8 light eclipse ; 

I f eel thy Ungering kisses on my lips. 

I languish for the late autumnal showers, 
The oool, cool plashing of the autumn rain, 

The shimmering hoar-frost and fast-fading flowers, 
That give me back to thy dark realm again ; 

To thee ril bring SiciUa^s starzy skies 

And aU the heaven of summer in my eyes. 

When from earth^s noontide beauty bome away 

To the pale prairies of the under-world, 
A moumful flower upon thy breast I lay 

TiU round thy heart its ftlingiiig tendrils curled— 
A frigfatened dove that tamed its fluttering pinion 
To the dear magic of thy love'8 dominion. 

For thou wert grandly beautiful as night, 
Stem Orcus, in thy tealm of buried kings ; 

And thy sad crown of cypress, in my sight 
Furer than aU the bright and flowery rings 

Of wreathdd poppies and of golden com 

By Geres on her stately temples wom. 

I sat beside thee on heU'B duaky throne 
Kor f eared the awful shadow of thy f ate ; 



LATINE. 20S 



CoBteat to share the burden of thy crown 

And all the mournf ul splendors of thy state — 
BendiDg my flower-Uke beauty to thy will, 
Seeking with light thy loneiy dark to filL 

Wondering, I think how thy dear iove hath bound me 

In a new iife tliat half f orgets the old ; 
All day I haunt the meadows where you found me, 

Enee-deep in daffodils of dusky gold, 
Or sit beside Cyane^s fountain, dreaming 
Of the red lake by thy dark palaoe gleaming. 

The dreadful gorge, through which I first descended 
To thy dark world, seems like yon stormy sky, 

Through whoee dark thunder-^rifts, as daylight ended, 
Wild pomps of sunset opened on the eye. 

When shall I pass again that gloomy portal 

To our throned palaoe in the realms immortal ? 

When in her car by wingdd dragons bome, 
Pale Geres sought me through the shuddeiing night, 

With angry torches and fierce eyes forlom, 

Slaying the dark that screened me f rom her sight, 

Like a red Uoness that rends the air 

Of midnight with her perilous despairf 

Jove, pitying the great passion of her woe, 

Gave back the queen-bride to the mother*B grief — 

To Geres gaTe— through summer*B golden glow 
And aU the crescent month*B from spear to sheaf ; 

Alas, how sadly in Sicilian bowers 

I pass this ionely, lingering time of flowers ! 

In the long sUenoe of the languid noons, 
When aU the panting birds are faint with heat, 

I wander lonely by the blue lagoons 
To hear their light waves rippling at my f eet 

Tlirough the dead calm, and oount the lingering time 

By the slow pulseB of their silver chime. 

I languish for the late autumnal showers, 

The oool, oool plashing of the autumn rain, 
The flhimmering hoar-frost and fast-fading flowers 

That give me back to thy dark realm again ; 
I have no native land f rom thee apart, 
And my high heaven of heavens is m thy heart 

Mrs. Whitmam (Harpen^ Magaziney Aprily 1S66). 



206 LATINE. 



SOMS OVERSiaHTS IN HARFSRSr JLATJN LEXICON, 

I. 

The following brief notes are not the resutt of anj search for errors, but 
simply points that haye been jotted down as they casuallj caught my eye or 
arrested my attention : 

In the list of authors and their works prefixed to the Lexicon, Sextus Ros- 
<»U8 Amerinus is oonfounded with Quintus Roscius Comoedus. 

Jvdex \b defined only as " judge." The word certainly answers in the plu- 
ral rery of ten to our " jurors.'* An interesting use of the word occurs in Cic 
RoBC. Am., 86 : Tamen, facUe me pHUrer vd illo xpw (sc. Castio) aeerrimo 
iudiee quaerenU vel apud Catnanos judiee» — pro Sex. Boecio dicere. Here 
judiee must be translated " judge," and judice» " jurors." If the student 
looks under "Cassianus" in the Lexioon, he will find "of Cassius" as the 
only meaning, while the meaning here is plainly " like Cassius." 

-91«, the interrogative particle, is used in the sense of nonne in Cic. Cat., i, 
8: Meminitiine me ante diem XII Kalendas Novembres dicere in aenaiuf 
This passage is, therefore, wrongly giren as an illustration of the common 
-use of ne, • 

Aliquia oocurs as the exact equivalent of guidam^ if I understand its 
meaning, in the f ollowing passages : 

Verum enim amicum qui itUuehir, tamguam exemplar aliquod iniuetur 
jtt». Cic. de Am., Tii, 28. 

Quod in eo (sc homine) quasi lumen aliquod probitaiia el virtuii» penpieere 
videamur. Cic. de Am., viii, 27. 

Enniva aanctoa appellai poetaa, quod quaai deorum aliquo dono aique m-u- 
nere commendaii nobia eaae videaniur. Cic. Pro Archia, viii, 18. 

-quaai aiffnum aliquod auatuliaiL Cic. pro MarcelL, i, 2. 

In each of these passages aliquod may be exactiy rendered " a sort of," 
or, ^' if I may say ao," a meaning which quidam has very of ten. Compare the 
sentenoe in the Fro Archia preceding the one last quoted above : Poeiam — 
quaai divino quodamapiritu in/ari. Cicero feels that the word divino needs 
^ftening, and he adds quodam^ ** if I may be allowed the expression,'* pre- 
cisely as he takes off the edge of exemplar, lumen, donOy aignum, by adding ali- 
quod, I have made no search to find out whether or not this is a oommon 
use of aliquia. I giye these four instances as having reoently caught my 
attention. It is singular that Harpera' ignores this use of aliquia^ both in 
ihe artide on the word and in that on quidam, 

Cauaa in the abhitiTe is correctly said to be placed usually af ter the geni- 
-tive dependent on it, and the only examples quoted, or referred to, of the in- 
Terse order, are from Ennius, Terence, and Livy. But Cicero writes, (^uam 
muiia enim quae noaira cauaa nunquam /aceremu8y /acimua cavaa amioorum. 
J)e Am., xvi, 67. 

Fer in composition, it is said, usually adds mtensity to the signification, 
" thoroughly," "completely," etc. Very true, but what shall we say of perji- 
duaf In tbis word per seems to mean not ** exceedingly," nor " through " 
«imply, but " breaking through." Compare perjurium^ perjuro^ perjurua. In 



LATINE. 207 



perventts, per meanB ** awry." It has been ingeniously suggested to me that in 
this word the proper intensive force is seen with the notion of exoess result- 
ing, tumed ** thoroughly," then " too much," hence "awry." In perdere and 
perire ita force is akin to that in perfidue^ importing a sense of fatality or de- 
structiTeness. Surely such uses of the word in composition should haTe been 
noticed. 

Pereipere, I suBpect that the meanings of this word are not arranged in 
the right order, and that the original sense is ** to gather in," as thevintage or 
harrest ; just as puto and eoU> are primarily agricultural terms. Both per- 
eipio and colo occur in the following sentence : yam vtUitatee quidem etiam ab 
iie perHpiufUur saepe qui simtdatione amicUiae cohmtur. Cic. de Amicitia, 
▼iii, 26. Percipio is used with frudm in its literal sense in numquam fere 
uUa in agro majora operafitmt^ non serendis^ non percipiendis, non condendis 
JruetUms, CSade Am., yiii, 26. Compare also De Offic, xriii. With the same 
nowi /ruetus, used metaphorically, it occurs in the following: Nam si quis 
minorem ffloriae fruetum putai ez Oraecis versiJbus percipi guam ex Laiinis^ 
vehanenter errat, CSc. Pro Archia., x, 23. W. C. Collar. 

PJETRARCA DJB SENECTUTE SUA : A PARAPHRASE, {Nathtat 
HsLskeU i^oie.l 

Quas humilis tenero stylus olim elfudit in aevo 

Perlegis hic lachrymas, et quod pharetratus acuta 

nie puer puero fecit mihi cuspide Tolnus. 

Omnia paulatim consumit longior aetas, 

Yiyendoque simul morimur, rapimurque manendo. 

Ipse mihi collatus enim non ille videbor ; 

Frons alia est, moresque alii, nova mentis imago, 

Voxque aliud sonat : 

Pectore nunc gelido calidos miseremur amantes 

lamque arsisse pudet. Veteres tranquilla tumultus 

Hens horret, relegensque alium putat ista locutum. 

The tears which in my callow youth I shed 

Long sinoe are dried ; the wound made by the dart 

Of Love, the archer, on my boyish heart 
Is healed. The summer of my life is dead, 
And one by one its idle joys are fled. 

Like Dealh, our daily living bids us part 

From all we once held dear. Time, thou art 
Our Fate which drives us with relentless tread ! 
The old self that we knew is now no more. 

The brow is wan ; fond habits suffer change ; 

The mind has other eyes ; the voice is strange. 

Our cold hearts pity lovers passionate ; 

We blush that once we bumed. Old loves we hate ; 
And former vows we deem another swore. 



208 * LATINE. 



ANTIBARBARUS. [Continued.] 

Obliyion, to consign to oblivion, " oblivioni dare," '* oblivione obruere ali- 
quid " ei al.^ not "oblivioni tradere.'* — To pass into obliyion, " in oblivionem 
adduci," " obliTioni deleri " el o/., not ** in obliTionem venire/* which equals 
"obliviscL" 

To obieiire lome one, ** gloriam, laudem, splendorem alicuius obscurare," 
not **ob8curare aliquem." 

Oeenpation with itndiei, " litterarum studium," not " occupatio," which 
equals the employment of the politidan or statesman. 

Oeenr (L e., be found), "inveniri," "accidere," "incidere," "usurpari" — 
e. g., this word occurs seldom in Gic., equals " apud Giceronem hoc Tocabu- 
lum raro usurpatum est," not " occurrere," which equals otfers itsell 

On the anthority of some one, " verbiB alicuius aliquo auctore," not " auc- 
toritate " or " nomine." 

One, exoept in comparison is not expressed— «. g., " anno ante," not " uno 
anno ante," " ne verbum quidem," not " ne unum quidem verbum." — One of 
the wisest men, " homo sapientissimus," not " unus e." 

One'8 own, through the possessive pronoun or " ipse," not " proprius " 
(opposite " communis "). 

Ontweigh, of tbings " propendere," not " praeponderare " nor "prae- 
valere " ; of persons, " potentia, opibus, viribus antecedere, praestare," not 
" praepolere." 

OTorthrow any one. Traus. " praecipitare " (also intrans.), " deicere," not 
** ruere," which is intr. 

Owe, e. g., to bravery the victorj, " f ortitudine vincere " ; to diligenoe, 
progress, "assiduitate in litteris proficere," not "victoriam debere fortitu- 
dini," as debere is used only with persons. 

Fartly — ^partly, " et — et, tum — ^tum," not " partim — ^partim," except when 
there is an actual partition. 

Pasf by in silence, " silentio praeterire," not " silentio praetermittere," 
but " praeterroittere idiquid." 

Past, in the past year, " praeterito anno," not " praeterlapso anno." 

Perfection, the highest perfection, "absolutio et perfectio," not "summa 
perfectio." 

Terhaps, in questions after num and an, it is not translated. 

Philoeophieally, by the genitive " philosophii, philosophorum, philoso- 
phandi," not by " philosophicus " or " philosophus." 

Play flnte, etc., "canere tibia fidibus," not "ludere," but "ludere pila, 
teseris." 

To plnnder, intransitive, " praedare," not " deripere (urbem)." 

Poiion-enp, " poculum mortiferum " or " mortis," not " veneni" To empty 
the poison-cup, " poculum mortis exhaurire." 

Posseis of oharaeteristici or qnalities, " esse " with theablative, " inesse " 
(perf. " fui," not " infui "). " In aliquo," not " possidere," which equals pos- 
sess property. 



LATINE. 209 



Fraotioed, " exerdtotus," not ** exercitiis." 

Preoeding, in the preoeding (as above " supra/* not " in antecedentibus.'* 
In tbe preceding book, " in superiore, priore libro," not " in antecedente libro." 

Predeoeosor in office, " decessor/' not " antecessor." 

Prefor to— "malle," not "praeferre." 

Frejndioo, " opinio praeiudicata " or sirnply " opinio," not " praeiudidum." 

Fremstnre doath. " Immatura mors," not " praematura (post-class.) 
mors." 

Preparo for war, "parare bellum," not **se parare ad bellum." 

Proseribo conditions of peace, " pacis conditiones dare," " dicere," not 
" praescribere." 

Protoxt, " under the pretext," " per causam," " per speciem," specie, 
'* nomine" with gen., not "sub praetextu" (once in Liv.). 

Proyail, "plus, plurimum valere," "dominari," not "praevalere" (post- 
class.). 

Priyilogo, " ius praedpuum," or simply " ius, lex praecipua, benefidum 
et a].," not " privilegium," which in classic prose is a law established to meet 
the case of an individual man. 

Pzizo, " magni facere, magni aestimare," not " aestimare " alone. 

Prodigality, "eifusio," not " profusio " (post-dass.). Prodigally, "pro- 
dige," " effuse," not " profuse." While be prodigal is " elf undere " and " pro 
fundere " (pecuniam) and a prodigal is " homo prodigus " or " profusus." 

Prodnoo, " ferre," not " proferre," e. g., "terra fert fruges, viros magnos." 

Prolong, "producere — convivium — ," " ducere— bdlum — ," "prorogare — 
imperium — ," not " prolongare " (late Latin). 

Propoflo a law, conditions of peace, " legem, pacis conditiones ferre," not 
" proponere " (see, also, " iegem rogare "). 

Proso, " oratio soluta," or simply " oratio," not " sermo pedester." 

ProTO. That proves, " documento, indido est," not " huic rei doc., ind. 
est," but " cui rei doc, ind. est." 

Provido, " providere," not " praevidere." 

PaniBh, " suppUcium sumere de aliquo," not " ab aliquo." Punishment, 
^ animadversio, multatio," not " punitio " (post-class.). 

Pnrity of ftylo, " integritas, sinceritas, orationis," not " puritas " (late 
Latin). Pure, oorrect style, "oratio pura et emendata" (opp. " inquinata,** 
not " impura," wliich equals lewd). 

Pnt on, one'B garment, " induere vestem (veste indutus)," not "sibi induere 
vestem." 

Qnoto, f rom a book, " aliquid ex libro excerpere,*' not " librum excerpere." 

To raiio to positions of honor, "tollere honoribus" (Horace), not "ad 
honores." 

Boad. "Legere," "redtare" (aloud and aocurately), not " praelegere," 
8o reading, "lectio," "recitatio," not "praelegio." 

Boad, we read in Plato, " apud Platonem scriptum videmus, scriptum est," 
not " legimuB " in present, but we may use " legimus " in perfect, also not " in 
Flatone." 



210 LATINE. 

BMdte, " ex memoria [memoriter, with aeeurate remembranoe] dioere, pro- 

imntiare," not " recitare," which equais to read aiond. 

Befleet npon by one'B lelf^ ** secum reputare/' not *' apud ae reputare.*' 
To refrain from ipeaking, **super8edere oratione," not with inf. " dicere.'* 
Semembranoe, in reinembrance, ** memoriae causa," ** ad memoriam,'* not 

" in memoriam." 

[To be etmUnued in AprilJ] 

THE DEAD CANARY, [CatiLUas.] 

Passer mortuus est meae puellae, 
Passer, deliciae meae puellae, 
Quem plus illa oculis suis amabat ; 
Nam mellitus erat suamque norat 
Ipsam tam bene quam puella matrem ; 
Nec sese a gremio illius mouebat, 
Set circumsiliens modo huc modo illuc 
Ad solam dominam usque pipiabat 
Qui nunc it per iter tenebricosum 
Illuc, unde negant redire quemquam. 
At uobis male sit, malae tenebrae 
Orci, quae omnia bella deuoratis : 
Tam bellum mihi passerem abstulistis. 
f actum male ! io miselle passer, 
Tua nunc opera meae puellae 
Flendo turgiduli rubent ooelli. 

Wee bit birdie^s dead and gane, 

The pet o* my ain dearie O, 
And now is joumeyin' all alane 

The road so dark and dreary — 
The road that maun be trod by aU 

0' mortal men and birdies 0. 

Sweet birdie kennM his mistress weel, 

Her f ace fra ilka ither 0, 
As weel as e'er my lassie kenn*d 

The face o* her ain mither 0, 
And, nestled in her breast, he*d pipe 

And cheep the hour thegither 0. 

Ah, birdie, what f or was thy lif e, 

Thy puir bit lif e sae fleetin' ? 
'Tis a* for thee my dearie's een 

Are red and sair wi' greetin' O ; 
^Hs a' for thee thae bonny een 

Are red and sair wi' greetin' O. 

D'Arct W. Thompson, in " Andent Leaves.** 



lUr est Umgum per praeetpta^ breve et ^ffieax per bzbmpla.—Sbnbca. 



NOVI 
EBORACI. 



Latine. 



MENSE APRILI. 
MDCCCLXXXV. 



**MuUa Boga: BeUns Doeta: ReUnia 2>oe«.**— Cominus. 

Ledor: Quid tibi vis, O ephemeriB parvula? 

I/aiM : Ut TertnU vert>a flectam : Latini nihil a me alienum puto. ** Non 
enim tam praeelarum eet eeire Latiks quam turpe neeeire,^* — Cio. Brut. oxl. 



COLLOQUIUM, 

Non ebur neque aureum 

Hea renidet in domo lacunar; 
Non trabes Hymettiae 

Poemunt oolumnas ultima recisas 
Africa; neque Attali 

Ignotus heres regiam occupavi ; 
Nec Laoonicas mihi 

Trahunt honestae purpuras clientae ; 
At fides et ingeni 

Benigna vena est, pauperemque di- 
ves 
Me petit ; nihil supra 

Deos lacesso, nec potentem amicum 
Laigiora flagito, 

Satis beatus unicis Sabinis. 
Truditur dies die. 

Novaeque pergunt interire lunae. 
Tu secanda marmora 

Locas sub ipsum f unus, et sepulcri 
Immemor struis domos 

Marisqae Baiis obstrepentis urges 



Summovere littora, 

Parum locuples continente ripa. 
Quid, quod usque proximos 

Revellis agri terminos et ultra 
limites clientium 

Salis avarus ? Pellitur patemos 
In sinu f erens deos 

£t uxor et vir sordidosque natos ; 
Nulla oertior tamen 

Rapacis Orci fine destinata 
Aula divitem manet 

Herum. Quid ultra tendis ? Aequa 
tellus 
Pauperi recluditur 

Regumque pueris, nec satelles Orci 
Gallidum Promethea 

Revexit auro captus. Hic superbum 
Tantalum atque Tantali 

Grenus coercet ; hic levare functum 
Pauperem laboribus 

Yocatus atque non vocatus audit. 



HoR. Car. II, 18. 

A, — Quem poeta hoc carmine iocrepat ? 

B, — ^Divitem quemlibet, credo, qui non contentus rebus, res 
majores cupiat Suum " fundum apto cum lare " contra splen- 
didam domum divitis ponit. 

A, — Quale lacunar in domo divitis f ulgebat ? 

B, — Lacunar, ait, ebore et auro factum. Livius de templo 
Jovis scribit, quod non tantum auro laqueatum, sed parietibus 
totis inauratum erat. [XLI, 20.] Yocabulum a ^ct«« ducitur ; id 
significat, quod cavum est ; lacunar igitur est tectum marmore 



212 



LATINE. 



factam, aut inauratum, et manu artificis caelatum. Ljclini ab 
aureis laquearibus in tectis reginae Cartbaginis pendebant [Ver. 
Ae. I, 727] ; meminisliDe quendam tyrannum gladium a lacaiiari 
seta equina aptum demitti jussisse ? [Cic. Tusc. Y, 2L] 




A. — Memini : Horatius dicit curas circum laqueata tecta to- 
lare. [II, 16.] 

B. — Puto quidem. Hoc lacunar renidet ; Horatius panun 
Lunam noctumo mari renidere dicit [H, 5] ; Vergilius, tellu- 
rem bello omnem aere renidenti late fluctuare [G, II, 282] ; 
Lucretius, domum divitis argento fulgere auroque renidere et 
citharas reboare laqueata aurataque tecta. [II, 27.] 

A. — Quales erant trabes Hymettiae ? 

jB, — ^Trabs summis columnis imposita epistylium (postea ar- 
chitravis) vocabatur. Romani marmor e rupibus Numidiae 
(ultimae Africae) excisum transportabant ; marmor autem Hj- 
mettium pretiosius erat. Marmor e Hymetto, Paro, Penteli- 
co erat candidum, marmor Libycum flavum, Syenitum macu- 
losum. 

A. — Nonne Attalus populum Romanum heredem fecit ? 

B. — Ita vero ; divitiae ejus in proverbio erant : Horatins de 
Attalicis condicionibus loquitur. [I, 1.] Hereditates, ut novi- 
i : - 

Hlnstration : Interior of Roman house, page 288. 



LATINE. 213 



mos, ab ignotis propinquis ad homines nonnunqaam perve- 
niunt ; poeta negat talem f ortunam sibi contigisse. 

A, — Nonne erant divitibus apud Romanos servi et servae, 
clientes et clientae ? 

-5.— Ita erat ; mihi autem non satis constat utrum clientae 
hanestae mulieres ingenuae in fide et clientela patroni sint, an 
uzores colonorum. Servae lanam trahere et stamina pollice ver- 
sare solebant ; fila de colu deducta in fusum versabant. Murex 
in litore Tyrio, Africo, Laconico inventus est; Horatius de lanis 
bis Afro murice tinctis scribit : [II, 16] Juvenalis, de Spartana 
cblamyde. 

A. — Neque aedea splendida, neque famuli famulaeque, neque 
yestes purpurae nostro poetae erant : nonne ei divitiae erant ? 

B, — Insigni fide erga amicos erat Bicit sibi ingeni benignam 
venam esse. Yenae arteriaeque, ut novimus, a corde in totum 
corpus tractae ducuntur ; venae etiam in teliure argenti et auri 
sunt, [Juv. IX.] Cicero de venis et visceribus rei publicae 
scripsit : Horatius ingenium eximium divitem venam appellat ; 
nec studium sino divite vena nec rude ingenium satis valere. 
[A. P. 409.] Poetae res benigruia appellant, quae abundantiam 
praebent. Benigna terra, ait Tibullus, magnas messes daret. 
[III, 3.] 

A. — ^Dives Maecenas, igitur, Horatium pauperem petivit. 
Nonne poeta sua f ortuna contentus erat ? 

B, — Ita dicit : nihil supra deos lacessere nec potentem amicum 
largiora flagitare. Contentus donis erat, quae plurima maxima- 
que Maecenas dederat. 

A, — Beatus est, qui, omnibus malis secretis, omnia bona cu- 
mulata possidet. Gredisne Horatium hoc modo beatum ? 

B. — ^Non credo. Satis beatus unicis Sabinis erat ; poeta vult 
dicere, se Sabinis agris esse contentum. 

A. — ^Dicitne nobis causam, cur deos nihil supra lacesserit ? 

B. — Quod breve sit vitae spatium, et nihil in rebus humanis 
diutumum. 

A. — Sentimus omnes diem die trudi. Verbum autem mihi 
novum est. 

B. — Pompeius filium in comitia, populo invito, trusisse dici- 
tur. Seneca homines alterum alterum in vitia trudere, Cicero 
onmes ad mortem trudi, dicit. Luna cursum brevi tempore per- 



214 



LATINE. 



cuirit ; nova luna in dies crescit, et plena facta, in dies decrescit, 
aut, ut poeta dicit, interit ; menses, anni labuntur, eheu f ugaces. 

[11, u.] 

A, — Haec sententia philosophi, non divitis. Suh ipsumfunus 
domos aedificat ; usque ad mortcm, nonne ? 

B, — Recte dicis ; 9uh noctem^ suh vesperum, suh lucem, suh galli 
cantum, suhfrigora^ etc., saepe inveniraus. 

A, — Locatne dives marmora secanda ? 

B. — Licet vectigalia, agros, praedia, domos, tabemas pretio 
locare ; licet etiam locare rem faciendam ; e. g., statuas faciendas, 
columnas dealbandas, templum exstruendum, ut eo loco marmora 
secanda ; qui opus suscipit, is redemptor appellatur ; [III, 1] di- 
ves, qui marmora secanda locat, locator est. 

A, — Senes immemores sepulcri saepe videntur. Quam multi 
domos aedificant, in quibus non vivent ! 

B, — Serviunt autem nonnunquam posteritati. Meministine 
apud Ciceronem quid senex quaerenti cui sereret responderet; 
Diis immortalibus qui me non accipere modo haec a majoribus 
voluerunt, sed etiam posteris prodere. [C. Maj. VII.] 




''t F. «. 



A, — Verba memoratu digna. Non credo autem hunc senem 
idem sensisse. Nonne litora maris sumraovit? 

B, — Roraani his temporibns, molibus mari extmso, terram e 
mari redimebant : Horatius contracta pisces aequora sentire dicit. 
[III, 1.] Hic dives urget, instat, littora summxtvere, Non gazae, 



Illustration : Plan of Roman house, page 238. 



LATINE. 216 



ait Horatius, neque consularis lictor tumultus mentis summovet. 
fll, 16.] 

A. — Horatius erat satis beatus, dives autem est parum locu- 
ples. Vultne poeta dicere, eum non esse contentum tanto litoris 
quantum jam possideat ? 

£, — Credo. Sunt qui credant ripam continentem litus con- 
tinuumy integrum^ significare. 

A. — Nonne Horatius Baiarum mentionem saepe f acit ? 

B. — Saepe. Aquae Baiarum celeberrimae erant. Horatius 
Baias amoenas, liquidas appeliat Multi Romani villas ibi aedifi- 
caverunt. Ciceroni erat villa, non Baiis longe remota, Puteola- 
num appellata. Clodius ei objecit, quod mense Aprili apud Baias 
esset et aquis calidis uteretur. XJndae maris Baiis litora obstre- 
pont, quem sonitum aestate iaeti audimus. 

-4, — Nonne dives, non suis rebus contentus, alienas petebat ? 

B. — ^Revellebat etiam terminos agri proximos. Romani Ter- 
minum deum habuerunt, et legibus antiquis caput hominis, qui 
terminos proximi evellit, Jovi sacrura erat. Meministine ean- 
dem legem Hebraeis fuiase ? [Deut 27, 17.] 

A. — Memini sane. Hic avarus ultra limites clientium saliebat. 

B. — Limes, ut scis, semita angusta inter agros erat. Erat 
patroni clientes protegere. Antiquae leges jusserunt : Patronus 
ai clienti fraudem fecerit, sacer esto. Yiolentus quidcm, cui 
neque termini neque jura clientium curae erant. Quis tali hac 
columnis et tecto laqueato ornata domo invideat ? 

A. — Pejora in se admittebat. Pauper ferens Penates patrios 
in sinu et natos sordidos ex agris pellebatur, tanquam Aeneas 
manu deos paternos et filium secum Troja incensa traxit. 

B. — Nemesis autem non longe aberit. Quid minitatur poeta 
avaro ? 

A. — ^Divitem herum, nunc splendida aula laetum, aula in 
regno Orci destinata manet Nonne ? 

B. — Ita credo. Sunt qui putent poetam dicere nullam cer- 
tiorem aulam divitem herum manerc quam finem destinatam 
rapacis Orci. Horatius autem exiguo fine, supremo fine^ quem 
finem,fines^ quos ultra dicit, semel modo quae finis. [Ep. 17, 
36.] Credo ei, qui domum splendidam aedificet, aliam domum 
in finibus Orci esse destinatam. Nemo, credo, ultra limites regis 
Orci salit 



216 



LATINE. 



A. — Quare appellat tellurem (uquam ? 

B. — Tellus pauperem aeque ac regis filium recipit. Et pau- 
peribus et divitibus aequa terra recluditur. 

A, — Quis est satelles Orci ? 

B, — Charon, credo, satelles Orci, id est, Mortis, appellatur. 
In aula divitum sunt satellites, qui fidem venalem habent ; satelles 
autem Orci, ut Orcus ipse, auro non exorabilis est. [Epp. 2, 2.] 

A, — Nonne Horatius Promethea in Tartaro supplicio adfec- 
tum fingit ? 

B, — Ita est Dicit Alcaeum et Sappho canentes Promethca 
et Tantalum delectare. Non potest, credo, Charoiiti persuaderi, 
ut Promethea revehat. 

A, — Quare eum cadlidum appellat ? 

B, — ^Cicero eos ccUlidos appellat, quomm animus usu, tan- 
quam manus opere, concalluit. Demosthenes, Promctheus, Ulixes 
callidi dicuntur: Musa callida appellatur: Cicero dicit natura 
nihil esse cailidius. 

A, — Quis Tantalum et genus Tantali coercere dicitur ? 




B, — ^Mors Tantalum et ejus genus, Nioben, Atridas, nomina 
magna et honoranda, coercet, Qui autem divitias et honores ab 
se alienos captant, ii similes Tantali sunt, qui sitiens, ut ait Hora- 
tius, a labris f ugientia captat flumina : genus Tantali hoc loco 
similes Tantali mihi esse videtur, quo ex genere est hic avarus. 

A, — Nonne apud Aesopem pauper Mortem vocat? 

B, — Mortera vocatam non laetus vidit. Vocata autem atque 
non vocata, ad hominem laboribus vitae functum Mors venit. 
Superbos coercet, pauperes levat laboribus; omnibus imminet. 
Quid, ait poeta, ultra tendis ? E. H. R. 

niustration : Section of Roman house, page 238. 



LATINE. 217 



HYMNUS IN FESTO ASCENSIONIS DOMINL 

Jesu beatissime ! 

Brachia amoris ! 
Me siistenta in labando, 
Audi me in implorando, 

Verba et clamoris 
Fac ut, olim, transformata 
Cantem cantica beata, 

Vinculis doloris 
In aetemum liberatus. 
Cum in sinum congregatus 

Almum Salvatoris 
Coetus splendidus sanctorum 
Obliviscentur laborum 

Vitae hic prioris 
£t laudabunt, ante thronum 
Gloriosum, Patrem Bonum 

Qui et peccatoris 
Precibus non indignatus 
Creaturae miseratus 

Cord^ creatoris — 
Ibi, ego et cantabo 
Magnum Nomen et laudabo 

Mei Redemptoris, 

Jesu clementissime ! Amen. 

FraNCISCUS nRBAK£NSI& 

M. PORCIUS CATO CENSORIUS, [Pslts Altera.^] 

(11.) M. Catonem Graecas litteras in senectute didicisse accepi. (Acad. 

2, § 6.) 

(12.) M. Cato et diutissime senex fuit et in ipsa senectute praeter ceteroe 
floniit. (LaeL, § 4.) 

(18.) Cato, quia multarum rerum usum habebat — ^multa eius et in senatu 
et in f oro vel provisa prudenter vel acta oonstanter tcI responsa acute f ere- 
bantur — ^propterea quasi oognomen iam habebat in senectute sapientis. (Lael, 
§ 6. Cf. de offic. 8, § 16 : M. Cato et C. Laelius sapientes fuerunt. And Tusc. 
1, g 6 : Galbam, Africanum, Laelium doctos fuisse traditum est, studiosum 
autem eum, qui iis aetate anteibat, Catonem.) 

(14.) M. Cato senex, fortissimus rir et illis temporibus doctissimus. (Pro 
Arch., § 16.) 



^ The first part was in Fascic. I. 



218 



LATINE. 




»f 




(15.) Non eadem ratione et via M. Cato, P. Africanus, Q. Metellus, 0. 
Laelius, qui omnes eloquentes fuerunt, orationem suam et rei publicae digni- 
tatem exomabant. (De Orat. 1, § 216.) 



lUustration : Stadium, page 199. 



LATINE. 219 



(16.) Catones, Phili, Laelii, quorum sapientia temperantiaque in publieis 
privatisque,forensibu8 domesticisque rebus pcrspectae sunt. (De lege agr. 2, 
§64.) 

(17.) Tantus erat in Catone usus rei publicae, quam et domi et militiae 
cum optime tum etiam diutissime gesserat, et modus in dicendo, et gravitate 
mixtus lepos, et summum vel discendi studium vel docendi et orationi vita 
admodum congruens. Is dicere solebat, ob hanc causam praestare nostrae 
civitatis statum ceteris civitatibus, quod in illis singuli fuissent f ere, qui suam 
quisque rem publicam constituissent legibus atque institutis suis, ut Cretum 
Hinos, Lacedaemoniorum Lycurgus, Atheniensium, quae persaepe commutata 
esset, tum Theseus, tum Draco, tum Solo, tum Clisthenes, tum multi alii, po- 
stremo exsanguem iam et iacentem doctus vir Phalereus sustentasset Deme- 
trius, nostra autem res publica non unius esset ingenio, sed multorum, nec 
una hominis vita, sed aliquot constituta seculis et aetatibus. (De re pubL 2, 
§ 1, u. 2. Cf. ««?., § 87 : Nunc fit illud Catonis certius, nec temporis unius 
nec hominis esse constitutionem rei publicae.) 

(18.) Gravissimus auctor in Originibus dixit Cato, morem apud maiores 
hunc epularum f uisse, ut deinceps qui accubarent canerent ad tibiam clarorum 
virorum laudes atque virtutes ; ex quo perspicuum est et cantus tum fuisse 
descriptos vocum sonis et carmina. (Tusc. 4, § S. Cf. u/. 1, § 8 : Est in 
Originibus, solitos esse in epulis canere convivas ad tibicinem de clarorum 
hominum virtutibus, honorem tamen huic generi non fuisse declarat oratio 
Catonis, in qua obiecit ut probrum &£. Nobiliori, quod is in provinciam poetas 
duxisset. And Brut., § 75 : TJtinam exstarent illa carmina, quae multis secu- 
lis ante suam aetatem in epulis esse cantata a singulis convivis de clarorum 
virorum laudibus in Originibus scriptum reliquit Cato.) 

(19.) Catonem quis nostrorum oratorum, qui quidem nunc sunt, legit? 
aut quis novit omnino ? at quem virum, di boni ! mitto civem aut senatorem 
aut imperatorem ; oratorem enim hoc loco quaerimus* quis illo gravior in 
laudando ? acerbior in vituperando ? in sententiis argutior ? in docendo edis- 
serendoque subtilior ? refertae sunt orationes amplius centum quinquaginta, 
quas quidem adhuc invenerim et legerim, et verbis et rebus inlustribus : licet 
ex his eligant ea, quac notatione et laude digna sunt : omnes oratoriae vir- 
tutes in eis reperientur. lam vero Origines eius quem florein aut qiiod lumen 
eloquentiae non habent ? Amatores huic desunt sicuti multis iam ante secu- 
lis et Philisto Syracusio et ipsi Thucydidi. (Brut., § 66. Cf. trf., § 294 : Ca- 
tonem ut civem, ut senatorem, ut imperatorem, ut virum denique cum pru- 
dentia et diligentia tum omni virtute excellentem probo ; orationes autem 
eius, ut illis temporibus, valde laudo ; significant enim quandam formam in- 
genii, sed admodum impolitam et plane rudem.) 

(20.) Scitum est illud Catonis, ut multa: Melius de quibusdam acerbos 
inimicos mereri quam eos amicos, qui dulces videantur ; illos verum saepe 
dioere, hos numquam. (Lael., § 90.) 

(21.) Yetus illud Catonis admodum scitum est, qui mirari se aiebat, quod 
non rideret haruspex, haruspicem cum yidisset. (De divin. 2, § 61.) 

(22.) Erumpunt saepe vitia amicorum . . . tales igitur amicitiae ^unt re- 



220 LATINE. 



missione usus eluendae et, ut Gatonem dicere audiri, diuuendae magig quam 
discindendae. (Lael., § 76.) 

(23.) Cum Cato percussus esset ab eo, qui arcam ferebat, cum ille diceret, 
"Cave," rogavit, '' Numquid aliud ferret, praeter arcam." (De orat 2,§ 279.) 

V. M. R. [AsJeep, jABU&ry 31, 1885.] 

Folded hands and f ettered f eet ; 
Seal^d eyes in alumber aweet ; 
ClosM mouth, undimpled chin ; 
Cheeks so pale and cold and thin ; 
No more beating of the heart, 
No more breath the lips to part ; 
Not a word, and not a kias : 
Has our loye all eome to this ? 

For the body, yes, 'tis all t 
Like the seed sown in the fall, 
Flanted in the earth away, 
Mingled with its kindred clay, 
Waiting through the wintry snow, 
Till the wind of spring shall blow ; 
Certain then to wake f rom sleep : 
God this planting safe will keep. 

Meanwhile, with activities 
Freer far, and clearer eyes, 
Wakes her soul, and warms with love : 
fli-st for (jod and things above ; 
Then with pity, tender, true, 
Loving, praying, tums to you ; 
DrawB your heart, her joys to see, 
Hearts where treasures are, will be. 
February £, 1885. W. C. D, 

IDEM LATINE. 

£n junctis manibus, jacet arcta oompede Tincta : 

£n oculos clausit leniter alma quies. 
Ora rigent f ugitque venus fugit color omnis. 

Mors maciesque suifl excubuere genis. 
Cor torpet placidum, non dimovet aura labella : 

Lingua silet, vultus Buavia blanda negat. 
Sic noster finitus amor ? Quin oorporfs extat 

Pars melior ; constans hanc amor uaque colat. 
Qualia sparguntur brumali seoiina coelo : 

Qualia f oecundo pulTere condit humus ; 
Qualia miscentur cognatae condita terrae : 

Qualia per niveos delitaere dies ; 



LATINE. 221 



Dum tandem elatebris reTOCHyerit aura Fayom — 

Sic sobolem caram seryat amatque deus. 
Liberior nunc illa suis nunc lumine claro 

Seryit, nunc yigilat cor et amore calet. 
Praecipue f ruiturque deo et coelestia spectat, 

Dein se ad yos yertens yota precesque moyet. 
Vos leni monitu ad coelestes allicit oras : 

Quod yobis cordi est quo yocat ite pii ! 
Franklin, N. Y. W. E. Wilson, M. A. 

C. LAELIUS SAPIENS. 

(1.) Laelius, qui Diogenem Stoicum adulescens, post autem Panaetium au- 
dierat, non eo dictus est sapiens, quod non inteUigeret, quid suayissimum es- 
set, sed quia paryi id duceret (De fin. 2, § 24.) 

(2.) M. Cato et C. Laelius sapientes sunt habiti et nominatL (De offic. 3, 

§16) 

(8.) M. Mucius augur multa narrare de C. Laelio socero suo memoriter 
et iucunde solebat nec dubitare illum in omni sermone appellare sapientem. 
(LaeL, § 1.) 

(4.) SapienHae studium yetus id quidem in nostris, sed tamen ante Laelii 
aetatem et Scipionis non reperio quos appellare possim nominatim. (Tusc. 4, 

(6.) C. Laelius, is qui Sapiens usurpatur, praetor (a. u. c. 609) Viriathum 
Lusitanum fregit et comminuit ferocitatemque eius ita repressit, ut fadle bel- 
lum reliquis traderet. (De offic. 2, § 40.) 

(6.) Ut ex bellica laude aspirare ad Africanum nemo potest, in qua ipsa 
egregium Viriathi bello reperimus fuisse Laelium, sic ingenii, litterarum, elo- 
quentiae, sapientiae denique etsi utrique primas, priores tamen libenter def e- 
nint Laelio. (Brut., g 84. Cf. de re pubL 1, § 18 : Fuit hoc in amicitia quasi 
quoddam ius inter Scipionem et Laelium, ut militiae propter eximiam belli 
gloriam Africanum ut deum coleret Laelius, domi yicissim Laelium, quod 
aetate antecedebat, obseryaret in parentis loco Scipio.) 

(7.) Accepimus e patribus maxime memorabilem C. Laelli et P. Sdpionis 
familiaritatem fuisse. (LaeL 1, § 4.) 

(8.) Erat in C. Laelio multa bilaritas, in eius familiari Sdpione ambitio 
maior, yita tristior. (De offic. 1, § 108.) 

(9.) Praeclara est aequabilitas in omni yita et idem semper yoltus eadem- 
que frons, ut de Socrate idemque de L. Laelio accepimus. (De offic. 1, § 90.) 

(10.) Laelius semper fere cum Sdpione solebat rusticari iique incredibili- 
ter repuerascere erant soliti, cum rus ex urbe tamquam e yinclis eyolayissent. 
(De Orat. 2, § 22.) 

(11.) C. Laelius et P. Africanus in primis eloquentes, quorum exstant ora- 
tiones, ex quibus existimari de ingeniis eorum potest (Brut., § 82.) 

(12.) Multi oratores fuerunt, ut illum Sdpionem audimus et Ladium, qui 
omnia sermone oonfioerent pauUo intentiore, num quam, ut Ser. Galba, lateri- 
bus aut clamore contenderent. (De Orat. 1, § 265.) 



222 LATINE. 

VSRSIO LATINA CARMINIS JAPONENSIS, [Post ptMphrtunm 
AngUcajn DicJcensuLm m NMtbAn Huskell Dole itecta.] 

My lowly hut is thatched with straw 
Froni fields where rioe-sheaves frequent stand, 

Now autumn^s harrest well-nigh o*er, 
CoUected by my toiling hand : 

Through tattered roof the sky I view, 

My clothes are wet with falling dew. 

Taberna vilis tcgitur 
maoa conlectis strenua 
mihi ez agro oryzae culmis 
quo stant fere factis messis 
crebri laboribus fasces : 
tecti nudant rimae astera ; 
rorescit sqaalida vestis. 

INSCRIPTIO, 

Haec inscriptio in monumento sepulcrali, quod intra tem- 
plum Christianum, prope Leeds, Britannorum urbem, extat : 

Hic jacet Carolus Lister in utraque Acad. Med. Stud. qui 
ipse paulo ante mortem suam cecinit cygneam cantionem. 
1 Cor. xvi, 55. Phil. i, 28. 

Ubi mors aculeus tuus ? Capio dissolvi. 

Grata venis, mors, Mens mea mundum^ 

Grata venis, nec Vanaque vitae 

Me tua terrent Somnia, et umbras^ 

Spicula, quae nunc Laeta relinquit. 

Sentio in aegro Et cupit alis 

Corpore fixa. Nixa duabus — 

Mors etenim agni Speque fideque — 

In cruce caesi Scandere summas 

(0 amor ingens ! ) Aetheris oras : 

Undique mentem Merset ubi se 

Munit, et illam Flumine puri 

Servat ab omni Gaudii, Jesu, 

Vulnere tutam. Teque fruatur 

Omnia in aeva, 
Obut die t. Aug. aetat. xxui., Anno sal. HDCLXXXIV. 



LATINE. 228 

ENGLISH SUPPLEMENT. 

[SUPPLEMENTUM ANGLICUM.] 

HORATIUS: Lib. I, C&rm. X, [NMthMn HAs^ell Dole.] 
Maecenas, sprang from kings of old, 
My patron and my sweet delight I 
Some in the race-course have their joy 
To gather np Olympic dust : 
The palm of honor and the goal 
Avoided by the ardent wheel 
Lift them on high among the gods, 
Among the rulers of the earth. 
This man rejoices if the mob, 
The turbulent, fickle popnlace, 
Are mad to give him sovereign power ; 
This other loves to store away 
In treasure-houses of his own 
The gains swept up from libyan sands. 
He who delights to plow his fields 
By all the wealth of Attalus 
Could not be moved to trust his life 
In Cyprian craft, a mariner 
Afraid of the Myrtoan Sea. 
The merchant, trembling at the winds, 
Which wrestle with the Icarian waves, 
Yearns for the leisure of his home, 
The green fields of his native town ; 
But soon refits his shaken ships, 
Untaught a poor man^s lot to bear. 
Some scom not cups of Massic wine, 
Nor shame to rest the live-long day 
With limbs fuU stretched beneath the shade, 
Or where fresh fountains gently spring. 
In camps full many find delight — 
The ringing trumpet and the shouts 
Of captains calling men to war, 
By matrons hated and abhorred. 
The huntsman, thoughtless of his bride. 



224 L-ATINE. 



Endureft the winter^s freezing sky 
To see the doe with tender kids, 
The Marsyan wild boar break his toils. 
But mc, the prize of leamed brows, 
The crown of ivy gives a place 
Among the mighty gods on high : 
The cooling grove, the dancing nymphs, 
The Satyrs in light-footed choirs, 
Me from the common herd divide, 
Unless Euterpe fail to sing, 
Or Polyhymnia refuse 
To tune her Lesbian lyre again. 
Now if among the prophet bards 
Thou givest roe my fitting place, 
My lofty fame shall strike the stars. 

CURRICULXTM IN LJLTJN STTLE (STnJSTZK). iror nve Tears, 
SeynAcherJ] \Continued trom March,'] 

• Pensum o/ Tertia. 

In addition to the exercises of VI, V, IV (which should be 
reviewed), the following additiona : 

1. Substantiya. 

(a.) (Cf. QtLarta) further supplied by dependent clauses. 

(a.) Finale (" purpose ") : " u^' etc. 

(p,) CausaU (" cause ") : gwu cum ita sint = '^ under these 
circumstances " (or " hence "). 

(y.) TemparaU : dum haec geruntur^ " during these events." 

(6.) By interrogatio indirecta: "Caesarput the bravery of 
the enemy to the test," quid hoatee virtute poeeent, Caeear ez- 
pertus est. 

(c.) Firmi et eanstantes amid deligendi sunt, cuius generis 
magna est penuria, Appositive attracted into the ezplanatory 
relative clause. 

{d,) '< The Athenian," Aomo Atheniensis ; '< jthe Athenians," 
Athenienses. 

2. Adiectiva. 

(a.) << Which of the two brothers ia the older'' (Germ. aelteste) ? 
Uterfratrum " m/iiar " natu est f Why camparativus ? 

(6.) Multi viri/arteSf but firmi "e< " constantes amici, Two 



LATINE. 225 



adjective attributes with one sabstabtive are united by et, except 
wben one of them taken with the substantivum forms a unit 
(which is modified by the other adj.). 

(c.) Amidsnmus metcs, " my best friend," " one of my best 
friends." 

(rf.) " Late in the night," multa nocte ; " immediately upon 
the arriFal of the army," primo adventu exercitus noslri. 

{e.) FabricU virtus = " the noble F." (rule ?). 

3. Pronomiiia. 

(a.) Inter se = " each other." 

(6.) " What a victory I " quanta victoria. When " what a " 
= " how great a " it is quantus ; so " such a," tantus, 

(c.) Quisque : suum cuique ; optimus quisque ; quam quis- 
que norit artem, in hac se exerceat. 

{d,) DifEerence between alter and alius, idem and item. 

(e.) " None of my books," nullus meus liber, 

(/.) (^uisquam and ullus in clauses with n^ative sense. 

(g.) ^emo umquam ; nihil usquam, etc 

{h,) Ipse. Manus sibi " ipse " intulit ; nosce te " ipsum " ; 
vestra " ipsorum " opera paxfacta est. 

{i.) Qui. Themistocles de seruis suis quem habuit fidelissi- 
mumy etc., " the truest which he had " ; Cato, quo nemx> erat doctior. 

4. Verba. 

(a.) Heffo^ " say that not." 

(6.) Passiva in refiexive meaning : mutari, exerceri, moveri, 

(c.) Meanings of esse : " rules " (prevails), est opinio ; " it 
means," " is written," etc. ; " shows," " displays," " manifests," 
est prudentis ; "live," "abide." 

(rf.) Where no passivum exists, its place is supplied by — 

(cu) " £!sse " cum Dativo : odio esse ; u^ui esse, 

{fi.) ffabere, as admiratumem habere. 

(y.) Admiratione^ dolore, laetitia affici. 

(e.) The vcr^fTi represents our a<f vcr^tttm. Constat {bekannt' 
lich), " as ifl known " ; vereor ut, " hardly " ; dubitare non po- 
test quin, " undoubtedly " ; quofacto, " thereupon " ; quofactum 
est ut, " consequently." 

(/.) Latin often " subordinates " when we " co-ordinate." 
Hostibus puUis urbem obsidione liberavimus, " we have repulsed 
the enemy and freed the city." 



226 LATINE. 

(g,) " We plandered the city and then burned it," urbetn ex- 
puffJMvimus, " expugnatam " incendimus, 

5. Praepodtiones. 

Latin avoids the immediate union of two nomina by praepo- 

sitiones. Instead are used — 

(a.) Genetivus. Litterae Darii^ " a letter from D." 

(6.) Adiectiva. Puffna Cannensis, " fight at Oannae.'* 

(c.) Participia or relative clauses, " Fight at Salamis," pug- 

na ad Salamina factaj or quaefacta est ad Salamina, 

6. Adyerbia. 

(a.) JVunc — tum; tam — quam ; m^gis — plus ; etiam tum 
{nunc) ; ne tum {nunc) quidem ; non iam^ rum amplius ; vel ; 
quam non (" how little ") ; adeo {ita) non, " so little." 

(6.) " Only," " but," not translated in raro^ unus, pauci^pau- 
lum, But, on the other hand, hanc villam, nisi parvo stabit non 
emam, 

7. Coniunctiones. 

(a.) Copulative connection, or a^yndeton, Honeste et sapien- 
ter et iuste vivere, Veni, vidi^ vici, 

{h,) Neque, et non, and, in contrasted clauses, non = " and 
not," " but not." Proconsulis, non senatus majdme intererat eas 
gentes expelliy quae proxim^ incolebant, Uterque eorum iuvenis 
litteris studuerat^ rem militarem neghxerat (" but warfare "). 

(c.) " As " expressed by corrtlativa ; " as " after words of 
likeness and unlikeness, similarity and dissimilarity is atque, 
Non cditer scribo oc sentio, 

(rf.) Nequc enim^ neque vero, neque tamen at beginning of 
clause. 

(«.) Itaque — igitur ; nam — enim ; etiam — quoque ; at^ sed — 
autem; ne — quidem, 

8. Arrangement of words. 

(a.) Hostes statim ad Caesajrem " legatos " miserunt, Una 
cum his " legatis " Commius Atrebas venit, The word which 
points to the clausc which has preceded is placed first Secutae 
sunt continuos complures dies tempestates^ quae et nostros in ca^- 
tris continerent et hostem a pugna prohiberent, The word which 
points to something following is placed at the end. 

{b,) Magno cum dolore, For the sake of force the adiectiva 
are separated from their substantivum hj the preposition. 



LATINE. 227 



(c.) De belli calamitate. Prepoditions can be separated from 
their ca8U9 only by a genetiw^. 

(d.) Quod cum audivissent Troiani, In a relative clause the 
coniunctio follows the relativum, 

(e.) Fixed order of words : eenatus populusque Romanus^ terra 
marique, domi militiaequej ferro igniquCy exspectatione celerius, 

(/.) JEam mutationem, si tempora adiuvabant, foLcilius com- 
modiu^que faciemus. If the object of the principal clause is at 
the same time object qf the dependent clause, it is placed before 
the conjunction of the dependent clause. 

(g,) Order : incidi in kominem mihi inimicum (not in mihi 
inimicum hominem), 

(A.) Itaque cum Romxim venisset, statim imperatorem adiit, 
Here cum igitur would have been wrong, as " therefore " belongs 
to adiit. The conjunction wbich belongs to the principal clause 
is placed first, that of the dependent clause foliows immediately. 

Pensum of Secunda. 
Substantiynin. 
• 1. "You see the great throng which has assembled at this 
trial," quanta multitudo hominum convenerit ad hoc iudicium^ 
vides. Objects of verha sentiendij declarandi, and interrogandi, 
which are modified by a relative clause, are separated from their 
verb and carried into that clause, which must then be changed 
into interrogatio indirecta, 

2. Poverty of the Latin in suhstantiva, Lack of suhstantiva 
supplied by — (a.) Interrogatio indirecta : " Your real intention," 
qui vester sit animus ; " course," res qu^m ad modum gesta sit, 
(6.) Relative clauses : " immediate resuits," «a, quae statim con- 
secuta sunt ; " elements," ea, ex quihus omnia nata esse dicuntur, 

3. Oatones^ " men like Cato." 

4. Lack of abstracta supplied by — (a.) Adiectiva: multianni, 
" a series of years " ; m^igna disciplina, the highest kind of in- 
struction. (b.) By genetivus pluralis participii praesentis : " ex- 
pressions of admiration," sermones admirantium, So " shouts of 
victory," 

5. Admiratio^ " admiration " (which one feels or [Bewundert- 
toerden^ that which one causes); exspectatio (the ezpectation 
which one feels or that which one causes). 



228 LATINE. 



6. Objective and subjective signification : scelus^ " ciime " 
and " criminal mind " ; lihertaSy ** freedom " and " feeling of 
freedom " ; amnem recusationem mihi ademisti, " possibility of 
ref usal " ; Gallorum oppugnatio (" metbod — ^manner of besieg^ 
ing ") ; haec est ; virtus^ " impulse of virtue." 

7. Senatus datus est, " admission to tbe senate " ; sanguiSy 
" blood-^piiling " ; animi et aurium causa, " f or conversation and 
to delight the ear " ; hoc maximum et periculorum incitamentum 
est et laborumj " to endure dangers," etc. 

8. Concretum pro abstraeto. Me ducem sequiminiy " my lead- 
ersbip." Equitem ("in cavalry") maxims suis viribus deesse. 
Much less often vice versa — e. g. (dirimere) iras = iratos. 

9. " As the proverb says," ut est in proverhio ; " all his care 
and anziety is devoted to the state," omnes suas curas cogita- 
tUmesque in rem publicam conferebat. The abstracta are seldom 
subjects of the clause in Latin. 

10. Translate the pluralis of these abstracta : invidiae, " ex- 
hibitions of envy " ; conscientiaey " movements of the conscience " ; 
aetates (periods in age), " ages " ; praedae, " divisions of the plun- 
der," 

11. Sometimesa Latin plural replaces onr <d>stractum. Jfag- 
nos animos esse in bonis viris, " a high spirit " ; studia senatus^ 
" favor of the senate " ; mores, " character " ; furores, "mad con- 
duct" 

12. Id specto, ** I have that end before my eyes " ; hoc teneOy 
" I hold fast to this view " ; misit qui explorarent, " persons." 

13. "Improve one's self," suos m^es corrigere; "to an- 
nounce one'8 self," nomen profitere ; profectio certe animum 
tuum non debet offendere ; alicuius laudem obscurare, " to render 
any one obscure.", 

14. Note this case : "accuser," is qui accusat; " the magis- 
trate of the court," is qui iudicium exercet ; on the other hand, 
vetus accusator, " a skilled (crafty) accuser." Substantiva in tor 
indicate a permanent quality. Arminiv^ haud dubie liberator 
Oermaniae. 

16. Multas in Fabio, ut in homine Momano, litterae erant. 
" F. possessed as Roman," etc. If the appositive contains a 
ground or a limitation, it will be expressed in Latin by a com- 
plete clause. 



LATINE. 229 



16. "The opinion of Silanus that," etc, sententia Silani, qui 
censet, etc. ; " judgment that," etc., vox qua nuncupavit, etc. 
Adiectivuin. 

1. " Skill as accuser," artifidum accusatorium ; " life in the 
city," vita urbana ; bellum Hannibalicum^ " with Hannibal " ; 
homo florentissimus, " a man in the best circumstances." 

2. Other adiectiva in place of adverbs (cf. Qu/irta) JRomu- 
lum sublim^m raptum procella ; permulti = " in great num- 
bers " ; praesens^ " before the eyes " ; assiduusj frequens^ densus, 
omnis (= totally), 

3. Adiectiva expressed by clauses: "surrounding mount- 
ains," montes qui circa sunt ; " unendurable," id quodferri non 
potest (" population of tbat time," id quod tum erat kominum), 

4. Active and passive force : senex caecuSy saxa caeca (" hid- 
den ") ; tristis, " saddening," laetus, 

5. Adiectiva which indicate qualities of persons never in 
Latin directly modify things or ahstracta, Hence not liber doc- 
tus, moderatio sapiens. Instead are used : 

(a.) The '^v Sta Svoiv : " my natural modesty," natura pu- 
dorque meus ; " anxious fear," timor ac m^tus ; " wise modera- 
tion," consilium ac moderatio, 

(b,) Circumlocution with plenus : consilium ceperunt plenum 
sceleris et audaciae, " a criminal, bold plan " ; opinio erroris plena, 
** an erroneous opinion." 

6. The force of the adj. contained in the substantive itself : 
prudentia, ^^practical insight " ; doctrina, " theoretical knowl- 
edge"; invidia, "the bad impression" conscientia, ^^ bad con- 
science " ; voluptas, " sensuotis enjoyment." 

7. J3aec tanta celebritcbs famae, " so wide-spread fame " ; nul- . 
lis contumeliis verborum parcere, " abusive words " ; tanta foedi- 
tas supplicii ; sceleris immanitas = scelus immane. 

8. Temeritatis est calidius quam calidius agere, or mxtgis 
callide quam callide : Cato, quo nemo erat doctior, " tbe most 
leamed " — strengthening of the superlative by unus omnium, 

Frononieii. 

1. Occiso S, Roscio quis primus Ameriam nuntiat, " who an- 
nounced it first at Ameria ? " ; Plaio omnibus consulentibus dixit, 
-** to all consulting him " — " it," " him," should riot be translated, 
as the connection suflSciently indicates them. 



230 LATINE. 



2. " Another " ; (a) inter nos^ nos se ; (h) alter cUierum, alius 
aliumy alii alios ; (c) dves cum civibus certant. 

3. " They chose men as leaders who were deemed skilled in 
warfare," eos duces delegerunty qui rei militaris peritissimi habe- 
hantur : Is qui, " a man who " ; id quody " a thing " (or " a cir- 
curastance") which. 

4. Hic doloTy " grief about this " ; ex eo num^ro = ex eorum 
num^ero ; ob eam iram, " on account of anger at that." 

5. "And indeed" when translated by isque, idquef 

6. Quid ha£c tanta celeritas festinatioque significatf "thia 
great quickness," etc. ; " this hrave man " often = hic tamfortis 
vir, 

7. Mes ad m^nus venit, " it came to fighting." 

8. " What a glorious matter ! " quam praeclara res / 

9. If qui = is autem, enim, quoque^ et iSj then no co-ordi- 
nate conjunctions are used with it. ' 

10. Quod si = " but if," " now if " {Quod nisi ?). 

11. Quibus si videretur, Hannibali denuntiarent = qui, si 
Us videretur; raptim quibus (= iis quae) quisque poterat elatis. 
Joining of the relativum to the subordinate clause. Attraction. 

12. When is tbe substantivum drawn into reiative clause ? 
(a.) Quam quisque norit artem, in ha^c se ezerceat ; when the 

relative clause stands first and is followed by is or his in the 
principal clause. 

(ft.) FirmA et constantes amici eligendi sunt cuius generis 
mxigna est penuria — in apposition. 

13. Socrates primus hoc docuit, " S. was the first who " ; Si- 
ciliam primam RomxLni in provinciae formum redegeruntj " waa 
the first country which " ; the Latin supplied the place of such 
circumlocution as ours by position and stress of voice. 

14. Fabulis Terentii plus delector qtiam Plautinis or quam- 
Plauto, " that, thcse, those," before a genitive, is generally not 
expressed. 

15. Ipse = self, direct, immediate : Ipsi quoque, et ipse = 
item:. — Fondness for the nominative ; medici " ipsi " se curare 
non possunt, 

16. "Every one understands" ; (a) nemo non intellegit ; (6) 
nemo est qui non intellegat ; (c) quis est qui non intellegat (at 
the end of the clause). 



LATINE. 231 



17. Quidam with an adiectivum often = " wholly," " truly " ; 
with a substantivum = " a kind of ," " in a manner/' 

18. Note quisquam in rhetorical qucstions, conditional 
clauses, and those clauses expressing comparison. 

19. Note sine ulla spe, but non sine aliqua spe, 

20. Pro tua sapientia = quae tua est sapientia = qua es sa- 
pientia. 

21. Possessivum before locus, tempus = agreeable, favorable. 
MeOj tuo, suo iure, " with fuU right." 

Verbum. 

1. Substantive use oi participium praesens in casus ohliqui of 
singular. 

2. Idiomatic uses : non invenio, " I can not find " ; rem ita 
instituit, " he knew how to arrange the matter so " ; copor, " I see 
myself corapelled," etc. 

3. " What ardor must A. have possessed ! " quem ardorem stu- 
dii censeiis in Archimede fuisse^ 

4. Threaten : (a) minari, " by words or gestures " ; (b) Mors 
imminet ; periculum impendet ; (c) Rex gravior ultor caedisfu- 
turus erat ; (d) Sextus infensus ira Gahiis abiturus videtur, 

6. (a) Caesar in Rheno pontem fecit (" caused to be made) ; 
(h) Castra munire iussit ; (c) castra munienda curavit ; {d) Pa- 
tior and sino = " permit " ; {e) facio ut, often merely circumlo- 
cntion for simple verb : (/) Polyphemum Homerus cum ariete 
colloqu>entem facit, 

6. Verha pro adverhiis. Postea homines ultro et citro cursare 
non destiterunt ("continually "). Fidenates occupant hellum fa- 
cere, " begin war flrst " ; soleo, " usually " ; persevero, " perse- 
veringly " ; dolendum est qtwd, " unfortunately " ; accidit ut, 
" accidentally " ; vereor ut, " hardly " ; non multum ahest quin, 
" nearly." 

7. " And then I " Patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, 
ingulastis, occisum in proscriptorum numerum rettulistis, JSxer- 
dsum fundit fugatque, fusum persequitur. 

8. Lat. adiectiva correspond to our participles, and vice versa 
e. g., gravis, " pressing " ; constatis, " steadfast " ; expressa imago 
vitae cotidianae, " a true likeness " ; vestigia expressa, " clear 
traces " ; invictus, exspectatus (" welcome "). 

9. Transitiva, used absolutely. Ducit quam proxime ad hoS' 



232 LATINE. 



tem potestj '^ he advances as near to the enemy as possible '' ; 
intellegerey " to be a connoisseur " ; vincerej iudicare, solvere e 
portu, 

10. Verba used pregnantly : bellum coniunxerunt, " they united 
to carry on the war " ; mirari, " to ask on, on account of won- 
der " ; excusare, de/endere, " to bring forward in excuse— de- 
fense." 

11. " So say I " — " I ask " must more often be completed by 
the context. Logical ellipsis ! (Gf. Liv. i, 23, 7, 28, 5 ; in CatiL 
II- §§ 3, 0, pro S, Roscio, § 131.) 

12. ^Ev $ia Svotv ; oro atque obsecro, officio atque obsto. Bel- 
lum denuntiatur et indicitur, " is /ormally declared " ; se appli- 
care et adiungerey " closely join one^s self." 

Adverbium, 

1. Fortissime pugnare^ " with the greatest bravery " ; atten- 
tissime legere, " with close attention " ; haec possum omnia vere 
(" in accordance with the truth ") dicere, vice versa : aliquid in 
bonam partem accipere, " take kindly " {sine cura quiescere, sine 
metu spirare). 

2. The adverbium containing the main thought of the sen- 
tence. Athenienses Socratem iniuste damnaverunt, *^aeted un- 
justly in that they condemned S." Tarquinis sui cives imperi- 
um bene crediderunt, Cante tacuisti. 

3. Marius " septimum " consul ; omnes " circa " populi ; 
" vere " deus. 

4. Inde = exeo ; quo = ad quem ; ubi = in quo ; etc. 

6. Distinguish between certe scio, — certo scio ; /ere — paene — 
prope ; denique — tandem — demum — postrem^ — ; mox — paulo 
post. 

6. Note non iam = " no longer " ; potius quam = " and 
not much rather " (?) ; vel, " even " — bef ore superlatives, " de- 
cidedly " ; vel ex hoc = " f or example, from this " ; parum 
multif " too few " ; parum magnus, " too smail." Limitation 
must not be expressed by nimium, nimis. 

7. Latin adverbia to express quality with " know," " nnder- 
stand," " feel," " leam " (stndy) ; /actZc, satis^ probe^ mjogis, 
maxime intellego ; but bene mereri. 



LATINE. 283 



Praepositio, 

1. Prepositional expressions, not so frequent in Latin, occur 
oftenest with — 

(a.) Verbal substantives : cursus per urbem ; reditus Bomam, 
(6.) Expressions of place and time : in Graeda homines ; 

piigrwL ad Cannas ; in pace reliffiones (rites of religion). 

(c.) Expressions of origin: poeta de plebe ; ex virtute nobili- 

tas ; of material, im^go ex aere, 

2. Prepositions not repeated : 

(a.) In short ezpressions: in labore et dolore, 

(6.) Before the appositive : cum duobus ducibus de imperio 

in Italia decertatum est, Hannibale et Pyrrho, 

(c.) Before the relativum : Cimon in eandem invidiam inci- 

dit, quam pater suus ; in tanto luctu sum quanto nem^ umquam, 

3. Pregnantlj : " without committing a crime/' sine scelere ; 
■^* without shedding blood," sine sanguine. In order to " occa- 
«ion fever," ad metum. Carcer ad terrorem increscentis audaciae 
media urbe aedificatur ; so ad ludibrium, ad fidem^ ad fraudem, 
Propterte vivo, " I have you to thauk that I am now alive." 

The most Important Tropes and Figures, 
Asgndeton, especiaily Asyn, Adversativum — Litotes, Ana- 
phora, Antithesis, Chiasmus, Oxymoron, Hypallage. — From the 
Oerman (Gtmnasium). 

THE LATEST TRANSLATION OF VERGIL, [Selections.^ 

Driven by hate f rom his throne f or a haughty use of his power, 

Metabus, when he left his ancient city Privemus, 

Took with him in his flight through the midst of the war with its conflicts, 

As his oompanion in exile, his child, and called her Camilla, 

With but a little change f rom the name of her mother Casmilla. 

Bearing her thus on his breast, he sought to gain the long mountain 

Ohain with its lonely groves ; cruel shafts beset him on all sides, 

And with their swarming bands around him flitted the Yolsci. 

Lo I in the midst of his flight, overflowing its banks, Amasenus 

RoUed wiih its f oaming flood, f rom the douds had the rain in such torrents 

Buret. Preparing to swim, he is stayed by his love of the infant, 

Fcaring for his dear burden*8 sake. As he tums every metbod 

Over in mind, of a sudden this plan is finally hit on : 

There was, it seems, a huge spear which the warrior haply was bearing 

In his strong hand, with many hard knots of well-seasoned oak-wood ; 

To it his daughter, inclosed in the bark stripped off from the wild-oork, 



284 LATINE. 



Bindfl he, and ties her adjuBted with Bkill to the spear near the mtddle. 
Poising it then in his great right hand, thus he Heaven addresses : , 

" Guardian thou of the groves, benign Tritonian virgin, 
I, her own father, devote her to thee ; with thy shaft through the air she 
First as a suppliant flies from the foe. Beceive, I beaeech thee, 
Goddefls, thine own, which now to the doubtf ul air is intrusted.** 

Thufl he flpake, and with arm drawn back directed and hurled forth 
His great spear : the waters resound ; o^er the swift-flowing river 
Fast to the whizzing shaft flies forth the hapless Camilla. 
MetabuB, though with a great troop now pressing closely upon him, 
Throws himself into the Btream, and the spear with the maiden in triumph 
Plucks from the graflsy turf, as a votive gift to Diana. (XI, 640-566.) 

Nevertheless Aeneas, although, deUyed by the arrow, 
Sometimes his knees retard and forbid his running, still follows, 
Eagerly pressing, foot to foot, his frightened opponent ; 
As if at any time finding a stag inclosed by a river, 
Or flhut in by the fear of the bright-feathered line drawn around liim, 
Onward the huntsman preflses in haate, with dogs and loud barking, 
But at the same time the stag, alarmed by the snares and the high bank, 
Flies and flies back by a thousand ways ; but the Umbrian eager 
Follows with open jaws, and now, now has him, and seeming 
Now to have him, snaps with his teeth, and is mocked by a vain bite : 
Then arises in truth a loud ciy, aad the banks and the broad lake 
Echo around, and all the heavens resound with the uproar. 
On flies Tumus, the while to all the Rutulians crying, 
Calling on each by name ; and eamestly aaks f or his known sword. 
Death, however, Aeneafl.threatens, and speedy destruction, 
If any one shall come to hifl aid ; and f rightens the f earf ul, 
Threatening their city with rain : he still presses on, although wounded ; 
¥lve full circuits they oomplete, and again they retrace them, 
Forward and back. For no light or sportive prize are they seeking : 
But for the life and the blood of Tumus now is the contest. (XII, 746-766.) 
HowLAiiD'8 ''VirffiTt Aeneid, hut Six Booka.'' 

SOME OVERSJGHTS IN HARTERST LATIN LEXJCON, 

II. 

A few words on the marking of the quantity of vowels. It 
is very much to he regretted that so little was done in the revision 
of the lexicon to determine and indicate the quantity of vowels 
hefore two consonants. The suhject is a difficult one, and we 
must he content in many cases to remain in ignorance or douht. 
Prohahly a great deal of investigation would he required to col- 
late and sift all the evidence attainahle ; hut, without any pretense 



LATINE. 235 



to an exhaastiye treatmeDt, the editors would have done a great 
service to students and teachers, if they had tried to satisfy very 
moderate and reasonable demands, instead of almost ignoring 
the subject. 

This statement may seem a little too sweeping. In some 
cases we find vowels marked before a mute followed by a liquid, 
as Ulecehra^ tenebra ; sometimes the vowel is leffc unmarked, as 
in quamobrem. 

Bdstrum has the first vowel marked, but no other word of 
that group except rodo and rosvo, As to some classes of mono- 
syllables, it seems to be pretty much a matter of accident whether 
the quaotity is indicated or not. For example, ad^ cuniy is, m, 
qu^m, aty bis, etc., are left unmarked ; while ab, ob, que^ vel^ ve^ 
sed, ter, etc., are treated with more consideration. Actual errors 
in quantity-marks are probably few in number. Cethegus is writ- 
ten Cethegus and repente, repente ; eplstola is found in one place, 
and -epistola in ahother. 

Marks of quantity are always oraitted, so far as I have no- 
ticed, in the case of words inclosed in square brackets, as tbose 
from which others are derived. This is ofton a real inconven- 
ience to the student. Suppose, for example, I open the diction- 
ary at the word crastinus, The a is not marked, and I can not 
at once infer its quantity from thc primitive cras^ for that also 
is unmarked here. I must turn to the article where cra^ is sepa- 
rately treated. There are, of course, a great many similar cases. 

Attention is very properly cnlled to the usual position of cer- 
tain particles, as tamen, vero, quoqice, igitur, Biit in other cases, 
where there seems to be equal reason for remark, nothing is said ; 
as, f or example, quidein, etiam, verum, and ergo, as contrast«d with 
vero and igitur. 

Jam. The force of this word seems to have been mistaken 
in the foUowing sentence : At si hoc idem huic adulescenti opti- 
mo P. Sestio dixissem, jam mihi consuli senatus vim et manus 
intulisset (Cic. in Cat. i, 8, 21). The passage is cited as an illus- 
tration of the use of jam " in a conclusion to emphasize its rela- 
tion to the condition." But ^am is not here a synonym of pro- 
/ecto, modifying the verb, but throws emphasis upon mihi, and is 
equivalent to etiam, even on me, the consul. It is correctly ex- 
plained in Benecke's note : " Selbst meine Wiirde als Consul^ 



236 



LATINE. 



selbstdie Heiligkeit dieses Orts, wurde mich nicht vor ihren An- 
grlffen geschiitzt haben." It will be found, I think, that this use 
ofjam is ignored ; it can not be referred to any explanation, defi- 
nition, or remark, in the article on this word. 

Again, the use ofjam with et in the sense of indeed, really, 
is amply illustrated, and the following passage is cited to show 
that it is similarly used with a^ : ac jam ut omnia contra opinuh 
nem acciderenty tamen se plurimum navibus posse (Caes. B. G. iii, 
21). Now no one would probably think of taking iu jam to- 
getber, if jam and ut were not separated by a comma, as some 
one fancied they should be, and accordingly inserted a stop. Ac 
means and besideSy and if a comma were to be inserted at all, it 
should be after ac, Jam ut go together, and the meaning is 
even thoughj being precisely equivali^nt to etiam si. 

There is a passage in Ovid in which the use ofjam can hardly 
be brought under any specification in the lexicon. Ceres says 
to Jupiter : 

*' . . . neque enim praedone marito filia digna tua est, si jam 
meafilia non est^^ (Meta. v, 622). 

Berejam is used precisely as ^ is, and = ^ S7X0V i<rru It 
implies the truth of the supposition, as a thing that would not 
for a moment be questioned. W. C. Collar. 



AJ) CHLOSN, [Jratftan HtisJkell Dole.} 



Ecce tuam reddidi picturam 

Ut repetisti. 
Sed mihi restat melior multo 

Fectore tuto. 

Hittere vellem tibi ; non poesum. 

Kon volat illa ! 
Ipsa meum dextra fabro inddit 

Cor tua temet. 

See ! I have retumed thy picture, 
As thou didst request. 

But I hold another, better, 
In my breast. 

If I would, I can not send it ; 

It will not depart. 
'Twas thyself who didst engrave it 

On my heart. 



Je te renvoie ton portnut 
Farceque tu Tas reciam^. 

Mais en mon coeur je tiens, ma belle, 

Une peinture plus fid^le. 

Je ne puis te la renvoyer ; 

Elle ne veut plua me quitter : 
Car tu Tas grav^e, madame, 
n y a longtemps, sur mon &me. 

Dein Bild schick* ich Dir wieder 

'S ist deine suesse Lust. 
Doch hab' ich noch ein andres 

Viel bess^res, in der Brust ! 

Ich kann es Dir nicht senden : 
£s bleibt durch Freud und Schmerz. 

Du selbst hast^s eingegraben 
Mir in das treue Herz. 



LATINE. 237 



FROM OLD ROME. A TBtLOhBx^s LBltBr to his Pupils, [AdaptBd 
from thB GBrman,] [ContinuBd,] 

OuR road now leads us up to ihe summit of the Palatine, 
where, as has been already stated, there was formerly a valley. 
Domitian, no longer satisfied with the old palace, wished to pre- 
pare himself a site for a new one, and so filled up the hoUow be- 
tween the two hills, thus obtaining a large level surface for his 
palace, the private houses being torn down and used as founda- 
tions for the new building. Several of these old subterranean 
walls, with traces of their former adomment, may still be seen. 
A portion of the palace of Augustus also was destroyed at that 
time, for here, and a little to one side where the French nunnery 
has been erected, must have been the site of the first imperial 
residence. 

The house of Augustus^s parents was on the Palatine, but the 
exact locality, which was known by the name of ^^Ad Capita 
bubula,^^ is unknown to us. Before his accession to the throne, 
Augustus lived in the Forum, in a house which he had purchased 
from the orator Hortensius. Suetonius tells us that it was a very 
modest dwelling, having only short colonnades, and rooms un- 
adorned either with marble or artistic mosaics. This simplicity 
exacUy suited the new occnpant. For more than forty years he 
remained in Rome, both summer and winter, although the cli- 
mate during the cooler season did not at all agree with him. 
Tet, in the midst of his own comfort and convenience, the em- 
peror did not forget his obligation to the other officera of the 
goyemment, and accordingly we find that he purchased several 
of the neighboring houses, and united them with his own. Be- 
sides this, he built a magnificent temple to Apollo on that por- 
tion of his property where a building had been destroyed by 
lightning. At the same time, also, he established a Greek and a 
Latin library. On becomingj9on^t/<;a; nmximus, he converted his 
house into state property, that he might remain here as high- 
priest, since he was unwilling to move down into the residence 
set apart for the pontifex in the Via Sacra. It was his object to 
tum the attention of the people away from the Forum of the 
Bepublic to the Palatine Hill. The outline of his house was 
traced from the foundation-walls, which were discovered during 
tbe restoration of the French nunnery. But from the drawings 



238 LATINE. 



alone it is impossible to indicate the purposes of the sererai 
apartments, tbe ruins themselves being no longer accessible. 

Not far f rom the domus Augustana^ according to ancient de- 
scriptions, was the domus Tiberiana ; this is also for the most 
part covered by modern buildings, the gloomy walls being con- 
cealed by charming gardens of blooming rose-bushes. Only that 
side of the palace toward the Circus has been laid bare. Tiberius 
also was bom on the Palatine, probably in the small house im- 
mediately behind the palace. This is the so-called house of Livia. 
It is especially celebrated on account of its well-preserved mural 
paintings, and has the arrangements of a Roman private house. 
After the atrium, we enter the tablinum, which is flanked on 
both sides by small chambers, the so-called alae, The south side 
is occupied by a richly decorated space that raay have served as 
a dining-hail, while the eastern part was used for domestic pur- 
poses. It is noticeable that there is a descent from the ves- 
tibulum into the atrium, but it is not probable that this was so 
from the beginning. The surroundings of the house must have 
changed through the elevation of the ground by modern build- 
ings. As Tiberius built his palace beside his father^s, he was loath 
to tear the latter down, but rather preserved the low-lying, mod- 
est dwelling as best he could, and gave it to his mother Livia as 
a " widow's portion." Later, the residence, which might be com- 
pared to aprince'8 palace, passed into the possession of the family 
of Germanicus. Tiberius himself lived in the new palace, oppo- 
site to the old palace of Augustus ; it had an unobstructed view 
of the Forum and the Capitol. Nothing is known of its interior. 
On the side toward the house of Livia, a row of arched cham- 
bers has been excavated, whose walls were defaced and more 
or less scribbled over. The import of the words and drawings 
makes it probable that this was the station-house for thc palace 
guards. 

SiaHT-RJEADmG, 

First read the extract assigned ihrouffh in Laiin, if possible, aloud. Make no 
effort to translate it into English. Seek to get an idea of the relations of the 
LatUi words to each other. At first you will probably bave only a vague idea of 
its meaning. Repeat the process, reading slowly, and carefuUy watch the verbs; 
the key to the sentence generally lies in the indicative verh ; find this in each 
sentence, then look for its subject, and, if it be a transitiTe verb, its object 



LATINE. 239 



Having found these, it will common]y be leasv to find their seyeral modifiers, 
whether they be eingle words or clauses. Look out for relative clauses, and 
remember that a reUtive clause can not contain the principal idea of the sen- 
tence. The same theory is true, with rare exceptions, of verbs in the sub- 
junctive or infinitive moods ; they must generally depend on something else. 
If you meet with a word that seems quite unfamiliar, try and find some like- 
ness to a known word. See if it has a prefix, suffix, or both ; separate these 
f rom the stem, and thus get at the root of the word. Never stop in the 
middle of a sentence. If the sentence gives you no idea whatever, go back to 
the beginning and read it through again. Most students will be surprised to 
find that a second or third reading will give them a clear idea of what seemed 
at ^rst unintelligible. The context will explain a great many difficulties, and, 
by a constant repetition of the process outlined above, most of the sentences 
in such an author as Nepos wiU yield their meaning. 

The practice of reading at eight will not teach exactness. This is not its 
aim. It will, however, produce fluency and confidence ; exactness may be 
made to follow these, or may be attained by other means at the same time. 
One of the chief advantages of sight-reading lies in its ability to cultivate the 
judgment rather than the memory. Too many students approach every Latin 
or Greek sentence as though it were necessary, in order to understand it, to 
investigate all the possible meanings of eacb word, all its grammatical affini- 
ties, and all its etymological ramifications. This is an exoellent exercise in 
any language, but it is not reading. The proper time to pursue such a study 
of language is after, not before, the student bas become able to understand 
the author'8 meaning. Thomas B. Likdsay (in Pre/cux to C. Nepos), 

ANTIBARBARUS, [Continued.'] 

Eenown, " clarus," not " celeber," whicb equals much visited. — Tobecome 
renowned, " gloriam consequi, assequi," " in gloriam pervenire," not " clare- 
scere " or " inclarescere." 

Sepair loss, " danmum," " detrimentum sarcire," " res sarcire," not " re- 
parare," which equals " prepare again." 

Eetnni, "reverti," not "revenire," which in Cicero is used only with 
" domum." 

Bomui literatnre, " litterae Latinae," not " Romanae " ; Roman language, 
" lingua Latina," not " Romana." 

Bnins, " parietinae," not " ruina." 

Bnle, trans., " regere," not " regnare " (intr.), which equals io be kiruf, 

Bim to arms, " ad arma concurrere," not " currere." 

The same who, when a person who has been named is to be distinguished 
f rom others by the mention of a well-known circumstance : " is qui " (with- 
out a oomma after the " is "), not " idem, qui," e. g., Scipio, the same one who 
oonquered at Zama, equals " Scipio, is qui ad Zamam vidt." 

Say to lome one, " dicere alicui," not " ad aliquem." 

To say with Cicero, " ut Ciceronis verbis utar," not " ut cum Cicerone 
loqnar." 



240 LATINE. 



See agmin, ^* Tidere " or " reTisere," not " revidere.*^ 

8eek to — , " studere conari " with inf., " operam dare ut," not " tentare,*^ 
which equalfl to try or Uat (with the accusative, not with the inf.). 

8end oif, "mittere," not " demittere." 

To Mnd to wmr, " ad bellum mittere," not " in bellum." 

flerions, of persons. " Severus, gravis," not " serius," which is said only 
of things. 

Sex, " sezus," not " genus." 

8how itaelf in ■omething, " cerni (in) aliqua re," not " ex aliqua re." 

SieknaM. " Aegrotatio, morbus," not " aegritudo," which in classic Latin 
meant grief . 

Side, to be on some one*8 side, " ab aliquo stare," not " ab alicuiuB parti* 
bus stare." 

SinipUcity, " sunplicitas," appears first in Livy, but in the sense of f rank- 
nesa, honorableness, never in the sense of simpleness, f oolishness, which equals 
" stultitia." So " simplex " is not foolish, simple. SimpUcity of living, L e., 
frugality, is " tenuitas victus." 

fiingle, this single circumstance equals, "haec una (sola) res,'* not 
" unica," which occurs only with " filius " and " filia " in this meaning, and 
ekewhere means the onlj one of its kind (" singularis "). 

Scealled. " Qui vocatur," not " iu vocatus." 

Sooial, sodal life, " vitae societas," not " vita socialis." " Sodal " is the 
last word, is post-classic. In classic prose it equals concendng the alliea, e. g.» 
" lez, exercitus socialis." 

80 mnoh ia oertain, " hoc certum est," not " tantum oertum est.'' 

80 mneh only will I say, " hoc," or " tantum," or " unum illud dico.** 

Mt dkas Sir : I know of nothing in your excellent paper more Taluable 
than the instnictive lessons in " Antibarbarus." He must be a very advanced 
Latinist who is not benefited by this admirable summation of genuine Latin 
expressions. Thei-e is a point, however, in your February number, that seems 
to need some modification. "Antibarbanis" says, "Hexameter" versus he- 
rous, not " heroicus." It is true that Priscianus says that the expression ia 
tuuaUy "versus herous." I suppose that " Antibarbarus " would oonfine 
" Carmen " to " heroum " also, as he speaks of the propriety of " tempora 
heroica " and " Aetas heroica." Now, suppose a boy brings me a Latln exer- 
cise with " Carmen heroicum " in it. Then I mark it as wrong, because it 
has "heroicum" in it instead of "heroum." If so, he will open his Latin 
Lex., and invite my attention to " sublimitas heroici carminis " of Quintili- 
anus ; to the " heroici carminifi sonus " of Tacitus, Orat. 10. I do not see 
why I may not say " Carmen heroicum," or " versus heroicus." — C. K. N. 

[It depends entirely upon how much of a " purist " the teacher is, Quot 
id ad vivum resecant? Hahn reads Quintil. 1, 8, 6, Jieroi. — Ed.] 



lUr €9t Umgum per praeeepta^ (nwe et efficax per ■zbxpla..— Ssnkoa. 



Latine. 



Novi I A rry y XT T? mense mai. 

EBORACI. I J J\ I I J\ 11/ . MDCCCLXXXV. 



"^MfiUaBoga: Betine Docta: Setenta Docey—CoMXSTUB. 

Leotar: Quid tibi vis, ephemeris parvula? 

Latine : Ut Terenti verbs flectam : Latini nihil a me alienum puto. ^* Non 
erUm tam praedarum eet seire Latins quam turpe neeeire^ — Cio. Bsur. ozl. 

BE BJSLLO IMMINENTE. iOulielmns E. Wilson (Ang^Ius).] 

Aut vidi, aut media dum visus nocte videre, 

cum mea tradideram membra levanda toro, 
horrificam trepidis Bellonam surgere terris : 

frons galeata nitet nutat et hasta manu. 
(qualis Oecropift dea miles praesidet arce) 

et vehitur rapidis quo f uror urget equis. 
ecoe tument gentes : sequitur mors ales euntem ; 

frigidus ut specto percutit ossa pavor. 
nec mora : fit sonitus : campi tremuere catervis : 

terra flagrat flammis unda cruore rubet 
tecta ruina premit : yirides calcantur aristae : 

denique'fes8a cadunt arma, subitque quies. 
tum Dea " Non crudelis " ait " * sic involo terras,* 

* non ad me faciunt vulnera vincUt cruor,* 

* Pax mihi laeta placet, Pacis germana vocabar,^ 

* Justitiaeque soror, quis pater ipse deus,^ 

* vindice me ruptae miseris cecidere catenae ; * 

* vindice me reges contremuere mali.* 

* non ego delevi f elids moenia regni * 

* qua pudor atque fides, qua sine prande forum.** 

* Attila bella paret, licet agmina barbara cogat/ 

* nil noceat pestis gentibus illa piis.* 

* libera nec veniet gens longa in jura tyranm : ' 

aetemis ea lex stat rata numinibus." 
Eloquitur : capitique micat lux pura sereno, 

Mitior et vultus, mitis in ore sonus. 
ambrosium mutata comis diffundit adorem ; 

purpureis pennis pulchrior astra petit. 
pectora verba deae mulcent, pelltmtque timores,, 

Eiigor et subeunt verba iterata deae. 
Attila 1 bella para I populentur milite vestro, 

proxima quae noatris turribns arva jaoent. 



242 LATINE. 

Bitamen est animuB nitidis florere triumphis 

Quaereiida eet quae gena det tibi prompta manus. 
obsooenae volucres obeooena cadavera sumunt, 

et lacerant saevae nil nisi corpua iners. 
f ac quaeraa gentem quam fregit dira Yoluptaa, 

quam luxus, lucri quam violentua amor. 
qua languent animia requie mollita juventus 

frausque forum violat stupra cruorque domos. 
inde tibi venient fadles sine caede tropaeae, 

qua bona Libertas lumina nulla beat. 
nimirum talem populum nunc voce laoessia : 

nescis quem tentes ? Attila bella para. 
Anglia tuta sedet : sedet aetemunque sedebit, 

et reget imperio Solis utramque domum. 
non terra quia miile viri, qnia mille carinae 

arma mari minitant : Fasque piumque colit. 
Frahklin, N. Y., Ifarch 7, 18S6, W. B. W. 

LUDUS SCENICUS, [ExercitMtio in morum decore,} irnuioisena 
UiiiMnensis.^] 

Ferionae. 

Paedaooous. 
guliblmus, ^ 
johannes, 
Georoius, 
Edoarus, 



Discipuli. 



SCKNA I. 

Studium puerorum. Gulielmua eolue^ huc illuc ambulaniy se- 

cum repetit : 

"Duo, duae, duo; duorum, duarum, duorum; duobus, 

duabus, duobus," etc., etc. 

JtUrat Georgius. 
Geor. Quid agis ? 
Gul. Repeto mecum. 
Geor. Quid repetis ? 

Gul, Pensum quod praeceptor praescripsit nobis hodie. 
Geor. Tenesne memoria? 
GfuL Sic opinor. 

> [President Sewall disclatms purism in this ardde. — ^Ed.] 



LATINE. 243 

Oeor, Repetamas una, sic uterque DOBtrum pronunciabit rec- 
tius coram praeceptore. 

Gul. Incipe tu, igitur, qui provocasti me ! 

Oeor, Age ; esto attentus : ne sinas me aberrare. 

Oul. Sum promptior ad audiendum quam tu ad pronunci- 
andum — [Exspectans.] Incipe ! Quid obstat ? Quam diu ex- 
pectabo ! 
, Oeor. Nullum verbum dedisti? 

Oul. Tentemus bos ; mihi perdiflBcile est I 

Oeor. (Ridet). " Bos ! " mihi facillime ! {Incipit,) £os— 
bos — {kaesitans) bos — 

Oul. Heu ! incipe recte ! Bos—bovis — hovi — 

Oeor. Certe! Bos — hovis — hovi — hovem — hos—iove: Boves 
— hovum — hovi — 

Oul. Non hovum^ sed houm / 

Oeor. [Fortiter,] Bovum seu — houm — hovibus — hoves — 

OuL [Impatienter.l Est hovus / non bovibus : hobus seu 
buhus / 

Oeor. Seu hohus ; hovibus seu hohus : non ; hohus seu huhus ; 
hoveSy hoves, hovi — hibus — non — bobus/ 

Oul. Seu buhus semper ! 

Oeor. Semper seu bubus ; boves, boves, bovibus, hoh — bovus 
— b — h — b—hovibus seu bob — o — bu — BUBUS ! 

Oul. Non videatur perfacile ! Age, tamen ; si unus bos tam 
fjEU^ilis est : experiamur duos ! 

Oeor. Bene! Experiamur. 

Oul. Una, aut singulatim repetemus? 

Oeor. Ah ! ah ! (kaesitans) placeat, simul / 

Oul. Non tibi nimis difficile singulatim ? 

Oeor. Yalde non est: tam dulcis autem concordia! [Ouliel- 
mum amplexans.^ 

OuL Age, nunc ! 

Oul et Oeor. simul. Duo hoves : duorum houm : duobus bo- 
buSy seu huhus : duos boves : duo hoves, duobus bobus seu b — [/n- 
trat Johannes clavam pilarem lihrans^ 

Joh. Heus condiscipuli ! Salvete I Qoid tempus ludendi ! 
eamus in hortum pilam Indere ! Nulla res melios omnes corporis 
partes exercet quam pila palmaria I Sed qoanti sumus ? [Enu- 
merans.'] Unus, duo, tres — ^ubi Edgarus? 



244 LATINE. 



Gul, Nondum hodie ridi ! Forsitan donnit ! 

Joh. Dormit ? Adhac ! Ignavum I Ubi est cubiculum su- 
nm? 

Oeor. Ibi — ostium secundum ! (demonstrans), 

Joh, [^Ostio accedit et puUat — ]. Ueus, heus, puer! Ez- 
pergiscere ! [Atiscultat, et iterum ptilsat,] Non audit ! 

Gul. Exclamemus omnes I 

Omnes, Heus, heus, Edgarel Expergiscere ! Tempus est 
surgere ! Expergiscere. 

Joh, Audisne? 

Edgarus, [^Ab intra segnius respondit,^ Non au — di— o ! 

Joh, Ubi ergo habes aures ? 

Ildg, In lecto. 

Joh, Hoc video. Sed quid facis in lecto ? 

JEdg, Quid faciam ? Dormio ! 

6^1, Dormis ? et loqueris tamen nobiscum ? 

JSdg, Saltem volo dormire ! 

GuL Nunc autem non est tempus dormiendi sed surgendi ! 

JSdg, Quota est hora ? 

Gul, Nona. 

^dg. Quando vos surrexestis e lecto ? 

Omnes, Jam ante duas horas — Age! 

Udg. Mox igitur — sui^am. 

Joh. Yenit tardus. Sumus quattuor. Nunc ad ludendum. 
Veni, otiose ! [Intrat Edgar connivens^ oculos fricans^ stupide 
circumspectans. ] 

Omnes. Salvus sit stupidus ! Quantum tempus perditum est 
in te exspectando ! 

JSdg. Quid, taodem ! Quid vultis ? 

Joh. Yolumus piJam ludere ! Jamdudum et animus et coe- 
lum, et dies invitat ad ludendum ! 

^dg, Invitant quidem haec omnia : sed solus unus non in- 
vitat ! 

Omnes, Quis, tandem? 

I!dg, Praeceptor ! 

Geor. Subomandus orator quispiam, qui extorqueat ! 

Gul. Apte quidem dictum ! '^ extorqueat ! " Nam citius ck- 
vam extorseris e manu Herculis, quam ab hoc ludendi veniam. 
At olim illo nemo fuit ludendi avidior ! 



LATINE. 245 



GeoT, Verum : &ed jam olim ill^ oblitus est se faisse pueram. 
Ad verbera facillimns est et liberalis. 

Joh, Attamen protruhendus est aliquis legatus non admo- 
dum verecundiaefrontis, quem non illico protelet suis saevis dictis ! 

Ge&r, Eat, qui volet : ego carere malo quam rogare. 

Joh, Nemo magis accomodus ad hanc legationem, me judice, 
quam Edgarus I 

Gul, Nemo, profecto ! Nam perfrictae frontis est, ac bene 
linguax — Deinde sensum hominis pulchre callet ! 

Joh €t Geor, I, Edgare ! ab omnibus nobis magnam initurus 
gratiam ! 

Udp. Equidem experiar sedulo. Verum si non successerit 
ne conferte culpam in oratorem vestrum I 

Omnes alii. Bene ominare ! Abi orator : reditis exorator ! 

Edg, Eo ! Bene fortunet legationem meam Mercurius — 

[Exeunt omnes.'\ 
SCKNA II. 

Studium m^gistri, 

[Paedagogv^s lihros ponderans — -pulsationem ostii audit,'\ 

Voces extra ostium. Heus, heus, Praeceptor ! 

Pr, Non audio ! 

Edgar. [Extra."] Heus, inquam, Praeceptor ! 

Pr. [Impatienter.] Quis his est tam molestus interpellator ? 

Edg. Est seriae rei quiddam quod te volo ! [Praeceptor osti- 
um aperet. Intrant quattuor pueri obsegtientissime inclinantes 
atque salutantes.'\ 

Omnes pueri, Salve, Praeceptor observande ! 

Pr. Insidiosa civilitas ! Satis jam salveo ! Dic, quid velis ! 

Edg. Totus discipulorum tuorum grex orat ludendi veniam ! 

Pr, Nihil aiiud quam luditis etiam absque venia. Laxamento 
opus est iis qui vehementer laborant. 

Edg, Adnitimur pro viribus nostris. Et si quid hactenus 
cessatum est, post hac diligenter sarcietur ! 

Pr. Oh sartorcs ! Scio quam non sit tutum vobis credere ! 
Tamen hoc periculum faciam quam sitis bonae fidei. Ludant 
sed gregatim in campis. Sed prius quam abitis parva exercita- 
tio in moribus civilibus non dedecet Tu mihi videris non in 
aula natus, sed in caula I adeo moribus es agrestibns. Pueros 



246 LATINE. 

ingenaos decent ingenoi mores. Quoties adloquitur te quispiam 
cui debes honorem, compone te in rectum corporis statum. [ffic, 
pueri diligmter in cLcie u disponunt et gestus magistri ridicule 
imitantS^ Aperi caput ! [^m^im]. Neve vacillato alternis tibiis 
l^estus] neve mordate labrum — neve scabite caput — neve fo- 
dite aures. Vestis item ad decorum componatur ut totus cul- 
tus, vultus, gestus, habitus corporis ingenuam modestiam et vere- 
cundam indolem prae se ferat. 

JSdg. Quid, si meditemur ? 

Pr. Facite. 

Pueri omnes. [Dum geHiculantur.] Sicine satis ? 

Pr. Nondum. 

Pueri. Quid si sic? [Alterum gestum ludicrum fadunt.'] 
"* Pr. Propemodum. 

Pueri. Quid si sic? 

Pr. Heus, satis est : hoc tenete ne sitis inepte loquaces aut 
praecipites. Neve vagetur animum interim, sed sis attentus, quid 
alter dicat. Si quid erit respondendum id facito paucis ac pru- 
denter ; interdum praefatus honorem, nonnumquam etiam addito 
cognomine honoris gratia. Nunc agite ! Specimen aliquod hujus 
rei nobis praebete I [Exempli graUa adloquiturj] ** Quantum 
temporis abfuisti a matemis aedibus?" 

Pueri. [Salemnitery cum profunda inclinatione eorporis.l 
Jam sex ferme menses. 

Pr. [Indignans.] Addendnm erat, domine ! 

Pueri. Jam sex ferme menses, '' DOMINE I ** 

Pr. " Non tangeris desiderio matris ? " 

Pueri. Nonnunquam sane. 

Pr. " Cupisne eam revisere ? " 

Pueri, Gupimus, domine, si — m — pacb — ^ligbat — tua. [Re- 
verenter.] 

Pr. Nunc flectendum erat genu I [Pueri instanter genu flec- 
tunt obsequentissime.] Bene se habet I Sic pergite. Yidete ut 
horum meminemini ! 

Edgar. Dabitur opera, mi praeceptor ! Numquid aliud vis ? 

Pr. Adite nunc ludos vestros. 

Pueri. Fiet! [JExeunt pueri reverentissime salutantes.Ji Vale 
praeceptor excellentissime, vale ! Vale benigmssime ac eruditis- 
sime magister 1 vale princeps paedagogorum ! vale I vale I 



LATINE. 



247 



NON COMMOVEBITUR. 

£n ut imber caelo crescit, 
£n ut hostium gnmdescit 

Clamor jninitantium 
Terram se debellaturos, 
Fortium spolia relaturos 

Nobis in exitium. 

Patet ingens fati limen, 
Rapiuntur in discrimen 

Prooeres ac populus. 
Cujus defensoris utor 
Armis ? unde in his adjutor 

Tenebris instantibus ? 

Yox respondet, yox aYorum : 
Quoe pertulimus laborum 
Kunus, onus, filiis 

HTMNUS: O DEI AGNJE, VENIO, 

Ille qui sum et sine spe 
Kisi in tuo sanguine 
£t in Yocatu apud Te, 
O Dei Agne, venio 1 

Hle qui sum, nec commorans, 
Ut purus sim, at obsecrans ; 
Ad Te qui nunc stas condonans, 
Dei Agne, Yenio ! 

nie qui sum, in procliis 
Tactatus, et in dubiis — 



Nunc tenendum, nunc f erendum ; 
Hoc non Yobis perfaorrendum 
Patrium quod agitis. 

Dominus per noe potentis 
Ultra fas superbientis 

Bis confregit bracchium ; 
Galli tumor et Hispani, 
Mole corruens immani, 

Factus est ludibrium. 

NoYum fulgur coruscabit 
Lux antiqua, conturbabit 

Tyrannorum insidias ; 
Stella nobis ipsa lucet, 
Mirabititer deducet 

Liberorum dexteras. 

Review (London). 

Intra extraque semper lis, 
Dei Agne, Yenio ! 

Hle qui sum, miserrimus, 
Caecus pauperque penitus 
(In Te procumbat animus), 
Dei Agne, Yenio ! 

Ille qui sum ! — ^Am&sti me 
£t claustra fracta sunt a Te : 
Nunc Tuus, Tuus unioe 
Dei Agne, Yenio. 



CABMEN SCRIPTUM A LEONE XIU. 



Ad Florum — 
Flore puer, Yesana diu te f ebris adurit : 

Inficit inmiundo languida membra situ 
Dira lues : cupidis Stygis respersa Yeneno, 

Nec pudor est, labiis pocula plena bibis. 
Pocula sunt Ciroes : apparent ora feranim, 

Sus Yel amica luto, Yel truculentus aper. 
Si sapis, tandem miser expergiscere, tandem, 

Ulla tuae si te cura salutis habet. 
Heu fuge Sirenum cantus, fuge litus aYarum 

£t te Carthusi, Flore, reconde sinu. 
Haec tibi certa salus ; Carthusi e f ontibus hausta 

Continuo sordes proluet unda toas. 



248 LATINE. 

ENGLISH SUPPLEMENT. 

[SUPPLEHEKTUH ANOLICUM.] 

PHONETIC LAW. [Louis BeiriBr, rh.D.] 

Thk kinship of the principal Earopean and several of the 
Asiatic langoages, gencrally known as the Indo-£uropean fam- 
ily, has long been recoc^ized. A glance at the numerals alone 
is enough to prove it Take five, f or example. The similarity be- 
tween Sanskrit paHcan, Zend pafUan Greek irei^rc, Latin quinquey 
Gothic Jlmf^ Lithuanian penkij Eeltic cdic, would alone suggest 
identity of origin, and the comparison of forms where phonetic 
changes have not been so gpreat puts the matter bejond a 
doubt. Compare, for example, Sanskrit bhrdiar^ Zend 6rdtor, 
Greek ^arrip (in derived sense), Latin frater^ Gothic brdthar^ 
Lithuanian broterelis (diminutive), Eeltic br&thir, It is clear from 
these and similar groups, of which a large number are collected 
in all standard works, that there must have been a time when 
the ancestors of the various Iodo-£uropean peoples — Lidians, 
Persians, Armenians, Greeks, Latins, Goths and other Ger- 
manic tribes, Slavs, and Eelts — spoke one common dialect. But, 
though this point is evident, it forms only the fundamental idea 
of comparative philology. 

Before the development of the various languages can be 
scientifically traced, the question we have to answer is, How has 
this multiplicity of form arisen ? Is it the result of laws uniform 
in their working, and simple enough to encourage the attempt 
to construct an exact science of comparative philology? Or 
must we despair of this on account of the complexity of the 
molding forces and of capriciousness in their operation, and be 
content with more or less ingenioua guess-work ? 

When comparative philology first took rank as an independ- 
ent science, its methods were necessarily very imperfect Bopp 
found himself face to face with a vast mass of unclassified ma- 
terial. That he proved rigidly the relationship of the various 
members of the Inda-£uropean group of languages, and con- 
ceived their relative positions correctly in the main, was a won- 
derful work for a single brain. On the other hand, it was inevi- 
table that some of his deductions should not stand the test of 



LATINE. 249 



time, that some of his etymologies are now seen to be impos- 
sible. By the labors of Pott, of Schleicher, of Georg Curtius, 
aind their respective contemporaries, the methods of etymologiz- 
ing have graduaily been more and more perfected, the number of 
firmly grounded principles has become larger and larger, the 
realm of arbitrariness more and more circumscribed. It is inter- 
«sting to note that Curtius, who of all living scholars has done 
perhaps the most to bring order out of chaos in comparative cty- 
mology, whose life-work it has been to fight against the arbitrary 
methods of his predecessors and to dignify phonetic law, should 
be in his tum the object of the bitterest opposition from his suc- 
<:e88or8, on account of his laxity, his arbitrary treatment of pho- 
netic law, and the number of so-called " exccptions " which find 
a place in his system. 

As the new school in Germany, generally called " Die jung- 
grammatische Schule," has been steadily gaining infiuence in the 
philological world, and the theory set forth in this article is 
based on their principles, it is necessary to quote a few words 
^om Professors Osthoff and Brugman, two of the most active 
advocates of the new methods. In the preface to their " Mor- 
phologische Untersuchungen " they state their position as fol- 
lows : 

" The two most important methodological principles of the 
neo-grammarians are the following : 

" First. All phonetic change, in so far as it proceeds rae- 
•chanically, is brought about in accordance with laws admitting 
no exceptions — i. e., the direction of tbe change is always the 
aame with all persons belonging to a community using the same 
language, excepting where dialectic variation comes in ; and all 
words in which the sound, that is subject to the change, appears 
under like circumstances, are without exception subject to the 
«hange. 

" Secondly. As it is clear that association of form — i. e., the 
creation of new speech-forms by analogy — ^plays a very important 
part in the life of the modem languages, so we must unhesitat- 
ingly recognize this kind of language-growth and language-re- 
newai for the older and oldest periods as well. And we must 
not only recognize it, but must use it to explain old forms« just 
as for language-phenomena of later periods. We can not be in 



280 LATINE. 

the lcast sarprised if analogical formations meet us in the older 
and oldest speech-periods in the same or even greater abundance 
than in the more recent and most recent periods. 

'^ . . . To defend our method against some recent attacks, I 
must briefly touch on two chief points. 

" The one is this : It is only he who holds firmly to phonetic 
law, the foundation pillar of our whole science, who in his in- 
vestigation has any soiid ground under his feet On the other 
hand, he who unnecessarily, mereiy to satisfy certain whims or 
predilections, admits exceptions to the phonetic laws that rule 
a dialect ; who assumes that isolated words or classes of words 
have not been affected bj a phonetic change which has demon> 
strably affected all other similar forms ; or contrariwise assumes 
sporadically, in the case of isolated forms, a phonetic moyement 
with which all other similar forms are entircly unacquainted ; or 
finally makes the same sound under exactly the same conditions, 
develop in some words in one direction, and in others in an- 
other; and further sees in all these his darling but unexplained 
exceptions nothing abnormal, but rather a naturai consequence 
of mechanic phonetic iaw, and moreover, as happens very fre- 
quently, uses these exceptions as a basis for further deductions, 
aimed to destroy the universaiity of the phonetic law, otherwise 
a raatter of observation — such a one is given over with an abso- 
lute necessity to subjectivity and caprice. He may, indeed, in 
sttch cases offer very ingenious combinations, but none which 
merit confidence, and therefore dare not complain if he meets a 
cold and simple negative. That the new school is not yet in 
condition to explain ail so-called exceptions by phonetic laws, 
can not be made a ground of reproach against its principles. 

" And, secondly, one brief word more on the utiiization of 
the principle of analogy in the investigation of older speech- 
periods. Many think that analogical f orms appear chiefly in those 
periods in which the ' language-f eeling ' is already ' degraded,' 
or, as they often say, the ' language-consciousness ' is ' dimmed^* 
and therefore that they are not to be expected in the same 
abundance in older periods of language as in younger. A strange 
conception — a conception sprung from the same soil as the idea 
that language and ianguage-forms live a life of their own, apart 
from the speaking individuals. . . . Perhaps, in premonition of 



LATINE. 281 

the futare, the older Indo-Europeans^were on their guard against 
the workings of analogy in order to serve the gramniatical pre- 
dilections of their descendants, and not to make the reconstruc- 
tion of the Indo-£uropean parent speech too difficult for them. 
We believe that, as certiun as we are of the fact that our Indo- 
European forefathers had need of lips, tongne, teeth, etc, just 
as we, for the physical production of speech-sounds, so certain 
may we also be that the entire psychic side of their speech activ- 
ity — the emergence of the sound-images, stored up in the memory, 
from the state of unconsciousness, and the unfolding of the 
sound-notions into words and sentences — stood in thc same way 
and to the same degree under the influence of association of 
ideas as it stands to-day, and must always stand so long as man 
Ib man." 

Thus the study of comparative philology has gradually been 
changing its method. Phonetic law has risen in dignity until 
absolute inviolability in the sense above defined is claimed; a 
more definite conception of the nature of other forces not me- 
chanical in their working, which co-operate with or oppose these 
laws, has been gained. That is, comparative philology, embrac- 
ing the comparative study of form called etymology, and the 
comparative study of meaning, to which no distinct name has 
been given, has come more and more to be ranked as an exact 
science. There was a time when the etymologist was regarded 
as a soct of grown-up child, building up castles and towers with 
words and roots for toys. There was no difficulty in deriving 
cloth f rpm icX<o^oi, in spite of German " Kleid " ; €viavro9, a year, 
from iv and avrds, because it comes back to itself. ©cd? and deu9 
were connected as a matter of course ; devil was compared with 
Sanskrit devas, a god or spirit. Latin was derived from Greek, 
Greek from Hebrew, etc If an ingenious philologian were given 
a vocabulary of words from two languages as far apart as Chinese 
and English, he would have no difficulty in proving conclusively, 
not only their genetic connection, but the direct descent of 
one from the other — which shoold be proved to be the parent 
speech being quite immaterial. But this happy state of things 
is long past among langnage-fitudents. Few thinkers have any 
real doubt of the claims of comparative philology to be a sci- 
ence. Against the new school, however, there are many attacks^ 



282 LATINE. 

■and f rom one of the most recent I mast quote a few words : Pro- 
f essor EastoDy in an article entitled ** Analogy and Uniformity/* 
pablished in the '^ Amer. Joar. of Phil./' tries to show that uni- 
formity is an altogether anwarranted dogma, and sums up his 
results as follows : ^* Sappose that we recognize the fact that the 
science of langaage is not at all an exact science, and that the 
comparison of cognate words, particularly, is a process in which 
it is impossible to avoid essential errors of every description. No 
enduring results are to be attained by attempting to apply un- 
varying law in the investigation of any series of phenomena 
where no experiment, so to speak, can be made under conditions 
that can be controlled or calculated The subject can be treated 
only as we treat the history of dress, weapons, and tools in gen- 
eral ; none of these subjects form a self-centered complete sci- 
ence ; the center lies in general anthropology. Nor is tbis con- 
dition of things altogether to be regretted. Even the most ezact 
of all the sciences, mechanics, which is more fortunately circum- 
«tanced than linguistics in that accurate experiment is possible, 
and that it possesses a well-estab]ished body of f undamental law, 
even this science is unable to solve many practical questions of 
great complexity : the best mathematical talent of England de- 
clined to give an opinion as to the stability of the Menai Bridge.'* 

The soundness of this result is vitiated, it seems to me, by 
one funiamental error — ^viz., by not recognizing that the utter- 
ance of the sounds of language is normally uneonscious^ and that 
trae phonetic change is wholly so. 

How is it that a philologist, perhaps even the majority of 
them, men who have made language their chief study, can have 
a misconception on such a very vital point ? How is it that pho- 
netic law and phonetic growth are in the minds of most snch 
vague notions ? The reason lies, I believe, in the f act that there 
are so many forces at work in modem society which disturb the 
normal flow of language-phenomena. 

Language in its essence has one purpose,' and only one — viz., 
to enable one man to communicate with another. That a tone- 
language triumphed over all other means of commnnication is 
due not at all to any inherent naturalneas, but merety to its 
greater convenience and greater capabilities. Language proper 
consists of two elemeiits — first, thought ; and, secondly, the signs 



LATINE. 253 



of thoQght corresponding more or leds perfectly to the mental 
images, viz., sounds. One fundamental mistake must be guarded 
against, that is, the vague idea that floats in many peopie^s minds 
that somehow there is a natural connection between the two. It 
seems as if every mental image has of right its audible counter- 
part ' It needs but a moment's thought, however, to see that 
this is utterly false. Nothing can be more independent and 
more unlike than a thought and a sound. Whatever we may 
think of the arigin of language, it is certain that it has become 
long ago purely conventional. In the mind of the language-user 
side by side with every idea is the sound-image of the word rep-^ 
resenting it. The two are bound together arbitrarily, it is true, 
but habit is so all-powerful that it seems a part of the natural 
order. 

The invention of writing, howevcr, introduced a new series- 
of factors. So long as it was pictorial it had no effect on the 
spoken word. It was independent of tbe spoken signs, repre- 
senting what couid be really pictured or suggested by forras. 
Men of different nations coald read the same series of characters 
without an interpreter, each one in his own tongue. But a» 
writing was perfected, instead of representing ideas or objects, it 
gradually came to represent sounds — that is, from being ideo- 
graphic and hieroglyphic, it became alphabetic. The sound i» 
now linked on the one sidc to the idea which it represents, and 
on the other to the written symbol. The influence of this fixed 
form on the freedom of the spoken word is the first disturbing 
force to be considered. Since the invention of printing, which 
has made all men readers, languages have become in large meas- 
nre scripts. A word is associated with the fixed form in which 
it is written, and its pronunciation, instead of being regulated 
purely by the remembrance of a sound previously heard and of 
the moscular sensations attendant on its previous utterance, is- 
affected more or less by the remembered letter with which it is 
written. As this written form remains unchanged, it must act 
as a retarding force on phonetic growth. Observe, moreover, 
that the efEect is not uniform, being stronger on rare and unfa- 
miliar words. Of a word seldom heard, it is its form on the 
printed page which we see to guide our utterance rather than the 
sound that remains in the memory. Again, printing has made 



284 LATINE. 

men readers and enlarged their Yocabalaries to an extent almost 
incredible. What a chasm between the peasant who uses but 
four or five hundred words and the scholar with his thousands! 
Nowadajs everj man has two vocabularies that he calis his own, 
his speaking and his reading vocabulary, the latter being far the 
larger. There are many words with which he is familiar enough 
if he sees them, and which he might himself use in writing, which 
he would ncver think of using in speech. Many words a man 
pronounces, though he has never heard thetn and only seen them. 
A disputed pnint in pronunciation is settled, not by trying to re- 
call how one has heard the word pronounced, but by reference to 
a fixed norm. But this must not be pressed too far. Were the 
written symbol always and everywhere active, phonetic change 
would be at an end, and any investigation of phonetic law would 
be idle. The spelling of a word is never able to arrest all growth, 
because this is so gradual that it is unobserved, and after the 
change has taken place we wake up to the knowledgo of the fact 
that the spelling still current represents an older stage of the lan- 
guage. That is so familiar in English as to need no illnstration. 
Moreover, the ordinary speaker does not analyze a word. He 
does not think of cach letter when he sees a word any more than 
he thinks of each sound-element when he hcars one. Many 
people really think that they speak as they write, and woald 
hesitate to believe that gh is silent in ought, or that there is no g 
in ring^ and only a trained ear will recognize the difference bc- 
tween the t in Jin and fig. Even those who have studied this 
matter sometimes can hardly be brought to see that our English 
flo-called long vowels are mostly diphthongs — i. e., 6 in apen pro- 
nounced with a short u after the o, etc. A sentence written with 
phonetic exactness is a puzzle that takes some moments to solve. 
What the written word really does is to cause exceptions here 
and there ; to obliterate here and there a change that has taken 
place, and bring a sound back to a symbol ; to give many words 
a double pronunciation, one the natural result of physical and 
mechanical causes, the other more nearly like the older pro- 
nunciation rcpresented in the script. 

Another disturbing force ciosely allied with the above, and 
needing only a brief mention, is the effect of modem education. 
The study of grammar — the declensions and conjngations, the 



LATINE. 288 



analjzing of langaage, the classification of words, etc. — begets an 
unnatural attitude toward language and language-phenomena. 
It is no longer merely a tool, it is an object of study, solicitude, 
and perhaps artistic enjoyment. Tbis brings about a certain 
consciousness in the use of language which interferes in another 
way with the mechanical working of phonetic law. 

Another modem invention more recent than printing has 
produced results even more important on language-history, that 
is, the utilization of steam as a motive power. That alone has 
rendered possible the restless moving hither and thither of these 
days. In the vast extent of soil inhabited by Engiish-speaking 
people there is room for thousands of dialects. Dialectic varia- 
tions are constantly springing up, but, before these peculiarities 
have a chance to crystallize, the population of the place has lost 
its local coloring. New elements from all over the worli have 
entered. Without going into detail, it is evident what an im- 
portant effect this mixture of incipient dialects must have. A 
child leams one word from its father, who is a New-Yorker, and 
says ndbn for n5on, boots for boots ; another from its mother, a 
a Virginian, perhaps, with a well-marked parasitic y-sound, e. g., 
in cyarj cyoal^ etc. ; and a third from the servant, who may be 
an Irishwoman or a negress. When we further consider the 
special professional dialects with which every one is more or less 
familiar, I mean the dialects of the pulpit and of the stage, it is 
no wonder that normal language growth is hard f or us to realize. 

The disturbing influences above enumerated as arising from 
the image of the written word, from an artificial attitude toward 
language, introducing a conscious element, the existence of a 
fixcd norm to refer to, the mixture of the innumerable incipient 
popular dialects, and the dialects of the pulpit, platform, and 
stage, may really be reduced to two : first, a set of forces tending 
to chain the fieeting sound to a fixed form ; and, secondly, a set 
of forces dimming the sound-images, by enlarging the latitude 
of the variations in the pronunciation of even the most familiar 
words. 

If, therefore, it be said that it is a necessary consequence, 
the theory of phonetic law, that doublets going back to one 
single form can not be accepted as spontaneous growths in a 
single dialect, but must be referred to some outside force, it woold 



286 LATINE. 



seem to be a position exceedingly easy to refute. Thus, to qnote 
from Professor Easton, *' As to ablaut and ablaut-like phenomena, 
the variations are numberless, drect and direct^ eonceal and eneeal^ 
perhapSf prhape (and praps), sm ink for eome ink, s^mwh for S(y 
much.^^ If I state that a phonetic law must work uniformlj for 
all words without exception, the answer is : ^' Individnals are by 
no means consistent in the endless inaccuracies of speech. The 
same person may say singin* and ringing^ as^d and masked, clos 
and clothes (both allowed), often and ofn (the former frequcntly 
when empliatic), plice (for police), and polite or plite. Some- 
slovenly speakers use a hiatus^fiJUnfz: r, but only now and then.'' 
To all this what has been said above is, I think, a sufficient. 
reply, and I shall pass to the consideration of phonetic law. 

TRANSLATION FROM BORACE, SAT. U, 6. [W. C. WiJkinson, 
D.D.] 

The fable translated is playfully introduced by Horace, as 
a threadbare 8tory told by a guest, at a banquet imagined as 
taking place in the country, where high themes are discussed. 
Cervus, a neighbor of Horace's, is one of those men whose idea 
of helping on conversation is to contribute a story. Some one 
has remarked on the anxious wealth of Arellius, when Cervus- 
snuffs his cbance and begins : 

Once, ranB the story, a mouse of the country within his poor cayem 
Welcomed a mouse of the city — old cronies they each of the other — 
Manners uncouth, sharp eye to his hoard, yet dispoaed notwithstanding, 
Acting the host, his cloee heart to unbind. Why multiply words ? He 
Neither the stored-away chick-pea gradged, nor his longest oat-kerael. 
Forth in his mouth he, bringing tfae dry plum, also his nibbled 
Bacon-bits, gave them, eager with various banquet to vanquish 
Kiceness of guest scarce touching with tooth of disdain any viand ; 
While, stretched on fresh litter of straw, he, lord of the household, 
Ate him a spelt-grain or darael, the choicer provisions ref raining. 

Finally, city-bred says to the other : ^ What is it, companion, 
Tempts you, enduring, to.liye on the ridge abrapt of the foreetf 
You, too — ^will you pref er men and town to the fieroe saTage wildwood f 
Up and away — trast, comrade, to me ; since creatures terrestrial 
Live allotted a mortal portion of breath, nor is any 
Bef uge f rom death to great or to small : so, my excellent f ellow, 
Wfaile it is granted you, live in agreeable wise, well-conditioned ; 
Live reoolleeting of tpan how brief you are I '' 



LATINE. 287 

Soon as these speeches 
Wrought on the swainf he out of his dwelling lightly leaps forth : thence 
Press they, the pair, on the journey proposed, being keenly desirous 
Under the walls of the city to creep as night-farers. And night now 
" Half-way up-hill this vast sublunar rault " domb, when 
Each of the mice set f oot in a palaoe resplendent, where drapings 
Tinctured crimson in grain were glowing on iTory oouches. 
Numberless dishes remaining f rom yesterday'8 sumptuous supper 
There at remove stood in panniers loftily built like a turret. 

So when now he has placed at his ease on a couch-spread of purple 
Countryman mouse, obsequious host he runs hither and thither, 
Gourse after course the supper prolongs, and, with flourish of service, 
Does all the honors in form, whatever he offers foretasting. 
He, reclining, rejoices in altered estate, and in plenty 
Plays you the part of joUy good f ellow — ^when, audden, a mighty 
Rumble of doors roUing open both of them shook f rom their couches : 
Helter-skelter scampering went they, stricken with terror — 
Growing breathless with panic they quake, while rings the great mansion 
Loud to the baying of mastiffs Molossian. 

Then countryman mouse said: 
" life such as this I Ve no use for ; good-by to you : me, with the lowly 
Yetch, shaU the woods, and a cave secure from surprises, make happy." 

It is the contrast of the leisurely and remote conyersation 
conceived tbus as passing at the supposed banquet in the coun- 
try — ^the contrast of this with the hurried and exciting scenes 
and occasions of life in the city — ^that affords the mild flavor of 
satire discoverable in this composition of Horace'8. — From " Col- 
lege Latin Course in Englishy 

STUDJES m VERGIL-MEMORIZING. [F. J. MUler.^ 

There is a general complaint that so little of all the knowl- 
edge that is painf uUy acquired in schools is retained af ter special 
education is completed ; that, apart from the mentai discipline 
which a course of study affords, the years thus spent are almost 
barren of results. This is especially apparent in the study of the 
classics. The student, with no little difficulty, gains sufficient 
knowledge of the structure of a language to introduce him to 
the literature of that language. But he rarely goes far beyond 
the threshold. He too often is kept fnmbling with the intrica- 
cies of the lock, without even opening the door. A brief glance, 
at most, is generally all that can be obtained of the beauty within, 
and he tums away, soon to f orget all that he saw, even to ihe 



288 LATINE. 



fastenings of the door that he so carefally scanned. And the 
only result of all this is the brain development derived from the 
lock-picking drill. Tho literature of the language, save as he 
may get it at second hand, is closed to him f orever ; for, in the 
press of the needs that are present, few men have the opportu- 
nity to reacquire the lost powers of the past. 

The pressure that has recently been brought to bear against 
the ciassics has come not only from men who have never studied 
Latin and Greek, but chiefly from those who have studied those 
languages, and who are painfully conscious that they have little 
to show for the years of toil over grammar and lexicon. For it 
is impossibie, in most cases, to trace mental discipline received 
in a college course to any particular study. It is enough for 
them that the dead languages are still dead, so far as they are 
concerned. 

The remedy for these regrets and fiulures and consequent 
opposition should be based upon the patent fact that the litera- 
ture of a language is full of interest to aU, while the language 
itself, as such, is of interest only to the philologist. Apply this 
truth to English authors. How many pupils, after parsing the 
•** Paradise Lost," would reUun a pleasurable recoUection of the 
process, or obtain a critical knowledge of the poem considered 
as a literary masterpiece ? And yet it often happens that pupils 
toil through the great Latin epic with no other result than the 
more thorough acquisition of the form and structure of the Latin 
language. There need be no wonder that the mind, languid and 
weary, quickly loses all that is acquired. 

But, if the pupil be taught to appreciate and critically ex- 
amine the fine points of the literature — ^the strong, terse, soldier- 
like style of Caesar, the deep, calm philosophy and buming 
eloquence of Oicero, the sweet, pastoral, and stately epic of Ver- ^ 
gil, and so through the whole range of brilliant classics — if 
literature be substituted for hnguage^ and language treated mere- 
ly as a means to literature, much of the opposition to classical 
:study would cease. 

It is the purpose of these papers to suggest several methods 
f or studying Vergilian literature, which, it is claimed, will give 
a permanent knowledge of the author, increase the interest of 
«tudents, and serve as an introduction to all literature. The 



LATINE. 259 

same methods may be saccessfallj applied to other authors, but 
they seem especially adapted to the study of Vergil. 

First, memorize copiously and thoroughly, selecting those pas- 
sages, not too long, which are proverbial, or remarkable and im- 
portant for any reason. These passages, thus memorized, be- 
sides enriching the mind with choice and often-quoted literature, 
becomc the framework, fixed and permanent, upon which the 
whole work may be hung ; or the fixed points in memory around 
which center enough of the work to enable the mind to recon- 
struct the whole. 

To the success of this method many an eminent scholar and 
orator will testify ; indeed, some great statesmen have declared 
that they owe much of their success to the storing of their minds 
with rich classic lore. 

Subjoined are passages from the first six books of the Aeneid, 
which, for various reasons, are well worth memorizing. They 
may be committed as they are reached in the text, and reviewed 
from time to time, rccalling in the pupil's own language the 
thoughts and incidents which cluster around them : 

Book I, lines 1-6, 76-77, 87-94, 199, 203, 207, 278-279, 
568, 607-609, 630. Book II, lines 3, 49, 145, 268-269, 317, 324- 
325, 354, 390, 402, 641-642. Book III, 56, 415, 449, 490-491, 
658. Book IV, 65-66, 174, 246-251, 126-129, 376, 390-391, 
471, 625-627, 724, et al. This list of passages may be curtailed 
or extended at the teacher's discretion. 

SOME OVERSiaHTS IN HARPERS' LATIN LEXICON. 

ni. 

Diru8. This word is used tliree times in Vergil of cupido. 
The meanings given in the lexicon are quite inappropriate. The 
«ense is " intense " or " overmastering " in G. i, 37 ; Aen. vi, 373, 
and ix, 185. (See Conington.) There is a latent sense of blame in 
these passages, but the meanings " fearful," " awful," and the 
rest, quite overshoot the mark. Among the synonyms of this 
word the adjective sacer might well have been included. Sacer 
in Aen. iii, 57. 

Auri sacra fames expresses the same kind and degree of de- 
testation that dirus does in the two passages referred to in the 
lexicon. Aen. ii, 261, 762, where it is applied to TJlixes. 



260 LATINE. 

^' TTiessandrus Stkenelusque duces et dirus Ulixes.^'* 
" Custodes lecti Phoenix et dirus UlixesJ^ 

As we translate in the fornier case, " accursed greed for 
gold," we ought in the latter to render " damned ni788e8.^' I 
insist that the word here chosen i^ the onlj available word in 
the language for rendering adequately the Latin dirus in these 
two and similar passages. I should not think it worth remark, 
if it did not seem to me a pity to allow the brand of vulgar or 
profane associations to banish from good usage an effective and 
mnch-needed word. Of all men who have written English prose 
no one has wielded the language with more skill and power than 
De Quincey. He had an ezquisite ear for the true rhythm of 
prose, and this is tbe way he writes. He has been describing the 
hideous torment of one of his opium-dreams, in which the eyes 
of the crocodile leered npon him, " multiplied into a thousand 
repetitions " : " I heard gentle voices speaking to me (I hear every- 
thing when I am sleeping), and instantly I awoke : it was broad 
noon, and my children were standing, hand in hand, at my bed- 
side, come to show me their colored shoes, or new frocks, or to 
let me see them dressed for going out. I protest that so awful 
was the transition from the damned crocodile and the other un- 
ntterable monsters and abortions of my dreams, to the sight of 
innocent kuman natures and of infancy, that, in the mighty and 
sudden revnlsion of mind, I wept, and conld not forbear it, as I 
kissed their faces." 

Quo, The meaning " for which " is suggested in Verg., Ec. 
i, 21, by Keightly, in his edition of the Eclogues and Georgics, 
but his suggestion is not supported by any reference to other 
passages. •* For which " is, however, the meaning in Aen. ix, 
206, a meaning not recognized in the lexicon. If, as is perhaps 
probable, qu^ was originally a dative and not an ablative, the 
order of the discussion of the word in the lexicon should be 
nearly reversed. 

Ab, I do not find any notice of a pecnliar but not infre- 
qnent use of ab in the sense of pro : sa, a me stare, It occnrs 
twice in a single oration of Cicero as antithetical to contra: 
" Quamquam praeest huic quaestioni vir et contra audaciam for- 
tissimus et ab innocentia elementissimusy ^ 
> Cic. Pro Rosc. Am., 85. 



LATINE. 261 

Again : " Oum quae facitu ejtM inodi sint^ ut ea — a nobis con- 
tra vosmet ipaosfaeere videamini,*^ * 

Sententiam /erre, Both under sententia and ferre the mean- 
ing " to vote " is given to this locution, but in the following pas- 
sage the meaning is plainly " to hold " (or maintain) an opinion : 

^^ConsHttiendi autem sunt^ qui sint in amicitia Jines et quasi 
termini diligendi ; de quibus tres video sententia^ ferri,^^ * 

I may as well here point out another omission in the case of 
the word ferre, The phrase legemferre is defined " to bringfor- 
VHxrd " or " m<n>e a proposition," ** to propose a law," etc, and 
by implication this is its only meaning. But, as I have previ- 
ously pointed out, as in Cat. i, 28, legem rogare means " to enact 
a law," so in Pro Archia, 7, does legem ferre mean the name as 
legem constituere^ " to pass a law." W. C. Collar. 

FROM OLD ROME, A Teacher^s Letter to Ms Fupils, [Adapted 
from the Germ&n.] [Continned,] 

The great fire in the reign of Nero made fearf ul havoc in this 
region, the tenth ward of the city, to which the Palatine be- 
longed. Part of the walls naturally remained standing, and so 
the royal palace could be restored in a short time. Galba lived 
in the Palatium, and with him three of the most influential men 
of Eome — T. Vinius, C. Laco, and the freedman Icelus — whom 
the pepple jestingly called the emperor's tutors. 

The Emperor Galba was to have been murdered in his own 
house, and yet Otho f eared the watchf ulness of the body-guards ; 
so, on the day on which he intended with the aid of the dissatis- 
fied praetorians to execute the coup d^itat^ he spread the false 
report that the disorders in the camp were over, and he himself 
killed. After having thus induced the credulous Galba to go 
down to the Forum without trustworthy protection, he had him 
surprised and killed. Otho himself had affectionatcly greeted 
the emperor in the moming, and had then, as Tacitus says, under 
the pretense of having, with several experts, to look at a house 
offered for sale, hastened away per domum Tiberianam in Vela- 
brum, inde ad milliarium aureum sub aedem Saturni, Sueto- 
nius afiSrms that he made his way through the rear portion of 
the Palatium, From a comparison of these two passages it is 

» Oic. Pro Roflc. Axn., 104. « ac. De Am., xvi. 



262 LATINE. 

I 

seen that the palace of Augustus at that time was still used as 
the principal place of assembly for the senate, and that the 
palace of Tiberius was looked upon rather as the private resi- 
dence of the emperor. The first subscription of Otho was a con- 
tribution of abont twenty-five thousand doUars for the comple- 
tion of Nero's palace, which extended from the Palatine to the 
Esquiline. But the ninety-five days of his reign did not suffice 
to finish this golden palace. The reign of Vitellius also was too 
short for that purpose. Vespasian^s army entcred Rome too 
soon. Vitellius, who in his perplexity was entirely dependent 
on the caprice of his soldiers, took no part in the storming of the 
Oapitol, but calmly surveyed the exciting contest and the con- 
flagration from the palace of Tiberius, in which he was feasting 
at the time. 

The Flavian emperors carried the excessively extended palace 
of Nero no farther. As a favor to the pleasure-loving people, 
they erected the colossal amphitheatre, which has bcen named 
after them, in a hollow between the Palatine, Oaelian, and Esqui- 
line Hills. Vespasian appears not to have had much admiration 
for the Palatine, and did not live there, but in the gardens of 
Sallust, near the Pincian and Quirinal. In the reign of Titus 
another fire broke out which considerably injured the Oapitol. 
TRtus considered it his first duty to repair these new damages, 
and to give every assistance in his power to the unfortunate 
cities«of Oampania. Domitian was the first to build a new palace 
for his femily. He was far from desirous of restoring the palace 
of the odious Oaligula, and, preferring to live in the vicinity of 
the palace of Augustus, he built a new palace on the level 
ground, made by filling up the hollow, as has already been men- 
tioned. Although this palace was not of so gigantic proportions 
as that of Nero, it was scarcely inferior to it in splendor. 

This is the only palace on the Palatine whose interior arrange- 
ments are still clearly traceable. On the side toward the Forum 
there was a broad stairway, but all traces of this are lost in the 
terraced ground. The vestibule is not a narrow passage like that 
in the house of Livia, but a broad landing-place where the stair- 
way began. Here the degenerate Romans waited imtil their 
" Jupiter** saw fit to give them an audience. As the troops of 
clients in andent times assemb]ed at the atrium of their ^' pa- 



LATINE. 263 



tron '^ to greet him and accompanyJiim to his business in the 
Forum, so now the nobles wait at the door of the Palatium for 
admittance on the part of the dread tyrant. All the events of the 
day have been discussed ; the rich material for conversation af- 
forded by the new plays introduced by the emperor, has long since 
been ezhausted ; every whim of the emperor is humored and com- 
plied with ; when, finally, the large doors of the rcception-hall are 
thrown open, and a troop of servants dressed in white step forth 
upon the threshold to survey the waiting crowd. For not every 
one is admitted to the presence of the emperor. It costs the less 
esteemed knight much trouble and many a denarius before he 
has surmounted every obstacle. To-day he has been fortunate 
enough, f or the first time, to enter these halls. He is dazzied by 
the splendor. It surpasses all his expectations. He has scarcely 
the courage to step over the threshold, which consists of an im- 
mense block of Grecian marble ; but one glance into the interior 
tells him that he can not begin to examine everything in detail ; 
there is too much of beauty to be seen. He is most pleased 
with the pillars of Phrygian and Numidian marble with which 
the walls are adorned. The bases, and especially the capitals, 
are so elaborately carved and so rich in their forms that they 
appear to him much more beautiful than the simple ones of the 
ancient temples. Behind the portico, the walls are reheved by 
niches from which gods and heroes look down on the actions of 
feeble mortals. But our knight, at present, does not desire to 
admire Hercules and Baccbus and the rest of the statues; he 
wants, above all, to see him whom the poets have compared to the 
father of the gods. Yonder he sits enthroned, opposite the en- 
trance, proud and gloomy, on his lofty seat, looking down upon 
those approaching to greet him. Long time had this ambitious 
knight to possess his soul in patience before the portals of this 
hall of the gods were thrown open to him ; and uow, instead of 
Jupiter, he verily thinks he sees before him the gods of the 
lower world. Timidly he drops his eyes in the presence of the 
angry and suspicious glance of Domitian. From the chamber on 
the left comes forth the fragrance of incense which had been 
bumed yonder on the small altar to the genius of the emperor. 
Did the tyrant in the enjoyment of all these honors have some 
conception of his human weakness f Was it on that account 



264 LATINE. 



that his forehead was clouded, his lips compressed ? The knight 
knew not, but he felt that here every rnovement, every look, 
might be the occasion for speedy destruction. The floor with 
the costly marble begins to burn under his feet, and he notices 
with terror that only a few individuals approach the throne to 
greet the tyrant with a morning kiss. 

vjBSTAL vmanrs. 

As 18 well known, a chief duty of the Vestal Virgins was the guarding 
of the sacred fire from extinction. Extinction of this fire was considered as 
the most fearfui of all prodigies, portending, indeed, the extinction of the 
state. Nor was it a prodigy without meaning of much significance for the 
offending Vestal herself. What it portended for her was a scourging bj the 
Pontifex Vaximus — in the dark, and with a screen interposed — white upon 
the same high functionary devolved the dutj of rekindling the fire by the 
friction of two pieces of wood f rom a ** felix arbor.*' The custody of the 
sacred fire was, however, not the only, although the most soiemn and momen- 
tous, of the Vestals* offices. They had, at stated intervals, to serve the shrine 
of their goddess, and to purify it every moming with the lustral water. 
They took a prominent part at all the great public rites — such as the festival 
of the Bona Dea, and the consecration of the temples. They werc invited 
to priestly banquets, and were present, we are told, at the solemn appeal to 
the gods made by Cicero during the conspiracy of Gatiline. Next in dignitj, 
however, to their guardianship of the ever-buming flame, was their care of 
that mysterious sacred relic — whether Palladium, or the veritable Samothra- 
pian gods of Dardanus, which Aeneas carried off in the filight from Troy — 
which reposed in the sacred Adytum or Holy of Holies, whereto no one but 
the Yirgins and the Pontifex Maximus might dare to penetrate. 

Nothing is stranger and, as it might at first sight appear, more alien to 
the spirit of the ancient religion than the social and political status which 
was enjoyed by the Vestal Virgins. In the prevailingly bright and cheerful 
cultus which Rome had inherited f rom a yet older world of paganism, there 
seems hardly room for a priestly caste at once so powerful in its attributes, 
so SBSthettc in its practioes, and so rigid in the obligation of its vows as was 
that of this religious oommanity. In the statua of the Roman Vestal we 
find not onlj a prefigurement of ihe^"religieuse*' of Western Catholicism, 
but traces also of the mysterious awe and reverence attaching to the Oriental 
saint. She was not only a ** d6vote " held bound bj her vows to perpetual 
chastitj, and liable upon breach of them to the awf ul punishment of living 
burial, but she was also herself a sharer, and to no small extent, in the popu- 
lar homage rendered to the goddess whom she served. Even her earthlj 
sacrifioes were requited to her bj maintenaace at the public oost, and bj a 
beneficial interest in the lands and monejs bequeathed from time to time to 
her religiouB communitj. The honors paid to her bj the state were extraor- 



LA.TINE. 268 



dinaiy. She oould give eTidence in a courfof justice without taking an oath ; 
Bhe was preoeded bj a lictor when she went abroad ; consuls and praetors 
made waj tor her; and the fasces, emblems of the highest magistracies, 
were lowered at her approach. If any one passed under her litter he was 
put to death. In the amphitheatre the box of the Vestals was placed in the 
podium, close to the senatorial seats and to that of the emperor itself. In 
the ruins of the Coliseum can still be traced the moldering and grass-grown 
tier from which the Virgins must have looked down^ in strange contrast with 
the eager crowd around them, upon the savage scenes below. Wills — even 
those of the emperors — were committed to their charge, being, in their keep- 
ing, regarded inviolable ; and solemn treaties were deposited in their hands. 
Strangest privilege of all, and one which more than any other shows the 
mjsterious reverence which surrounded their office, was their casual and, as 
it were, mechanical exercise of the prerogative of mercj. A criminal oon- 
demned to death who chanced to meet a Vestal on his waj to the place of 
execution had a right to demand his release, provided alwavs that the en- 
<x>unter was accidentaL The origin and significance of this singular power 
have never, we believe, been f uUj made out ; but it has no parallel, that we 
are aware of , in anj right attaching to holiness of person in anj other re- 
ligion, and we find onlj an incomplete analogj to it in that right of sanc- 
tuarj acquired bj criminals who fled for refuge to a Christian altar. 

The public honors paid to the Vestals and the public priviieges accorded 
to them differ, however, for the most part rather in degree than in kind from 
those enjojed bj other sacred persons of paganism. It is their character 
rather than their status, it is what thej gave up rather than wbat thej received, 
which renders their position so unique. Admission to the order of Vestals 
was attended bj everj mark of self-devotion which accompanies the modem 
monastic vow. Surrender of worldlj prospects, acceptance of celibacj, en- 
foroed seclusion from the world, solemn ceremonies of admission, a period of 
novitiate to be passed through before the f ull dignitj of priestess was at- 
tained — ^in everj one of these respects we find au anticipation of the Chris- 
tian nun. It is true, of course, and a difference of immense importance so 
fiir as the action of the individual is concemed, that the devotion of the 
Yestal to the service of the goddess was on her part involuntarj. The six 
YestalB were chosen bj lot between the ages of six and ten from among 
children of free-bom parents. As soon as the election was concluded, the 
Pontifex Maximus took the girl bv the hand and addressed to her a solemn 
formula of consecration. After this was pronounced she was led awaj to 
the atrium of Vesta, and lived thenceforward within the sacred precincts 
nnderthespecial superintendence and control of the Pontifical CoIIege. Dur- 
ing the first ten jears the priestess was engaged in leaming her mjsterious 
duties, and bore the title of ** discipula " ; the next ten were passed in per- 
forming them, and the next in instmcting novices. At the expiration of 
thirtj jears the obligation of her vows expired, and she was at libertj to 
retum to the world. Yet, though in this respect, as also in her compulsoij 
additton to her reli^ous lif e, the case of the Vestal diff ered f rom that of the 



Qee LA.TINE. 



modem nun, her vows were in most cases only terminable in name. Some 
few Vestals were known to aecularize themselves so f ar as to marry ; but the 
act, though iawfui, was socially diacountenanced. A superstition preTailed 
tliat the Vestal who entered the married state wedded sorrow and remorse, 
and the priefltesses of Vesta, for the most part, died as they had lired, in the 
servioe of the goddess. The religious instincts of the oommunity which liad 
required their consecration to thirty years of oelibacy were adverse to their 
resuming secuiar life ; and there can be little doubt that among the order 
themselyes there grew up precisely the same spirit which animates ihe sister- 
hood of a modem nunnery. They felt themselTes as thorougfafy pledged 
to renunciation of the world, as irreTOcabiy deroted to the seryioe of an un-^ 
fieen deity, as the most devoted wearer of the veil in modem conyents. A 
strange and solemn f act of this Idnd should wam us against the error of 
Bupposing that the religion of the ancients was the mere poetry which it is 
to ns ; that the shadowy gods and goddesses of Greece and Rome were noth- 
ing more to their worshipers tlian objects of picturesque ceremony or sub- 
jects of graoeful myth. To many, indeed, to most among the andents — to 
all, if we exclude the rationalizing pliilosopher and the idealizing poet — ^the 
deities of their religion were as real and awful as those *' dirse f acies ^ wliich 
horered about the f ugitive Aeneas through the smolce of buraing Troy — 
beings all-powerful to bless or to ban, and who demanded not mere adoration 
from those of the worshipers wlio wished to prosper, but in many instances. 
trae humility and genuine self-sacrifice. — Jlome JourfuU. 

qUERJOES, [Editions of Livy.] 

(1.) What is the best worldng apparatus for the teacher of liyy? 
Beferred to Professor Charles Short: 

1. Complete editions, with Oommentaiy. 

Drakenborch. 16 vols. 0. Stuttgart, 1820-*28. 142 m. 
Rupertl 6 vols. 0, Gottingen, ISOY-^Q. 29 m. 50 pf. 
Weissenbom. 10 vols. 0. Weidmann Series, 186S-'66. 81 m. 66 pf. 

2. Oomplete editions of text 

Martin Hertz. 4 vols. 0. 185'7-'64. 28 m. 55 pf. 

Weissenbom. 6 vols. D. 1860-'74. (Teubner text.) About 80 m. 

Hadvig and Ussing. 4 vols. 0. 1861-'76. 22 m. 60 pf. 

8. Incomplete. 
Alschefski. 8 vols. 1841-'46. Lib. 1-28. 80 m. 

4. Editions of parts. 
English. 

Anthon and Graik. 1 voL D. Harpers. $1.20. 
Gapes. (21 and 22.) 1 vol. S. Macmillan. 6s. 
Ghase. 1 voL S. Eldredge k Bro. Philadelphia $1.60 



LATINE, 267 



Gennan. 

Fabri. 0. 1852. (21 and 22.) 6 m. 

Wolfflm. 0. (21.) Teubner. Sch. Ser. 1 m. 20 pf. 

Wolfflin. 0. (22.) Teubner. Sch. Ser. 1 m. 20 pf. 

Fabri. 0. 1840. (23 and 24.) 4 m. 16 pf. 

(2.) What are the best ten editions of Livy for the teacher ? 
Referred to Professor Henry Drisler : 

Ten editions of Livy. 
Livii Opera. Ed. Gronovius (Elzevir). 8 vols. 1679. 

" ** Jo. Clericus. 10 voIb. Amsterdam, 1710. 

" « Crevier. 6 volfl. 4to. Paris, 178«-»41. 

" " Drakenborch. 7 vols. 4to. Leyden, l73a-'46. 

Or 16 vols. in 19 parts. 8vo. Stnttgart, 1820-*28. 
" Ed. G. A. RupertL 6 vols. Gottingen, 1807-*9. 

Or ed. Stroth et Doering. 7 vols. Gotha, 1806-*24. 
" Ed. recens Drakenborch ed. Emesti et Ereyssig c. Lex. Ler. 

6 vols. Lips., 1823-»27. 
" Codd. MSS. ed. AlschefskL 3 vols. BerUn, 1841-'43. In- 

complete. 
" erklart von Weissenbom. 10 vols. Leipsic, 1866 sqq. 

" recens Madvig et Ussing. 4 vols. Gopenhagen, 1861 sq. 

Add Madvig, Emendationes Livianae. 
" text recens ed. M. Hertz. Leipsic. 1867-64. 

A STXTDY OF SALLUST. 

I. Peculiaritiea o/ 8tyU, 

1. Fondness tor /requerUatives instead of primitive forms ; as, e. g., almost 
invariably using offiio for ago, etc., etc. 

2. Fondness f or adjectives in osim ; iumiUosus is used by no other writer. 
8. Arehaic /orms. 

4. Abttraet noims for concrete (many examples). 

6. Umuual /orma^ e. g., senati for tenatuSy luxu for luxuij uldsci as a^ 
paasive verb, tempestas for tempus (very frequent), queo for jDOMum, the un- 
oommon f orm nequitur, etc. 

6. Frequent use of supinea in um. 

7. Sistorical injinitives. 

8. Attraction of cases. 

9. Mixed eonittructions. 

10. Ghreek canstructions. 

11. Alii and pars used interchangeably. 

12. Instanoes of zeugmxi and of anacoluthon. 
18. Uhique (used for et u^t). 

14. Fondness f or igitur (oocurring no less than f orty-three times in Ju- 
ffurtha^ and about as frequently in CatUina). 



268 LATINE, 

16. VUam trantire, aeUttem habere, aetaJtem agere^ and vitam agitare, all 
used by Sallust to express " spend oiie*8 life,'* but agitare viiam is the most 
common. 

II. Farallel pauaget f rom SaUuet^ ^y^ &nd OicerOy deflcriptiTe of hardihood 

of Mariue^ Bdnnibal, and Catilinef respectiyelj. 
Afaritu. 

nia multo optima reipublicae doctus sum, hostem ferire, praesidia agitare, 
nihil metuere nisi turpem famam, hiemem et aestatem juzta pati, hnmi requi- 
esoere, eodem tempore inopiam et laborem tolerare. (Jug. LXXXV.) 

ffannU>€U. 

Plurimum audaciae ad pericnla capessenda, plurimum consilii inter pericula 
erat ; nuiio labore aut oorpus fatigari aut animus vinci poterat. Galoris ac 
frigoris patientia par; cibi potionisque desiderario naturali, non roluntate, 
modus finitus. Yigiliarum somnique nec die nec nocte discriminata tempora ; 
id, quod gerendis rebus superesset, quieti datum ; ea neque moUi strato neque 
siientio arcessita. Multi saepe militari sagulo opertum humi jaoentem inter 
custodias stationesque militum conspexerunt. (Livy XXI, IV.) 

Catiline. 

Ad hujus vitae studium meditati illi sunt qui feruntur labores tui, jacere 
humi noD solum ad obsidendum stuprum, Terum etiam ad facinus obeundum, 
▼igilare non solum insidiantem somno maritorum, verum etiam bonis otioso- 
nim. Habes, ubi ostentes illam tuam praeclaram patientiam famis, frigoris, 
inopiae rerum omnium, quibus te brevi tempore confectum senties. (Cat. I.) 

III. Character of Numidiafie^ as giren by Sallust 

Oenus Numidarum infidum, ingenio mobUi^ novarum rerum avidum esse. 
(Jug. XLVI.) 

Tanta mobilitale sese Numidae agunt. (Id. LVI.) 

Numida . . . ingenio infido. (Id. LXI.) 

Nuroida, ingenio mobUe. (Id. LXVI.) 

Mobilitate ingenii (descriptiye of the Numidian king, Boochus). (Id. 

xxxvin.) 

Genus hominum mobUe^ infidum. (Id. XCI.) 
Bocchus characterized as " magie Punica fde.^\ (Id. CVIIL) 
Cf. Livy*s characterization of Hannibal, *^*perfidia pLue quam Punica" 
(Livy XXI.) 

ANTIBARBAIi US. [ Concl uded.] 

Soon, in the narration of past events, ^* brevi," not '* mox,'' which relates 
to the future (" paullo post "). 

Strength of body, " vires^' in plu., and generally without ** corporis,'* but 
" vis corporis " occurs. " Vis " alone equals violence. 

To study, " litteris studere,*' " operam dare," " litteras discere," not " stu 
dere " alone. 



LATINE. 269 



HtjU, oratio, ** dicendi genus,'* not ** stUus " imless the partical&r manner 
of one author is meant 

Snffer ihipwreok, '^ naufragium faoere " ; injury, ** damnum facere ** ; loss, 
" iacturam faoere ** ; def eat, miafortune, disadvantage, ** cladem ' calamitatem ^ 
inoommodum* accipere," not '* pati," which means to permit, give consent to. 

Snmmit, to indicate the highest grade, *' summus," not " fastigium." 

Snatain. In its proper senae ** (ruentem) sustinere," not " sustentare," 
which in ciassic prose is used only figuratively — e. g., ** valetudinem." 

Take in good part, or iU, " verba alicuius in bonam, malam partem aoci- 
pere,'* not ^* bene, male aocipere." 

Taak, I have the task of — '* mihi propositum est " with inf ., " mihi pro- 
poBui ut," not ** mihi proposui " with the inf. 

Tomperanoe, ** moderatio, temperantia," not '^ moderantia," which is not 
a Latin word. 

Temporarily, " ad tempus," not " temporarius." 

Tezt of writer, '* verba, oratio, exemplum scriptoris," not *' textua " (poat- 
dasa.). 

Theme, " res proposita, id quod propositum est " ; to give a theme, simply 
" ponere" not " proponere." 

Tken, in impassioned questions " tandem," not " nam " ; in argumentative 
questions " enim " only after preceding " quid ? " so " quid enim ? " — " num, 
ne, non," not " num enim," or " non enim." 

Then. When going from one division to other, " deinceps," not "tum ** 
or " deinde," which are used in enumerating (first, second, etc.). 

Tkoroogh. Leaming, "doctiina exquisita, subtilis, elegans," "litterae 
reoonditae," not " doctrina solida " (figurative eqnals enduring). Thoroughly 
argue, " subtiliter disputare " ; a thoroughly written book, " liber aocurate 
diligenter perscriptus " ; thoroughly grasp or understand, " penitua percipere 
et oomprehendere aliquid " ; thoroughly leam, " perdiscere aliquid." 

Threaton, in the sense of promises to be, " videri " with future inf. (usu> 
aUy without " esse ")— e. g., the conspiracy threatens to overwhelm the 
Btate eqnala " coniuratio rem publicam perversura videtur," not " minari*^ 
Threaten with the meaning near at hand is " imminere, impendere, instare." 

Throne, fig., " regnum " — e. g., seek the throne, " regnum appetere," not 
« aolium," which is only used in its proper sense— e. g., " in solio aedere." 

Title of a book, " inscriptio," not " titulus," which meana inacription upon 
monumenta, title of honor, etc. The book ia entitled, " liber inacribitur ^ 
(and " inscriptus est," Gic, div. 2). 

To. " To my great grief," " cum magno meo dolore " ; " to the injury of 
the state," " cum detrimento publico " (thus o/ accompanying eireunutanees)y 
DOt " ad," which would indicate the purpote, 

Tradition, " memoria," not traditio,'' which in claaaic proae ia giving up 
or Bmrrender. 

Tranaplant, tranaf erre, oollocare. 

Trayel OYer, "peragrare," not " permigrare," which ia not a Latia 
word. 



270 LATINE. 

To tnat a niliileet niperfleially, ** leriter tangere, breTtter peretringere, 
attingere aliquid," not ** obiter.'' 

Treat of, this book treate of, equals " hic liber est de amicitia,'* " hoc 
Ubro agitur de am.," noi '* hic liber agit de am." ** Agitur aliquid," ** agitur de 
aliqua re ** ; firat, tometkinff ia beitig ditcutned ; eeoond, mmethitig ia"io pay^ 

Treat one cmelly, **cnidelitatem exeroere in aliquo,** '*tractare atiquem 
crudeliter,** not ** crudeliter coneulere in aliquem.** 

TrinmYir, Bnnmvir, ih sing., " triumTir, duumrir ** ; in plu., '* tresTiri, doo- 
viri.** (Liv. uses trittmeiri,) 

ITncaltured, '^omnis' cultua et humanitatia expertum esae,** not *'incul- 
tum esse,** which concema only the outer man. 

Underttand one, " orationem alicuiue intellegere,** or '* quid quia sibiTelit," 
not ** intelligere aliquem.** 

Under-world, deecend to, **ad inferoe deecendere,** not **in inferoe.** So 
in the vnder-v>orld, '*apud inferos,** not "in inferie ** ; and from the under- 
fBorld, "ab inferia **--e. g., "excitare,** not "ex inferis.** 

UndroM. ** Vestem ponere,** not ** deponere,'* wliich meane to put ofP to 
noTer. 

Uae again. So ** arma, librum ponere.** 

United, with united powera, **con80ciatifl, ooniunctis viribus,** not ** unitla 
(late Latin) viribus.** 

Uignst, ** non iustus, non legitimus,** not ^illegitimus.*' 

Urge— e. g., a reason, ** argumentum premere ** ; a word against some one, 
" Terbo (without uno) premere aliquem,** not " urgere.'* 

Usnrp (unjustly), " sibi arrogare, Tindicare,** not " usurpare,** whichequals 
«mploj, use. So " usurpatio, usurpator ** is quite late Latin. 

Versed in— e. g., the Latin language, " Latinis litteris ** or "Latine doc- 
tus,** not "oognitor linguae Latinae.** 

Vivadty, " Tigor, alacritas animi,*' not " TiTadtas," which is post-class. 

Wander, " errare, Tagare,'* not " circum ^trare.** / G. 

Well known, often to be expressed by " ille **— e. g., that well-known say- 
ing of Solon equals "iiiud Solonis ** ; that well-knownleader, " ille dux,** not 
"notus (poetolass.) ille dux.** 

When, where, "there was a time when,*' "fnit com," not "abl" So 
" eo tempore quo ** or " cum," not " ubi." In negatiTe questions, " where" 
should be rendered by the relatiTe " qui,'* " quae," " quod "— -e. g., where was 
there a city which he did not plunder ? " Quae erat urbs, quam non diriperet ? '* 

While, if it is not temporal but advertoHve, <*cum '* with subjunctiTe, not 
" dum.** 

WiU, wish, often untranslated— e. g., "I will not hope," " non spero,*' "I 
wish to say only one thing," " hoc unum dico," " if I wished to deny that," 
*^ si hoc negem, mentiar." 

With impnnity, " impunitus,** not " impnnis " ; as adTorb, " impnne," not 
" impunite.'* Studies, " studia litterarum, doctrinae," not " stndia " alone. 

Yes, indeed, " quin etiam," not " immo Tero " (wUch introduoee a correo- 
tion). Up to that time (" usque '*), " ad id ** or " illud tonpus," not " ad hnc." 



INDEX TO LATINE. 

VOLUMES I, II, m.» 



Acta Diurna. Vol. I, Fascic. v, p. 1 ; 

vi, 1. 
Ad Ghloen. [Nathan Haskell Dole.] 

Sup., VoL III, F. vui, p. 236. 
Ad Discipulos. Vol. III, F. i, p. 11. 
Ad lesum. Sup., Vol. III, F. vii, p. 

199. 
Ad Infantem. VoL II, F. iii, p. 76. 
Ad Tempora Designanda Pertinent. 

VoL I, F. vi, p. 7. 
Aeneidos. [o. s. cum quaest.] VoL 

I, F. ii, p. 6 ; iU, p. 7 ; iiii, p. 6. 
Aenigma Historicum. [Parvulis.] 

Vol. I, F, iiii, p. 1. 
Aenigmata. VoL I, F. vi, p. 9 ; VoL 

II,F. iiii,p. 119; V, 148. 
Aetas Aurea. VoL II, F. ii, p. 48. 
Affines. [Erasmus.] VoL III, F. iii, 

p. 71. 
AiKiyoy. VoL 11, F. vii, p, 210. 
Alani de Insulis Hymnus. VoL II, 

F. V, p. 148. 
Alcestis. [Euripides.] VoL II, F. ii, 

p. 38. 
Aldus de Rat. Gram. Inst. VoL I, F. 

vii, p. 7. 
Aliquot Idiomata ex Laelio Ciceronis. 

VoL I, F. uii, p. 8 ; Sup., VoL II, F. 

iii, p. 95 ; vii, 216. 
Amor et Gampaspe. VoL II, F. vii, p. 

210. 
Antibarbarus. [Meissner.] Sup., 

VoL m, F. i, p. 21; ii, p. 57 ; iii, 

p. 81 ; iiii, p. 118 ; v, p. 146 ; vi. p. 

166; vii, 208; viii, p. 289; ix, p. 

268. 
Antiphora in Morte. VoL II, F. v, p. 

146. 



Apud Horatium. [Interpretationes.] 

VoL I, F. vii, p. 4. 
Arcturus. [Prologus in Rudentem 

PlautLL VoL II, F. viii, p. 229. 
Ardentia Horatii Verba. VoL I, F. i, 

p.3. 
Arguments on the Side of Classical 

Studies. Sup., VoL III, F. i, p. 25 ; 

ii, p. 60. 
"ArtThouWeary?" VoLm,F.iiii, 

p. 99. 
Asini Aures. VoL I, F. iii, p. 2. 
Augustus. Sup., VoL m, F. v, p. 

138. 
Auscultare quam LoquL VoL II, F. 

vii, p. 210. 
Avaritia. Vol. I, F. iii, p. 3. 

Bene Precandi Formula. Vol. II, F. 

viii, p. 232. 
Benjamini Franklini Vita. VoLII, F. 

iiii, p. 106. 
Bibo, VoL II, F. vi, p. 173. 
Blandior Salutatio inter Amantes. 

[Erasmus.] VoL III, F. vi, p. 168. 
Book Notices. Sup., VoL II, F. i, p. 

30 ; ii, p. 62 ; iiii, 128 ; vi, 191 ; ix, 

284; Sup., VoL m, F. iii, p. 90. 
Books Received. Sup., VoL m, F. 

il, p. 59 ; iiii, p. 120. 
Bona, ex Horat et al, Sup., VoL II, 

F. ii, p. 54. 
Bonduca. [Carmen Coloperianom.] 

VoL II, F. iii, p. 70. 
Bopepia Parva. VoL II, F. ii, p. 

46. 
Brennus Contra Apollinem. VoL II, 

F. ii, p. 44 ; viii, p. 226. 



^ \At VqU, I and II toere not alphabetieaUy indexed^ tkey ha»e been 
ineluaed.] 



272 



INDEX TO LATINE. 



Gaedes Innocentiani. VoL II, F. t, p. 

160. 
Gaesariana. Vol. I, F. iii, p. 4. 
Caes. B. G. in Oratione Obliqua. [Gap. 

III.] VoL I, F. vi, p. 6. 
Gaes&r de Goniuratis. [SaiL Gat LI, o. 

o.] VoL I, F. V, p. 8; vi, 6 ; vii, 8. 
Gaesaris in Pompeium Oratio. [Giv. o. 

r.] VoL I, F, ii, p. 7. 
Gaesaris Mandata ad Pompeium. VoL 

I, F. iiii, p. 6. 

Ganit Simeon. VoL 11, F. vi, p. 169. 
Gapella. VoL II, F. iiii, p. 99. 
Garmen. VoL III, F. iiii, p. 108 ; vii, 

187, 190. 
Garmen GatoUL VoL II, F. iiii, p. 

104. 
Garmen Gatulli. [Parvulis Quaestt.] 

VoL I, F. vii, p. 8. 
Garmen HoratiL Quaestiones et No- 

tationes, [Prof. J. K. Lord.] VoL 

II, F. vii, p. 201. 

Garmen. [In laudem pontis pensilis 
Neo - Eboracensis, IX EaL, Jun., 
MDGGGLXXXIIL] VoL I, F. viii, 
p. 2; VoL III, F. li, p. 89. 

Garmen Miltonii de Nativitate Ghristi 
Latine redditur. [Prof. Thomas 
I. Gasson, Loyola GoUege.] VoL 

III, F. V, p. 122; F.vi, p.152. 
Garmen Saeculare, MDGGGLIIL [G. 

S. G.] VoL n, F. iiii, p. 117 ; v, p. 

139. 
Garmen Scriptum a Leone XHL VoL 

m, F. ix, p. 247. 
Gassandra Senecae. VoL I, F. vi, p. 

9; VoLII, F. V, p. 139. 
Gatullus. [A. Gyraldo.] VoL I, F. 

vii, p. 9. 
Gatus quantumvis Rusticus. VoL II, 

F. vi, p. 173. 
Gebetis Tabula. VoL II, F. iii, p. 72 ; 

iiii, p. 116; v, p. 148. 
Ghristian Latin Literature. Sup., VoL 

III, F. V, p. 160. 
Gic, Epistula. [Fam. XTV, liiL o. 

o.] VoL I, F. vi, p. 9 ; vii, 14. 
Gicero. VoL III, F. i, p. 4 ; iii, p. 68 ; 

iiii, p. 100; v, p. 130; vi, p. 159; 

vii, p. 188. 
Gioero Dixit Quiritibus. [Gat. II, o. 

o.] VoL I, F. ii, p. 7; F. iiii, p. 6 ; 

F. V, p. 9. 
Giceronis Gato Maior, XXI. Up. Hex- 

am.] VoL I, F. vi, p. 8; VoL H, 

F. iii, p. 79. 
Gicero. [Rufus Ghoate.] Sup., VoL 

n, F. vi, p. 187. 



G. luUus Gaesar. VoL III, F. i, p. 2 ; 

ii, p. 81 ; iii, p. 67; iiii, p. 100 ; v, 

p. 131. 
G. Laelius Sapiens. Vol. III, F. viil, 

p. 221. 
GUss in Gioero. Orations, Sup., VoL 

II, F. iiii, p. 126. 
GoUatio. VoL II, F. iii, p. 77. 
GoUoquia de Modo Subiunctivo. VoL 

in, F. i, p. 11. 
Golloquia. [Dialogos, Bias, Diogenes, 

Vulpes. et Leo.J VoL I, F. ii, pp. 

1. 2. 8, 4. 
GoUoquia Horatiana. VoL II, F. i, p. 

18; ix, 261; VoL III, F. iii, p. 

63. 
GoUoquia Horatiana. [I, ^' Integer Vi- 

tae."] VoL I, F. ii, p. 8. 
GoUoquia Horatiana. [*'0 navis."] 

VoL I, F. V, p. 4. 
GoUoquium. VoL III, F. viii, p. 211. 
GoUoquium. [Andrea Terenti.] VoL 

III, F. ii, p. 86 ; Uu, p. 96. 
GoUoquium. De Vita HoratL VoL 

III, F. i, p. 6. 
[GoUoquium.] Lucretius I, 84-100. 

VoL II, F. ui, p. 66. 
GoUoquium. [Quibus libris oratori 

opus est?] VoL III, F. vii, p. 

184 
GoUoquium. [V. Juv., Sat. IV.] VoL 

n, F. U, p. 86. 
Golores apud Ovidium. [Metam.] VoL 

I, F. vi, p. 10. 
Golores apud VergiUum. VoL I, F. vu, 

p. 12. 
Gompendium Granunatices. VoL II, 

F. ix, p. 266. 
Gonoordia. VoL I, F. ui, p. 1. 
Gonduoere et hoctLte. [Prol G. B. 

Hopson, St. Stephen'8 GoUege.] 

VoL m, F. V, p. 127. 
Gor Meum Tibi Dedo. VoL n, F. vi, p. 

170. 
Gor Meom Tibi Dedo. [TransUticm.] 

Sup., VoL n, F. ix, p. 277. 
G. PUni Epistularum VI, 16. [T. B. 

UndsayJ VoL H, F. ix, p. 268. 
Grito Piatonis Latine Redditus. VoL 

II,F.vi,p. 176; vu, 206. 
Gum BibUopola. VoL II, F. ix, p. 260. 
Gupido et ]^che. [ParvulisJ VoL I, 

F. vii, p. 18 ; vui, 7 ; VoL U, F. i, p. 

1 ; U, 88 ; iii, 66 ; mi, 97; V, 180 ; 

vi, 170; vn,198. 
Gurricnlum in Latin Style (StUistUk). 

[FOTilveTearSjHeynacher.] Sup., 

VoL III, F. vu, p.200; vni, 224. 



VOLUMES I, II, III. 



273 



De Amiconim Yaletudine Inquirere. 

VoL II, F. ▼, p. 182. 
Death of Daphnis. [From Eclogue Y.l 

Sup., Vol. II, F. ix, p. 211. 
Declinatio Prima. [Villa.] Vol.II,F. 

i, p. 22. 
De Bello Immiuente. [GuUelmuB E. 

Wikon (An^us).] Vol III, F. U, 

p. 241. 
DeConsuetudineclareLegendi. [Prof. 

Samuel Brooka, Ealamazoo Col- 

lege,] VoL III, F. V, p. 128. 
Dedeoorant bene Nata Gulpae. [Whit- 

tier.] VoL II, F. viii, p. 229. 
De Epistulis Scribendis. VoL III, F. 

i, p. 18. 
De Gaudiis ParadisL [Translation.] 

Sup., VoL n, F. yi, p. 189. 
De T«ing»a8 Docendi rera Ratione. 

VoL II, F. iiii, p. 1 18 ; t, p. 186. 
De Mflitia. VoL II, F. vi, p. 174. 
De Morte Ciceronis. [Velleius.] VoL 

I, F. vi, p. 6. 
De Pronominibus Possessiyis. Sup., 

VoL III, F. i, p. 19. 
De Publio Vergilio Marone. VoL II, 

F. i, p. 15. 
De Pugna Taurorum. [Prof. D. H. R., 

Uniyersitjof Eansas.] VoL III, F. 

vi, p. 157. 
De Quibusdam apud Caes. Locis. VoL 

I, F. i, p. 5. 
De Ratione Hist. litt. Latt Docendae. 

VoL I, F. vi, p. 2; VoL II, F. iii, p. 

86. 
De Resurrectione. VoL II, F. ix, p. 

265. 
De Temporum Mutabilitate. [F. W. 

Rioord.] Sup., VoL II, F. ii, p. 59. 
De Ventis. VoL II, F. i, p. 14. 
De Vita et Moribus AugustL VoL II, 

F. viii, p. 227. 
DeVitaHoratL GoUoquium. VoL III, 

F.i,p.6. 
Dialogus de Generibus Nominum. 

VoL I, F. iiu, p. 4. 
Dialogus de Schola Romana. VoL I, 

F. vii, p. 6 ; VoL ii, F. v, p. 133. 
Dies Irae— Day of Wrath. [FrankUn 

Johnson.] Sup., VoL II, F. viii, p. 

240. 
Discrimen Obscarum. VoL II, F. vii, 

p. 210. 
DispUdt iste Locus, Clamo. VoL II, 

F.viU, p.284. 
Dissertatio de Vita Amosii ComeniL 

VoL n, F. vii, p. 197. 
IMvi Aurelu Augustini Gonfesslonem, 



liber Primus. VoL II, F. vi, p. 

168. 
Divi Aurelu Augustini Conf essionem, 

Liber Tertius. VoL II, F. vii, p. 

204. 
Divitiad pro GalUa Oratio [o. r.]. 

VoL I, F. ui, p. 5 ; F. Uii, p. 4. 
Domina Maria. VoL II, F. viii, p. 

284. 
Dromio [Shakespeare]. VoL II, F. ii, 

p. 49. 
Duae Coronae. [Epigramma ab An- 

gdino Gazeo.] Sup., VoL III, F. 

i, p. 29. 

Ecoe Ova GaUinam Docenta. Fabula 

Russica. [£. M. Epetein.] VoL 

II, F. ix, p. 256. 
Ecclesiastes, qui ab Hebrads Cohe> 

leth appellatur. VoL II, F. vui, p. 

237. 
£. Convivio Platonis Exoerptum. VoL 

II, F. U, p. 89. 

Elegidion. VoL III, F. Ui, p. 61. 
EpistuU,A.D.XCV. (Vide Juv., Sat. 

VL) VoL II, F. vii, p. 196. 
Epistula. [Dat. Hddelbergae.] VoL 

III, F. vi, p. 151. 

Epistulae. VoL I, F. v, pp. 10, 11 ; 

vU, pp. 15, 16 ; VoL II, F. i, p. 12 ; 

ii, p. 50; iii, pp. 71, 75; iiU, 108; 

V, 148; vi, 168; vU, 199; ix, 256; 

VoL III, F. i, pp. 9, 10 ; U, 88 ; Ui,. 

69,70; iUi,94; v, 121. 
Epistulas Scribere. [Dialogus.] VoL 

I, F. vU,p. 11. 
Epitaph. Sup., VoL III, F. i, p. 80. 
Epitaphium. VoL II, F. viU, p. 

228. 
Epitaphium GuiUelmi Langaei Insu- 

briae Proregis. [F. W. Rioord.] 

Sup., VoL II, F. V, p. 161. 
Erichtho. VoL II,' F. vi, p. 164. 
Erudita Ignorantia. Sup., VoL II, F. 

vUi, p. 244. 
Ex Erasmi CoUoquiis. VoL II, F. 

viU, p. 280. 

FabeUa. VoL II, F. Ui, p. 88; UU, p. 

98; V, p. 182. 
FabeUa de Cupidine et Psyche. See 

Cupido et Psyche. 
Fatum. VoL II, F. v, p. 141. 
Fiat Voluntas Tua. VoL II, F. vii, p. 

205. 
Flumina. VoL II, F. Ui, p. 76. 
Fons Immanuelis venis. VoL II, F.. 

vU, p. 208. 



274 



INDEX TO LATINE. 



Frmnciscus, AugiistaB. [Pami]i8.1 

VoL I, F. T, p. 6. 
From Old Rome. A TeMher'8 Letter 

to hifl PupilB. [Adapted from the 

German.] Sup., VoL III, F. i, p. 

14; ii,p.42; iii, p. 72 ; «ii, p. 105; 

V, p. 148; vi, p. 110; vii, p. 196; 

▼iii,p. 2S1; F. ix, p. 261. 

Gmudia Lintria. VoL III, F. iiii, p. 91. 
Geta et Doro. VoL II, F. vi, i. 171. 
Graeoo-Roman Sculpture. [R. H. 

Mather.] Sup., VoL II, F, vi, p. 

186; vii, 222; viii, 246; ix, 276. 
Grammatioe. VoL I, F. vii, p. 6. 
Gratiafl Habeo. VoL I, F. iii, p. 4. 

Hectorifl Verba ad EkjuoB Suoa. VoL 

n,F.in,p. 78. 
Horace: 
Hook m, Ode XXVI. [ Austin Dob- 

son.] Sup., VoL ii, F. iiii, p. 128. 
BookI,OdeI. [Blackwood*B.] Sup., 

VoL n, F. ini, p. 120. 
Book I, Ode ni. [Blackwood'8.] 

Sup.,VoLII, F. iiii, p. 121. 
Book I, Ode XL [Blackwood'8.] 

Sup., VoLII,F. v.p. 162. 
Book 1, Ode XIL [Blackwood'8.] 

Sup.,VoLII, F. V, p. 168. 
Book I, Ode XXn. [Blackwood'8.] 

Sup., VoL II, F. V, p. 167. 
Book I, Ode XXXV. [Blackwood*8.] 

Sup.,VoL n, F. V, p. 164. 
Book II, Ode IIL [Blackwood'8.] 

Sup., VoL II, F. vu, p. 211. 
BookII,OdeXVI. [Bkckwood^B.] 

Sup., VoL II, F. V, p. 166. 
Book III, Ode L [Blackwood>B.] 

Sup., VoL n, F. V, p. 168. 
Book ni, Ode XXIX. [Black. 

wood'8.] Sup., VoL II, F. vii, p. 

212. 
Book m, Ode XXX. [Black- 

wood'fl.] Sup., VoL II, f! vii, p. 

218 
Book IV, Ode IIL [Blackwood'8.] 

Sup., VoL II, F. vii, p. 214. 
Book IV, Ode XV. [Blackwood'8.] 

Sup., VoL II, F. V, p. 169. 
Book I, Ode V. [Mardn.] Sup., 

VoL n, F. iii, p. 98. 
* Book I, Ode V. [Milton.] Sup., 

VoL n, F. iii, p. 92. 
BookI,OdeIX, [0., '69, Trinity.] 

Sup., VoL II, F. iiii, p. 122. 
Book in, Ode Xm. [Spectator.] 

Sup., VoL n, F. iiii, p, 124. 



Horaoe: 

FragmentB from, [John Milton.] 
Sup., Vol II, F. iiii, p. 128. 

From the German. Sup., VoL 11, 
F. ii, p. 66. 

(OdeB, II, 6.) Sup., VoL H, F, ii, 
p.66. 

On Borea. [John D. Roach, 1888, 
St. FrandB Xavier.] Sup., VoL 
II, F. iui, p. 124. 

Satire IX, Book L [Translation in 
Hexameter.] Sup., VoL II, F. ix, 
p. 278. 

8atII,6. [W. C. Wflkinson, D. D.] 
Horatian Allegory. [TranBlated f rom 

the German by Samuel M. Otto.] 

Sup., VoL III, F. iii, p. 86; iiii, p. 

117. 
Horalii Garminum Primum. [0. S.] 

VoL I, F. vi, p. 4. 
Horatii et GuriatiL VoL I, F. vi, p. 

4 ; vii, p. 4. 
Horatii Primi libri Ode Secunda. In- 

terrogationeB praeceptoriB et re- 

Bponsa dlBcipulorum. VoL III, F. 

ii,p. 84. 
HoratiuB. VoL II, F. iiii, p. 107. 
HoratiuB Codes. VoL II, F. vi, p. 172. 
HoratiuB : Lib. I, Oann. I. [Nathan 

HaskeU Dole.] Sup., VoL III, F. 

viii, p. 228. 
Homer Jacculo. [ParvuliB.] VoL I, 

F. iiii, p. 1. 
Horribile Dictu. See Plini, Horribile 

Dictu. 
HymnuB. VoL I, F. vii, pp. 8, 9; 

VoL II, F. viii, p. 286. 
HymnuB. [Ad fadem Balvatoris.] 

VoL II, F. i, p. 9, 
HymnuB: Agne, ad Te venia VoL 

n, F. u, p, 62. 
HymnuB and Gompletorium. VoL II, 

F. vi, p. 168. 
HymnuB in Feeto AsoensioniB DominL 

VoL in, F. viii, p. 217. 
HymnuB in Resurrectione Domini, ab 

Auctore Vetere Incerto. Vd. III, 

F. vii, p. 191. 
Hymnus JohanniB Henrid Newman, 

latine redditus, sicut ad melodiaB J. 

B. DykeB, et Arturi SuUivan cante- 
. tur. VoL n, F. vi, p. 1 66. 
Hymnus: Dei Agne, Venio. VoL 

ra, F. ix, p. 247. 
HypotjpoBis. VoL II, F. i, p, 9. 

lacobus de BenedicdB. VoL II, F. 
viii, p, 288. 



VOLUMES I, II, III. 



275 



Idem Latine. VoL m, F. Tiii, p. 220. 
leremias Propheta Solymorum Rui- 

namLamentatur. VoL III, F. i, p. 

18. 
" lesu Sancti Fons Amoris.*' VoL I, 

F. vi, p. 8. 
"lesufl pro Me Perforatus." [Glad- 

Btone.] VoL I, F. v, p. 10. 
Imitatio. [Parvulis.] VoL I, F. iiii, 

p. 2. 
In Album Montem. [Coleridge.] VoL 

II, F. vi, p. 111. 
In Cohortationem Oratorum Adules- 

centium. [Summi oratoris verba.] 

Vol. n, F. ui, p. 77. 
In Calamitatem. [Gray'8 **Ode to 

Adversity."] VoL H, F. vi, p. 176. 
In English. VoL I, F. viii, p. 8. 
In Matrem Onmium. [Hynmua Ho- 

meri.] VoL II, F. ii, p. 42. 
Inscriptio. VoL UI, F. viii, p. 222. 
Inscription on a Sun-DiaL Sup., VoL 

II, F. ix, p. 280. 
Insulae in Aegeo.. [Byron.] VoL II, 

F. iii, p. 75. 
In Vitam Horati Quaestt. VoL I, F. 

vi, p. 6. 
In Vituperantibus Sdentiam Prisoo- 

rum Fabula. VoL n, F. vii, p. 201. 
locoee. Sup., VoL II, F. viii, p, 249. 
locus. VoL I, F. viii, p. 6; VoL II, 

F. iiu, p. 111. 
Iu3 Injuria. [Oolton.] VoL II, F. 

viii, p. 228. 

Ealendarium. VoL I, F. v, p. 1 ; vi, 

1 ; vii, 1 ; viii, 1. 
Kind Words for Latime. SeeLATiNS. 

Latine. VoL I, F. ii, p. 10; v, 12; 

Sup., VoL II, F. vi, p. 191. 
Latinitas inter Manes. VoL n, F. ix, 

p. 259. 
Latin Writing. Sup., VoL IH, F. vi, 

p. 164. 
Laus. I^x epistula.] VoL I, F. iiii, 

p.8; VoLII,F. iii,p. 76. 
Lau8 Patriae Caeleslis. [Vs. 46-64.] 

VoL n, F. vii, p. 208. 
** Legem Rogare." [Signil quam omi- 

8lt"HarperflVn VoL I, F. iii, p. 8. 
Leo et Mu8. VoL I, F. iii, p. 8. 
Lexica Caesariana. Sup., VoL in, 

F. vi, p. 179. 
liber ExodL VoL II, F. ix, p. 264. 
lAber lob, Cap. xxxviii VoL II, F. 

iiii, p. 110. 
Liber Seoondus Samuelis. [Caput I, 



V8. 17-27.] VoL II, F. vi, p. 

167. 
list of Books. Sup., VoL 11, F. vii, 

p. 219; viii, 260; ix, 280. 
literae Omamenta Hominum sunt et 

Solatia. VoL II, F. v, p. 146. 
" Locus Tuus." [Parvulis.] VoL I, 

F. V, p. 6. 
LongfeHow. VoL n, F. i, p. 8. 
LubinuB Moriens. VoL II, F. vii, p. 

209. 
Lucretius I, 84-100. [Colloquium.] 

VoL n, F. iii, p. 66. 
Ludus Soenicus. [Exerdtatio in mo- 

rum deoore.] VoL III, F. ix, p. 

242. 
Lux Dulds. [George Herbert.] VoL 

II, F. iiii, p. 107. 
Lycurgus Sdiilleri. [Herbert Wdr 

Smyth, Ph. D.] VoL III, F. iiii, p. 

91; V, 129. 

Magnopere. [Erasmus.] VoL III, 

F. vii, p. 191. 
M. Antonius. VoL III, F. i, p. 8 ; ii, 

p. 82. 
Marbod. [Oratio ad Dominum.] VoL 

U, F. iiu, p. 110. 
Marmor. VoL II, F. ix, p. 261. 
Me. [Eraflmus.] VoL m, F. vii, p. 

191. 
Merafiokil UdMTtty. [Shelley.] Vol. 

II, F. ui, p. 71. 
Mica, Mica. Vd. II, F. ii, p. 49. 
Militia. [Dicta Ccmcatenata.] VoL 

I, F. ii, p. 4. 
M. Minudi Felidfl Octavins. [Cap. 

XVn, 5-18.] VoL II, F. viii, p. 

289. 
Modem Illustrations of Horace'8 

Soracte. [Harriet J. Williams.] 

Sup., VoL n, P. ix, p. 276. 
M. Pordus Oflto Censoriua. VoL III, 

F. i,p. 1; viii,p.217. 
M. Tumufl CSoero. VoL II, F. ii, p. 

46. 
Muflaram Saoerdos. [Katharine Lee 

Batee.] Sup., VoL m, F. iii, p. 

72. 
Mus et Ruflticus. VoL II, F. iii,p. 

86. 

Names cf Oountries. Sup., VoL m, 

F. ii, p. 66. 
Nasdtur DeoB Puer. [Carmen Pas- 

torale ad modum Verj^lii EdogSr 

rmn aoripsit Thomaa L Gasson.] 

VoL m, F. vii, p. 181. 



276 



INDEX TO LATINE. 



Nero et ChrbtiAiiL Vol II, F. ii, p. 

60. 
New Tork Letter. Sup., VoL, III, F. 

V, p. 147. 
Nisus et Euryalua. VoL I, F. i, p. 1 ; 

voL II, F. V, p. 12». 
NominA Quae a Christiano Fluunt. 

VoL III, F. i, p. ». 
Non CommoTebitur. VoL III, F. ix, 

p. 247. 
"Non Irridicule,'' VoL I, F. i, p, 2. 
Non Licuit per Occupationes ut te 

Viserem. [Eraamus.] VoL III, F. 

iiii, p. 102. 
Notes and Queries. Sup., VoL II, F. 

i, p. 27; ii, 69; iii, 98; uii, 126; 

vi, 178; Tii, 216; viii, 246; ix, 

267 ; Sup., VoL UI, F. ii, p. 69 ; 

iii, p. 89 ; ▼, p. 141 ; vi, p. 180. 
Notitia Bd. VoL II, F. iii, p. 82 ; 

▼iii, p. 286. 
Nugae. VoL III, F. iiii, pp. 101, 102. 
Nuntius: "Mara pro Nobis!" VoL 

I, F. V, p. 9. 

Oraculorum Defecdo. [Milton, ''The 

Ceasing of the Orades.''] VoL II, 

F. ii, p. 42, 
Oratio Habacuc Prophetae pro Igno- 

rantiia. [Va. 3-18.] VoL II, F. 

▼ii, p. 202. 
Oratio ObUqua. VoL I, F. i, p. 4; ii, 

7 ; iiii, 6 ; ▼, 8, 9 ; vi, 6 ; Tii, 8, 14 ; 

VoL II, F. iiii, p. 103; v, 186; vi, 

178; ix, 266. 
Oratorum Collatio Summonim. VoL 

I, F. vi, p. 8. 

Pacifier Rome. [Wilkinson.] Sup., 

VoL II, F. V, p. 161. 
Pati et Paroere. [Wordsworth.] VoL 

II, F. viii, p. 232. 

Petrarca de Senectute Sua: A Para- 

phrase. [Nathan Haskell Dole.] 

Sup., VoL III, F. vii, p. 207. 
Phaedo et Sumnium Scipionis. VoL 

I, F. Tii, p. 1 ; VoL II, F. iii, p. 

77. 
Phaethon. VoL II, F. vii, p. 198; 

▼iii, p. 238. 
Phaethon. [Josephine A. Cass.] 

Sup., VoL III, F. iiii, p. 104. 
Philoeophi TuaculanL VoL II, F. vi, 

p. 174. 
Phonetic Law. [Louis Bevier, Ph. D.] 

VoL ni, F. ix, p. 248. 
Plena Amore. VoL I, F. yiii, p. 8. 
Plini, Horribile Dictu. VoL I, F. i, 



p.2; ii, 1; ui, 1 ; iui, 1 ; v, 7; vi, 

8; vii, 10; viii, 6. 
Pravis Pueris quod Accidit. VoL II, 

F. vii, p. 210. 
Prcx. VoL n, F. ix, p. 266. 
Prex Mariae Scotiae Reginae. VoL 

I, F. vii, p. 6. 

Prex Socratis Latine Reddita. [Phae- 

driia.] VoL II, F. i, p. 8. 
Procillua et Atticua. VoL II, F. vii, 

p. 209. 
ProphetU Isaiae. VoL II, F. v, p. 

142. 
Propniatia [Ben Jonson'8 «"The 

Pledge."] VoL II, F. viii, p. 230. 
Propter Amnes Babylonia. VoL II, 

F. viii, p. 236. 
Proeerpina on Earth to Pluto in 

Hadee. Sup., VoL III, F. vii, p. 

204. 
Pftahnua L VoL II, F. i, p. 8. 
PftahnuB CXXXin. VoL II, F. iu, p. 

82. 
P. Sdpio Aemilianua. VoL II, F. vi, 

p. 171. 
Puer et Scarabeus. VoL II, F. v, p. 

160. 
Pujma LexingtoniensiB et Hla Collis 

BunkeriL VoL m, F. vi, p. 166. 
*'Purpura" apud Vergilium. VoL I, 

F. V, p. 8. 

Q. Septimius ilorens TertuUianus. 

VoL U, F. iii, p. 81. 
Quaestionea. VoL I, F. i, p. 7 ; vii, 

p. 3. 
Quaestiones. [Apud Inferoe.] VoL 

n, F. iiii, p. 100. 
Quaestionea. [Caes. B. G., V, 46.] 

VoL n, F. V, p. 186. 
Quaestionea de Laelio. VoL II, F. vi, 

p. 161. 
Quaestt de Temporibus. VoL I, F. 

vii, p. 16. 
Quaestiones de XL Veraibus Aeneidos, 

VoL n, F. i, p. 20. 
Quaestiones de Vita CSoeronis. VoL 

II, F. vii, p. 196. 

Quaestiones de Vita VergilL VoL I, 

F. ii, p. 6 ; Vol. 11, F. i, p. 19. 
Quaestt et Responsa. VoL I, F. viii, 

p.l. 
Quaestiones in " A." VoL I, F. i, p. 

4 ; VoL n, F. i, p. 22. 
Quaeetiones in Caeearis Vitam. VoL 

I, F. V, p. 8. 
Quaestiones in Horati Vitam. VoL 

I, F. vi, p. 6. 



VOLUMES I, II, III. 



277 



i^uaestiones. [In Cat I, 1.1 YoL I, 

F. vi, p. 10. 
<2uae8tione8 in Res Gestat. YoL I, F. 

i, p. 6. 
Quaestiones. [Quis responsa optima 

dabit.] VoL II, F. i, p. 21. 
<2ue8tionfi and Answera. YoL I, F. y, 

p. 12. 
Quer^. Sup., VoL III, F. viii, p. 240. 
Queries. [Editionfi of Liyy.J VoL 

m, F. ix, p. 266. 
<2uid est Deufi ? VoL II, F. ii, p. 68 ; 

iii, p. 83. 
Ouols? [Erasmus.] VoL UI, F. iiii, 

p. 108. 

Beference Books. Sup., VoL II, F. ii, 

p.60. 
Reinike Afitutus. VoL II, F. i, p. 2. 
Bee. Sup., VoL m, F. ui, p. 80. 
Besponsio [de Hist litt. Latt. doc] 

VoL I, F. vi, p. 2 ; VoL n, F. iii, p. 

86. 
lUsponsum. VoL I, F. ii, p. 9. 
Rex Gloriae. VoL II, F. ii, p. 61. 
Bez Thulae. Goethei Faustus, pars 

I. [Latine reddidit Emestus Hu- 

berus, Ph. D.] VoL III, F. v, p. 

126. 
Roberti, Galliae Regis, Hymnus.. [Ad 

Spiritum Sanctum.] VoL II, F. iii, 

p. 80. 
^* Rock of Ages." VoL HI, F. iiii, p. 

96. 
Rome'8 Mission. [Aeneid vi, 847- 

868.] Sup., VoL m, F. vi, p. 179. 
Rubecula. VoL II, F. ii, p. 49. 
Rubri Uxor Aldivallis. VoL I, F. viii, 

p.6. 
Husticus Incomptus. VoL II, F. v, 

p. 160. 

Sallust. VoL m, F. ix, p. 267. 
fianctus, Sanctus, Sanctus. VoL II, 

F. vii, p. 207. 
8. Aurelii Augustini Gonfessionum. 

[Liber IX.1 VoL II, F. ix, p. 264. 
Scire Tuum Nlhil est Nisi te Scire hoc 

Sdat Alter. VoL H, F. vi, p. 172. 
Scribenda. VoL I, F. i, p. 8 ; F. ii, p. 

9; F.v,p. 2. 
Scriptum Apud Caesarem Nostrum est 

[0. 0.]. VoL I, F. i, p. 4; VoLH, 

F. iiii, p. 108; v, p. 186; vi, p. 

178. 
Sempeme Florebunt Studia Latina? 

[Samuel Brooks.] VoL II, F. ix, 

p. 267. 



Shakespeare, Actus m, Scena II. 

VoL II, F. i, p. 4. 
ffide-lights in Ancient History and An- 

tiquities. Sup., VoL III, F. i, p. 

28. 
Side-ligbts on Vergil. Sup., VoL III, 

F. iii, p. 84. 
Sight-Reading. Sup., VoL III, F. viii, 

p. 288. 
Similia. [Excerpta.] Sup., Vol. II, 

F. iii, p. 87. 
Some Oversights in Harpers* Latin 

Lexicon. VoL I, F. iii, p. 8 ; Sup., 

VoL m, F. vii, p. 206; viii, p. 284; 

F. ix, p. 269. 
Sonmium Hannibalis. [Ex. Cic. et 

Liv. et VaL Max.] VoL II, F. iii, 

p. 69. 
Somnium Hannibalis. [Vide Liv. xxi, 

22.] VoL n, F. viii, p. 226. 
Spectatum adinissi l^sum teneatis 

Amici? VoL H, F. viii, p. 284. 
Studies in Vergil — ^Memorizing. [F. 

J. Miller.] VoL m, F. ix, p. 

267. 
X(t>h^' VoL II, F. V, p. 148. 
Symbolum Nicaenum. VoL II, F. iiii, 

p. 111. 
Symbolum Vulgo Apostolorum Ap- 

pellatum. VoL 11, F. iii, p. 80. 
Synonyma. VoL I, F. i, p. 7 ; iii, p. 

8 ; iiii, p. 7. 

Tantum Religio Potuit Suadere Malo- 

rum. [Teimyson, *' Iphigenia."] 

VoL H, F. iii, p. 68. 
Te Deum Laudamus. VoL II, F. v, 

p. 142. 
Tempus Actum. [Bums, " Auld Lang 

Syne."] VoL II, F. v, p. 147. 
Tennysonis ** Domus Deserta." VoL 

I, F. vi, p. 6. 
Tertulliani Liber Apologeticus Adver- 

sus Gentes. VoL II, F. iii, p. 81 ; 

iiii, p. 112; v, p. 144. 
Tests on Oicero 0. L in Gat. Sup., 

VoL IL, F. vi, p. 187; vii, 218; 

viii, 249. 
The Aeneid and the Hiad. [Wilkin- 

son.] Sup., VoL II, F. iii, p. 

92. 
The Dead Ganary. [Catullus.] Sup., 

VoL m, F. vii, p. 210. 
The Distinctive Features of Roman 

Architecture. [By Prof. T. S. 

Doolittle, D. D.] Sup., VoL m, F. 

ii, p. 46. 
The Education of the Roman Boy. 



278 



INDEX TO LATINE. 



[By E. T. TomliiiMii.] Sup., YoL 

III, F. iii,p. 74; uii, p. 109. 
The InstractioD in Latin in the Higfa 

Schools of Germany. [L. ZippeL] 

Sop., VoL IL, F. ix, p. 272. 
The LKtest Tnnelation of VeigiL 

[Selections.] Sup., VoL III, F. 

▼iii, p. 288. 
The Right Way of Teaching the Use 

of the Latm Gaaes. [Some Prac- 

tical Hinta by E. Lincke.] Sup., 

VoL n, F. ix, p. 274. 
The Study of Latin Etjmology. [C. 

8. HalMy.] Sup., VoL II, F. ix, p. 

270. 
The Stndy of Roman Law. [Prof. 

W. a Morey.] Sup., VoL III, F. 

V, p. 182. 
The Two Growna. [From the Latin 

of Angdinus Gazeus.] Sup., VoL 

nL F. i, p. 29. 
Tibicen Veraioolor. [The Pied Piper 

of HameUn. Browning.] VoL II, 

F. vii, p. 200. 
To Pyrrha. Horace I, V. [Mardn.] 

Sup., VoL II, F. iii, p. 98. 
To the Earth, Mother of AIL [Percy 

Bysshe SheUey.] Sup., VoL U, F. 

ii, p. 58. 
ToVergiL [Alfred Tennyaon.] Sup., 

VoLII,F.ii,p. 67. 
TranslationB. Sup., VoL II, F. i, p. 

28; iii, 92, 98; iiu, 120, 121, 122, 

128, 124; ▼, 161, 162, 168, 164, 

166, 167, 168, 169; vi, 187, 189; 

▼ii, 211, 212, 218, 214; viii, 240, 

244, 249; ix, 277, 278, 280; VoL 

m, F. i, pp. 29, 80; iiii, 118; Tii, 



199, 210; viii, 228, 288, 286; ix, 
p. 266. 

Unde Llbertas. VoL II, F. iii, p. 76. 

VergiL [From the German.] Sup., 

VoLHF. i,p. 24; iii, 89. 
Verslo Anglica Paraphraatica. Sup., 

VoL m, F. vii, p. 194. 
Verslo Gneea, in Usum ''Latme,** 

ab Auotore Reoentiore. VoL III, 

P. ¥11, p. 192. 
Verslo Latina Carminis Japonensis. 

[Poet paraphraaim Anglicam Dick- 

ensiam a Nathan Haskell Dole 

facta.] VoL HI, F. yiii, p. 222. 
Vestal Vir^ VoL III, F. ix, p. 

264. 
Vezata Qoaestio. VoL II, F. ¥11, p. 

209. 
Via Ferrea. VoL I, F. ▼, p. 6. 
VilePoUbla. [A Translation.] Sup., 

VoL in, F. iiii, p. 113. 
VltaJosephlScaligeri. [Ipuusmanu.] 

VoL n, F. ii, p. 84. 
VHanda est Lnproba Siren. VoL II, 

F. Tu, p. 209. 
Vitaque Mandpio NulU Datur, Onmi- 

buB Usu. VoL II, F. iiii, p. 119. 
Vi^itur Hoo Paeta VoL II, F. ▼ii^ 

p. 206. 
V. M. R. [Asleep Januar^ 81, 1886.] 

VoL in, F. ▼iii, p. 220. 

Works on Roman AnUquitiee. Sup., 

VoL m, F. ii, p. 68. 
Works on Roman Law. Sup., VoL 

m, F. iiii, p. 119. 



MEHSE SEPT. , ' MDCCCI^ 

\ VOL. m.— FASOIO. I. 



l:atiMe 



^■':j^:S^Vr^-^:^^::^'^ 



EDIDIT , 



.:^DGAR S. SHUMWAY, 



,IN HOCFASCICVLO: IKSVNT 



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EPISTVUkJB. , > 
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OULBisiOAL StITDIKB. , 

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EPITAPH. 



'-'=t:>"r .,-»*. -i^: .'V'<A-v':.v-^^n"--^-^'' :■-.■■'■'■ r ■ ' - ^, ■ :• - . • 

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kiP:api:,E T o N et s o o. 



:P^-: 



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iin^ with paradigma of dsclenaion and oonjagationf and all aeeded xnlea of ajntax 
and ttatenenta of grammatieal jMiaciplei, ^veit tit the mbo/d form and Umgmt^ tn 
wAmA ikty oeeicr ti» ^^ffarknet^t Atmdard Laiin Orammar/* It is dedgned to ierre 
aa a cotnplcte Introductoij book in Latin, no grammar bdng reqoired doring ita nae. 

^Thoogh pabliahed too late in the fall (October^ f or introdaction in the achoola 
at the opening of the last achool jear, ** Harkneu'8 Oomplete Goarae In Latin for - 
ihe Firat Year ** waa r aoe i t e d with iodi maiked faTor that, ia New Englaiid alone» • 
Ji/fy-nz highr9(hooU and aoadamm adopUd it, and gaTC the bbok the practical teat 
of the daii-room after Iti poblication lait jear. 



Progressive Exercises iij Ii.eadiiig and 
IZIritiiig Latiii, 

With Frequent Practice in Reading at Sight, intended as a Oompanion^ 
Book to the author^a iMtin Grammar, 

Thii Tolome ii the iame aa the preceding, with tbe omiiiion of the Graomiatical 
Ootline. . ' • ■ . 

' /• Teacheri of Latin are inTited to examine thia new woric before orgamsng thdr : 
next claai of beginnera. ' We are oonfident that a caref ul examination inll xmlt in 
Hi adoptioii. . /^ : . ^ '; 

All claaaicail and high sdioola aiming to do thoroagh preparatorj work ahoiild 

USe . ; . . • / ' T' '■' " 

HARkNESS'S STMDARD IJmN-SERIES,;^^^^^- 

POMPRXSnTO 

/Haxlmess*» Oomxilete Ooorflo In Ziatin for tho FiratToar; Stkndard Ziatiii^ 
Ormmmar; IiatinL Froao Oompoaition ; CaBoar; Oioe'ro; 'SallQsi; or 
Harkneafl*8 Oonraa in 0»sar, SaUxuit, and Oioero; andthe Standazd J 
: lAtin Texta <Iiinooln'8 Orid, Friese*a Verffils, Zdndaay> XTepoa, IiOzd*a 
lAolina, eto.). '' ' .':!..■-.. '•-: ' ,-'''- 



Corrttpondmee i$ inviled, 

D. APPLETON & CO., PubUsherS; 






KxwYoRK, BosTON, .X]!mcACK>, ^Sah I)[ux(a^ 



MENSE OCT. MDCCX^LXXXmi. 

voL. ra.— FASoio. n. 




A T I 




EDIDIT 



EDGAR S. S^UMWAY, 

lao. i»LT, ntor. ADi. zh oosimio sTTanmni. 



m HpC FASaCVWINSyNT 
0. Iyiits Oaxsab. [Altera pars.] 
M. Antohitb. [Altera pars.] 

EnSTYLA. 



HoBAHi Pbimi Libbi Odb SsdYN- 
DA. Interrogationes praeoep- 



toriB et responsa diadpYlo- 
rrm. 

OoLLOQYiYic [Ajidria Terentl] 

Oashxst. [In laYdem pontis pen- 
•ilis Neo-Eboracensis.— IX. 
XaLJnn.,MDOOOLXXXin.] 



BmuaiaL suppljbmsnt 

Fbom OiJ> BoMX. A Teaoher^s 
■ LettertohisPiipils. [Adapt- 
ed from ihe German.] ■ [Chnr 
" tinued.'] - -''^ 

ThB Dl Bl ^ lK O TlV B, FbATUBBS OF, 

' ' BoMAK Abohitbottjbb.* ' [By 

..Professor T.' S. Dbolittle, 

D.D.jRntgersOollege.] - 

KAMXa^OF OOUIHTBIBS^ .. ,,, v! 



[SvppUmerUfm Anfflicvm\, • 

Ahtibabbabys. [Meismer.] [Oan- 
'tinwtd,] 

WOBKB OK BOMAK ANTigiTITIXB; 
NOTXB AHD QUXBIBB. 

booes^ beobiybd. 

Abgvmbntb on thb Sidx of 
Olabsioai. Stddixb; [Om- 
eliided.] 



NOVI KBORACI: 
p. APPLETbN ET SOO. 



CkiiTTlghVlSSi, ^ I>. AFPUTOir A Oo. 



NOTICE. — ^All editorial correspondence in reference to 
Ljltiks shoold be addressed to Edgas S. SHUMWAYy Ad- 
junct Professor (in charge) of Latin, Rutgera CoUege, New 
Branswicky N. J. ^ 

Among the interesting featores of the Sept. LATINE 
were {in LcUin) : . 

HISTORICAL SELECTIONS FROM CICERO 
(on Cato CeQSor, Caesar, Antonius, and Cicero 

himself). 

It i8 beliered that no better rapplementaiy reading can be had than 
CSoero'8 descriptionB of famoos Bomans. 

These selectioiui are arranged chronologieally, and dated. 

DE VITA HORATI (CoUoquium). 

A yer^ sacoessful attempt to draw f lom the writings of Horace the facts 
of his lif e. Ezcellent supplementaiy reading f or a clasa in the Odxs. 

EPISTULAE (from A. J. Qobdon, Belfast, Ireland; 
3, K. LoBD, Heidelberg, Oermany ; and others).' 

COLLOQUIA DE MODO SUBJUNCTIVO. 

Excellent supplementary reading f or students of Laxiv Gramxab. 

(InEnglish:) 
FROM OLD ROME (Part One). 

Thifl yer^ attractiye and instructiye letter of Dr. Lohb*8 should be read 
by eyer^ student of LaUu. . . 

DE PRONOMINIBUS POSSESSIVIS (Syntaxis 
Omata). 

An attempt to treat consecutivelj the peculiarities in their use. 

ANTIBARBARUS. ; 

It is thought that tius vill meet a real need on the part of thoae who do 
not read (Serman. 

SIDE-LIGHTS IN ANCIENT HISTORY AND 
ANTIQUITIES. 

Professor Post has giyen us here a yeiy nseful and fiuggestiye Ust for 
supplementarj reading. 

Snbscription price, September-May, $8.00. Spedal rates for class 
nse. Single copies of Latine, of a specified month, 50 cents ; speci- 
men nnmbers, 85 oents. Orders for LATmE most be sent to the pub- 
lishers, 1, 8^ and 6 Bond Street, New York. 

D. Appleton & Oo. 



h:.ajib:ness's 
STANDARD LATIN GRAMMAR. 

This \a a oomplete, phUo0ophical, and attractiye work. It preaentfl a sys- 
tematic arrangement of the great f aets and laws of the language, exhibiting 
not only the grammatical f orms and constraotions, but also those Tital prin- 
dples which underlie, control, and explain them. 

The present edition is the result of a thorough and oomplete reyitton of 
ihat of 1874. To a large extent It ira new and independent work ; yet the 
paradigms, niles of construction, and ih general all parts intended for recita- 
tion, have been only slightly changed. The aim of the work in its present 
form is threefold : 1. To be a clear, simple, and eonYenient Elementarj Latin 
Grammar, giving the essentials for that use in distinotivetjpe and in the form 
best adapted to the end. 2. To be ah adequate and trustworthy Orammar for 
the advanced student— « oomplete Grammar of the Latin la^uage, for the 
use of critical students of eveiy grade of scholarship. 8. To be a practical 
introduction to the broader fields of philologj and modem linguistio research, 
with references to the latest and best authorities upon the numerous ques- 
tions which arise' in such study. 



SIGNIFICANT TESTIMONT. 

Tableshowing the use of HARKNES8'S LATIN GRAMMAR in New Enflrland, 
as compared with all other Latin Grammars combined. 





HI6HSCH00LS. 


ACADEMIES. 


CITIES; 




bAiMi 


tU«tkn 


iKkMI 


AUitkm 


IhlkMI 


iliitlMn 


Maine. 


81 


18 


37 


11 


6 


8 


New Hampshire. 


50 


11 


22 


5 


3 


3 


Vermont. 


18 


6 


30 


12 


1 


1 


Massachusetts. 


170 
12 


59 


43 


15 


14 


8 


Ehode Island. 


1 


11 

24 




2 




Connecticut. 


47 


15 


9 


4 


6 


Totals. 


378 


110 


167 


52 


30 


26 



The aboYe figures show that the number Qf high schools and academies 
lespectiTely, in New England, using Harkness^s Latin Grammar is mor€ ihtm 
ihfie Hmet Ihe number of thate iuing all Gther LaHn Orammctn eomhined, 
The aggregate population of dties and towns in New England using Hark- 
ness's Latin Grammar is nearly twiee ihat of thoee tutny aU other Latin 
r Orammare, 

DescriptiYe Educational Oatalqgue, containing f ull list of Latin and Greek 
text-books, sent to any teacher uppn application. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers. 

New York, Boston, Chicago/San Francisco. 



NEW YORK 

Iiife Iijsuraiice ConjpaRy, 

346 ^ 348 Brocudbvv-cLy, 
NEWYORK. 



ASgETO . OYEB FIFTT'FITE HHIION D0LLAB8. 
SUBPL1JS • • • OTEB TEN KILLION DOLLABS. 



Thx Nxw Yobk Lifb has no-w perfected a policy oalled 

Tlie Non-Forfeiting Liinited-Tontine Polic}, 

whicli oombines the non-forf eitiire featnres driginated by 
this Company in 1860, with the Talnable optionB and benefits 
of the '^Tontine Investment Policy.^' This policy marks 
the latest advance in Life Insurance« By a combination 
of non-foffeitnreandTbntinepriTileges itobviates theobjec- 
tions heretof ore made against both^the ordinary polioy and 
the ordinary Tontine, and.it is confidently reconunended as 

(1) The safest Life Policy issued/as regards liability 
to lapse.^*- ; j ' ■ .' - ' ; '•• '•/••'■■"■ "''.. ^ ■ • •■ 

(2) The most desirabley as regards character of privi- 
leges and benefits ; and ; ' 

(3) One of the most profitable, as regards cash retnms. 



MORRIS FRANKLIN/ WILUAM H, BE^^^ 

President . Vfce-Pres/and Actu&ry, 

yHENRY TUCK, 2d yfce-Pres/dent 

THEODORK M. BANTA, Ciukier. 

, ■ Ji, OT^^ of AgiHcia. 



MENSE NOV. MDCCCLXXXIIII. 

voL. m.— FASOio. ra. 

LATINE 



EDIDIT 

EDGAR S. SHUMWAY, 

ma. ZJLT. PROF. ASL, nr ooKiJBaio BYrasBUMu. 



IN HOC FASCICVLO INSVNT 
Elbgidiok. 

oolloqtia hora.tiaka. 
0. Itliys Oabsab. (Tertia pars.] 



OiosBO. [Altera pars.] 

£PI8TTLJLB. 

Apfinbs. [Erasmas.] 



.SNOLISH 8UPPLSKBNT [SvppUnutUvm AnffUevm]. 



Mybajbyu Saobbdob. [Katharine 
Lee Bates.] 

Fbom Old Bomb. A Teachor'8 
LettertohiePopils. [Adapt- 
ed from the German.] [Oon- 
tinued.] 

Tkb Eduoatioit or thb Roican 
BoY. [By E. T. Tomlinaon, 
Head Master of Ratgers Ool- 
lege Grammar-School.] 



Rbs. 

Antibabbabts. [Meissner.] [Con- 
tinued,] 

SIDB-L1OHT8 OK VntGiL. 

HoBATiAK Allboobt. [Trans- 
lated from the German bj 
Samnel M. Otto.] 

N0TB8 AND QUBBIBS. 
BOOK NOTIOE8. 



KbVI EBORACI: 
D. APPLETON ET SOO. 



Gopjright, 1884, bj D. AppunoK & Oo. 



NOTICE.— All editorial correspondence in reference to 
Latine Bhould be addressed to Edgab S. Shumway, Ad- 
junct Professor (in charge) of Latin, Rutgers CoUege, New 
Brunswick, N. J. 

Among the interesting features of the October LATlNE 
were (f n Zcain) : 

HISTORICAL SELECTIONS FROM CICERO 
(on Caesar and Antonius). 

WeU adapted both for " Bight "-reading and for exercisea m prose^m- 
position (for dcacriptiTe and narrative Btyle). 
Theae selectionfl are arranged chronologically. 

EPISTULA (from Rome). 

COLLOQUIA (on Book I, Ode 2, Horace, and Andria 
Terenti). 

CARMEN [in praise of the New Tork and Brooklyn 
Suspension Bridge]. 

«HowcanamanwritesuchLatinvcrses?" Qnod ert Romahto! 

(Id English :) 
FROM OLD ROME. A Teacher's Letter to his 
Pupils. Part Two. 
Wonderfully vivid. 

THE DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF ROMAN 
ARCHITECTURE. (With Ten Illustrations.) 
Dr. DooLiTTL* haa here expreaaed very cleariy and happUy the salient 
points of an intercsting suhject 

ANTIBARBARUS. (Continued through worda begin- 
ning with B.) 

BOOK-LIST on Roman Antiquities. 



Subscription price, September-May, $8.00. Speciia rates for dass 
use. Single copies of Latine, of a specified month, 60 cents; speci- 
men nnmbers, 85 cents. Orders for LATnrE muflt be sent to the pub- 
lishers, 1, 8, and 6 Bond Street, New York. 

D. Applktow & Oo. 



Latine, edited by Prof essor E. S. Shamwaj : $3 per annum. 
New York : D. Appleton & Co. Its parpose is to arouse inter- 
est in the study of Latin ; to unite teachers in a co-operative 
search for the best methods and apparatus; to give pithy hints 
and practical illastrations; to afford valuable suggestions in re- 
gard to the work of the preparatory. school. In its list of con- 
tributors are found the naraes of manj of our best Latin scholars, 
and it 18 a valuable periodical for teachers and others who take 
delight in reading Latin. The Maj number is adorned with a 
portrait of Caius Julius Caesar. The first ten pages consist of 
contributions and selections in Latin, and are foliowed bj an 
English supplement of eightieen pages, containing Notes and 
Qucries, Studj of Latin Ety mology, Instructions in Latin in the 
High Schools in Germany, Tte Right Way of Teaching the 
TJse of the Latin Cases, Moderh Hlustrations of Horace's Socra- 
tes, Graeco-Roman Sculpture, Translations, and a last of Books 
for collateral readingor reference in connection with the reading 
of Latin authors. " Non tam praeclarum est scire Latine qtuim 
turpe nescire,^^ — Texas School Joumal^ July^ 188^. 

Solvitur quies veteris amici nostri aestiva Latine grato vice 
Auctumni et Septentrionis, primum cuius f asciculum liovi anni 
scholastici salvere iubemus. . Lectiones varias, literas familiares, 
poemata, conloquiaque complectitur et quoque, supplementum 
anglicum maximi professoribus <)mnibus et discipulis pretiL 
Pater gratissimus et inventor Professor Shumway in praesentia 
solium latinum in Conlegio Rutgersensi tenet. Nutritores D. 
Appleton et societatem Noyi Ebbraci appellat. — Philadelphia , 
Press, October ISth. 



- Among the interesting features of the September Latinb 
were (in Latin) : Histobical ISelsctions from Cicbro (on Cato 
Censor, Caesar^ Antonius, and Cicero himself ). De Vita Horati 
(Colloquium). Epistulae (from A. J. Gordon, Belfast, Ireland; 
J. K. Lord, Heidelberg, Germany; and others). Colloqula. ds 
MoDO SuBjuHCTivo. (lu English) : Fbom Old Rome (Part 
One). Ds Pronominibus Possessivis (Syntaxis Omata). Anti- 
barbabus. Sips-LioHTS iN Anciekt Histort and Antiquities. 



NEW YORK 

Life Ii}surai]ce ConipaRy, 

346 ^ 348 JBroculyv-CLy, 
NEW YORK. 



A88ET8 • OTEB FIFTT>FITE MIUJON DOLLABS. 
8UBFLUS ... OTEB TEN KILLION DOLLABS. 



Thx Nxw Yobx Lifb has now perf eoted a policy called 

Tbe Non-Forfeiting Idinited-Tontine Poiicy, 

which oombiQefl the non-forfeitnre featnres originated bj 
this Companj in 1860, with the valnable options and benefits 
of the '' Tontine Inyestment Policy.^ This policy marks 
the latest advance in Life Insurance. By a combination 
of non-f orf eitnre ahd Tontine priyileges it obviates the objeo- 
tions heretofore made against both the ordinary policy and 
the ordinary Tontine, and it is confidently recommended as 

(1) The safest Life Policy issued, as regards liability 
to lapse. 

(2) The most desirablei as regards character of privi- 
leges and benefits ; and 

(8) One of the most profitable, as regards cash retnms. 



MORRIS FRANKLIN, WILLIAM H. BEERS, 

President Vice-Pres, and Actueuy» 

HENRY TUCK, 2d Vice-PreBident 

THSODORK M. BANTA, Cashier. 

D. CDKLLi, Supcrintendent of Agendes. 

HENRY TUCK, M. D., ) .^ ,. , -. 

A. HUNTINGTON, M. D., \^*^ Exiummtrt, 



MENSE DEC. MDCCCLXXXIIII. 

VOL. HL— FASOIO. im. 

LATINE 



EDIDIT 



EDGAR S. SHUMWAY, 

LnrO. ULT. PBOJ'. ADI. IK OONUBOIO BYTOXBBZHBI. 



IN HOC FASCICVLO INSVNT 



Gaydia Lintbis. 
lyoybayb sohillebl 
Epibttla. 

"ROOK OF AOES.'' 

OoLLOQYiYM. [Andiia Terenti.] 

[Pars altera.] 
** Aet thotj wbaby ? " 
0. Iyliys Oaesab. [Qaarta pars.] 



OiOEBO. [Tertia pars.] 
Kyqae. 

NON LlOYIT PEB OOOYPATIONES 

YT TB YiSEBEM. [Erasmas.] 
Nyqae. 
Oabmek. 
Quo 18 f [Erasmas.] 



ENaLISH SUPPLEMENT [SvppUmmivm AngUctm], 



Phaethon. [Josephine A. Oass.] 
Ebom Old Bome. A Teacher^s 
Letter to his Papils. [Adapt- 
ed from the German.] [{^bn- 
tirvued.] 
Thb Eduoatiok of thb Bomak 
BoY. [By E. T. Tomlinson, 
Head Haster of Batgers Ool- 
lege Grammar-SchooL] [Oonr 
eluded.] 



Vdle Potabis. [A Translation.] 

AimBABBABYS. [Meissncr.] [6bn- 
tinued,] 

HoBATiAN Alleqoey. [Trans- 
lated from the G^rman bj 
Samael M. Otto.] [Oon- 
tinued,] 

WOBEB ON BOMAN LaW. 
BOOEB BEOEIYED. 



NOVI EBORACI: 
D. APPLETON ET SOO. 



Oofijxlgliti 1884» 1>7 D. Amnoir A Oo. 



NOTICE. — ^All editorial correspondence in ref erence to 
Latine shoold be addressed to Edgab S. Shumwat, Ad- 
junct Professor (in charge) of Latin, Rutgers College, New 
Bronswick, N. J. 

Among the interesting features of the Noyember LA- 
TINE were (tn Zatin) : 

ELEGIDION (in hezameters and pentameters), by Rey. 
C. SxAUDSBy who dedicates it ^ divo ScMieman.^^ 

COLLOQUIA HORATIANA, continued with great 
skiUby«E.aR» 

HISTORICAL SELECTIONS (from Cicero, and 
about Cicero himself and Caesar). 

EPISTULAE (from Heidelberg and Rome). 

(In Engliflh :) 

MUSARUM SACERDOS, an Ode by Kathabinb Lse 
Batbs. 

FROM OLD ROME. A Teacher's Letter to his 
Pupils. Part Three. 

\THE EDUCATION OF THE ROMAN BOY. 
Part One. 

ANTIBARBARUS. (C.) 

SIDE-LIGHTS ON VIRGIL. 

HORATIAN ALLEGORY. Part One. 



Sabsoription prioe, September-May, $3.00. Speoial rates for olass 
nse. Single coples of Latine, of a speoified month, 50 oents ; speoi- 
men nnmbers, 85 oents. Ordors for LATms mnst be sent to the pnb- 
lishers, 1, 3, and 6 Bond Street, New York. 

D. Apflbton & Oo. 



Latine, edited by Prof essor E, S. Shumway : $3 per annum. 
TTcw York : D. Appleton & Co. Its porpose is to aroase inter- 
est in the stady of Latin ; to anite teachers in a co-operative 
"search for the best methods and apparatas; to give pithy hints 
and practical illastrations ; to afford valoable suggestions in re- 
;gard to the work of the preparatory school. In its list of con- 
tributors are found the names of many of our best Latin scholars, 
sad it is a valuable periodical for teachers and others who take 
delight in reading Latin. The May number is adomed with a 
portrait of Oaius Julius Caesar. The first teu pages consist of 
<5ontributions and selections in Latin, and are followed by an 
English supplement of eighteen pages, containing Notes and 
Queries, Study of Latin Etymology, Instructions in Latin in the 
High Schools in Grermany, The Right Way of Teaching the 
TJse of the Latin Cases, Modern Hiustrations of Horace's Socra- 
i»s, Graeco-Roman Sculpture, Translations, and a List of Books 
f or collateral reading or reference in connection with the reading 
of Latin authors. " Non tam praedarum est sdre Latike qtuim 
turpe ne3cire,^^—Texas School Joumal^ July^ 1884, 

Solvitur quies veteris amici nostri aestiva LATiins grato vice 
Auctumni et Septentrionis, primum cuius fasciculum novi anni 
scholastici salvere iubemus. Lectipnes varias, literas familiares, 
poemata, conloquiaque complectitur et quoque, supplementum 
^glicum inaximi professoribus omnibus et discipulis pretiL 
Pater gratissimus et inventor Professor Shumway in praesentia 
solium latinum in Conlegio Rutgersensi tonet. Nutritores D. 
Appleton et societatem Novi Eboraci appellat. — Philadelphia 
JPress, Octoher ISth. 



Among the interesting featufes of the September Latins 
^ere (in Ltfitin) : Historical Sklections from Cicero (on Cato 
Censor, Caesar, Antonius, and Cicero himself). De Vita Horati 
{Colloquium). Epistulab (from A. J. Gordon, Belfast, Ireland ; 
J. K. Lord, Heidelberg, Germany ; and others). Colloquia de 
MoDO SuBjuNOTivo. (lu English) : From Old Rome' (Part 
One). De Prokominibus PossEssrvis (Syntaxis Omata). Anti- 

BARBARUS. SlDE-LlQHTS IN AnCIBNT HiSTORY AND AnTIQUITIES. 

Among the.interesting features of the October Latine were 
{in Latin) : Historical Selections from Cicero (on Caesar 
and Antonius). Epistula (from Roine). Colloquia (on Book 
I, Ode 2, Horace, and Andxia Terenti)., Carmen Fin praise of 
the New Yprk and BrooMyn S\ispension Bridge]. (In English :) 
From Old Bome: A Teacher's Letter to his Pupils. (Part 
Two.) Thb DiSTnTCTTVE Features op Boman Architeoture. 
(Witn Ten Hlustrations.) Antibarbarus. (Continued through 
words beginning with B.) Boo^-List on Boman Antiquities. 



NEW YORK 

Life iQsuraijce Conjpaijy, 

34:6 4- 34:8 Broaai^cLy, 
NEW YORK. 



ASSETS • OTES HFTT-mE MmiON DOLLABS. 
SUBFLUS • - • OTEB TEM MILLION BOLLABS. 



Thk Nxw Yoke Litb has nov perfeoted a polioj calledi 

Tbe Non-Forfeiting Limited-Tontine Policy, 

which combines the non-forfeiture featares originated by 
this Company in I86O9 with the yaloable optiohs and benefits- 
of the " Tontine Investment Policy." This policy marks 
the latest advance in Life Insurance. By a combination 
of non-f orf eitore and Tontine privileges it obviates the objec- 
tions heretofore made against both the ordinary policy and 
the ordinary Tontine, and it is confidently recdmmended as 

. (1) The safest Life Policy issuedi as regards liability 
to lapse. 

(2) The most deslrable, as regards character of privi- 
leges and benefits ; and 

(8) One of the most profitablei as regards cash retnms. 



MORRIS PRANKLIN, WILLIAM H. BEERS, 

President, Vice-Pres, and Actu&ry, 

HENRY TUCK, 2d Vtce-President 

THEODORE M. BANTA, Caskur. 

D. 0'DELLy Superintendmt cf Agendes^ 

HENRVTUCK.M.D.. U««WiE««l««. 



HUNTtNOTON, M. D. 



..[' 



M6i^§ie !AN. MDCCCLXXXV. 

VOK ttl.— FASOIC. V. 




EDIDiT 

SedgAr s. shumWay, 

iiM. i4t. !HkO]'. ADI. tH OOlOJCdiO BYTOSBBKRti 



I» HOC FASCIGVLO INSVNT 



Epibtvia. 

Ohbibti ; Latinb bbddityb. 
[Professor Thbs. I; Gkisson, 
Lo jola OoUege.] ; 

De OoiJsyETVDtNB: CkABB Lb- 
oizNDi; [Professor Samuel 
Brooks, Kalamazob Oollege.] 

Rbx Thvlab. Goethei FavstYs, 



pars I. [Latine reddidit Er- 

iiestVB Hvbervs, Ph.D.] 
OondVobrb xt Looabb. [Pro- 

fessor G. B. Hopson, St. 

Stephen^s OoHege.] 
Ltovbgvb SokiLLEBL [Htfbeti 

WeirSmyth,Pli.D.J 
OiOEBO. (Pars qvarta,] 
0. IvLivs Oabbab. [Pars qvinta.J 



ENQLISS SUPPLEJfEHT [QDppUmetttsm AnffUevm]. 



. IltarfiTXTDYOFKoMAlTLAW. [Pro-^ 
fessbr W. 0. Morey, of Koch- 
«ster XJniversity.] . 

AuQUBTUfl. . 

NbTEg AND QiTBBIBli.' 

Fbom Old Rome. A Teacher's 



LettertohisPapils. [Ad«pil;- 
ed from the German.] lChn- 
' tinued,] 

AimBABBABVfl. .[ContinuedJ] 

NbwYobk Lbttbb. 

Ohbibtiak Latik Litebatubb. 



> KOyi EBORACI: 
D. APPLETON Et JSOO. 



OopTiiff ht, 1885, bjr D. Applrox A Oo. 



NOTICE. — ^All editorial correspondence in reference to 
Latine sbould be addressed to Edgab S. Shijkwat, Ad- 
junct Trofeaaor (in charge) of Latin, Batgers CoUegey New 
Bmnswicky N. J. 

Among the interesting featnres of the.December.LA- 
TIKE were {in ZcUin) : 

OAUDIA LINXRIS (& Boat-Song, by ^THAtfmjB Leb 
Bates, of Dana HalV^Wellesley). 

LYCURGUS SCHILLERI (translated into Latin by 
Herbebt Weib Smtth, of WiUiams CoUege). 

HPISTULA (Professor J. K. Lobd again writes from 
Heidelberg). 

ROCK OF AGES (anotherLatin.yersion). 

COLLOQUIUM (Andbia Tebent!, para cUterOy com- 
pleting the dialogue, by ** E. H. R"). 

NUGAE (among others, a laughable epitaph on a defonct 
f eline, by C. S. STAtjDEB). 

(LiEnglish:) 

PHAETHON (by Josephine A. Cass). 

FROM OLD ROME. A Teacher's Letter to his 
Pupils. {Oontinued.) 

THE EDUCATION OF THE ROMAN BOY. 
{Concluded.) 

VILE POTABIS (a translation). 

ANTIBARBARUS (continued through the letters D 
andE): 

HORATIAN ALLEGORY. {Conduded.) 

Book-List WORKS ON ROMAN LAW. 



Snbsoription prioe, September-May, $3.00. Spepial rates for olass 
use. Single copieB of Latins, of a specified month, 60 cents; speoir 
men numbers, 85 oents. Orders for LATnnE must be sent to the pub- 
lishers, 1, 8, and 6 Boud Street, New York. 

D. Applbtow & Oo. 



Latine, edited-by Prof essor K S. Shumway : $3 per annam. 
New York: D. Appleton & Co. lis pnrpose is to aroose inter- 
est in the stady of Latin ; to nnite teachers in a co-operatire 
«earbh for the best methods and apparatuai; to give pithy hints 
and practical illustrations ; to afford ralaable suggestions in re- 
gard to the work of the preparatory school. In its list of con- 
tributors are found the naraes of many of our best Latin scholars, 
and it is a valuable periodical f or teachers and others who tltke 
delight in' reading Latin. The May number is adomed with a 
portrait of Caius Julius Caesar. The first ten pages consist of 
contributions and selecfions in Latin, and are followed by an 
English supplement of eightcen pages, containing Notes and 
Queries, Study of Latin Etymology, Instmctions in Latin in the 
High Schools in Germany, The Right Way of Teaching the 
XJse of the Latin Cases, Modemlllustrations of Horace's Sorac- 
te, Graeco-Roman Sculpture, Translations, ahd a list of Books 
for collateral reading or reference in connection with the reading 
of Latin authors. *^ Ncn tam praeclarum est scire Latinb quam 
turpe^neacire.^'' — T^xae Schqol Joumalj July^ 1884. 



Among the interesting featnres of the September Latins 
were (in I^tin) : Historioal Selsctions froit Cicbro (on Cato 
Censor, Caesar, Antonius, and Cicero himself). Db Yita Horati 
(Colfoquium). Epistulab (from A. J. Gordon, Belfast, Ireland; 
J. EL Lord, Heidelberg, Germany ; and others). Colloquia db 
MoDO Subjunotiw. (In English) : From Old Bomb ^Part 
One). Db Pronominibus Possbssiyis (Syntaxis Omata). Anti- 
babbabus. 'Sidb-Lights in Ancibnt Histort and Antiquitibb. 

Among the interesting features of the October Latinb were 
(in Latin) : HiSTOBicAL Sblbctions from Cicbro (on Caesar 

' and Antonius). Epistula (from Rome). Colloquia (on Book 
I, 04e 2, Horace, and Andria Terenti). Carmbn Tin praise of 
the New York and Brooklyn Suspension Bridge]. (In English:) 
Frqm Old Rqmb. A Teacher's Letter to his Pupils. (Part 
Two.V Thb DiSTiNCTiyB Fbaturbb of Roman Architbotubb. 
(W|tn Ten Illustrations.) Antibarbarus. (Continued through 

: woids b^ginning with B.) Boob-List on Roman Antiquities. 

Among the interesting features of the November Latinb 
>fere (in Latin):.ELEaiDiON (in hexameteis and pentameters), 
by Rer. C. Staudef, who dedicates it " divo Schliemcm,^^ Col- 
LQQUiA HoratianA, coutinued with great sldll by •'E.H.R." 
HisTORicAL Sblbotions ((rom Cicero, and about Cicero him- 
self and Gaesar). Epibtulab (from Heidelberg and Rome). 
llnEnglish:) MusARUM Sacbrdos, an Qde by Katharine Lee 
!Bates,, From Old Romb. A Teacher^s Letter to his Pupils. 

Sart Three.) Thb Education op thb Roman Boy. ^Part 
le.) Antibarbarus. OC.) Sidb-Lights on Virgil. Hora- 
TLAN Allboory. (Part Oue.) 



NEW YORK 

liife Iijsuraijce Clonipaijy, 

34:6 ^ 34:3 BrotL6Lw(Xy, 
NEWYORK. 



JUSSerS • OtEB FIFTT-FrVlB iQiXKUf DOLLAfiS^ 
SDSFLUS • • . OTSB TEN MILLn»! DOLLABJS. 



.'Jhas New Yobk Lifx has mm perf ectcd a policj- ciJIed 

. Tbe Non-Forfeiting lamited-Tontine Policyi 

SHiicli combines the non-forfeiture featareH onginated lij 
:tliii^ Compbnj in 1860, with the valnable options and benefita 
of the " Tontine Investment Policy.'* This policy marks 
the latest advancein Life Insurance. Byacombinatioil 
of Qon-forfeitare and Tontine privileges it obviates the objec^ 
tions heretof ore made against both the ordinary polioy and 
. tbe ordinary Tontiney and it is confidently recommended as; 

. (1) The saifest Life Policy issued^ as regards liability 
to lapse. ' .. 

(2) The tnost desirable^ as regards character of jrtivir 
1^^ abd benefits ; and 

' |[B) One of the most profitabley as r^ards cash retam&i. 



MpjRRIS FRANKLIN, WILLIAM H. BEERS, 

President Vice-Prea.&nd Actuary, 

: HENRY TUCK, 2d Vice-President. 

O^HEODORK M. BANTA, CashUr. 
. \ D. 0'D£LlL, Su^erintendent -af Ageneia. 

: : HENRY TUCK. M. D., \ ^ji^ ^„„ttAi^ " 

A. HUNTINGTON, M. D., ) ' '^^^*^' 



NEW YORK 

Life IijsuraQce CompaQy, 

34:6^ 348 JBroouGb^OLy, 
NEWYORK. 



ASSFTS • OYEB IHTT-FITE HILLION DOLLABS. 
SUBPLirS • • • OTEB TEN HILLION DOLLABS. 



Thb Nkw Yoke Lifs has nov perfected a poliej called 

Tlie Non-Forfeiting Limited-Tontine Policy, 

whicli combines tlie non-f orf eitore f eatnres originated by 
this Companj in 1860, with the yalnable optiona and benefita 
pf the '^ Tontine Inyestment Policy.'' This policy marks 
the latest advance in Life Insurance. Bya combination 
of non-forfeitore and Tontine priyileges it obyiates the objeo- 
tions heretofore made against both the ordinary policy and 
the ordinary Tontine, and it ib confidently recommended as 

(1) The safest Life Policy issued^ as regards liability 
to lapse. 

(2) The most desirable, as regards character of priyi- 
leges and benefits ; and 

(3) One of the most profitablei as regards cash retuma. 



MORRIS PRANKLIN, WILLIAM H. BEERS, 

PreQident Vioe-Pres, and Aotuary, 

HENRY TUCK, 2d Vioe-Preeident. 

THBODORS M. BANTA, Ctfx>lMn 

Xii OTyKTJU^ Su^ermttndent o/ AgiHcUt. 

HEKRY TUCK, M. D., ) j^^js^ jp«««a.*«l 
A. HaOTlNGTON, M. D., ) '*'**^ MxmmmM 



Among the intereflting featares of the September LATiin were (in Latin) : 
JEinoRiCAL SKLEcnoNs FROM CicEBO (on Cato Censor, Caeear, Antonioa, and 
Cieero hiraself). Dx Yita Horati (Colloquium). £pi8TVLak (from A. J. 
Gordon, Bel.fast» Ireland; J. K. Lord, Ueidelberg, Gerroany; and othera). 
€oLL0<2uiA Di HoDO SiTBjaNCTiTO. (Id English :) Fbom Old Romb (Part 

' One). Db PBONOMiNiBns Possessitis (Syntaxis Omata). Abtibabbab08. 
&DE.L10BT8 iN Ancient Histobt and Antiquities. 

Among the intercflting featuree of the October Latinb were (in Latin) : 
Histobical Sklections trom Cicero (on Caesar and Antonias). Epistuli. 
(from Rome). Colloquli (on Book I, Ode 2, Horace, and Andria Terenti). 
Carmen [in praise of the New Tork and Brookljn Suspenaion Bridge]. ~ 
<In Engliah:) From Olo Rome. A Teacher'8 Letter to hia Pupila. (Part . 
Two.) The D18TINCTITE FEATaBBS or Roman Abghitbotubb. (With Ten - 
Illafctrationd.) ANTiBiBBABUfi. (Continaed throogh worda begimiing with 
Bi^ Bo<»-Li8T on Roman AnUquities. ' 

Among the interesting features of the NoTember Latinb were (in Lattn) : 
ELBai9kON (in hexametera and pentametera), by ReT. C. Stauder, who dedi- 
«ates it '* divo SehUeman,*^ GoLLOQaLi HoBAnANA, oontinaed witfai greiit skiU ^ 
by "£. H. R." HisTOBiCAL Selections (froni Cioero, and about Oieero him-^' 
«elf and Caetar). EnsTOLAE (from Hddelbeiig and Rome). (Ih iEDgliah:) 
MasABaM SACEBDoe, an Ode by Katharioe Lee Bates. Fbom Old Romb. A 
Teacher*B Lctter to hia Papila. ^ (Part Three.) Tre Edvoation or thb , 
RoMAN BoT. (Part' One.) Antibabbabub. (0.) Sn>x-LiaBT8 on Viboil. . 
BoBATiAN Allegobt. (PartOne.) 

Among the intereisting features of the December Latinb were {in Latin) : - ' 
Gaudia Lintbis (a Boat-Song by Katharine Lee Bates, of Dana HaO, Wellea- 
lej), LTCUBoas Schilleri (tranalated Into Latin bj Herbert Welr Smytli, of 
Williams College). Efibtula (Profeasor J. K. Lord again writes from Heidd- , 
berg). RoGK or Agbs (another Lathi Teraion). Colloquium {Andria Terenti, '•: 
par$ aUera^ oompleting the dialogue, by " E. H. R.*'). Nuoab (among oUien, 
a laughable epitaph on a defunct fdine by C. S. Stander). (In Engliflh:) 

, Phabthon (bj Josephine A. Caas). Fbom Old Romb. A Teach6r'8 Letter to 
his Pupils. (Cbntinued.) The Education or thb Roman Bot. (Cohcladed.)..; 
YiLB P0TABI8 (a translation). Antibabbabus (continned throngh 4)ie let-: - 

. ters D and E). Hobatian Allegobt. (Concluded.) .* Book-List. Woiiu ■/ 

onRomanLaw. . \ -i : 

The table.of contenta of the Januarj Latinb ineluded (in Latin):^t 

EfISTULA. CaBMEN MlLTONn DB I^ATITITATb' CHBIflTI:'LATINB BTODilim^ 

(Professor Thomas L Gasson, Lojola Coll^e.) Db Consuetudinb Clabb Lx-;^ 
GENDi. (Professor. Samuel Brooks, KalatbRzoo College.) Rbx Thulax.- 
Goethei Faustus, pan I. (Latine reddidit Emestus Huberua, Ph. D.) (?oh. r 
DUCiBX ET LocABE. ' (Profcssor; G. B. Hopaon, St. Stephei^'8 College.)' • Ltoub- 
oas ScmLLERi. (Herbert Weir Smjth, Ph.D.) Cicero. (Para.qaMtB.)^'; 
C. loLius Caesab. (Para quinta.) (Ih English :}. . . Tbb ^tudt qi;. .]EU)man . T 
. Law.; (]profe88or . W.- C.. Morej, oif Rochester . Uniyereitj.) . Auoustus 
Notbs and Quxbdcs. Fbom Old Romb. - A Teacher'a Letter to . his Piipils. 
(Adapted from the German.) (Continued.) Antibarbabus. (Continued.) 
Nxw ToBC Letteb. CHBisnAN Latin Literatube. Tliirte^ Dlastrations. 






MENSE FEB. MDCCCLXXXV. 

VOL. IIL— FASOIO. VL 

LATINE 



EDIDIT 



EDGAR S. SHUMWAY, 

UVO* X^T. TBOW. AJHL IH OOIHMIO BTTOmaillX. 



IN HOC FASCICVLO IKSVKT 



EPI8TVI.A:. [Dat. Heiddbergae.] 

OaJBMXS MlLTONn DB l^ATiyiTATB 
OhBIBTI OOaxjubi vATTB. 

PyOKA IjEXINOTOinBirSIS BT IlXJL 
OOIIIB BTSBZBn. 



Db Pvona Tatbobtm. [Fro- 
f e88or D. H. R., XlDiTersitj of 
Kansas.] 

OioBBO. [Pars qyinta.] 
BmmioB Sjllttatio ibtbb 
Amabtbs. [Erasmas.] 



BNGLmH 8UPPLEMENT [SoppUmtiUm Anglievm]. 



IiATQr Wbitiko. 
AjniBARBABTS. [(kntwMdJ] 
JPbomOijdBomb. ATeacher^sLet- 
tw to hifl Papils. [Adapted 
froni the German.] [QnU^dJ] 



BoMB^B MisaiOK. [AeneidTi,847- 
853.] 

Lbxioa OabsabiAha. 

NOTES Al<n> QUBBIBB. 



NOVI EBOBAGI: 
D. APPLETON ET 800. 



Oonnlglil, 188S, I7 D. AmjRoir & Oe. 



/; :NOTIC& — ^All editorial correspondenoe in ref erence to 
Latike Bhoald be addressed to Edgab S. Shumwat, Ad- 
jtinct PlrofeBSor (in charge) of Latiny Rntgers Collegey New 
Branswicky N. J. 



liUDES EPIEMEBIDIS lOSTME. 

"Pennultis, non dico plurimis, lingua . Latina 
"nihil est nisi labyrintlius Sericus. Non sine offen- 
"sis, post laboripsos studiarum annos, innumeris 
"olei intempestivi testis consumptis, infelices in- 
"viarum viarum spinosarumque victimae auctores' 
" veteres legere non possunt. Tempora mutantur ; 
"pueros paedagogae literis nunc facile inficiunt, ita 
"ut idiotismi moribundi nova vita ebidlire videan- 
"tuF; Magno talibus juventae amicis subsidio sin- 
" gulis mensibus venit Latinie sicut navis (gubema- 
" tore Prof essore Edgar S. Shumway Conlegii Rut- 
"gersensis) onerata naulo omnigeno versiculorum, 
" epistularum, yersionuni et quoque suppjementi 
" Anglici, omnibus utili studentibus."- — PMUideJj^hia 
FresSyFebrtUjm/ 12y 1S85. 



Sabscription price, September-Haj, $8.00. Spedal rates for class 
iise. Single copies of LAmns, of a specified month, 50 cents; sp^i- 
men nambors, 85 cents. Ordors for LiiTmK mnst be sent to the pnb- 
lishers, 1, ^, and 5 Bond Streeit, New York. 

D, Afflbtoh & do. 



MENSE MART. MDCCCLXXXV. 

voL. in.—FASoio. vn. 



Al^INE 




EDIDIT 



EDGAR, S. SHUMWAY, 

JJSQ, I^T. PBOr. ASI. nr CONLEOXO BYTGEIteXNBI. 



- IN HOCFASCICVLO INSVNT 



NA80iTVB.I)Eys PvEB." '[Oarmeii 

Pastqral^ad modvm Vergilii 

. .Eclogarvm scripsit Thomas L 

Oiassbn.] - ;■ ■■■^ ; ' ' 

CoLLOQViVM. [Qvibvs libris ora- 

' tori opys est ?] ''/:'■■"'': ^ 
Oabmen.. -■ . 
OiOEBO. . [Pars sexta.] • 
Oabmbn. '• ' 



HAaNOPEBB. [Erasmvs.] 

Me. [Erasmvs.] 

Hymitvs in Besvbbeotionb Do- 

' MINI, AB AVOTOBE VeTEBB 

Inoebto. • 
Vebsio Gbaeoa, in Usvm "La- 

TINE," AB AvOTOBE BeOEN- 
TIOBE. 



ENQLI8H .SUPPLEMEHiT [SvpplerMtUvm AngCi€vm\, 



. Vebsio Anguoa Pabaphbastioa. 

Fbom pij>: RpME. ' A Teacher's 

. . Letter to his Pupils. [Adapt- 

'^ ed from the German.] VfCbTi- 

. \tinued.'\ <- i v C ^ - ^ 

Ad Iesvm.^ \ \ "^ ■/':"-'.'^'"^ • -vV';-' 

OxJBBIOULpM IN V LaTIN 8tTLB 

(Siiijbtib:)^ [Fqr Fiye Years. 
. Heyriacher.] ■ . v ^ V . ; \ ^^ V 



Pbosebfina on Eabth to Pluto 
IN Hades. 

SOME . OVEBSIGHTS IN HaBPEBS' 

; ' Latin Lexioon. 

PeTBABOA DE &ENEOTVTE SvA: A 

': Pabaphbase. [Nathan Has- 
V : kell^Dole.] 
Antibabbabvs. [Gantinued,] 
,The.I)ea:d Oanaby. [OatvllvB.] 



- •JnOVI EBORAa:^ 



^:c 



D '. A P P L E T O N E T 8 O . 



Oopjriffliti' 1880, >j P. ArpuRoir A Co. 



. NOTICE.— All editorial correspondence in ref erenoe to 
Latikb should be addressed to Edgab S. Shumwat, Ad- 
junct Ptofessoi" (in charge) of Latin, Rutgers CoUege, New 
Briinswick, N. J. • 

Amokg the most prominent 2^m articles written for 
the current volume of Latinb have been EPISTTJLAE from 
Bome, Heidelberg, etc. ; COLLOQinA (on Horace'8 life 
and works, on Terence, grammar, oratory, etc.) ; ESS AYS, 
on Reading, etc. ; VERSES, Milton's Ode on the Nativity, 
a Boat-song, the Lament of Jeremiah over Jerusalem, Ad 
disciptdos^ JEUgidion, OdiQ bn East River Bridge, etc. ; a 
translation of Schiller^s Lycurgus : Selected Latin articles 
have been— BIOGRAFHICAL EXTRACTS from Cicero 
(on himself, Caesar, Antony, Cato maior)^ and from Erasmus; 
VERSES, «Rock of Ages," Bex Thvlae, " Art thou weary ?" 
etc. In ihQJEhiglish Supplement every number has contained 
an instalment of "From Old Rome" and ^^ AntH^arharus^^ \ 
valuable original essays have been included on Roman Archi- 
tecture, the Educatioh of the Roman Boy, the Study of 
Roman Law; Book-lists on Roman Architecture, Law, 
Chiristian Latin, ^^Side-Lights^' ; translations from German 
and French sources have included De PronominibiLS Pos- 
eessiviSy Names of Countries, Augustus, iSe«, Horatian AUe- 
gory; ampng . the English cOntents have also been priginal 
poems or translatiohs, Phaethon, Tt/e JPotabiSy ^^Rome's Mis- 
fiion," jthiae Coroncie; Arguments 6n the side of classical 
studies ; Notes and Queries, etc. 



Subscription prioe, September-May, $8.00. Special rates for class 
use. Single copies of Latikb, of a speoified montb, 60 cents ; speci- 
men numbers, 85 cents. Orders for LATDns must be sent to the pub- 
lishers, I, 8, and 6 Bond Street, New York. 

D. Appletow & Oo. 



** Latink, whicb commenoed Bome- 

what over two yeara itgo a3 a little 

-eight-page journal/ has now thirtjr 

two pages. It wa^ bcgun in a tenta- 

tive way ; its success is now assured. 

It was first printed entirely in Latin ; 

it has now an English supplement 

It makes no great pretaisions ; it has 

nio doctrihed or theories to promul- 

gate. Prof essing to be but inddent- 

ally helpful to the teacher in the 

dass-room, or to. the pupil at his 

desk, it is yet indirectly quite helpf ul 

to.both. It is devoted to the pro- 

motion 6f taste for the study of Lat- 

in as a cultiire-giving process. Its 

editor and contributora are all in 

love with^hdr work. As instructora, 

pf oourae, much that thcy writc has 

direct reference to the class-room. 

Neat, scholarly, happy . translations ; 

delicatejtfttx ^e8/>ri< ; retranslations 

pf fa.Yorite poems ; lettera ; conyersa- 

tions— tliese fbrm the matter of the 

purdy Latin part. The English part 

- is more professionaL Latin arch»- 

' ology, soadogy, histoiy, j>hilology, 

bibliography, and criticism, with a 

department 6t ' Notes and Queries ' 

whidi is intended as a ' free parlia- 

. ment,' where eyefy one has the right 

to ask for information or advice — 

f orin the second or English part. 

. "We should like to know of 

. ' eyery teacher of Latin in Canada tak- 

ing Latine; npt so .much for the 

.. materiol benefit he would recdye 

, frbin it, isis £or the help and sympathy 

i he woold galn in being brought inib 

. intimatc. oompanionship . with his col- 

laboratora oyer the whole oontinent, 

■^ and for the opportunity it would givje 

him of exchanging his Tiews with 

thelrs, and agam, ; f or the increased 

tone of culturc and refinement which 

would acorue tb his own work by its' 

being put constantly into relationship 

with someof the best work donein 

his departmentl^bf study oh this.side 

of thc At\ajitik"^The Edueati<mal 

Wttkiy (Toronto). 



FoUirDED AND XDITBD BT 

Pbotxssob EDGAB S. SHUMWAY. 



** A brilliant idea admirably carried 

OUt."--CHABLTOK T. LZWIS. 

^^Looked over *Latine* with great 
pleasure." — Gxobox Wii.lxaii Cuisns. 




*• Variety in the bcautiea of ex- 

Sressiou . and genuine interest.'^ — 
oHK 'EAToilr, United States Commis- 
sioner of Education. 



" It pleases me mudi."-J. H. Skkltx 
. ** I ihink you have done a good 
work." — A. Habkness. 
. **I value ^Latine' more and more 
highly."— Hknbt S. Fbixzb. 



**Interest8 me in the highest de- 
, «e.»»— Dr. C. Deventeb, Royal Col- 
^^®i Giatz, Silesia. 

^'Hope it ^U roceive heaity sup- 
port."— MiNTON Wabbxn'. 



gre( 




; ^y Full of useftil aids."— Thk Gbaph- 
ic (London). . • ; 

**Practically denies that Latin isa 
dead language." — Joitbnal oy Eduoa- 

TION. 

r"rn 

• PUBUSHKD BT 

p. APPLETON AND COMPANT, 
Nxw YOBK. 



NEW yORK 

Life Iijsuraijce CJompaijy, 

3d=6 ^ 3dS JBrpcLd-way, 
NEW YORK. 



ASSETS - OTER FIFTY-FITE MILLION DOLLARS. 
SURPLUS - - - OTER TEN MILLION BOLLARS. 



The Nbw York Life has now perfected a policy called 

- • • • . . , . ^ . • . . 

Tlie Non-Forfeiting Liniited-Tontine Policy, 

whicli combines the non-forfeiture features originated by 
this Conipany in 1860, with the valuable options and benefits. 
of the !* Tontine Investment Policy." This policy tnarks 
the latest adyance in Life Insurance. By a combination 
of non-forfeiture and Tontine privilegesf it obviates the objec- 
tions heretofore made against both the ordinary policy and 
the ordinary Tontine, and it is confidently recommended as 

(1) The safest Life Policy issued, as regards liability 
tolapse. . ' . 

. (2) The most desirable, as fegards character of privi- 
leges ahd benefits ; and . , 

(3) One of the most profitable, as regards cash returnsl 



MORRIS FRANKLIN, WILLIAM H. BEERS, 

. ... President V/ce-Ptea, and Actuaryi 

HE14Ry]tUCK, 2d yice-Pres/dent: : 

VtHEODORK M. BANTA, Cizj;!/^;^^ ' • 

D. 0'DELL, Superintendeht of Agmdes. 

HENRY TUCK, M. D., • ) ,^ v » r- 

A. HUNTINGTON/M.D.,!^''^*'^'*'^?- . ' . 



MENSE APRILI. MDCCCLXXXV. 

YOL. ra.— FASdio. vm. 

L A T I N E 



EDIDIT 



EDGAR S. SHUMWAY, 

UXQ, XJLT. YBOV. ADI. IX OOSXMIO ■TTaBmnO. 



OoLLOQTiyM. : -mr' ' 

Hymkys nr Festo Aboeksionib 
DoMmi. 

M. P0B01T8 Oato Osnbobivb. 
[Pars altera.] 

V. M. R. {Aaleep, January 8lj 
1885.] 



IN HOC FASCICVLO INSVNT 
Idem Latinx. 



O. Laeutb Sapiens. 

YEiBsio Latika OABMnnB Japo- 
NENBiB. [Post paraphrasiin 
anglioam Dickensiam a Na- 
tban Haskell Dole faota.] . 

Iksobiptio. 



ENQLISE 8UPFLEMENT [SvppUm&nivm AngUc9m\, 



HoBATiTTs: lib. I, Qarm. I. 
' [Nathan Haskell Dole.] 

OxTBBIOITLTrM IN LaTIN StYLB 

(Sthistik). [For Hve Years. 
Heynaoher.] \Conti'Mied.'\ 

Tme Latest Tbanslation of 
YEBon^ : [Selections.] ; 

SoME Oyebsiohts in Habpebs' 
Latin Lbzioon. II. 



[Nathan Haskell 



Ad Ohloen. 
' Dole.] 

Fbom Old Bome. A Teaoher'8 
Letter to his Papils. [Adapt- 
ed from the Gennan.] [Ckn^ 
tinued.] 

Sioht-Beadino. . 

Antibabbabys. 

QUEBY. 



NOYI BBORAOI: 
D. APPLETOK ET SOO. 



Oopyxighti 18i36^ Ij D.' Appuroh A Oo.