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LONDON : J. B. NICHOLS AND SON, PRINTERS, 25, PAMLIAMKNT-STREBT. 



PREFACE. 



We are again called on by the recurring season to thank our 
readers for their continued support, and our contributors and 
correspondents for their valuable and obliging assistance. Since 
we last had occasion to address tbemj notliing of remarkable im- 
portance in literature claims a particular notice ; but the current 
has still flowed onward in its useful though silent course ; and 
though some of the deposits which it has left, separately con- 
sidered, may he thought trifling, yet a wise man will think nothing 
a trifle which makes an addition to our previous stock of know- 
ledge. The great pyramid itself was built of single and separate 
stones^ laboriously collected, and accurately combined ; and he 
who aspires to raise a work of literary renown, must be content 
to imitate the builder of antiquity. If the naturalist tells us that 
he can, from the smallest tooth or even nail of a fossil animal, 
tell you tlie order it belonged to, its size, nature, habits, and the 
period in which it lived, so that its entire form should present 
itself before the mental eye, so the antiquary can inform us, that 
the recovery of a single letter in an inscription \viU at once throw 
a clear eflTulgence on the whole ; so httle are we to judge of the 
value of things by their apparent worth as seen in a casual and 
superficial view ! Doctor Johnson says it is the privilege of real 
greatness not to be afraid of diminution by stooping to the notice 
of little things, and he who is able to remove the smallest obstacle 
in the path of literature becomes its benefactor. We have now 
only to add that, in the spirit of these observations, it is our in- 
tention to give two more papers to the subject of Shakespeare^ in 
which our attention will be chiefly employed in the consideration 
of particular passages in the text. It is in many cases a humble 
office, but one which men of the greatest t^dents have not been 
unwilling to undertake ; we shall be satisfied if we can add any- 




IV 



PREFACE. 



thing of ours to what has been already gathered in the collected 
field of labour^ and more so if, enjoying the fruits of our honest 
industry, we shall not be accused of the wish to disparage the 
labours or detract from the reputation which others have acquired 
in the same pursuit. 

S. Urban. 



LIST OF EMBELLISHMENTS TO THE VOLUME. 



*«* Those marked * are printed as Vignettes. 

View of Oxoead Hall, Norfolk .... 

* Fountain at Oxnead Hall, and Plan of the Mansion and Gardens . 

* Eleyations of Chorches with unequal and equal Chancels 
The Church-house and Lich-Gate at Braj, Berkshire 

* Effigy of Lady Latimer in Hackney church, Middlesex 

* Ancient Sepulchral Stones found at Hartlepool 
Holy-water Stoup in All Saints* Church, Hastings, (see p. 338) ; Western 

Turret of Bath Abbey Church ; and the Old Font of Scraptoft, oo. Leic. 

* Two Roman Altars at Newcastle-upon-Tyne . 

* View of St. Leonard's Hospital at Tickhill, co. York . 

Youthful Effigy of Edward Courtenay at Haccombe, co. Deron, (see p. 496) 
Ornamented Tiles at Great Malvern, co. Worcester, (two Plata). 

* Arms of Colonel William Carlos .... 

Two Caterpillar Amulets found in co. Cork ; a Brooch found in co. Ros- 
common ; and a Celt found in co. Tipperary 
Quarries of Glass from Wotton, co. Surrey, inscribed by John ETelyn 



Page 
SI 

21, « 

31 

133 

163 

187 

246 
899 

373 
381 
492 
548 

582 

584 



INDEX TO POETRY. 



Calder, To the 58 
Castandra, 615 
David, Song of Degrees of 59 
Dover at Night 508 
Dream of lAfe 2B\ 
^mma. On 617 
Farewell, Cumpsiuioii 56 
Hector* s Abtehied 6 17 
Henrp IL 167 
ImprovitOt by L. Taylor 55 
Z>Off and Sorrow 506 
Muiie of the (^ of God 393 
Ode to Napoleon 167 
Our Wedding Da^ 282 
Recolteetiont, 172 



Hydal Chapel f on the erection of 284 

Songs, 506 

Sophoclee, 50d 

Strafford's Committal to the Tower, 392 

Sunriee, 507 

Taylor^ W, Imitation of an Italian Son- 
net 360 

Thought and Deed 167 

^^a^^CAurcA 279 

yirgil, from the Fuurth Georgic 171 

Voices rf the Dead ZBZ 

Westminster Play, Prologue and Epi 
logue to 69i 70 

ff%arf. To ihtbS 

Withers't Salt upon Salt «f 69 



THE 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 

JANUARY, 1844. 
By SYLVANUS URBAN, Gent. 



CONTENTS. 

Minor CoRiiESPONPSKCfi.-^Kuniismatic Inquiries — Qupstion to A. J, K. rc- 
st>ectiiig Ncwcnden — Wills and loveutories illiistrative of the History, &c 
of Northern Counties of England — What will deatroy the Bookworm ?^ 
Error* in Domestic lateUigeoce, Obitunry; aodiii Mr, Wodderspoon'i Stif- * 

folk Churches , , ...< 2 

Ltfk or GsoFFRKY Chavcer. By Sir Hams Nicolat— Poetical WoRits or 

GiconrREY Chaucer. By T. Tyrwhitt ".. 3 

Arms uid Name of De Bcmay — Missal in the poasession of E. Roche, Eiq. , * ^ 

OxiMRdHall, Norfolk, f^ith a Plate) 21 

Report of Legul Proceedings in France for the recovery of a Shrine improperly 

removed from a Church S^ 

OlJSt.Paura 27 

Family and Pedigree ofBarwick , •••••■ 38 

Oil the Proportions of Chancels. * «..«••••* 3© 

Pumily of Cheffontaines— Prototypes of the Pil^m't Progreas— Wyooe's Bard 

of Sleep — Virgil's C&milk »,,*.♦.,..,,..,.....,'• • » * . . » 31 

Some Particulars respecting the Euglish Ecclesiastical Courts ^"* 

Chapter contrihntcd by Dr. Johnson to *' The Female duixote*' ' ^ ^ 

REVIEW OF NEW^ PUBLICATIONS. 

Memorials of the Great Civil War in England, from 1646 to 1659, 49 t 
Sermons by Archdeacon Manning, 52 ; Selections from the Writings of the 
late Sidney Taylor, A.M. 54 ; Last Days of Francis the First, 56 ; St. 

Patrick's Purgatory, 57 ; Miscellaneous Reviews 59 

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.— 

New Publications, 63 ; University of Cambridge — Dablio Univcraity— Royal 
Society — The Westminster Play, 69 ; Ethnological Society — Institution of 
Civil Engineers — Royal Institution at Liverpool — ^The Charter House, 71 ; 

Ancient Mosic — Foreign Literature ,,,,,.*...,.,».. 7* 

FINE ARTS.— The School of Design, 7.1 j Institute of the Fine Arts 74 

ARCHITECTURE.— Institute of British Architects, 75; Private Chapel at 

Windsor — Cambridge Camden Society, 7T j Oxford Architectural Society. . 7 9 
ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES.— Society of Antiqimries, 79; The China 

W^all 80 

HISTORICAL CHRONICLE.— Foreign News, 81; Domestic Occurrences 82 

Promotions and Preferments, 85 ; Births and Marriages « . » * * H6 

OBITUARY ; with Memoirs of the Ex-King of Holland j Hon. E. E. ViUiers ; 
Gen. Sir John Frazer ; Gen. W^. Brooke ; Major- Gen* Sir Joscpli O'Hallo- 
rmn ; Lieut. -Col. W. Ingleby; J. Baldwin Brown, LL.D. ; Rev, James 
Farquharson, LL.D. ; Rev. John Foster; W. S. Roscoe, Esq.; Ct G, 
Harley, Esq. ; William Seguier, Esq. % Mr. William Savage ; John Buddie, 
Esq. ; Joseph Harding, Esq. ; Mr. Thomas Hollis ; M. Casimir Delavt^e ; 

J. F. Kind .. 90—103 

Ct«moT DicxAssn t.. ..•...•. .«,...... * 103 

Deaths, arranged in Counties ....,* ...... « * 1 04 

RegistTRr-General's Returns of Mortality in the Metropolis — Markets— Prices 

of Shares, 111; Meteorological Diary— Stocks • . • 1 1 tf 

Embellished with a View of Oxkead Hall, NoRroLK ; a SciTCttor A FovNTAlM 
formerly there ; and GROtJNp.ptAN o? thb Mansion. 



MINOR CORRESPONDENCE. 



J. P. would be glad to be informed 
whether the original charter of William 
the Conqueror to the College of St. 
Martins-le-grand is extant, and where it 
is. If it is not known to be in existence, 
where is the most authentic transcript of 
it? 

Mr. Daniel Henry Haioh, of Leeds, 
who is preparing a work in illustration of 
Saxon coini, and has already made draw- 
ings Of every other rare coin in the late 
Dean of St. Patrick's collection, is 
anxious to learn who is the present pos- 
sessor of the two following: — 1. Obv. 
BaPETiMo, a sword ; Re?, eboracio, a 
cross, with crescents and pellets in al- 
ternate angles. 2. Ob?, a sword ; Re?, 
a cross Calvary; each surrounded bv a 
blundered legend. These are figured in 
Mr. Lindsay's work on the Anglo-Saxon 
coinage ; but Mr. Haigh is, we presume, 
desirous to delineate them himself, for 
which purpose he begs to be favoured 
with impressions in i^ing-wax. 

J. P. would be obliged to A. J. K. to 
•ay upon what authority Hasted, in his 
History of Kent, asserts that *' the manor 
qf Newendtn hy ihe nam* qf Andred^* 
was given bv Offa to the monks of Can- 
terbury, and what that manor was called 
in Domesday. Harris says it was given 
to the ArckbUhop. 

A CoNBi'ANT Readeb, who has re- 
ceived much grati6cation from the perusal 
of a volume of *' Wills and Inventories 
illustrative of the History, Manners, 
Language, Statistics, &c. of the Northern 
Counties of England, from the Eleventh 
Century downward,'' Part I. is informed 
that the second part of this work is in- 
tended to be published by the Surtees 
Society, and will shortly be proceeded 
with. In the mean time the Camden 
Society has undertaken the publication 
of the ancient wills which remain in the 
ATchiepiscopal registers at Lambeth, and 
which will douUleas be found full of 
general interest. 

A CorresDondent would be glad to be 
informed wnat means noay mo^t effectu- 
ally be used to prevent the ravages of the 
insect common!? known as the book- 
worm ; especially whether there is any 
diemioU preparation that will destroy it 
where it cannot be detected in a book, 
but where there is yet every reason to 
■appose it to be. 

Mr. Urban, — In the account which 
you have given in your December Number 
of the Queen's visit to Cambridge, there 
■re one or two errors which should be cor- 



rected. At p. 643 it was stated that tbe 
degree of D.D. was conferred on Dr. 
Olipbant, Regius Professor of Divinity, 
on occasion of the Queen's late visit 
to Cambridge. This is altogether a 
mistake, he having been D.D. before 
his appointment as professor. From 
the paragraph which follows, it would 
appear as if the performance of the Coro- 
nation Anthem, together with Roubiliac's 
statue of Sir Isaac Newton, were in tbe 
senate house. Both these statements in 
reality refer to the visit to Trinitv Chapel 
on the evening of the 25th, when four 
noblemen Undei^graduates (of whom Lord 
Gifford was not one) held torches and 
candlesticks, while the royal party ex- 
■mined the statue. The paragraph (nearly 
at the top of left-hand column, p. 643) 
beginning »' The royal party then visited 
Trinity College," &c. should run thus: 
In the course of the evening the royal 
party visited tbe chapel of Trinity Col- 
lege. At p. 650 it is stated that Gen. 
Finch represented Cambridge until the 
general elecdon in 1820. This was not 
BO ; he took the Chiltem Hundreds at 
the close of Uie year 1819, in Dec. of 
which year Lieut. -Col. F. W. (now Sir 
F. W.) Trench was elected in his stead. 
In p. 661 of the same number, it is 
mentioned that the Rev. Thomas Heber- 
den was Senior Wrangler in 1775. Now 
Prof. Vince was first on the Mathe- 
matical Tripos in that year. Mr. Heber- 
den was a Senior Optime. 

D. E. D. remarks: "From Mr. 
Wodderspoon's list of churches in Suf- 
folk, where the chancels are of the same 
altitude as the nave (see your last No. 
Gent. Mag. p. 573), the following must 
be deducted, there having been no chan- 
cels to those churches for very many 
years : Dallinghoo, Letheringham, Bawd- 
sev, Orford, Kessin^land, Kjrkley. The 
following typographical errors should be 
corrected :/or Little Wanham read Little 
Wenham; for Aldborough read Alde- 
burgh ; for Little Glenham read Little 
Glemham ; for Blickling Hundred read 
Blithing Hundred ; /or Sacstead read Sax- 
stead ; for Rishanger read Rishangles ; 
Jbr Peluugh read Pettaugh. 

Errata.— 'Dec. p. 585, in note, line 84, for 
Apperaley read Apperley ; p. 590. line 45 of tbe 
text. /broreg^na del mondoo read re^nna del 
mondo ; p. 592, in note, line 7, /<w waring 
read Waddinc ; p. 594, line 31 of the text,/«r 
piUulent read pfllottent ; p. 595, line 53, /or 
MtijeAtid read Majeslad (or Majestad) ; ib. une 
6 from bottom, for Griguon read Grig nan. 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 



1. lAfe of Gtoffrep Chaucer. By Sir Harris Nicolas, Pickering, 
2. The Poetical Works of G, Chavcer, By T. Tjrrwbltt. Moxon. 

^TiOEVER wishes to see and appreciate the transcendent brightness 
of Chaucer's genius, should cast an eye on the darkness which surrounded 
him. With the single and solitary exception of Roger Bacon, Chancer was 
the first Englishtnau whose writings have survived to perpetuate his own 
fame and todelijiiht fa tti re ages, and, therefore, he is justly called "the 
father of the English poets/** When it in onr purpose to estimate an 
author's works, we take them at their positive value, abstracted from all con- 
siderations of the times aud circimistances in which he lived, and the degree 
of good or ill fortune which attended him j but, when we look to the geniui 
or the aeqairements of the writer himself, we must also take into account 
Ihc comparative education of his contemporaries, the peculiar advantages, 
if any, which he possessed over theui, or the impediments which the sur- 
rounding darkness presented to his progress and advancement. The 
author and his work are not to be confoondcd. He who was only a man 
of moderate stature in one age, might have started up a giant in the next. 
The illastrioas person whose name we have already mentioned, the 
elder Bacon, was one whose mind possessed the highest constituents of 
fenias. In a dark age, he anticipated some of the most brilliant dis- 
coveries of posterity » but he lived three centuries too soon for his own fame 
and for our advantage. As relates to Chaucer, the proper subject of our 
present research, whether as regards himself or his writings, we shall 
return to the inquiry with a confirmed feeling of his transcendent powers, 
snd an assurance of his permanent reputation- Though written in ati age 
comparatively dark, and though he had no model on which to form them, 
Ilia poems are as yet unequalled in many qualities of the highest order, arvd 
bis name is inferior only to the very greatest in the temple of Fame. If 
wc look to the jK)ct himself we shall be astonished when we see how im- 
measurably superior he was to every one of his own time, so as not only to 
excel them in the degree of his capacity, but to stand apart in its very 
quality and essence. We can see no one like him or approaching him at 
the longest interval | his was one of those creative minds that occasionally 
appear, as it were to remind us of the original fertility of nature. As a 
matter half of amusement, half of instruction, wc took our copy of Lelandf 
^frofii the shelf to turn over the pages in which the poet and hh contcm- 
l]K»f«fie9 mre mentioned, and we were not a little surprised both at the 



• lohnson pronounoea Chaucer ** to be the fint Engliiih nert^er who wrote poeti- 
ciUy," (v. Pfef. Diet. p. I ;) bat, aa Johnson has uieii the word vtrti^er and not poet, 
we ma; tiigge§t that there were some writers of early romances previoui to his time 
who can daim the luerit of versifjing poetically ; though, probably, this claai of 
literature was not in Johnson's mind at the tJme, and, indeed, was not at that time 
oaueh known or eaiily acceasible. The Earl of Saliibury, who hvcd in Chaucer's 
tLmt^ and who wai beheaded by Henry the Foorth, was a poet, and waa a friend of the 

Dooa Christina of Piua. The French and Italians bad made at thia time eoo*^ 
able proficiency and improvements in poetry, 

t Lcknd Cotamentaiii de Scriptoribui Britaonidl^ ed* A* Uallr I799t ^^* 



Sir H, Nicoliis'B Li/e of Geoffrey Chattcer, 



[Jan. 



copiousueas of the ]i«t of authors and the iiiiikitude of the iirudiicttoiis. 
Tbe greater pa it of the uritcrs of that age nere Carmelite Friars ^ with 
uaines aft loug as the beards which touched their girdles One illustrious 
man was called Nicolaiis Loogospatbaiius ; he was a great writer on occult 
philosophy. Then there wa.s a Dominus Roger Vento-fluctus, with his 
reverend companions friar Coccoporos and Walter "^^inisalvo, and a William 
Snethigaiuius^ all of whom spent their lires in iilling monastic libraries with 
their learned productions j though, from some inexplicable cause or other* 
their labours arc known only to here aud there a person in the present day, 
who is more than ordinarily studious of antiquity. We ourselves must ou n 
that our knowledge in this quarter is but auperhcial, and, with the excep- 
tion of the following treatises, we are not aware of any that we can be said 
absolutely to have mastered — they are De Rebus Creatis iti Specie — de 
Utensilibus — de Septcm Evperiiaentis, nccnon de non ducend4 Uxore. Thij* 
last is a capital discourse , and proceeds^ we belicTe, from the learned peti 
of friar Hugo Lobbealiamus. Then tliere is a work but little known called 
Capita Original* urn, another De Proportion ibus, very interesting, and a 
Fcrculum Zizanioruin» which, we believe, raided the author to high pre- 
fertnent in his abbey. Of such a nature were the productions of the numerous 
and celebrated authors who flourished in Chaucer's days: they were the fruit 
of much labour and learning, but they have all well nigh sunk and mouldered 
Into the earthy while the native flowers of his genius are still blooming in 
immortal and increasing beauty, tliough now in an age most peevish and 
spleneticp and in a climate growing more and more ungenial to thcm»^ 

It is not true, as some assert^ tbat Chaucer lived in an ignorant and 
dark age. It was the perversion of learning, and not the want of it^ that 
waa to be lamented ; in the monastic cloisters^ and in the refectories of 
the abbots, were cliurchujen who could read and interpret the Fathers of 
the Church, and distntanglc the subtilties of the schoolmen. But, as their 
religion was corrupted by superstition, so their philosophy degenerated 
into sophistry,! Chaucer, it has t>cen observed, Ims a double claim to 
rank as tiie founder of English poetry from having been the first to make 

* To show the rise of oar aatioasl poetry from its source in S^xon times, sad honr 
little of it, preTioas lo Cbaucer, dcsenred the namei we trAUscribe a short pssssge 
from the learned Introduction to Havelok (Rex, ti.) p* xlriii. bj Sir F, Madden, The 
uotices, as he ubsenres, ** are few and scanty,'* bat we can scarcely hope to Bod any 
more. 

). Song of Canute, 1069. 

2. Versec ascribed to St Godric, died I ITO, 

3. Few lines preserved bf Camden of tbe same period, 

4. Prophecy set up la 1 180, 

h. For the same time, Henrr II. the Metrical Comp. of Lagaraon, tlEHi* Orim 
L^ods of St. Katheriae, 8l Margaret, St* Jalien. 

(a. From thb time to middle of next century^ poems of John de Guldevorde, the 
Biblical Histonr, Foet. Faraphrsac of the Psalms (t« Warton) and the Moral Ode (v* 
Hicks). 

7. Between 1344 and lSS6t part of a Med. of Augustiu verbified, MS. Dtirliam* 

8. Tbe eariiest songs in Ritson and Percy, 1S64. 

9. Close of Henry lilt Hotnances, Sir Trintramr K* Horn and K. Alisauader. 
Hifdok, 1^0— 1990. 

Tbk last date comea down to within 3d |ears of Chaucer's supposed birth. 

▲mlMir of William and Werwolf, 1350. 

Aeeorditig to Ellis's Iliit, Ske*ch CEngh Poet*) there were four poets altTe in 
CbWflar^s days whose worka are known to us, Gower, Barbour, And. of Wyntouo, and 
Lydgmte. 

t '* If we look over tbe list of authors quoted by Chaucer and other writers of that 
period, we shill ftod it coaiiderably numorooi. The libraries of monasteries supplied 



I 



18440 



Sir H* Nicolas*8 Life of Gtoffre^ Chaucer* 



it tlie vcliicle of spirited representations of life and native toaiuicrs ; fvnd, 
secondly, from liavtng been the first great architect of otir versification, tii 
giving our language the ten -syllabic or lieroic ineasyrc, wbicli, tboiigh it 
may sometiniea be found among tbc lines of more ancient versifiers, 
evidently comes in only by accident. Nor among the characteristics of 
hia genius show Id tbc ricli and quaint buiuonr wliicb is seen and enjoyed 
both in bis description and sentiment, be overlooked, counecting itself, 
as it docs, witb tbe fact, that this satirical banter, drollery, and wit, 
is a cliaracteristic feature in the literature of these early centuries, when 
learning and antborsbip were leaving the doors of the cloister, to 
mix in a more genera! commerce with mankind* We doubt not but the 
contracts afforded by society were striking and strong ^ tbe peculiarities of 
individuals prominent and rcuiarkablc ; the long intervals of lassitude and 
leisure required excitement, and fitted the mind for itj and, above all, 
the danger of openly denouncing the vices or corruptions of the age, led 
to tbe safer way of turning indignation into ridicule, of making tbc moralist 
put on the cap of the jester, liU at length tbe general mind was accustomed 
to these peculiar associations, which, however philosophically incorrect, 
yet, by delighting the fancy with their novel images and creations, became 
the u&cful and formidable ally of truth herself. In the grotesque cha- 
racters, in the extravagant and burlesque buffoonery, in the broad, 
homorous, and ribald dialogue, and in the ludicrous images of the old 
drama, Chaucer had a prototype for his satyrical and comictd vein, as he 
had ID tbe old romances for Ins Gothic pageantries and his pictores 
of love and chivalry. 

The life of Chaucer has been often written, in various style and 
manner, according to the degree of taste or knowledge of the biographer. 
Perhaps the two most generally known are tho.^e composed on opposite 
principles by Godwin and Tyrwhitt J tbe former has swollen out like a 
gourd, and the latter is compressed into a nutshell : (iodwin was a writer 
of abjhtietf, and has given an amusing and, iierhaps, instructive work, 
which he has been pleased to call a Life of Chaucer, but which might 
rather be named a dissertation on the times when Chancer livcd^f or a 
ruDoiog commentary* on Englisli history. Tyrwhitt was a scholar of the 
first order, and had a truly critical mind, which fitted him for such inves- 
tigatioos in tbe remote pat lis of a refined literature as be delighted in, 
beyond any one of fiis age ; bnt^ as be knevv the love of truth to be the 
only sure foundation of critical invcatigatioOt he was slow to receive any 
theories or conjectural hypotheses or doubtful points into his biography ^ 
and, couaequcntly, by adnvitting. with a minute and scrupulous exactness. 



tadronta^e arising from the small collections of ictdividiial§« They were pre^ 

i from being so minute and accurate n» scholars of our days frequently are, in 

"an^ but not from being learned,*^ Godwin^s Life, i. ^8. 
i^ee the religious controversies aad works of the early Reformers, as well as the 

ical fables » both io prose and verse, so numerous in those days. See also Fitz- 
tSgf/bmtH account of tbe assembties of tbe schools in London on public hotidays, and 
of the revival of tbc ancient Fescennine hberty of sarcasm in tbe declamations. Sco 
Fitzstepbea apud Lcland Itin. vol. viiL 

i" Mr. Hallain allows '• that auotber modem hook may be named with tome com- 
mendaiiim^ Godwiu^s Life of Cbaucer.'* Vid* Middle Ages, iii. p. 81. It ought to 
have been called ** A History of John of Gaunt and his Man Chaucer/' In one place 
he mppoies John of Gaunt addresBinj^ Chaucer in tbe following words: *' Mau i» a 
eomplex beingt and affected with mLiced coosiderations/^ Ike. voh it. p. ^10. Much 
of the reading io Mr. Godwin's book is at utcQnd hand^ and be bad too great a dosirG 
t9 make it entertaixung. 



Sir H. Nicolas's Life of Gtoffrcy Chaucer, 



[Jao. 



only the very few facts known, and rejecting the otherB» be reduced the 

account of his author to a very imaJl compass. The present biographer 
comes under happier auspices to his task. He saySj 



" Although great trouble \rati takeo to 
illustrate the liJfe of Chaucer hj his former 
biographer* I the field of research waa but 
imperfectly gleaned. Many material facta; 
in his hi§tory have been very recently 
brought to light, and are now, for the first 
time, {)ubli«bed ; but it if not from these 
diacoverief only that this account of the 
poet will derive ltd claim to attentioD. 



An erroneous construction has been givca 
to mach of what was before known of 
him ; and nbsiird infereucea have, in some 
(?aseS| been drawn from supposed alloiioni 
to himaelf in his writiogg. A lifc^ of the 
poet, founded on documentary evidence* 
instead of imagiuatjoii, was much wanted ; 
and this, it is hoped, the present memoir 
wiU sapply." 



We will now give a short abridginent of the poet*a Ufe from the narrative 
before iis. 

Chaucer's parentage is unknowni but probably bis family was connected 
with the city of I^ndon* We trust that he waa not the son of Elizabeth 
Chaucer* a nun of St. Helen's ; but it is possible, as Speght suggests, that 
Richard Chaucer, \intner of Txnidon, might have been his father. If so, 
he had a brother also a citi^^en and vintner. The name of Chancer 
existed in otlier counties ; one was a burgess of Colchester, another, deputy 
to the king's butler at Southampton, aod others are luentiuned in contem- 
porary records and charters wliose names alone are known » but who seem 
to have filled a respectable station in society. •* That he was of a gentle- 
man's family,** Sir Harris says, *'can scarcely be doubted;*' but if by 
''gentleman *' he means a rank above that of merchant^ or citizen, we sec 
Qo reason to admit the assertion ; apparently he was in such a rank of life 
as enabled him to have the advantages of an education which unfolded and 
improved his talents* The time of his birth seems to depend on the con- 
jectnres of his biographers, but has generally been assigned to the year 
1328, When» however, he was examined at Westminster in 1386> he deposed 
that he was of the age of '* forty and upwards, and bad been armed twenty- 
seven years/* This wouM materially alter the date, and he would have 
been bom abont 1345 ; but his biographer says that there are strong 
reasons, derived from many passages in \m own works, and the writings 
of Gower and Occleve, for bt'lieving that he was born long before 1345. 
Some of Chaucer's biograptiers most confidently speak of hts being edu- 
cated at Oxford, others, not less confidently, at Cambridge^ and some give 
him the benefit of both Universities. There is not the least proof that he was 
CTcr at either, yet his biographer says, *' It is impossible to believe that he 
quitttd college at the early period at which persons destined for a military life 
uimally begin their career ;"f presuming, and justly we think, though in the 

* Mr. D'ltnicll teik lu that, *' after Godwin had sent to preii his biography of 
Chaueer^ a depositioD on the poet^s a^e in the Heralda' College, detected the whole 
errooeoat amngemcnt/' Vid. Ameaitiea of Literature, toL i. p. S53. SeeaUoHip- 
p8sl«f '« Chapter! on Earl^ Engliah Literature, p« 85, 

t The inference which the learned biographer draws fro in hii earlj qciting college for 
a military life heiog incompatihle with hit vdcDOwiodged acquirementi, tcarcelj ippears 
to OB Kufficiently convincing j for at that period, and bog after, colleges were ichooli, 
tmd not pMt-*chooU aa they are now, and youthi entered the UDtvenitie« at a very 
«viy age. Betidet at ooUcige the itodcot doei not acquire proficieacy in vajioos branches 
of learning, hot rather lays a foiwdatioD for future ioqitlhes ; his knowledge is gained 
afteniards by his iadependeot exertioiu, and when the miod has attained an elevation) 
by which it is enabled to select the path that it can most successfully portouc. The 
CttMom of sending youths to colleg* at an early age long subsisted* Lord Burghley 
Hat tent ia hit 13th year, Seidell in hi* lith jtWt Lord CiorendoA alsQ in bii i4th, 
He* i b«forc that tunc moch e&rlicr still. 



1844.1 



Sir H. NIcoWs Lift of Geofrty Chaucer. 



I 

I 



absence of proof, tbat his various attainments, liis acquaiBtance with classics, 
with divinity, with astrouomy, and other branches of scholastic learuiDg, prove 
that he had received a soperior edocatiou^ and we may suppose that he was 
educated for a learned profession, as the Bar or the Churchy if for the 
latter, it was for the church mHHanl, as he showed his fondness (ot polemical 
divinity very early, and in a manner rat heron usual, *^for he was fined two 
f hillings for beating a Franciscan friar in Fleet Street/* and it is said by 
Speght that a record in the Temple proves the truth of the anecdote. 
Leland, however, inclines to the Jaw, and says when in France " collegia 
legnleiorum freqnentavit :*' however, this is certain, that in 1339, when he 
was about 30 years old, he was in the army (certainly not as chaplain) 
with Edward IIL in France, and that he was taken prisoner by the French 
in the expedition which terminated in the peace of Chartres in May 13 GO. 
After this, a blank of seven years occurs, in which nothing is Icnown of 
him, and we think it not improbable that during this Interval he was laying 
in that stock of knowledge which his writings show him to possess,* for 
his was now the very period of life when tlic mind is most ardent after 
knowledge, and most capable of exertion. Milton never studied s o unin- 
Icrmptedly and so intensely as during the six or seven years he resided 
under his father's roof in Hertfordshire, after he left the University > and 
such are what Bishop Hurd calls '* the golden hours of study *' in a scholar's 
life- If Chaucer doring part of this interval were resident as we beheve 
in France, we cannot but consider it to have been most advantageous to 
him, as aflfording the best opportunity of studying the very source of that 
fabulous and romantic history from which the subjects and decorations of 
his own poetry were subsequently drawn. Tyrwhitt says, *' that we have 
not one English romance anterior to Chaucer which is not borrowed from a 
French one." The Norman muse was the preceptress of our own, and the 



I 



• Since writing the above we are plefts^d to see a confirmfttlon of our conjecture in 
heland, — ** Constat utique iilum circn postremoi Rtcardi 2^^, cui non incogoitus erat 
aanos in GallJs HoruiBse magnannjtte ex cutidua in Hierin e^ercilatioue gloriam sibi 
€9m^r9ue, turn prvterea Bsdem oper& omncs veneres, lepores, deltcias, soJes, oc 
wwtuiDO gratiAA lingnK gallicv tam alte combibi&se^ quam cioquam vi^ credibile, Lmn 
ttia O^iiofHdmm in Angliie reversum seqaebatur, tanqnam comes ejus virtutifiindiTidua." 
Y. Cap. D.V. de GaUofrido Chaitcero. Leland mentions a friend of Chaucer^a of the 
ttame of Birode^ to whom he submitted hia verses, — a trifiing fact not mentioned by the 
praeaC biographer. Winat&nley say§| *' By hia travcla in France aod Flanders he 
attiiiicd to great perfection in all kinds of learning. About the latter end of King 
Rjcbard the Second's days, he flourished iu France, and got himself in high esteem Mere 
by lib diligent exercise in learning.*' Chancer was always distinguished for his 
fipcHor iearning ; let as give old Futteo barn's account of him. ♦* But of them aE 
particnlarly this is mine opiaion that ChmtewTj with Gower, and Lydgate, and Harding, 
for thcT aodqnitie ought to have the first place, and Chaucer t a* the moti renouned qf 
iktm all, for ihe muck teaming appeareth to be in him above any of the rest. And 
thongfa many of his bookes be but bare translatioDB out of the Latin and French, yet 
are tbey well handled, as his bookes of Troitns and Cressidf and the Romance of the 
Rose, whereof he translated not one halfe ; the derice was John de Mehua'Si a French 
pocte< The ' Canterbury Tales ^ were Chaucer's own inveiitioiif as I supposei and 
whert lie thoweth more the naturall of his pleasant wit then in any other of his workes; 
bb rindlarities, comparisons, and all other descnptionSf are BQch ai cannot be Amended. 
if ii Soeetre heroicall of Troiius and Cressid is very grave and stately, keeping the 
ttalT of seven and the verse often ; his other verses of the Canterbury Tales be but 
fidmp rhyme^ nevertheless very well becoming the matter of that pleasant pilgrimage 
IB vbich every man's part is played with much decency," — Of Poets ttitJ Poesiet 
p* SO. Winstanley says of him, ** In passing bis time in the University he became a 
witty logician, a sweet rhetorician^ a grave philosopher^ a holy divine and skilful 
BwtbetiuiCician* and a pleasant poet/* Vide Life in England's Worthies. Wartoti 
flfi thai *' Chaucer waa an univertol reader,** 




8 Sir H. NieoUs's Li/e of Gnfirey Chancer. [Jan. 

AracMTtciii fmUes were transplanted to another climate as congenial to them 
as their own. Here then Chancer had ample Insure to study the mytholojg^y 
and imbibe the spirit of the Norman minstrels, which he was to naturalise 
in his own language ; to store his memory with the marvellous events and 
achievements of chivalrouslife, with the fabulous l^euds of oriental en- 
chantment, and the visionary and fantastic all^oriesof the Proven9al bards ; 
to study the manners and superstitions there recorded, to describe the public 
pageants and splendid festivities with accuracy of detail and correctness of 
costume ; to rear his palaces and castles with all the barbaric splendour of 
the Byzantine architects, and to array his jousts and tournaments with the 
raagnihceut display, and according to the acknowledged laws and institu- 
tions of Western chivalry. In 1367 Chaucer was one of the valets of 
the king*s chamber, " dilectus Valettns noster/'and had an annual salary of 
twenty marks for life. This handsome annuity authorised him to solicit 
the hand of Philippa, eldest daughter of Sir Payne Roet,* and sister of 
Katherine Swynford^ mbtress of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. She 
was one of the ladies in attendance on the queen. Chaucer was abroad 
for a few months in the summer of 1370. In 1372 he was joined in a 
commission in a commercial treaty with the Genoese, and in December of 
that year an advance of 66/. 13s. 4dL was made him for his expenses, and 
he left England soon after. All that is known of his mission is, that he 
went to Florence and to Genoa, that he had returned in Nov. 1373, and that 
he received a further sum from the king's exchequer for his expense in 1374. 
Some of the biographers of Chaucer have surmised, and others of a 
bolder temperament have asserted, that« during' his stay in Italy, Chaucer 
visited Petrarch at Padua, f and obtained from him the tale of Griselda, 
which the Clerk of Oxenford recites 3 but, in this case, as in others, '* the 
wish '* is alone the " father to the thought,** for the only foundation for such 
an event is, that an imaginary character in the Canterbury Talcs prefaces 
his story by saying that it was 

*' Lemdat Padoue of a worthy clerk/' 

an introduction calculated very naturally to draw the attention of his 
auditors to the story by giving to it a kind of personal interest, but in no 
way identifying any part of the narrative with the poet himself, and, 
indeed, such strained and fanciful interpretations are to be carefully 
avoided, and no more to be admitted into biographical memoirs, than they 
would be allowed to mix with the authentic materials of history. A 

* See an " Ode in pore Iambic feet " to mr noble friend Sir T. H. (Hawkins ), 
knight, on his translation [of Horace], by Hogh Holland. 

** That Astrophell of arts the life 

A knight was and a poet, 
So wmt the num wko took to wtf9 

ThidaughierqflAiRoet,*' &c. 

Yet Sir Harris sars, '* It has not been ascertained j;oti7t0«/y whom Chancer married ; 
the statement that his wife was Philippa, daughter of Sir P. Roet, scarcely admits a 
doubt." His wife's name, however, was not Philippa Roet, but Pieard. See Life, 
p. 60 to 66, and Godwin*s Life, II. 374. She probably died in 1387. 

f Mr. Godwin,in one of his tales of fiction, or noveb, called ** The Life of Chaucer," 
has described Chaucer*s motives for seeking an interriew with Petrarch, the interriew 
itself, the feelings of the two poets, and the very substance of their couTersation. 
Vide Life, i. 463. To do this, he fah^fUi a letter of Petrarch (See Nicolas's Life of 
Chancer, p. 30) both as to the date and substance of the letter, all being material 
polntt. 

X 



J 8440 



Sir H, Nicolas'a Life of Geoffrey Chaucer, 



9 



qn€9tioa> hoxrever, does arise deserving an answer, why Chaticer acknow- 
ledges Ui6 obligfitions to Petrarch for his taSe of Griseldaj and not to the 
original author, Boccaccio? 

The reason, we confidentlv snggcsli is to be found, first, m the fact 
that the name of Petrarch was far more illiistrions and more widely known 
than that of Boccaccio.* \Vc own tliat, when the iiamc of Petrarch Is 
mentioned in England, it connects itself in the minds of most men, and 
alt women, with ttie lover of Laura, and lire inditer of jimorous Boimets j 
and we have seen the poet painted in a Venetian cloak, with a hat and 
feather, and Proven ijal roses in his shoes^ b*"l? ^y ^^^^ fountain of 
Vaucluse, dreaming life away in the languor of romantic and visionary 
aspirations* This may do very well for " young ladies' seminaries at 
I Ilaropstead or Haniraersmith ^ " but Petrartli was not only a poet and 

lover, but a man of great scholastic attainments ; a man of laborious 
^ study, of practical knowledge, of varied acquaintance ivith the characterei 
of men^ and the social and political state of empires j he was the friend 
and counsellor of more than one of the Italian princes \ he was in high 
honour in tfie Papal Courts ardently attached to the liberties and honour 
of his country, — in short, in activity, in acquirements, in conduct, in 
honourable estimation, he was among the Urst and foremost men of his age. 
As for self-indulgence, Inxnriousnesa, or softness of life, he knew nothing 
abont it : he lived on the coarsest and liardest fare, he ate the hard brown 
bread of the valley ; he drank the pure and crystal waters of his fountain ; 
and, instead of cloaks of Genoa velvety he wore a kitid of tanned jacket 
or pelisse of sheepskin, scribbled over with the scraps of verse and prose, 
which, for want of better materiids at hand, he had written on it. 
Pelrarch was the great man of his age ; and that is the reason why 
Chaucer mentioned him ; and secondly, it was more honourable, and 
more scholarlike, to quote from Latin than Italian, The vernacular 
languages were little esteemed ; no one wrote in them who could write \\\ 
the ancient, and Petrarch himself looked for the immortality to which he 
afiptred, not to his canzone or his Italian sonnetti, but to his great epic 
|K>em, recording the events of Roman history, and written in that noble 
language which had been spoken by the sona and matrons of Rome. To 
rival 8tatiu3 and to emulate Virgil in their own tongue, was the highest 
ambition of him who was the niost illustrious ^H)et of his age and country, 
and who even now yields to none in his delineation of the purest and most 
powerful pa*ision that at once agitates, and enthralls, yet refines and purihes 
the human heart. There is, bcsidca, no ground for presuming that Chaucer 



• The Knight't Tde U tiiken from Bocc»ccioi to i« the Reve's Tule. January and 
XUy U a Lombiinl fttory. Nonnc'a Priest's Tak u an Engliah fable. The Clerk of 
Oxmford*!* Tulc from Boccaccio tlirough Petrarch'* version, Lydgate, in hia 
Tempk of G las, seems to speak a« if he had seen a completed copy of tlie Squirt*^ Tate* 

** And how her brother so often helpe was 
In his misohefe, by the stcde of bras/* 

That p«rt of the story which h hinted at in these two lines U lost* which, however, 
might harelMcti remaining in the time of Lydgate. SeeWarton on Spenser, i. p. 154* 
I'hiL'pa says, the Squire's Tale b said to be cotnplete in Jrmtdel House Library ; vid. 
Th««tr. Poet. p. 6. An origina! ballad of Chaucer, which had escaped all the editors 
of hiM works, was printed m Percy's Retiques^ vol ii, p. 11, for the first time from 
^\.. iK.,.». \T...... .„,*^ y^j, jQjj^g i^f^ illustrations of Chaucer, sec Uipp<*l*7'» 

t ;lish Literatnre, 1837. Two tales, the Coke** Tale of GamelyTi 

*' oond Tftle, or the History of Bei-yn, were first printed in Urry'i 

tdictuu, iWl. They arc ^vngulnriy curiou§ ami valuahlr, but nnt not Chaucer's, 
Sffe, OD this subject, Kitson's Bibtiog» Poctica, aft. Cbaurer. 

Qrht. Mao. Vol» XXI. B 




1« 



Sir R N5co!aa*» Life cfGeofretf Chaucer. 



[Jan. 



was aeqininted with tbe Italian lan^age j and it is not improbable that ho 
WMf }mwt picked up bis Latin version of Boccaccio's story in Italy, and 
brought it ^ith him to England, or, as Sir H. Nicolas observes, perhaps 
" both the clerk who relates the tale^ and tlie immediate source of the talc, 
sre alike fictitious," Chaucer s mission to Italy was the earliest evidence 
that is taknts were appreciated by tbe Crown, for he soon received some 
mbstaotial marks of royal faronr. Id April 1374* a pitcher of wine daiijf 
was granted hiro, to be received in the port of London from the hands of 
the king's bntler. A pitcher of wine is very well at a poet's dinner every 
day, but it is a natnral feeling not to like tx> be worse off than one's ncigh- 
bonr j and John Gower had two gailom of wine for his sbarCj which 
showed that poetry was rising in the market ; and besides, as this wine 
might be commuted for a money payment^* as was afterwards the case^ 
the quantity allowed was not unimportant. In June of the same year, 
Chaucer was appointed comptrolkT of the customs of skins, tanned hides, 
&c. in the port of London. In the same month, the Duke of Lancaster 
granted him lUi. for hfc, which probably was worth }HOi. of our present 
money, for some good semce rendered to him. In 1375 he obtained a 
gmnt of the custody and lands and person of Edmund Staplegate, of 
Kent^ a minor. This would probably have been a verj' lucrative grant, 
but his ward, luckily for himself and his estate, became of age within 
three years, and only suffered the loss of 104/. which he had to pay for 
his wardship and marriage. Towards the end of 157f>j the king appointed 
Sir John Burley and G. Chaucer to perform some secret sernce, the 
nature of which has not been ascertained ; but Chancer was paid 8/. 1 3*. 4rf, 
for his wages. In 1377 he was associated with Sir Thomas Percy, in a 
secret mission to Flanders^ the object of which has not been discovered ; 
be received 10/. for his expenses. Not improbably it was some commer- 
cial negotiation. At the same period^ Froissart says^ he was joined with 
Sir Guichard d* Angle and Sir Richard Starry, to negotiate a secret treaty 
for the marriage of Richard, Prince of Wales, with Mary daughter of 
tbe King of France. The envoys met at Montrcnil sur-Mer, but Sir H. 
Nicolas observes that Froissart has blended two negotiations. Edward 
the 'llurd died in June in this year y and it was in the following, after the 
accesBiou of Richard the Second, that the negotiation for the marriage 
took place, to which mission Chaucer was certainly attached. In May 
1378 he was sent, with Sir Edward Berkeley, to Lomhardy, to treat u ith 
Bernardo Vjgconti, Lord of Milan, and the celebrated Sir John Hawk- 
wood» •' pro certis negocils cxpeditiaiiem gnerrse Regis tangentibus.*' For 
his expenses he was paid about 50/, 






** Of the preciie object or retult (says 
hii btosrapber) of hii mtiMioo to Lorn* 
bvdf,. BO puticnUrt are knovni; but a 
fttct of much hterary value b eitablished 
by one ot tbe docuracoU cotrntcted with 
it, luuDely. tlut (b§ hts hitherto beeo pre- 
MOMd obljr) Ckiottmr waa cfriminfy tkm 
JHtmd ^f Q0mie tb« Poet. In ewe of 



anf legal proceediu^s being iiiBtituCed 
during hii abieace, it wiu neceBsary that 
Chaucer ahould appoint two persoiis to 
appear for hiiji in the coiirt* j and, 
fuppoatng one of tbe individual!; to bare 
be«D selected merely becaaae be wa£ a 
lawyer, the other would probably have 
been an intimato friend ^ on whose ability t 



^ Mr* ElUs baf calculated the value of Cbaucer'a grants in modern money. Me 
WtimiUi the *' mark of tilver*' at 10/. of our present money, and Chaucer'fi origmal 
umoity it 200/. The grant of wine was of tbe M^me value, becauae it was eichanged 
for an anniiity of ^ marki. Chauoer, according to hia calculation, appears to have 
i»o»i » uA diiriiig t^ laat three years of £dw. III. the preaeot value of 4,700/. without 
ttk&Bf l&to tc^omit hii reoctpU at Comptroller of the Customs, (Spec. vol. i* p. 204.) 



Sir H, Nicolafi*ft L\f€ ofGet^ffrey Chaucer. 



U 



thai document witli the poet» i$ not Ottly 
highly probable in itidf* but ii sapported 
by th« name being very uncommon at that 
period^ and by both of them being con- 
nected with the county of K«nt/* • 



1844.] 

led, and honour he could entirely rely. 
ChAttcer named Joku Gover and Richard 
Forreeter (of nrhom nothing more has been 
found) BS his representatiTes ; and the 
iibntity of the John Gower mentioned in 

Each poet has celebrated the other in his verses : Chancer at the end of 
TroUus and Cressida, and Gower iri the Confessio Aoaantis, m some lioea 
that he puts into the mouth of V^eniis. As cotnuientators, however, exist 
oil suppo&itions/ryrwhitt suppoeed that they subsequently (piarrelled ^ and 
theni corroctiijg himself, he supposed they did not ; and Sir Harris ob- 
serves, thatt as their friendship lasted till within seven years of Chaucer's 
deathj " it is probable that it was nevor dissolved/* The fact is, there is 
not the slightest ground for atiy supposition of a quarrel, the whole web 
being woven by the critic from bis own bowels , to catch the heedless fliea 
— his readers. Chaucer retarocd to England before February 1379. la 
May 1382 be was appointed Coinptroller of the Petty Customs in the Port 
of Loudou during pleasure, still keeping his former place. In the Fe- 
bruary ^foilowingf lie was enabled to nominate a permanent deputy to his 
office; and he was released from the drudgery of dockets and cockets and 
consignments, to walk in the fields at Stratford-le-Bow, and think of 
Palemon and Arcite. The next notice of Chaucer is of importance ; he 
was elected knight of the shire for Kent in tlie parliament of Oct. 1380. 
This fact tends to identify the poet with Kent, m which county it is 
probable he possessed some property. Cliaucer was examined as witness at 
Westminster for Richard Lord Scrope, in defeii€e of his right to the arms 
*' Azure^ a bend or/* against the claim of Sir Robert Orosvenor ^ his de- 
position, as his biographer tells us, is material for the information it 
contains resjK^cting himself, but we can jierceive nothing in it connected 
with his {>ersonal history that we do not know, except that he once walked 
in Friday Street, and, as lie was walking, saw a new sign bung out. To- 
wards the end of 13d6t he was superseded in botU his otiiices, as Comp* 
troUer of Customs and Petty Customs in the Port of London. Why he was 
diemissed, no one can tell j nor have we anything to guide us on the subject j 
but the biographers fortunately are not so soon drawn from the game, and 
can give tongue on a false scent, as well as on a true one* This then is 
the goodly fabric they have raised, which Sir Harris tells us is nothing but 
a pure fiction. 



' ** His biogmphers attribute Chaucer^ s 
dismissal to his having taken an active 
part in the dispute between the Court and 
the Cituieas of London respecting the 
election of John of Northampton to the 
Mayoralty in IflBS ; and they cite various 
passages in the ' Testament of Love/ 
which they snppoee shew that, hi Pebmary 
13B4, when Northampton vras ordered to 
be arrested and sent to Corfe Castle, a 
piMitt bsood against the poet^ who fled 
for safety to the island of Zealand ; that 
he remained In exile for two years ; that 
he met many of his confederates in Zea- 
landi who had fled from the same cause^ 



to whom he acted with great liberality ; 
that the persons who bad the manage- 
ment of his affairs in Bngland betrayed 
their tnixt; that he experienced much 
distress during his banishment s that hi 
returned to England some time In 1386*, 
and on his arrival was sent to the Tower ; 
that he remained in custody for t]ire« 
years, and was released about May 13B9, 
at the intercession of Anne of BoEomia, 
Queen of Richard the Second ; and thai 
it wai one condition of hii pardon that h« 
should tnipcach his former aaaodaleiai lo 
which terms he ultimately yielddd.*' 



These dream stances have been taken out of an allegorical poem, iho 



See Retroipective Review^ New Series, vol. ii. 



12 Sir H. Nkolass Life o/ Geffrey Lkaueer. [Jkn. 

Tcstaiaeiit of Lov^, and applied as verities to Chaucer's history, as 
Spenser's Ufc mi^t have becu compiled from the Ftary Queen, or, in the 
absence of real information. Milton might have been presumed to have 
rescued a lady from the enchantments of Comns, or met his death like 
Samson Agonistes. 

The fact is> Chaucer was in London from 1380 to May 1388, recciying 
regularly his pension at the Exchequer, probably walking in Friday 
Street as usual ; and, at the very moment when he is sent by Mr. Godwin 
and others as prisoner to the Tower, he was sitting in Parliament as a 
knight of the shire for one of the lai^st counties in England. To ac- 
count for Chaucer's dismissal from his employments in Dec. 1386, Sir 
Harris reasonably conjectures that he became obnoxious to Thomas Duke 
of Gloucester and the other ministers, toko had succeeded his patron the 
D^kt ofLancoMicr: and fr.rth.r, as the board of customs seems in those 
days not to have been unlike what it has been lately discovered to be in 
ours, a commission was appointed to investigate the abuses -, and we are 
sorry to have to transcribe the remaining words of the biographer on the 
subject. '« As the commissioners began their duties by examining the 
accounts of the officers employed in the collection of the revenue, the 
removal of any of those persons, soon afterwards, may, with much 
probability, be attributed to that in\*estigation.** This is delicately and 
carefulW expressed, but, if it means any thing to the purpose, it is, that 
when Chaucer was walking in Friday Street, looking at the signs, the 
money in his purse was not exactly what an honest man could call his 
own. In May 1388, the grants of his pensions of twenty marks each 
were cancelled, at his request, and assigned to John Scalby : it is probable 
that, being now distressed by the loss of his places, he sold his pensions 
to^his person. In May 1389, the tide of fortune turned ; the young King 
assumed the reins of government, and appointed new ministers, among 
whom Chancer found new friends. He was appointed Clerk of the King's 
Works at all the royal palaces, castles, and lodges 5 he was, moreover, per- 
mitted to execute his office by deputy, for there were no Whittle Harveys 
nor Joseph Humes in the House in those days ; and his salary was two 
shillings per diem, being equal in value to a sinecure place of 400 or 600 
a year in the present day. After holding this situation two years only, he 
was superseded by a John Gedney, for what cause is not known, though 
many have been suggested ; and his probable unfitness for his office the 
only one that has been overlooked. In Feb. 1394, he obtained a grant 
from the King of 20/. a year for his life, payable half-yearly, being 
6/. 13«. 4d. less than the pensions he surrendered in 1388. That he 
was now poor, may be inferred from several advances made to him at the 
Excheqner on account of his annuity, before the half-yearly payments be- 
came due. From the next record relating to the poet, inferences exactly 
opposite to each other have been drawn. On 4th May, 139S, letters of 
protection were issued to him, stating 

, . 'iJJ*** whereat the King had appointed varions suits, had prayed the King to a«- 

WB ncloved esquire Geoffrey Chancer, to sist him therein ; and that therefore the 

pertorm Tarions arduous and urgent King took the said Geoffrey, his tenanU 

E ^ A^ divers parts of the realm of and property, into his special protection, 

th°f^ •*'*^ the said Geoffrey, fearing forbidding any one to sue or arrest him on 

^n 7u °"^' ^ impeded in the ezecu- any plea except it were connected with 

«>n tuereof by his enemies, by means of land, for the term of two years.- 

His biographer says, th^t, in judging of this document, though it most 



18440 



Sir H* NIcoliis's Life of Geoff reij Chaucer. 



13 



be borne iu luiud titat similar language was often cmplDved in oilier records 
of tliiit nature, in cases where the |)artics arc not iji pecuniary difficulties, 
ycttlie Kecordti of the Exchequer for 13US so strongly support the opi- 
uioii that Chaucer was in distressed circumstances, as to leave little doubt 
of the fact. He obtained also loans of such very trifling sums from the Ex- 
cheqncri in advance of Wis penstoti, as no one in tolerable circumstances 
could have submitted to request. But» to tlie honour of the country, the 
Statesman and the poet wad not then to sink into his grave, uor his sun 
to set in the cold and cloudy storms of poverty aud sorrow. W' e are 
delighted to find that the old man's hinoc! was again warmed by another 
grant of wine in the vcr}- month dedicated to BacchuSj in the genial 
October of 1398, not precisely as before, doled out m pltchtrs, but 
lu the totality of an annual tun. Henry the Fourth ascended the 
throne ^ and, being connected witli the House of Lancaster, the poet had 
claims on the sovereign whicli were not denied or forgotten. His pension 
was doubled in four days after this event, by a grant of forty marks yearly, 
in addition to the annuity of *Ii}L which Kiug Richard had given him. 
We arc now, however, nbout to take leave of all these changed of furtunc 
— these elevations and depresisions — this mixture of cloud and sunshiiiei 
which pass over the life of man, and to acc<^mpany the poet to the only 
place of rest allotted to the children of mortality. 

** It wouhl seem that Chaucer closctl 
bid days near \Ve«tmiuiter Abbcy^ for on 
Christmas Ete 1399 he obtained a len,^e, 



dnled at Weitmiuater, by which Robert 
Hertnodfswortbr n monk and keeper of 
. tlie Chapel of the Blessed Mary of We«t- 
tninster^ with the conaent of the abbot 
and convent of that place, demised to him 
a tenement eiluated in the garden of the 



«aiJ Clittjjel, for fifty-three yeart, at the 
nnnual rent of 2/. 13*. Ad. If any part of 
the rent wii^ in arrear for the apace of 
fifteen days, power was given to the leaf or 
to distrain, aod if Chaucer died witbm 
that term, the premises were to revert to 
the Costos of the said Chapel for the time 
being ; lo that in fact the poet had only a 
life-iuterest in it.''* 



In February 140(J Chaucer received his |)€naion of 20/. and he was aUvc in 
June following, though probably not in good health, for hia second pension 
I was received for him by Henry tisoraerc, who was clerk of the receipt of 
the Exehei|uer, aud the same person to whom Occleve addressed tivo 
ballads. \Vc shall now give the account of his death in the words of his 
accomplished and learned biographer. 

niaioa ; and the above date of his decease 
may have been copied from it. There can, 
boWeTer, be little doubt of the correctoeaa 
of the period assigned to Cbauoer^s de- 
cease ; for, had he lived many weeka after 
the end of September I4t>0, the payment 
of hii pensions would liave appeared on 
the Iasuc Roll of tbe Excbtquer com- 
Diendug at Michaelmas la that year and 
endio^ at Easter 1401 ; or at all events on 
Bome subucc^uent Roll." 



'* Chaucer is said to have died on the 

25thof October 1400, at the a^e of seventy* 
I two, and waa buried m Westminster Abbey. 
' Tbe precise date of bis decease stands on 

no better authority than the iaficriptioa 

on the tomb erected near his grave, by 

NichoUs BrigbatD, a poet aud man of 

hterary attainmentu, in the year 15j6, 

who, from veneration for Chaucer, caused 
r liis chiid tlacbcl to be buried near the 
^ spot in June \hZ*l, It appears, that a 

tomb had been before placed over his re< 

Such wjis the period of Chaucer's death, at the advanced age of seventy- 
two ; yet it would appear that years had not dimmed the clearncsti of his intel- 
lect, tiortpienched the poetic fire that had bunit 30 steadily during his life, aud 
wa« yet to illuminate futtire ages. In Lydgate*s Life of the Virgin Mary^ 

♦ See the lease as printed iu Godwin's Life of Chaucer, vol. iv. p. ZQh, from Ox^ 
Ori|$liial m the po^ses^iou of the Dcaa and Chapter of We8tmiiijt«r. 



14 S\rU.Kw6tu'Ml^€0faiqf^C!kmieer^ Ihm. 

there it a digreMion of fi?e er ttx stansas is praiae of Cknoer ; n wlddi be 
feelinglj ka^nU the reeeni de^ik " of hit aMater Chancer, poete of 
Britaioe, who u$ed to aimende and wrrecU the wroti^ trmeet ^wa§ rmdi 
pnne" Now Lydgate if aoppoaed to have beea born aboot 1375, and we 
may reaaonabl j presame that be moat have anrifed at the age of BM»e tlian 
twenty before he ▼eotored to open hif early effnsions to the great maater of 
aong; if ao, this period would be brtm^bt within two or three yeara of 
Cluuicer*8 death, when hia mind was atill Tigoroos enongh to oorreet, and 
healthy enough to enjoy, or rather when he was good-natured enongh to 
hear, the coropoaitions of the yoanger minstrel ; and a pleasing pictore 
nuiy be formed by the eye of fancy, <^ the two poets e n gag ed in the occn- 
pation of going over with critical czactneaa*— Bochas tragecfies, or the 
lUl of Princes— and Chaucer, perhaps, oocasioMJIy panting aome life- 
blood of his own into the inanimate prodnctiona of the prosaic Monk €i 
Bnry. The grateful scholar lamented his maffer*« deadi hi te following 
elegant and affecting lines : 

«« Mj mastsr Chaucer, wiih freth eoMttfttt, 
li demd, tl«i 1 chief poet of Britaine I 
That whilom made fol ptteooi fn^edKet.'* 

Chaucer himself had submitted his poem of Troilos and Cresuda to 
Gower*s correction. 

O moral Gower, tiiia book I directs 
To the, and the philoaophicall Stroode, 
To TOiichtafe when nede if to conrecte 
Of your benigiietyes and lealea good.*' 

The tomb which Bri^ham erected to Chancer still remains, and forms 
one of the most interestinff oljects in Ftet*8 Comer. It is mnch to be 
lamented, that, of a smairwh<^-length portrait of Chancer, which was 
delineated ta pUmo on the north aide of the inscription, not a vestige is 
left The inscription is as follows :— 

"M.S. 

Qui Itdt Anglomm Tstes ter mazimus olim, 

Galfeidus CHAUcan, conditor hoe tomolo: 

Annum ai qusraa Domini, li tempora Titc, 

Bcoe not« inbsnnt ; quM tibi cuneta notant. 

95 Chstohrii, 1400. 

• ^Brumnamm requlea mon. 

N. Brigjiam hos laoit Muswnm nomine snmptas, 
1556.'»t 

On the le^ of the tomb the following verses were engraved :— > 

8i rogitaa quia eiam, fbrsaa te ftoma docehit, 
Quod ii funa negat, mondi quia gloria traniit, 
Hnc monumenta lege. 

Speght says that the following lines were to be seen on the origmal 
tomb: — 

• V. Prol. Fall of Princes, v. 1. 

t See Neale and Brayley'a Hiatory and Antiqaitiea of Westminater, ii« p. 365. 
Bee an engraying of the tomb in Urrj'i Chancer, Todd'i Oluitrationa, zzz. Gough'a 
Sepulchral Monomenti. Brigham was a msn of learning and a poet. See Wood's 
^w« Ox. and Umbeth MSS. No. 1106. 



1844*} Sir H* NicoWs Life ^f Geoffrey Chaucer, If 

Dalfridus Chaucer VBles, et funv pociu 
MateniK, hac tao'a aum tumulatud bumo; 

Dt they vrere part of an epitaph written by Stephanas Sarigoniof, a Poet 
Laureat of Milan, and which, according to Caxton,* " were wreton on a 
tMt bongyng on a pylere by his sepakure." 

*' Cliaaccr'i works,*' says his biogra- 
pher* **baTC been carcMly perused, with 
the object of findiag facts in them for this 
memotr ; bat, with the fbUowin^ few cx- 
oeptioiHT little reliance can be placed 
Qpon any of his remarks. The * Teata- 
Ljncnt of LoTe ' has heea already alluded 
liD ; and there is not space in this memoir 
■Id coauunt on all the passs^s that seem 
|tp iUnstnte hia feelings, opinions^ cba- 
stoCer, and attainments. His writings 
DiLst he closely itndied to form a proper 

It 18 said that there arc many allusions in Chaucer's poems to himself 
Imnd bis habits of life* Some of these are given in the present biography j 
[%nt the only one that has at all interested us is the followiagjn the House 
lof Fame« wheie be certainly appears to describe the *' studious custom of 
tkit life.*' 



estimate of tbc magnitude of his genini, 
the extent and variety of hii in formation ^ 
his wonderful knowledge of human na* 
tore, the boldness with which he attacked 
clerical abuses (oh/ Sir Barritf), and 
advocated the interests of honour and 
virtue^ and, more than all, of that philo- 
sophical construction of mind, which ren- 
dered him superior to the prejudices of 
his time, and placed btoi far in advance 
of the widest of hla contemporaries/' 



' no tiding! 



Of Loves folke, if they be glade^ 
Ne of nothing cIs that God made, 
And not onety fro ferre countree 
That no tidings comraen to thee, 
Not of thy Tcry neighbours, 
That dwellen almost at thy dorest 
Thou hearest neither that ue this, 
For whan thy labour all done is, 
And hast made all thy reckonings, 
In steade of rest and of new thinga 
Thon goest borne to thine honse anone, 
And al so dombe as a stone, 
Tbon aittest at another booke 
TUl Ailly dased is thj looke, 
And liirest thos as an hermifce, 
Althonfh thine abstinence is lite/'f 

In some manuscripts of Chaucer's works, and in both the editions of 

Canton, a very curious^ or^ as it is called, aficctiug paragraph occursj in 

rbtch^ when the near approach of death had brought with it the solemn 

Dooittons of the grave, and the past transactions of life were recalled, 

laud summoned before the tribunal of conscience, the poet prays forgiveness 

r«C God for his translations and editings of worldly vanities* while he 

l»?e8 thanks for the grace that enabled him to translate Boethiue and other 

itookd of saintly legends* Tyrwhitt expresses his suspicion of the genuine- 

of the pasage. Sir Harris, more judiciously, confines himself to 

^ tbe cxAOunatioD of one or two separate points, as the mention of the Boke 

i of tlie LioDt nnd the objection taken by Tyrwhitt to the omission of any 

mentioa of the Romatint of the Rose. VV'e do not mean to e3LpresB any 

opinion dogmatically or with undue assurance on this doubtful subject, but 

9 Ceaton'i Edition of Chaucer's Translatioa of Boethius de Cons* Fhilosophi»t 
at the end of which is a copy of the said Tcrses. They are reprinted both In Speght 
■nd Urry*! edition of Chaucer's works. 

t In the •* Boke of the Duchesse " he is described as reading in bed. In the 
** Ftotiamcnt of Bcrdet" h« bad been reading all day long tiU the light faUed him* 



1(1 



Sir H. Nicolas*B Life of Geoffrey Chaucer. 



'[Jan, 



we are indiued to side with Tyrwbilt in his doubts. Tljere is somethmg 
in the whole passage that looks asquint and suspicious to our eyes, nnd» 
besides, wc hardly regard it in tlic liglit uliidi the present biographer 
doc§; for surely Chaucer never could Lave written this* when !iis faculties 
were vigorous and sound ; but^ if it were the production of a weak and sliaU 
tered intellect J of an old man in wnnkleddotagej repeating v\ hat some monkish 
confessor had suggested, it is little worthy of our attention. ^Ve must 
also observe, that the present biography*]- has scarcely met the ohjection of 
Tyrwhitt, "that the Romaunt of the Rose is not among the regretted 
pieces/' nor can wc agree with hi in that it ia of little force. If a short or 
trifling [voem had been omitted, we might have passed it over as a matter 
of no CO use que nee ; but a production so comparatively important as 
"De arte Ainandi, alias the Rom aunt of the Rose," the most celebrated 
poem of the age, as well as the longest, could surely not have been over- 
looked, at least in fair argument we have no right to sujipose so* . . . The 
facts of history too often seem to resemble the figures seen in dreams or 
disordered visions, which at hrst bear the likeness of reality and truth, 
but, as we approach them more closely, and gaze at them more steadfastly, 
grow fainter in colour, lose their substantial form and distinct outline, and 
at last melt away into thin air. . . * A5 an instance of this, in the history be- 
fore lis, almost all the older accounts of Chaucer describe him as living at 
Woodstock* Camden says, " Oppidum Woodstock^ cum nihil habeat 
cjuod ostentet, Homcrurn nostrum Anglicorum G, Chancerum alumnum 
Gnum fujsse gloriatur," Baker says, ** Sir (JeoftVey Chaucer, the Homer 
of our nation, who found as sweet a muse in the groves of W^oodstock as 
the ancients did upon the banks of Helicon." Pits says boldly that he 
was born there ; " A pud Woodstock^ non longe ab Oxouio in Anglia claris 
parentibus natusj patrem habuit equestris oidinis virum, et ipse tandem 
anratus factus est eques/* Leland writej^, " Ludovicum reliquit lia;redem 
fortiinarum suarum, quas utcunqne amplas habuit, et pr^zcipue viiia; sutE 
VodirstockiS reghiit admudHm vkims,* Nov\' it appears on the authority 
of the present biography, that ** whether Chaucer ever resided at Wood- 
stock cannot be determined j but the fact is very unlikely, and the o/i/y 
notice of that place in his work, lias no relation to any residence of his own 
being there. He says that the Parliament of Birds 

** Shall be wiUiout nay 
The morrow after Saitit Valentiiies dajr 
Under a mtule that is faire and grene^ 
Before the chamber window uf tlie Quene, 
At Wooditoeke upon the grecuc lay,'* 

It 18 also said by Godwin that the Duke of Lancaster presented hint 
with DontngtoD Castle, near Newbury in Berkshire, with the intention, 
** in the feudal sense, to ennoble him I'* I Yet there are strong reasons 
for believing that neither Chaucer nor the Duke of Lancaster ever jios* 
seseied Donington Castle ; and now we have ticated, though lightly, and 
chiefly following the track of the biographer, on all the authentic circum- 
itanccs connected with the lift? of Chaucer. Perhaps further infomiarion 
may hereafter lie discovered, for it is observed, " tliough all obvious, and 
indeed nil probable, sources of information have been exhausted for this 
memoir^ many facts may yet be discovered of him, when tlie arrangement 



• See alto Godwin** Life of Chmcer, 0. 99 to 103 j iv. fiH, 169, 172. 
t See Godwin'! Life of Chaucer* \oh iil. p. «1i3--l(M;, 17i. 
2 



18440 



Sir H, Nicolas 's Ufe efCkoffrfy Chaucer, 



ir 



of the Public Records, now in progress, shall be completed."* As fai" as 
our present infortn;itioii eictendSr the Life before us, both for fullness md 
acctiracy, is mut!h to be preferred to nny other. It is vvntten by a perton 
accustomed to historical reBejirch, aud consequently aware of the value of 
truths of the respect due to his readers, and of the caution with which com- 
mon traditions are to be received. We must make one further extract from 
it, ID order that nothing of conseqaeace relating to the subject may be 
omitted. 



of eQYoy oa uumerou^ foreign miasioiUt 
of Comptroller of the CustomSr of Clerk 
of the Works, nod of Member ot Parlia- 
ment. Nor is it improbable that other 
duties wore eatriuted to him both by the 
King and by the Duke of LaucasterJ* 



*' Though known to posterity only as 
one of the greatest of our poets, whose 
productions^ in varietj, merit, and eztentt 
would seem to qfbrd tuffieiwut aecvpiition 
/or the lift of an ordinary man, Chaucer 
tilled the various itatioas of a soldier, of 
valet and csciuirc of the King's household, 

Now on this sentence we shonld make the observation^ that there was 
nothing in our apprehension in any of the offices filled or duties performed 
by Chaucer, which wouhl at all interfere with the time necessary for the 
composition of his immortal poems ; and some would only afford him those 
intervals of leisure and recreation which are indispensable in that mental 
toil that poetry, such as his, demanded . He was a soldier only for a very 
fihort period ; his embassies lasted for a few months each 5 how long 
lie WU9 a Member of Parliament, and how dilig^'nt in his othce, we know 
not } but we know that he performed his duty as comptrollor of the customs 
by deputy. Besides, his various oecupations and calls into the w^orld 
must have been to him the richest volitme of information he could open, for 
be thus enlarged his views of society* and increased hia knowledge of the 
charactera'of men. His different £>ituations gave him an entrance into every 
grade and rank of society^ from the noble to the burgher^ the franklin and 
the mechanic. He thus gave life, animation, and truths to the stock of 
knowledge which he had previously acquired from books. " Chaucer's vein 
of humour/' says Sir figerton Bry<lg>es, *' although conspicuous in the 
Canterbury Tales, is chiefly displayed in the characters with which they 
i are introduced. In these his knowledge of the world availed him In a 
pecuhar degree, and enabled him to give such an accurate pictui-c of 
ancient manners, as no contemiwmry nation haj* transmitted to posterity. 
It is here that we view the pursuits and employment*!^ the customs and 
[ diversions of our ancestors copied from the life and represented with 
\ equal truth and spirit by a judge of mankind, whose penetration may well 
lea^l him to discern tlieir foibles or discriminating particularities, and by 
an artist who understood that proper selection of circumstunces and thoic 
predominant characteristics which form a finished portrait, We arc 
surprised to find in so gross and ignorant an age such talents for satire 
and for observation on life/* Stcf The scholar, who feeds on other men's 
thoughts, must live secluded in his study 5 but the poet, who creates 
hU own, should be accustomed to walk amid the varied forms of 
oature4 should *' frequent the assemblies of the people/* aud be con- 



* See life, p* OK 

f Vtd. Tbeatnim PoetAruin, ed, Brjrdgee^ p. UK 

t ** The Romftn de k Rose had many general beautica of the kind Lere ipokea of, 
fviza beaatiei of natural scenery). It is remAfkable that these passagei loic more 
than any others in passing through the hands of Chaucer/* r\d. Essay on Landsca|>e. 
AnoD* Pref. xvii. 13mo. — a curioua fact, if true, and such as wc should not expect. 

Gent. Mao. Vol. XXI. D 



tt 



Sr H, Nicolas*8 Life a/Gtoffrey Chaucer, 



[Jan. 



mtmikt mill the actioos and passions of matikind. Petrarch wrote as 
■■d^, and finished his works as iaboriously and iDinutely.ais Chaucer did ; 
hal Petrarch was emphatically a man of the worlds ever engaged iii 
bMBCM attd jotinie)'iDgs, and eveu in hi^ sohtude of Vaucluse living more 
avid tbe 6ekla and the treea than m his room j in liis Later life, 
vim hm ereoiDg lamp was seen twinkling tlirongh the lattice of his 
dbMAer al Anjoa^ he might be seen^ not threading the mazes of harmony 
» fJbe conpositian of di^Bcult can'^orii^ bnt maintaining a correspondence 
«■ MA nsfit^n of state and church policy with tlie princes or prelates of 
tiair, Wliellier t^aittng in the ante'chatnt>er of the monarchy or carousing in 
thetitrdb of the hostelrie^ or joining in the dilTerent debates of the senate, 
Ckaattr vai a1«o employed in studying that volume of bonndless knowledge 
wyill society opened to him, filled with the deepest learning and rich 
villi all the gathered stores of time. One gift, says Winfitanlevi he had 
abofe all other authors ; and that is, by the excellence of his descriptions, 
to poatess his readers witli a stronger imaginaiion of seeing (hat done he* 
fi/re their eyes which they read* than any other that ever writ in any 
toogne. Again, Mr* Ascham puttcth him nothing behind Thueydides or 
Homer for his lively description of site of places and nature of persons, 
both in outward shape of body and inward disposition of mind, 8c c. He 
had (says a late biographer) one excellency above ail other poetSj and 
wherein none since his time but the famous Shakspere has come near him, 
via. such a lively description of persons and things, that it seems to 
surpass imaginaiion, and y<7w see evert/thing be/ore your eyes which you 
only read. Warton speaks of Chaucer's warmth of description as a distin- 
gQishing feature of his poetry. And, in truth, every description by Chaucer 
has a freth out-of-door open-air look with it j it has the light of the sky 
upon it : to him the market-place was a practical volume of moral phi- 
losophy ; his embassy to Genoa and Florence, a rich and princely 
picture-book, filled with the costliest forms of nature and art ; and his 
comptrollership nf the customsj an excellent tome of never-ending 
casuistry. Our greatest writers in better days were all men of activt^ 
lives i look at Bacon, Shukspere, Raleigh, Selden. I'he poets Surrey and 
Sidney could onshcath the sword as well as hold the pen. Shakfipere 
read men's hearts, and Bon Jonson read booksj and see the result of 
their different labours. The most unpoetical situation wliich Chaucer 
held was supposed to be that of the Clerk of I he Works , but even that 
left him ample leisore for his gentler pnrsuitSp When we look at the long 
array of %^olume after volume of Mr. Wordsworth's poetry, we see how 
little he has been embarrassed in his visitations of the iimsc, by having 
been half of his life *' a distributor of stamps." The first feeling after 
reading the works of a poet, is the desire to see him \ and this wish is 
not confined alone to the female heart. How delightful it is to gaze on 
the clustering locks flowing over the *' mild temples" of Milton ; or to look 
on the bright quick eye, the thin visage^ and the thoughtful features of 
Pope J and, though we are denied that pleasure where most we should have 
desired it, in the instance of Shakspere, yet, as regards the poet 
before us, the affection of Occleve has made Chaucer's person better 
known than tliat of any individual of his age. This is the portrait pre- 



4 

i 



I 



GcNlwiii Mji, ** It m«]r be observed of Chaucer, througboiit hb writings, that de- 
icriptiofi aud Imagery wrre not the elemrnt of \\\% mind. In (his re.^poct lie ran by 
BO aieaii* enter tlir list with Spcnuer." Life, t. iTT. 



181^] 



Sir H* Nicolas*s Life of Geojrey Chaucer. 



19 



I lixerl to tills memoir. It was paiutcd from mcoiory after Chaiicer's de- 
Jcease, and is apparently the only gctiiiitie one in existence i for tLat pre- 
r fixed to Mr. I'odd's 1 II ust rations we take to be a rough sketch of tLc 
ivortliy arclideacon biiusclf, engaged in his ecclesiastical visitation j and 
ninny of the other portraits mentioned by Sir Harris are of a late date, 
and cither degenerate copies, or perliaps altogether fictitious. The present 
portrait gives a well-fonned countenance,* and a quiet composnre of feature, 
with a gentle tlio light fulness on the eye and brow, aa if the poet was 
endeavouring to solve, what was an intricate problem in those days, 
whether the sun went round the earth, or the earth round the sun, or 
whether sometimes the oue and sometimes the other. 



** AH the earl7 portraits/' sajri Sir 

Harris^ " bear much resemblftnce to each 

other I and the probability^^ of their being 

f itrODg hkeoeaaes id increased bj their 

^reebg^ with the dejcriptiou which 

[Chaucer has given of himself in the Can- 



tcrbury Tales before quoted, wherein he 
says he was a * puppet/ * sinall and fair 
of face,* aad * elnah/ that is, according 
to Tyrwhitt, shy and reserved ; and that 
he was in the habit of looking steadfaatly 
on the ground;" 



Although we do not enter here on the subject of Chaucer's poetry, on 
which a volume might be written, yet wc may observe, that the fame 
Lwhich he obtained during his life not only maintained its rank, but in- 
creased in following generations. Numerous iujpressiona of his works 
rwcre taken, and we read that accomplished and elegant courtiers were 
erpetually quoting Chaucer j and Warton informs us, that there is a 
^peculiar reason why Chaucer, exclusive of his real excellence, should have 
ipeen the favourite of a Court (i. c, Edward the Vlth's) which laid the 
rfoundatiou of the reformation of religion : it was that his poems 
^abounded with satirical strokes against tlie corruptions of the cliurch, and 
the disaolutc manners of the monks } and undoubtedly Chaucer, being 
a lively and popular writer^ greatly assisted the doctrines of his contem- 
Drary Wickhffe m opcriir)g the eyes of the people to the absurdities of 
opery, and exposing its intj>osjtions in a vein of humour and pleasantr)% 
F*03c, the raartyrologist, perhaps goes too far in affirming that Cbaucer has 
Nndeniably proved the Pope to be the Antichrist of the Apocalypse, 

Certainly the manner in which Chaucer attacked ** the careless frater- 
j tiities of the Church/' as they have been called, obtained for hina the rank 
[of a religious reformer, and enrolled him among our theological writers. 
rHc is tliiis described in a list of Oxford writers, printed in 1605 ; and in 
[the sketcli ot Chaucer, left En manuscript by Henry Wharton, and pre- 
I served in the Jjambefh Library, he is said to be, ** In rebus Theologicis 
lapprimfe versatus, de ([uibus acute ati]ue erudite s^epius disputat — in cas- 
f tioris autem Theologize studio, nulloa fere non sni temporis Theologos ante 
|eelluit, ^Vicklihi dogmata lit plurime secutus. et infucatam et genuinam 
pietatem sccutua/'f &c. 



* We beg to inform the ladici who honour our pages with their perusal, that Dr. Joseph 
iWarton, in his Essay on Pope, says, that many of our English poets have beenm their 
r persona remarkably handsome. Such were Spenser, Milton, Cowley, Rowe, Addison, 
rfcongrevc, Garth^ Gray, fltc* vol, II. p. 289. ; but in oiir copy of the work which waa 
pHorace Walpole^s, he ba» written his dissent from Warton's aascrtton, in one or two 
Jnatonces. The portrait of Congrevc, as seen m his picture in the Kit-Cat-Cluh| ia 
eminently handiome and pleaaing* 

f See Todd' a Sketches ^ p. xxxTii* 



Alaeander ie Bernmf.^Mr. Roche" $ Mind. 



20 



Mb. Urban, Cork, Dee. 18. 

I OBSERVE ia jour Minor Cor- 
reflpondeace an inquiry, from a " Sub- 
scriber for Twenty Years/' relative to 
the arms and name of De Bernay. The 
arms are not described/ but the name, 
I may tell him, is historically known 
by a single bearer of it — Alexander de 
Bernay, born about the year 1150, in 
the town of Bernav in Normandy, now 
the " D<<paiteracnt de TEure." He 
largely contributed to various poems, 
but particularly to the " Roman 
d'Alezandre," — an imitation of Quin- 
tus Curtius — but understood to be a 
translation of an old Latin Romance. 
" Liber Alexandri Magni de Pr«liis." 
The poem of Alejeandre had been pre- 
viously commenced by an unknown 
writer, who first used, it would appear, 
the heroic verse, called Alexandrine, 
from the subject of the work. An 
abridgment was published in the six- 
teenth century, and appeared at Paris 
and Lyons under the title of "His- 
toire du trcs noble et trcs vaillant 
loy Alexandre Ic Grant, jadis roy et 
■cigncur de tout le mondc," &c. Or, 
as in another old edition, " C-y co- 
mcnce Ihystoirc du trcs vaillant et 
noble prrux et hardy roy Alvxadre le 
gr*t." De Bernay (also' called Alex- 
andre de raiis) co-uperatod with an 
EnKlishman, Thomas de Kent, in 
another pocm-^" Li Roumans di Tote 
Chcvalcric, ou la Oeste d'Alexandrc, 
par Thomas de Kent/' — of which men- 
tion will be found in the Due de la 
VnlliiTe'H manuHcripts in the Roval 
Library, No. 2,702. Its origin is tlius 
expressed. 

" l>*un Im)d \VtTt rn latin fit rest trsnslttftneiit. 
Qui miinnoiu demsudt, Thomas ai nom dc 

The language, says the late M. 
Roc|uefurt, is the Norman French, 
even then, though used in our courts 
of royally Ami law. much corrupted. 

* Our foriiirr correspondent furnished 
US with nn liiiprcssi<in of the arms on the 
hook of prnyrrs. An far as they can be 
hMf rininrfl, I hey arc ns follow : Quar- 
li-rly of four i I . three ilogn ruurant, two 
anil otin ; 'i. n lion {mNsant guardant 
(Townrd ; '1. n lion rampant ; 4. defaced. 
Hii nn InnNrutrhnHii Ihn^e ham, ap- 

iiarriiily frrlty. Tlio sliii'ld surmounted 
7 » hi^iiirl, filfronl'M*, with opt'u Imrs, as 
M*u«| nliroiitl, hut here ronfmed to the 
*^wel|u \ without any croil.— Edit. 



ihM. 



At this moment the works of a 
modern poet. Gamine Bemmy, ne 
passing through the Parisian picM; 
but he is as yet little known. 

The " Roman Cath<^c Book d 
Prayers," found by your correspond- 
ent, is doubtless one of the Hm% 
which, shortly after the invention of 
printing, replaced the previous msas- 
scripts, and, like them« were genenDf 
on vellum, with various decorations- 
arabesques, &c. so attractively ds* 
scribed in Dr. Dibdin's Decaauroi^ 
(Second Day.) The chief printers wm 
Simon Vostre, who began ahont thsjmr 
1486, Antoine Verard, Thiehnan« Kv- 
ver, Hardonin, Eustace, te. in Vm\ 
and a few proceeded from the innrinriri 
presses. Missals, Breriarica, Fnm 
Pite, with other devotional iiilaf. 
received similar embellishmenfei; W 
no effort of the press haa eq n al le d soai 
of the preceding elabomtiona af fti 
pen and pencil, each aa the celsbnfliri 
Bedford Missal, which, a law jm 
since, cost Sir John Tobin of LifV- 
pool about l,200f. (indodingchaiiiO 
and others. Yet even that baaam 
specimen of industry and art ii^ 1 
think, surpassed by a 
Missal in the possession of mj i 
hour, Ed. Roche, esq. of TaU^m, 
the father of our county repreaenlitiff^ 
Ed. Burko Roche, esq. It «il 
obtained at Florence* by the hto Gb- 
louel Roche, from a convent dmi^f 
the French invasion in 1796- i ^Kve 
never seen any thing more spleattl of 
the kind, though I carefully ia 
the Bedford article. But I 
larly advert to the eiqaisite ] 
that adorn the work, less na 
indeed, because the volume is of sisa* 
derer dimensions, than those whkh 
enrich its celebrated compeer. Una 
small and rather thin folio. Msay 
years, however, have passed since mf 
old friend. Colonel Roche, shewed it 
to me for examination. He was a 
gentleman of taste and fortune ; whib 
the inmates of, or rather refugees fironif 
the Florentine Monastery, were fiir- 
tunate in finding such a purchaser fo 
their property, possessed and cherishsi 
for ages, in place of its forcible traas- 
ference, with the numerous other spoiii 
of conquest, to Paris, by Bonaparte^ tf 
that period. 

Yoars« Ice. J. R. 







•:•.:: 



mmmmmmtammaHmmim 




OXNEAD HALL. NORFOLK, 



Mr. Urbaiy^ 



SpfingfieM near 
OkAm^rd, Dec. 6, 
WILL you allow me to lay before 

your readers sotne particulars relating 
to Oxnead Hall in Norfolk, formerly 
the seat of the Pastons, Earls of Yar- 
mouth* 

It was \n the year 1809 that I made 
a drawing of the Old Hail as it stood 
before tt wta taken down* This was 
publt&hed in Mr. Britton's Architec* 
tural Antiquities ; but I have since dis- 
covered that, instead of one, the origi- 
nal roof had two stories of garrets, 
like those of Irmingland, Heydon, and 
Barnlngbam Halls in Norfolk, and 
Wakehurst in Sussex. 

I likewise inclose a sketch of the 
Fountain formerly at Oxnead« which 
had for more than half a century been 
half concealed among the rubbish in 
Blickling Park ; it was lately restored, 
and placed in the flower* garden ad* 
joining to Blickling Hall. 

Oinead Hall was built by Clement 
Pa&ton, the fourth son of Sir William 
Pa»ton, knight, in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth ; and it continued the prin- 
cipal seat of that family, whose name 
haa been rendered so celebrated by the 
CorreapoDdencc of its early members, 
edited by Sir John Fenn. 

The original building ia described tn 



thf Oround-plan. The portion marked 
L Wtta erected by the first Earl of Yar- 
mouth to receive King Charles IL and 
his attendants^ who visited Oxoead IQ 
I67t5; it was a lofty building, with 
»aah-windows, called the Banquettiug- 
room* Underneath this was a vaulted 
apartment, which was called the FrU* 
k^ttin^ roofti, probably from the Italian 
" freftcati," a cool grotto. 

Wiliam Poston, the second Earl of 
Yarmouth, and last of his familyi died 
in 1732, leaving bis estates to be sold 
for the payment of his debts. They 
were purchased by the celebrated Lord 
Anson, fit is stated by Mr, Dawson 
Turner in his recent History of Caister,) 
•'after his return from hia voyage 
round the world." This was in 1744. 
The greater part of this magnificent 
mansion was shortly after taken down« 
Oxnead Hail is now in the poMesstos 
of Sir Edward Hardinge Straccy, B«rt« J 
It was for many years occupied by m'f] 
late uncle, J ohn Repton, esq. who died 
in 1909. 

The only remains of this formerly ^ 
magnificent mansion are the offices at 
the east end, and the barn, with three 
noble stacks of chlmnies ; each stack 
contained four shafts, of which onlyj 
the bases remain, but, from a single 
brick with a cross on the edge, which 



O J.' Head HaUf Norfbik, 



[Jau, 



I discovered a few years ago. the 
chimiiey shafts 1 ituagine to have been 
formerly highly enriched. 

It may be wortli while to meDlioii 
that the windows of Oxnead Hall are 
only tliirteen inches wide {L e, the 
glass between the fnunmons), although 
the munnwnn themselves are at least 
five inches broad > Giber old mansiuns 
in Norfolk of the same date have the 



glass caseoQcuts filtecn or sixteen 
inches wide, aod, when succeeded by 
[lanes of plate glass, are not disagree- 
able to their modem inhabitants. But 
in the mansions of the end of Eliza- 
beth's or beginning of James the 
First's reign, the caaementa exceed 
seventeen or eighteen inches wide, as 
at BlicLling, Longleat^ &c. 






S i? «^ f^ 2 a.^ ^ S.^ 3t ^ a 



* ^ 
'@,#- 



C«rden. 



Gftnltfii mid 
Urchard. 





> * i 9 9m w ■ ■' ■ lift * 



FoatitAiD. 

RtfirmceM to the Phv, 
A. The entrance through the stable- 
court wiLh the porter's lodgcf, and four 
recesses for benches at B. B. B. B. for the 
poor. C« C. the barns. 

D. The stables, with a horse-patsage 
through the house » E. £* 

F. Kitchen and offices, &c* 

G. The great Hall, with a screen* (The 
remains of the screen arc now In one of 
the stables.) 

H, The Chapel. I. Apurtmeots. 
K, Dining-room, with a hoil-room over, 
L. The Banquet ting-room I built to re- 
oeite King Cbailes U. ; with a »cr«w &toir* 






Gartlpn^with a 
Cabinet ile Verdure, 



M. The upper terrace, with a statue of 
Cerberus, which was afterwards removed 
to Thorpe J near Norwich. 

N« Tlic lower terrace. 

O. Tim partcrre-gftrden, whidi was 
formerly orriaiuentcd with a fountain and 
several statues. (The fountain is now in 
the flower garden at Blickling, and the 
statues in thejmrk.) 

P, and Q* Two oaks, still remjuntng. 

There were formerly three great 
avenues j the principal one extended 
from the centre of the hall northward 
towards Skeyton, about half a mile in 
length. The second avenue began at 
the cast cad of the barns^ and reached 



18440 



Inventory of Ornamental Plate, 4 c* 



23 



I 
I 



BaitoD churcli. The third ran behind 
the raunsiou from east to west. Only 
two of the old oaks (as noticed in the 
plan) still lemain ; each measures, at 
six feet from the ground, thirteen or 
fourteen feet in circumference- The 
leaves appear in a very healthy state ; 
httt the lop of one tree is gone. 

With these remarks I send a curious 
manuscript lately found among some old 
papers. It i^ a portion of an invenlorVi 
containing a catalogue of ornamental 
plate and other curiosities, and is sup- 
posed to have heen written by one of 
the Pastons, before their elevation to 
the peerage^ which was in 1673, 

Among the articles in the catalogue 
is '* A shell standing upon three dol- 
phins;" most probably an object of 
great beauty and taste. The orca- 
ments of dolphins which prevailed 
about the reign of Henry VIIL and 
Edward VI, are often very graceful, 
and are frequently seen in arabesque 
work. 
Yours, &c. John Aoby Repton. 

Imwentory of Ornamentat Piate^ ^*c, 
/ormeriy at Osnead Hali. 

IXffte^—The MS. extends from fols. 2 
vo 9 ; the rest is lost.] 

One mother of pcarle botle, each sidti 
the fsthioa of a sw[an ? with a] silver and 
gilt foQte, and a silver and gilt statue 
upoa the top* 

One mother of penrle basin, with a silver 
l^iU ledge on the. .... * . with a silver dish 
in it, with a foot gilt about the edge uf 
Ike topp, engraven all over la the niidle. 
A mother of pearlc ure. 

A mother of pearle diah, all set in scol- 
]op«, with silver and gilt foot, a crieUill 
ball funding upright in the midle, carved. 

A title mother of pcarle cup, with a 
silver and gilt ledge, topt and foot. 

Slie mother of pearle dishes, whiuh 
»ome of the shells stand upon. 

A piire of c:oakcr-*hcU cups with covers^ 
in the midle of the covers agnte-&tones 
in eaamcU» with a gold knob of the 

A p«rc of shcU cups with covers, ivory 
\p»i and ledges. 

A slieU cap, set in a frame, and handle 
and cover of silver and gold, the foote, 
(rAnne, cod cover being garnished with 
•mrrall kiods of cutt stones. 

A shell cop set in a carved and silver 
^filt frame and foot and cover, a p€tce of 
lUU in the midie of the rover, ^ct, 
iM idvcr ntid gilt knoUb in the miilte. 



A greene shell-kan, set in a silver nnd 
gilt framCf with a cover* 

A title shell cup with a silver and gilt 
frame. 

2 sheiks spoone-fsshiunedr with silver 
feet, and crinkle handles, 

A blew jar with knobbs, silver and gilt 
top. 

A cristall botle sett in silver and gilt. 
A cTistall kun, with an eBomcld foote, 
ledge* and handle. 

A long eristall ghssCt witli a cover en- 
graven, a silver and gilt ledge on the foot. 
A cnstall cup G-square, set in a silver 
and gilt fnime, and enametd knob on the 
top. 

A silver and gilt carved cup, a cristall 
foot and h otto me ^ garnished nbout the 
sides and cover with severall stones, with 
a statoe upon it. 

A cri stall cup^ with a silver and gilt 
foot and ledge, a crystall cover with a 
silver and gilt knob in the mtdle. 

A criijtal] tankard, set m a carved and 
silver and gilt frame, with a cover and 
one handle. 

A cri stall tankard with a crisCall cover, 
set in a silver and gilt frame with 2 
handles f a flying horse on tlie top. 
A paire of criatall candlesticks. 
A great cristall ball set ujxin an ebony 
pedestall, with B litle crista] t ball;^ round 
about the edges. 

An agate tanker set in a silver snd gilt 
frame^ with one handle, and cover. 
Upon the crcast over the doore, and so 

round. 
A round cup of a darke colour set in 
silver and gilt. 

A mother of pearle shell sett ypon a 
figure, set in silver and gilt. 

A red Indiun cup black e about y' edge. 
A mother of pearle fiower-pott set in 
silver and gilt. 

A red Indian cup blacke about y« edge. 
A shell upon a stiver foott. 
A speckle shell botle sett in silver. 
A black Indian botle set in silver, with 
a chaine. 

A rock, with branches of red corrall 
upon it. 

A speckle shell cupp. 
A red Indian shell, silver and gilt about 
the edge. 

A jessimy tankard set in silver. 
A mother of pearle shell set In silver^ 
with a figure upon it. 

A greenish flowcr-pott set in silver and 
gilt. 

A black shell cup with a silver edge. 
A white bhell in a silver franie» tanker 
faiihion. 

A litlr cup standing ii> ji lille silver 
baskctt. 




u 



OrmmmtMl Pkte, «f . at Otmead Hail 



[J« 



A lirowne botte, set In i lUver frame, 
with a bUckmoores head upon it. 

A greene cap set in aUver frame. 

A mother of pearle ship shell engrsren. 

A browne cup set in iUTer and gilt. 

A shell fashioned Uke a erane, nlrer 
andgUt. 

A red Indian cup with a white rim, and 
cover upon it. 

A knotted wood cnp set in rilver, with 

a cover upon it. 

A black shell boole aett in silver. 

A running horse, gilt 

A shell set upon a silver figure. 

A shell cup with a silver frame. 

A speckle shell cup in a silver and gilt 
frame, with 2 handles and cover. 

A red Indian cup with a black rim. 

A browne speckle cup, silver and gilt 
foot and rim. 

A black cup with silver and gilt rim. 

A greenish flower pott sett in silver and 
gUt. 

A red Indian cup with a white rim, and 
oover upon it. 

A stone pott, silver and gilt top and 
dudne. 

A mother of pearle shell engraven, with 
a silver fbot. 

A speckle bottle with a silver and gilt 
top. 

A white shell cup with 3 handles and 
cover. 

A gilded horse. 

A browne cup in a silver and gilt frame. 

A red Indian bottle with an ivory foot 
and top. 

In the comer. 

A browne nodden cup, with a silver and 
gih rime and foot. 

On that side of the creaat, right againe 
the windowes. 

An horse in a feeding posture, gilded. 

A red speckle shell standing upon a 
silver foot. 

A litle Indiun cup turned downe. 

A white shell cup with 2 handles. 

A litle Indian boze. 

^^I^ apeckled shell with a silver and 
gilt foot. 

A brazen figure of our Lady with our 
A ^' and John Baptist. 
A browne cup with an ivory frame, and 
* eares. 

. ^ ««ddish sheU cup with an high topp, 
"^Jf/l^erandgUtfrSme. 

A litle browne cup in a silver frame. 

A gippan of Portingall earth. 

A speck aheU etanding vpon a griffin. 

A mother of pearle flower pott, inlaid 
^aasUverandgUtframe. 
» Wa^S^"^®^' ^th a socket for a candle 



A white egg pot, tuiker fhihioa, in a 
silver and gOt frame. 
A horse gilded, in a runing poatore. 
A mother of pearle botle, set in silver 
and gilt. 

A red Indian kan in a silver frame, 
handle and cover. 

A great stone flower pott in silver and 
gilt fhmie, witii S syrenes upon it. 

A red Indian pott with a aQver and gOt 
frame, cover and handle. 

A moUier of pearle botle, set in dbrer 
and gilt. 

A gilded horse in a feeding posture. 
A white egg pott, tanker fiuhiona In a 
silver and gilt frame. 

A boy gUded, with a sockett for a candle 
in his hand. 

A mother of pearle flower pott, inlaid 
in a silver and gilt frame. 

A shell standing on a dolphin, silver 
and gilt, with a silver and gilt figure upon 
the top. 

A gourd botle, engraven, with a silver 
and gUt top. 

A red Indian pott in a silver frame, 
handle and cover. 

A great browne cup in a silver and gilt 
fhune, the handles y* fashion of snakes. 
A red Indian bo»B. 

A shell standing on a dolphin, silver 
and gilt, with a silver and gilt figure upon 
the top. 

A red Indian botle with a silver firame. 
A litle browne botle set in silver frame. 
A browne tankard with an ivory handle. 
A shell standing upon 3 dolphins. 
A black cupp with an ivory rim and 
foot. 
A gourd botle with a silver fr«me. 
A red Indian kan with black edge 
about it. 

A woodden cup with an ivory foot and 
top. 

A browne shell, silver and gilt foot, in 
the fashion of a snake. 

A shell, engraven with the story of 
Atalanta, standing upon an eagle's foot of 
silver. 

In the corner. A gilded horse in a trott- 
ing posture. 

On the left side of the chimney, on the 
creast. 
A mother of pearle flower pott, inlaid 
in a silver and gilt frame. 
A shell cup, enameld. 
A litle red gourd. 

A shell fashioned like a crane, silver 
andgUt. 
A shell cup, enameld 
A litle red Indian cup. 
A mother of pearle flower pott, inlaid 
in a silver and gilt frame. 

(7b 6e conlfntiecf.) 



1844*] 



25 



miromT 09 im^jll FmocisDiaros nr wrancu, for thy mmeovsur 09 a tHmnts 

IMPROPKlLtY aiMOVKiy FRDK A CHVUCH. 

{Extracted from the Bulletin Arcb^olo^qne published by the Ubtoricnl Committfe 
of Arts and MonumeQts, ^ud vol. 6 No. pp» 42ti to 433. 1843.] 



THE Secretary aDoouncea tbat the 
afiair relative to the alirine of La 
Gu^ne (Curr^zze) is termitiated* la 
tbe month of November 1841 the pa- 
rochial mioister {d^MMruani) and the 
mayor of La Gu^ne clandestinely sold 
the shrine of St Calminius, the patron 
saint of the parish^ to a brazier of 
Limoges, This ehrine is ooe of the 
moat precious ia this conotry^ which 
DOW poiseises only one other of such 
great vaioe. Having been informed 
of this misdeed by M. Texier^ the cur^ 
of Auriat (Creusc), who is engaged in 
making rcskcarches respecting the an* 
cient Limousin enamels, M. Didron 
drew up a protest against this illegal 
sale. On the 1 5th of December 1$41 
he published the letter which he had 
writtt n to M. Texier on the sobject, 
and d enounced before the Keeper of 
the Seals the conduct of the mayor 
and the parochial minister of La 
Gu^ne. On the 17th of December 
the Minister of Public Worship made 
known that he had requested of his 
Grace the Bishop of Tulle to furnish 
him with the requisite proofs, in order 
to attach as much consequence to the 
affair as possible. The receipt of these 
documents confirmed the fact of the 
sale having been unlawful. Mean- 
while M. Miniefp the person who bad 
clandeatlaely purchased the shrine, 
hastened with it to Paris, asking 
3000 franc-* of the virtuosi for that 
which lie had bought at the uncoo- 
scionable price of 250 francs. He 
made a great stir about this shrine. 
He exposed it to public view in the 
Hall of Sale in the Aue des Jedoeurs ; 
he made poblic his own shameful 
conduct i and, in fact, sold the shriue 
for 3000 francs to M. Joyan, a Pa- 
risian curiosity broker. Whilst this 
object was being thus openly exposed, 
not only to the veneration of the 
faithful as heretofore, but as well to 
the cupidity of the brokers, M. 
Didron went to see it* and drew up a 
description of it, which was published 
on the 15th of January, 1842. The 
government, who were watching the 
fate of the shrine in order to prevent 
GsNT. Mao* \ou XXL 



its being taken oat of France^ pro- 
cured from the Council of Public 
Buildings, a " proces en revendication'* 
to be brought against M. Minier. On 
this the Keeper of the Seals, in virtue 
of an " ord on nance de refer^ " given 
by the President of the Civit Tribunal 
of the Seine, caused the shrine to be 
sequestrated, and deposited in the 
Hall of the " Commissaires-priseura/' 
The accusation by the Council of 
Public Buildings of M. Lassatvanie, 
the mayor of La Gu^ne, M. Laygue, 
the minister of the parish, (the two 
vendors,) and of M, Minier^ the brazier 
of Limoges, (the purchaser,) cam« 
before the Civil Tribunal of Tulle. 
The cause attracted a much more 
□umeroas auditory than is usually 
seen in this court, and in the month 
of June last, after pleadings which 
excited the most lively interest^ the 
following judgment was given. M. 
Lanot, the Advocate of the Council of 
Public Edifices of La Gudne, spoke as 
follows : 

'' Messieurs : The remonitfanee of tte 
Couadl of Public Buildinga rscxMOBiDeDdb 
ilitelf to your attention by considermtiooA of 
the highest importance. The lowly church 
of Ls Guene possessed a shrine vrhichi 
according to trsdition, coatsined the relies 
of St. Cidminius. Thi^ monument drew 
the admiration of the srtkt on account of 
its figures in relief, the beauty and finisli 
of iu decorations, the richness of its 
jewels, sjid the beautiful coucord of its 
parts, which appertain to the style of the 
Bysautine school.* But, for the inhahi- 
i«ots of this quiet re0on, there Is no price 
which in th ' s ould oomp«D- 

sata them t : of antiquity, 

for it conntx.. ....uu .v,.« i.Udr nsemories 

by the most endearing ties, which arc 
trans mitted from age to age with all thctir 
religious feelings. 

** The Mmfstar of the Commone, who, 
from the nature of his functions, is es- 
tablished as the chief and most TJgihuit 
guardian of all holy things, one day forgot 



* M. Lanot is in error here ; the shrine 
is Roman and Limousin, and by no means 
Bysaatine. — Note of the Secretory of the 
Committee. 

£ 



Shrine of SL Calminius a I La Guine, 



rjan* 



bimtelf. He bii putcd vith this monu- 
nent of piety to a broker, who hai resold 
it at &a eaonaoiu profit to M. Joyatii & 
cariosity dealer at Parii. The bol j e^i^ce, 
stripped of it« glory without her knowledge, 
and m jpite of berselft InTokes the law, 
who defends her property. She asks for 
the restoration of this precious reliC} which 
to the feelings of all the country around 
wu a source of coasolatioQ and of hope. 
This pious disposition is readily justified 
hy the recollect! a OS which it awakens of 
this holy personage. Tbe chronicles and 
legends which have circulated thrQU|!:hout 
the country represent him as a grand dig* 
nitary of the RomsEi empire under tlie 
reign of the Emperor Justiaiao, invested 
with the government of Aquitainet and 
there planting and cstablishmg the im- 
inortal code which has so long governed 
the worlds and which still remains tbe 
written law of tbe unirerse. But what is 
still more worthy to be remarkedi it is re^ 
lited of him that, seeing the wretchedness 
which afflicted the population which he 
governed, be shook off, as if by divine in- 
spiration, tlieburtbenof public afiairs, and, 
acceptiug the holiest of all miasionSt he dc* 
prived himself of bU immeDse wealth and 
emoluments^ and thenceforth employed 
bimaelfinrelicvingj comforting, and moral- 
ising a whole people, before plunged in tbe 
deepest barbarism. Should tbe chronicles 
be suspected of exaggeration ou this sub* 
ject, I can produce the moat undeniable 
historical documents to attest their trulli, 
Baltiset foUawing Mubilloii, tells us that 
St, Cfllminius douris^bcd in tbe seventh 
century, and that be founded the monas-* 
tery of Tulle. By cstabliabing this mo- 
nastery be laid tbe foundation of a town. 
The same author has preserved to us the 
Tecords of a great numher of endowments, 
of donations, and of vast benebts, of 
which, in the tenth century t La Gui^ne was 
the object r and al! in honour of St. Cal* 
mlnias. And one learns by historical 
data how considerable a person be was 
•mongst the peo]de of tbe i3*riod in which 
he flourished; and that his name should 
still continue to live in the memories of 
the inhabitants of La Gul'uc, of which he 
I Vu to great a benefactor.'^ 

After thcs« general remarks, the 
learned advocate gave a rapid expose 
of the circumstances connected with 
the carrying off tho ahrlne. He thus 
continued i 

" Mt Mlaier li an Ironmonger at Li- 
moges I he trafftea also in antiquities ; he 
buys old candlesticks, cops, cruoifiaes, 
mi geiMrally all such articles as are used 
W our chnrrhes. for several years past 
Im hat travelled aver tbe dcpartmeiit in 



every direction, and there is not a church, 
however hidden and retired, nor a THlagCf 
however poor you could imagine it, wKick 
has remained up to this time unknown ta 
him, and escaped his self-interested Ihtcs* 
ligations. 

*' It is about three years ago that he made 
his first trip to La Guene. He put himself 
into communication with M. Layi^et 
who was then as now the minister of the 
commune, lie saw the shrine of St. Cal- 
mini us ; but, as he offered only TOO francs 
for it, the cure refused to part with it* 
Rome time afterwards be paid another 
visit to La Guene, always with the inCea- 
tion of obtaining the shrlue ; but he met 
with the same refusal. At last, on the 
22nd of Oct. 1841, Minier made a third 
journey to La Gut^ne ; he went directly to 
M. Laygiie, ond again opened his oego- 
elation for the purchase of tbe shrine- 

*♦ Tills time he advanced in bis proposals 
by making an unconditional offer of 25^ 
francs. The price was agreed upon, hat 
tbe roinbtcr was in tbe first instance 
troubled with some scruples; he wished 
that the council of tbe commune might 
be consulted. Tliey sought out the 
mayor, M. Lassalvauie, who hesitated 
also, and tix pressed a wish that the 
council ji^ight be informed of it, and that 
some deliberation might take place with 
them on the subject. But M. Miaier 
was urgent ; be said that the council had 
no right to look into this negociation, 
that it rested solely with tbe curt, and 
moreover that he could not possibly stay, 
but must biive the bargain concluded that 
day. Upon this, minister, mayor, and 
assistant, betook IbemselTes to the church, 
where they displaced the shrine, and de. 
livered it over to M. Mioiert who im- 
mediately bore it away with him to TuUe, 
having paid tbe <:Mr6 the stipulated price 
of ir.U frLincs, In a few days afterwards, 
M. Minier took the shrine to Paris, and 
offered it first to >L Du Sommerand, (who 
is well known in tbe scientific world by 
his rich museum of autiquitiest) sad then 
to M. Joy an, a dealer m antiquities, who 
purchased it of him for 3(>00 francs. AH 
these circumstauce^ which iiavi* preceded 
or followed the difsappea ranee of the shriue 
were published in the papers. The 
prefect being put into possession of the 
facta by the minister of public worship, 
immediately took the necessary steps to 
recover possession of this precious monn- 
ment. The ** Conseil dc Prefecture,*' by 
a resolution of tbe 28 tb of January, au- 
thorised the council of ])ubhc buildings to 
institute a suit against M* Minier, and 
M. Laygnc the minUtcr, and to pursue 
the recaption of the shrine in the bands 
of any third party wrongfully detatuing 



I 



I 



i 



1814.] 



Shritte of Si, Calmmiut at La Guine. 



%J 



On the 'ilst of Febniary, Meiirs. 
aygue and Minier were cited before the 
ibanaL The council of public buildmgi 
etnnnded of Ibem the return of Ibc slmne, 
i'or 10|000 francs, as datniiges of dctentioa 
limder sequeatnitloD. 

" On the 6th of April, ft recaption was 
made of the shrine in th« hands of M, 
JojuDi the actual possessOFi and, by a 
decree of the President of the Tribunal of 
the Seine, it has been sequestrated and 
depomeed in the ball of the *' cotnmiasairei- 
priseurs/ ' ^\. Jojan has been summoned 
before the tribunal to hear the court pro* 
nounce on the validity of the recaption 
from him*" 

After having thus exposed the whole 
a6*air, the learned advocate sought to 
establish, Ist, that the recaption was 
valid ; and therefore that M, Joy on 
should be adjudged to return the dhrinc 
to the council of public buildings. 
2ndly« That, failing in the support of 
his lirBt proposition, Messrs* Laygue 
and Minier ought to be adjudged to 
pay the council 10,000 francs for 
damages of the tJetention by sequestra- 
tion. The tribunal of Tulle, after 
having heard four other counsel on the 
part of M. Laygue, M. Lassalvanie, 
M. Minier, and M* Joy an, and their 
personal explanations. On the sum- 
fliing up of the representative of ''M. 
Le Procureur *lu Roi,'* the court gave 
judgment as follows: 

*' The court, taking into consideration 
the evidence adduced, by its unanimous 
judgment annuls the recaption made as 
agaiuit M. Joyan, and removes in his 
favour the sequestration upon the shrine 
of St> Calmintus, irhich has caused this 
recaption ; but the court does not see any 
grounds for awarding damages of detention 
to him on account of this sequeitratlon. 
Adjudges the council to pay the costs of 
M. JoyaOf fixed at the sum of 77 francs 
10 cents. 

" Without determining upon the point 
of non- receipt offered by Minier, the court 
declares the sale which ^as consented to 
by Layguc and Litssalvanie null and void, 
and coDseqaently doth ortlcr that Minier 
shall restore, in the course of two monthsi 
the shrine of St* Calminius, which was 
the subject of the sale. That the council 
shall account to him for the necessary ex. 
penses vhlch he shall have been put to 
in the preservation and restoration of the 
shrine, according to an account which he 
shall be obliged to furnish, and which the 
council shall be at liberty to question* 
And in default of his rendering such ae* 
CQitnti v^ithin the prescribed time^ the 



court doth now adjudge him, without 
further hearings to pay the valuer which 
the tribunal fixes at the sum of 'i,9Sa 
froncst and adjudges bim also to pay the 
costs of the council, ascertained at 183 
francs 93 cents. 

** Without determining upon the point 
of non- receipt raised by M. Bardoulat on 
behalf of Laasalvanie, the court doth de- 
clare Laygue and Lassalvania liable to the 
Council of Public Buildings of La Gu^ne 
for the performance of the judgmenta 
passed in favour of the Council against 
Minier, and doth consequently eondeom 
them to the payment of the aforesaid sum 
of 2,95. "i francs, saving to them, never- 
theless, their right of redress over as 
against Minier. 

** Adjudges Laygue to reimburse Minier 
in the sum of "^0 francs, by him paid at 
the time the shrine was handed over to 
Mm, and which was received by the said 
Laygue. 

*^ Adjudges Laygue and Lassalvanie to 
pay the costs of M icier, ascertained at 
97 fr. a8 cts. ; and further adjudges them 
to indemnify him against the cofits, for 
which he is directly liable towards the 
Council of Public Buildings of La Gui^ne, 
and to pay him the sum of 100 francs, the 
whole of which being for damages of de- 
tention under sequestration." 

At present nothing naore can be done 
than to leave the matter to the natural 
CO u rs e of eve n ts , M , M i n i er , w i thout 
doubts will appeal ; he will be cast ia 
his appeal as he has been on the first 
hearing, and the shrine will be restored 
to its home at La Guene, from whence 
it ought never again to be taken. Thia 
will serve as an example to mayors 
and ministers throughout all France, 
when they venture to sell such pre* 
cious objects without authority, and 
dilapidate our religious treasures. It 
will also be a useful lesson to our 
braziers and curiosity dealers^ who im- 
poverish our churches and reap their 
harvest all over France amongst our 
most beautiful and most ancient works 
of art> The Committee congratulates 
itself on the result of these proceed- 
iDgB, and requests that the same may 
be publisbed in the Bulletin Archeo- 
logique. In future. Councils of public 
buildings andministers wilt think twice 
before they diipose of works of art or 
historical monuments. 



Mb. Urban, Nm\ 9* 

YOUR ingenious correspondent E. 
B, P. (whose careful detail* of Lon. 




28 



on St Paul'B.—Pamih/ of Barwich 



[JaQ« 



dii^'ian antiqultieSi as they arc from 
time to time brought to light, form a 
valuable source of record for future 
writers on the topography of the 
metropoliB,) has falleD into an error 
when he saySp* In confirmation of St« 
Paul's Cathedral having been used as 
a horse market, '* that Shakspeare 
makes Falstaff triumphantly^ boast of 
having bought his horse in PauVs.'* 

Now the fact is altogether mis- 
represented in this reference. Falstaff 
inquires of his page, '* Where's Bar- 
dolph?" The page rejoins. *' He's 
gone into Smithtield to buy your 
worship a horse.'* Falslaff then sa)'a, 
" I bought him [i}arc2o{})/i] in PauPs, 
and he'll buy me a horse in Smiihjield ; 
an 1 could get but a wife in the stews, 
I were manned, horsedj and wived." 
See Henry IV. part II. act L sc. 2. 

I do not know whether I have ever 
before requested your attention to the 
exact parallel of the above passage, 
which is to be found in Burton's 
Anatomy of Melancholy j if so, I will 
however venture to reproduce it oo this 
occasion. '' He that marries a wife 
out of a suspected inne or ale house, 
buyes a horse in Smithficld, and hires 
a servant in Paurs, as the diverbe is, 
shall likely have a jade to his horse^ a 
knave for his man» and an arrant 
honest woman to his wife." Burton's 
Anatomy of Melancholy, vol. 11. p. 
492, edit. 1S13. By wKich collateral 
passages of these two emiDent writers. 
who were both living in the earlier 
part of the seventeenth century* it would 
appear that hiring servants in the nave 
of St. Paul's Cathedral, the promenade 
of all the loose characters of London 
at that time, and the purchase of a 
horse from among the unsound animals 
eiposed for sale in Smithfield, had 
grown into a " diverb '* or proverbial 
warning ; and this is a more likely 
conjecture than that either Sbakspere 
or Burton borrowed from each other. 

I am certain that E. B. P. will 
pardon the correction of an error which 
might be multiplied by those who do 
not read Shakspere for themselves. 
Yours, ace. A. J. K. 



• Not. p. 533. In omr lait namher 
E. B. P. hi tu self corrected hli error; bat 
w« itt^ Ihe pr^MDt letter (which WM 



MY attention has been called to • 
notice in your Magazine for March 
1842, page 122, requesting particulars 
respecting the ancient family of Bar* 
wick, or rather the father or ancestry 
of Sir Robert Barwick, knt. of Towla- 
ton Hall in the county of York, which 
1 here give for the information of 
your correspondent, or any others con* 
nected with the family. 

Sir Hugh de Barwick, knt, was 
Lord of the Manor of Trcdelisaham in 
Berkshire, and also held divers lands 
in the county of Oxford, and died 52 
Hen. ni. leaving by Isabel his wife 
two Bona, Thomaa and John, which 
John de Barwick had summons to Par* 
liament among the justices and others 
of the King's council, 23, 27, 33,34, 
and 35 of Edw. L Again, the Ist of 
Edw. IL when the justices and King's 
couQcii were intermixed with the earls 
and barons, but not summoned in fide 
Pi homagio. He was treasurer to Queen 
AHanor, wife of King Edward I. and 
attended at the coronation of King 
Edward IL was prebendary of Holme, 
and afterwards of Fenton, in the county 
of York. In the 2nd of Edward 11. is 
the last time I find his name men- 
tioned, which seems to intimate that 
he was abort! y after dead. Of the 
cider son, Thomas de Barwick, we find 
him as master of the archers in the 
reign of Edward HI. from whom de* 
scended Juhn Barwick, D.D.* Dean 
of St. Paul's, London ; Peter Barwick, 
M.D. Physician in Ordinary to King 
Char!ea IL; and Colonel Samuel Bar- 
wick^f Governor of Barbadoes in lfi66# 
which Colonel Barwick died 3rd Jan. 
1673* leaving an only son and heir, 
Samuel, who was President of the 
Councils and Governor of Barbadoes in 
1731, and died Jan. 1, 1773, leaving 
a daughter and heiress Jane, who mar- 
ried 27 Aug. 1752, the Hon. T. Oa- 



omitted laat month for want of spsce) on 
oecount of tlic remarkable paraDel pointed 
out by A. J. K. in the piiBsage of Bur- 
ton.— «di/. 

• Vide Life of Dr. John BarwicV, 
f See a curioos paper prioted (1 B-H) at 
th« private press of Sir Thomas PhiJlippi, 
Bart entitled *' TUe Case of Colonel 
Samuel Barwkk*s WiU and Co4icill.'' 



1844,] 



Pedigree o/Barwick. 



born Bruce/ ftnd conveyed to him the 
estates ind represcntition of the 
family. 

From the said Sir Hugh de Earwick 
probably descended the family of Sir 



Robert, of which the folio wmg pedi- 
gree« compiled from wills, parish regia^ 
ters. and a iraltiable MS. at Middle 
Hilli I beg to transmit to the reader: 



Robert Barwick, geut.^* • . . daa. of- 



geat.y. 



Joba Berwick t et^. of Whetley, in th 
parith of DoQcuterf ob. 10 Apr« 135^ 



1 



Robert Barwick of Doncaster, Uw, 1^91,= 
buried at Doo canter Mar. 30, 1602, 



Matbew Bar-= 
wick I of Stam- 
ford; wiU 
proved April 
13, 1593. 



■Marj-, 
1591, 



Ig&Deli iaor. 
May 13, 1571, 
Ch« Rohiison* 
and had a sod 
Robert, Hv. 
161». 



L 



Thomas. 
Chris topher. 



Praacis, =T=Jane 



Alderman 
ofDoncofl* 
feri bur^ 
10th Aag. 
iei4. 



FraocUf lir. 
1591 aod 1614. 



Maryt liv. 

1591 and 1614, 



I 
Tbomaa, 
ob, inf. 



John ^Cathft* 



FuU. 
wood. 



Barwick, 
mar. ?8 
Nov. 
1585, 



A one, bapt* 
5 Dec. l&dO. 



riaci da. 
of Cottl. 
son. 



Sir Robert Barwick, of Towlston HaII« bapt. at Doncaitei^ 
1569 ; admitted at Graj's lun^ Loodou, October, 
1611 ; was living at Gray*a loain 1614 ; elected Recorder 
of Doncaiter Sept. 23^ 1653. A Justice of the Peace 
in 1649, Recorder of York, Knighted at York by King 
Charles I.Nov. 2 1 at 1641 ; died April 25lb 1660, tet. 1^, 
buried at Newton Kyine« 



^Urstila^ da. of Walter 
Strickland, esq* the 
famous antiquoryi^ 
and nster to Sir WO* 
Uam Strickland, Bart, 
died 4 Oct. 1662. 



Robert Barfriok, esq. of 
TmrlsUm Hall, s. and h. 
bom 16S3, drowned in the 
riTer Wharf, 16 Jane, 1666, 
nt* 33, buried at Newton 
Kjrme.— S.P. 



FrancM ^Henry Fairfax, esq. of Oglc- 



Barwick, 
heir to 
ber bro- 
ther. 



Thomas Lord^ 
Fairfax, ob. 

no8. 



thorpe, who afterwards sue- 
ceeded (1671) his first 0011110, 
the celebrated Thomas Lord 
Fairftia aa 4th Lord FiiHkz« 
and died in 1688. 



Urania 
Barwick, 
died 5 Feb. 
1655, mu 
14. 



» I ' J * 

1. Dorothy. 

2. Frances* 

3. Anne* 

4. UrsuU. 

5. Mary. 



I 



Henry Fiiir- 
fax, of Towl- 
ston. 



^. — , ..- . 
Barwick 
Fairfax, 
ob. 1712. 



Bryan 
Fairfsx. 



The registers of Newton Kyme being 
imperfect from 1636 to 1682, the only 
entry I found was as follows: — " 1682, 
October, Hursula, y* relect lady of 
8' Robert Barwick, was bwryed upon 
y* 6th day." Nor was 1 more for* 
tunate with the monumeotal inscrtp- 
lions which 1 expected to find in the 
church ; ihey had disappeared, and not 
ti vestige reroarocd of this family ^ave 
the arms, impaling those of Strickland, 
carved in stone 00 the north side of 



• Father of Barwick Bruce, esq. M.D* 
whose son, Samuel Barwick Bruce, ct^. 
M.D. ii the pruseat reprcfetitatiTe of this 
brattoh of the fannily* 



the chancel wall, within the altar rails. 
Shortly after my return from the vil- 
lage 1 visited York, and found depo» 
sited in the office of the Dean and 
Chapter the MS. collections of Jame« 
Torr, the Yorkshire antiqtiary, who 
had carefully copied all the tnscrip* 
ttons, which I here give literatim. 

Here lyeth interred Ibe body of UrsaU 
Barwick, yonneest daughter of Sir Robert 
Barwick^ kut. oeing the joy of both her 
parents, whose obedience cannot be pa* 
rallcled, who died February 5 th 1655, aged 
14. 

Here lyeth interred the body of Ursula 
Barwick^ late of Toulston, Kt. (nc in MS,} 
who departed this life Oct. 4th, l$^% 
agedSL 



30 



On the Proportions oj Churches. 



[Jan. 



Here lyeth interred the body of S' 
Robert Barwick, Kt. who for his abilities 
in his profession was chosen Recorder 
both of York and Doncaster, and soe dyed, 
having departed this life April 26th 1660, 
agedrS. 

Here lyeth the body of Robert Barwick 
of Toulston, esq. the son of S' Robert 
Barwick, Kt. who departed this life 16 
June, A.D. 1666, aged 33 years. 

Yours, &c. W. D. B. 



Mr. Urban, 

I AM not surprised that the subject 
of the contour and proportion of 
churches has not dropped. If, in 
planning such an edifice, next to utility 
proportion is the first point to be con- 
sulted and precedes ornament — if many 
very plain buildings please because 
the contour is judicious, and many 
expensive ones displease in spite of 
much adornment, then is this a point 
of more consequence surely than it 
has been generally considered; es- 
pecially as a tasteful proportion costs 
no more than an unsightly disposition 
of the same materials, 'while ornament 
is expensive in exact proportion to its 
quantity. 

Every architectural amateur in Suf- 
folk most be especially interested by 
the list of churches with equal chan- 
cels, contributed by Mr. Wodderspoon. 
WiUi your addition it exhibits a larger 
number of churches so constructed 
than any other county probably could 
furnish. But I should be sorry that 
the merits of the equal chancel should 
be tried by most of these structures, 
for the greater simplicity of that plan 
requires more attention to proportion 
than when the building is divided into 
a greater number of parts, and some 
of these churches, from a defect in 
this point in their construction, 
are greatly inferior in beauty to some 
churches of the same rank with low 
chancels ; nay, a great height and 
heaviness of body, joined to a thin 
tower, is the most unsightly of all 
possible defects. I must instance the 
otherwise very beautiful church of 
Southwold, exceeded by few of the 
same class in the interior, and richly 
adorned throughout. If viewed later- 
ally it appears to me one of the most 
displeasing in shape I have ever seen, 
a high-shouldered and clumsy mass; 
I would gladly add a low chancel to 



give it lightness. But, Sir, the equal 
chancel should not be judged except 
by that principle from which its beauty 
is inseparable — a nice attention to 
proportion. 

I did not anticipate any objection 
to the equal chancel from the nature 
of the services and solemnities within 
the roof, but I feared that reverence 
for ancient construction, and a pleasing 
association of ideas with venerated 
forms, would have been urged : for to 
such a plea no answer could have been 
returned, except a bare avowal of dis- 
sent. It was therefore particularly 
gratifying to find an objection put 
upon the legitimate principle of taste 
— ^the true criterion in this case — and 
maintained and illustrated in so sci- 
entific a manner by Mr. Barnes as to 
please, if not convince, every reader. 
As the contour of a church with three 
heights, his little outline in black 
appears to me absolute perfection ; 
evincing the justice of his theory of 
harmonic proportion where that plan 
is adopted. But may there not 
be an equal beauty in the relative 
proportions of two heights? That 
the interior of a church with an 
equal chancel would exhibit a much 
finer view, no one, I think, can ques- 
tion ; a depression of roof being a poor 
climax to noble succession of elevated 
arches, ribs, or beams ; but I should 
be willing to rest the issue on the la- 
teral appearance of the exterior ; and 
I have one plea more to offer. There 
seems a fitness and propriety in such 
a construction of different grades of 
edifices of the same kind, that a ge- 
neral correspondence shall exist be- 
tween them, that the difference be ad- 
justed by some rule, and not by ca- 
price or accident. Now if the equal 
chancel be adopted, there will exist 
such a correspondence between the 
three classes of churches, the cathe- 
dral, the parochial church, and the 
chapel ; the two latter will be irregular 
segments of the former. Take away 
one side of a cathedral, and you har 
the form of the parochial church ; tal 
away the tower from the parochu 
church, and you have a chapel. Bt 
the low chancel entirely destroys thi 
general affinity. I do not aidvanc 
this as a strong plea ; " valeat ^ar 
turn," &c. I am desirous of join? 
issue with your talented corresponr^ 



1844.] 



The Family qfChefoniames, 



on hia own principle, and adopting 
his own eicpantly shaped outline as 
the basis* of the more simple form ; 1 
fear not to place the equal chancel be- 
side it* 

Youra, &c. G. 0, 




Mb, Urban, 

THE public prints for September 
have quoted the language of the 
Oiurrier Fran^ai^ concerning the 
journey of the Duke and Duchess of 
I^emours iotofiritanny. 

*' The Icgtttniists^ and partkulaHy Ihe 
clergy of Britsnny, which woi the centre 
of the attempts made to restore the fallen 
dynasty in Ute years, came Co meet the 
duke, and protest their devotion to the 
dynaity which the revolution of July bus 
placed on the throne. M. le Comte de 
CheffontoLoes and M. and Madame de 
Trerelec have loudly and fretly sent their 
adhcfion to the royal family. M. dc 
Chcflbntaine;} tells every one who wishes 
to hear hij opinion, * These princes of the 
family of Orleans arc admirable : It is 
impotfibte not to love them ifhen one 
knowi them.^ ^' 

According to M. Miorcec dc Kcr- 
danet^ the family ofCheflbntainea were 
formerly called Fenfeimteiiimt, which 



of that district to the influence of 
the Crusades, particularly the first, 
in which Alain Fergent, the reigning 
duke, was present, with several of the 
Breton noblesse. 

**0a remarquequ*iIsrapport«>rent . . . 
un langQge qui finit par Htg ceki de la 
coiir de Bretagnc. Tsnt de guerners de 
divcrses nations se trouvant rcuuis en Aaic* 
avaient dt se fairc an idiome commun ; 
comme la langwc franqne est encore le 
nioyen dc communication cntre lea Euro* 
peens qui frt'quentent le^ Echelles du 
Levant, Ce fut h daterdu retour d'Alain 
Fergent, que I'ancien idiome brcton fit 
placei du mains pour T usage de la cour, 
a nn Fran^ais m^Ic d^un grand nombrc 
dc mots dtrimgcrs.** (Hist, de Bretagne, 
b. iii. vol. i. p. 313.) 

M» Miorcec, who, as a native and 
a professed antiquary, is a Btill better 
authority, comes to the same conclu- 
sion. 

"Mais dans quel tems le bretoa a*t-U 
cesai d'etre le langage do la cotir de nos 
souveraina? On pent faire remoatcr 
rtpoqae de ce changement A la premiere 
crnisade. 11 a*optj'a alors une grnnde 
r^olution dans ks mo::ur8 ct dans les 
langues. On commen^a a jargonner au 
vieox frani:ais, qui n© fut point Stranger 
a la Bretagne." (p. 51, x* ti^cle.) 

On the last words he has a note. 

*^Comme le prouve la traduction dea 
Pierres precieusen de Marbodus, cv^que 
dc Rennes ; version qui fut faite en Bre- 
ta^e, en 1123. C*est le plus andeu 



has the same meaning in Breton as ouvrage en vers fran^ais quo Ton con- 
their present name has in French, naisse.*' (Duclos.) 

The name of De ChefFontaines 
(latinised by a Capite Fon/tMm) is 
known in old French literature, 
ibrough the controversial writings of 
Cbristophc de Cheflfontaines, Arch- 
bishop ofCesarea inpartibus, who died 
at Rome in 1 595. It h to him that M. 
iMiorcec alludes wheo, speaking of the 
writers of poetry in the Breton langu- 
age, in the sixteenth century, he says. 



French. 
•* La famille de Ckfffontaines est une 
de celles qui francis^rent leur nom en 
1491 : elle s*appclait anparavant Pen- 
ftuntenhu, doot Cht^ffontaines, on Capid 
ftmiium, n'est que la traduction," 
(Hist, de la Languc dea Gaulois, et 
par suite, decelledes Bretons, Rennes, 
1821, p. 67-) The occasion of this 
transformation of names from Breton 
into French was probably the mar* 
rittge of the heiress of Bretagne to 
Clmrles VIIL which took place in 1491, 
and virtoally annexed that duchy to 
Ihe French crown. M. Daru, the his- 
torian of Bretagne, traces a former 
inroad opon the vernacular language 



• I have made the two churches prc- 
daely similar eiccpt in the point under 
cuniideration. 



^' Le P. de Che (Ton twines, gi'n^ral des 
Cordtdiera, excellait anssi dans la poesie 
Bretoune. On lui doit lea Qua f re fin* de 
Vhomma^ povmo tr^s-rare, imprimc an 
convent de Cuhurien, pri?8 Morlaijc, en 
1570, CheflbutaiocH savatt icpt langues^ 
PHt^breu, le Grcc, le Latin, Tl tali en, 
I'Espagnol, le Franvais, et le Breton." 
(p. G7, Jivi' si^de.) 

Exclusive of his controvereial writ- 




P roi c iffe$ ofih$ PUffrimti Progrta. 



32 

iiigt» Uie Tilnt of which is of coarse 
confined, lie has a claim to be re- 
Membered as the anthor of" Chretieime 
Cbivfvla/toa dm Petal. fTfloaatiir/' 
(Paris, 1568. 1571. and 1579* 8to..) 
a theological treatise against duelling. 
He is. however, annoticed by Sabatier. 
(4th edit. 1779.) probably because 
most of his works were written in 
Latin. 

9. In your Magazine for November, 
page 487* is a letter on the subject of 
the Pilgrim's Progress, and the sources 
from which it may have originated. 
There is a conjecture on this subject 
in the Li/e of the late Dr. Adam 
Clarke, which traces the literary ge- 
nealogy back to Gawin Douglas, the 
celebrated Bishop of Donkeld, after 
which it becomes less definite : — " A 
thought strikes me: John Bunyan 
seems to have borrowed his Pilgrim's 
Progress from Bernard's Isle of Man ; 
Bernard his Isle of Man from Fletcher's 
Purple Islaod ; Fletcher took his plan 
from Spenser's Faery Queen ; Spenser 
his Faery Queen from Gawin Douglas's 
King Hart; and Douglas his plan 
from the old mysteries and moralities 
which prevailed in his time." (Life, 
vol. ii. p. 390.) The Voyage of the 
VTandermg Knight (which was printed 
during the reign of Elizabeth), and 
which is noticed in an early volume 
of the Retrospective Review, should 
ssemingly be reckoned in the Pilgrim's 
ancestry, for it has a strong family 
resemblance. Of King Hart there is 
a copious analysis in Dr. David Irving's 
Lives of the Scottish Poets (vol. ii. p. 
38—35. ed. 1804). He says, " Dou- 
glas's ITtii^ Hari, an allegorical poem 
of a singular construction, exhibits a 
most ingenious adumbration of the 
progress of human life. The heart, 
being the fountain of vital motion, is 
personified as man himself, and con- 
dacted through a great variety of ad- 
ventures" (p. 38). Perhaps the idea 
may be traced as high as the allegory 
of Cebes. entitled Uufof, the Tablet 
or Picture of Huwum L(fe ; and the 
Hercules {Utpi rov HfKucXcovt) of his 
contemporary Prodicns. which has 
given rise to so many compositions 
under the title of the Choice of Her- 
cules, and among others that by Shen- 
Btone. " The Tkble of Cebes (observes 
Dr. Gillies), which has been trans- 
mitted to modern timai, contains a 
4 



[Jaa. 



beantiiiil and affecting picture of ha - 
man life, delineated with accuracy of 
judgment, and iUnmiaated by splen- 
door of sentiment." (Hist, of Greece, 
iii. 148.) The allegory may be briefly 
expressed in a few words from one of 
Johnson's notes, as quoted by the late 
editor. Simpson:* "Homo in vitam 
faigcessurus haustoi erroris et igno- 
nntiK ab impoihatm swnit. ingressum 
tfirnkmrn, wi^fUHaim^ at W9kifimi99 cx- 
ctpnuit»alim Itrant ttisalvtaiiv alim ad 
interitum." Enfield has remarked, 
that " this piece ... in its moral spirit 
and character is truly Socratic. but 
contains some sentiments which ap- 
pear to have been borrowed from the 
Pythagorean school." (Hist, of Phi- 
l<Mophy, i. 189.) Indeed, the idea of 
representing human life as a choice 
between diverging paths may be found 
in the famous aphorism of Pythagoras. 
"Remember that the paths of virtue 
and of vice resemble the letter Y." 
But the germ of the idea is older than 
the Samian philosopher, and may be 
traced even in the earliest Scriptures, 
in a variety of texts, which will readily 
recur to the reader's mind. 

As some of your readers. Mr. Urban, 
may wish to have a sight of Bernard's 
allegory, which comes so near to Bun- 
yan as a precursor, they will be glad 
to learn that their curiosity can easily 
be gratified, since the book has been re- 
printed by the Religious Tract Society. 
as "The Search for Sin. and its im- 
partial trial in the Isle of Man ; ex- 
tracted from an old Author." It stands 
at No. 91 in the Society's list, and is 
sold for less than twopence, while the 
original, if a clean and perfect copy, 
would probably be charged in an 
intelligent bookseller's catalogue at 
several shillings. In its present form 
it is probably abridged. 

Bunyan was so partial to this kind 
of writing, that he has described human 
life, or rather religion, under the simi- 
litudeof awaraswell as of a pilgrimage. 
His Holy War. however, though it 
contains some ingenious ideas, is in- 
ferior to the Pilgrim's Progress. 

3. Some of your readers may now 

* Epicteti Enchiridion, Cebetis Tabula, 
Prodia Hercules, et Tbeophrasti Charac- 
tares Ethid, per Jos. Simpson, A. M. 
E. Ck>n. Reg. C)zon. 1804. (note p, page 
74.) '^ 



1844.] 



W^nni*8 Bard of SUep.-^VirgiVs CamiUa. 



33 



possibly learn for the first time that 
Spanish literature has had its imitator 
in Welsh. The Visions of Qaevedo 
served as the model of a similar fiction, 
published about 1720, by EUs Wyn, 
(Ellis Wynne,) a clergyman who lived 
at Y Las Ynys, in Merionethshire. 
It is entitled Bardd Cwsg, (The Bard 
of Sleep,)* and being very popular in 
Wales has been several times reprinted. 
I am not aware whether there is any 
English translation, but a modern bard, 
the Rev. John Jones of Bala, (better 
known by the local appellation of 
leuan Thgid,f) commenced one about 
twenty years ago, though I doubt his 
having completed it, as he has been 
since employed on a translation of 
Isaiah from the Hebrew. Qaevedo, 
observes Sismondi, (Hist, of Litera- 
ture, iv. 83,) has lavished his sarcasms 
on " lawyers, physicians, notaries, 
tradespeople, and, more particularly, 
tailors." Elis Wyn has made the 
Welsh attorneys the principal object 
of his satire ; but it is said that he 
raised such a storm against himself, 
from the various classes whom he 



attacked, as only to escape the con* 
sequences by insisting that his book 
was entirely viiionaty. In the same 
way has Virgil prudently made An- 
chises dismiss ifineas from Elysium 
through the dreamy gate of ivory, 
(portique emittit eburni. vi. 899*) 

4. This reference to Virgil suggests 
another concerning the speed with 
which the poet endows his heroine 
Camilla, (b. vii. 808-11.) 
Ilia vel iatactK scjifetis per summi volaret 
Gnunina, nee teneras cursu Insisset aristaa ; 
Vel mare per medium, flnctn snspensa tomenti 
Ferret iter, celeres nee tingeretcquore plantas. 

Thus translated by Dryden, begin- 
ning at line 806 : 

Mlx'd with the first the fierce virago fought, 
Sustained the toils of arms, the danger sought, 
Outstripp'd the winds in speed along the plain, 
Flew o'er the field, nor hurt the bearded grain: 
She swept the seas, and. aS she skimmed along. 
Her flying feet unhath'd on billows hung4 

The original of this description ap- 
pears not so much in Homer, by 
whom such speed is applied to horses, 
as in ApoUonius Rhodius, who ap- 
plies it to Euphemus the Argonaut. 
(B. i. 1. 182.) 



K€ivo£ mnfp kcu itoptov ini ykavKoTo ^ceo'iecv 
Oidfuiror, ovde Boovs fiarrre nodas, aXX* oaov dicpois 
'I«cveo'i rryyoficvos ^^^pS ^f^^optiro KtktvBt^, 
Whene'er he 8kimm*d along the watery plain, 
With feet unbath*d he swept the surging main, 
Scarce brush'd the surface of the briny dew. 
And light along the liquid level flew. 

Fawket. 



Some copies for Euphemus read 
Polyphemus, whom a note in Pope's 
Odyssev (ix. 569) actually confounds 
with the Cyclops, and gravely ex- 
presses surprise that he threw the 
mountain at Ulysses, instead of pur- 

Ai d' OTt flfV (TIUpTtpiV, 



suing him on the waves ! But, thoueh 
ApoUonius has improved upon the 
idea by applying it to a man, he is 
indebted for it to Homer, who uses it 
to describe the flcctness of the mares 
of Ericthonius, the king of Troy. 

«c. T. X. 

II. y. 226. 



These lightly skimming, when they swept the plain , 
Nor ply'd the grass nor bent the tender grain : 
And, when along the level seas they flew, 
Scarce on the surface curPd the briny dew. 

Pope, 



The description of Camilla, which of 
all these has become the most pro- 

• Mr. Owen, (i. e. Dr. Owen Pughe,) in 
his Cambrian Biography, (from which the 
above particulars are chiefly derived,) trans- 
lateil the title of the poem, " The Visions 
of the Sleeping Bard.** 

t John of the Tegid, a mountain in 
North Wales. 

Gbnt. Mao. Vol. XXI. 



verbial, being the one selected as an 



lines in Pope's Essay on 



t See the 
Criticism : 

When Ajax strives some rock's vast wcig:]it to 

throw, 
The line too labonrs, and the words move slow : 
Not so when swift Camilla sroiirs tlio plain. 
Flics o*er th'uubending: com, aud skims alonfi: 

the main. 

F 



34 



Sise and Progress of the Ecclesiastical Courts. 



[[Jan. 



instance by Pope, is not so hyperbo- 
lical as will generally be supposed. A 
real Camilla, both iu her fleetness of 
step and in the circumstances of her 
life, is mentioned by Chaudon, in the 
Supplement to his Dictionnaire His* 
torique, 1805, vol. 1. 

** Blanc (N. le) fille sauvage, trouv^ 
on mois de Septembre 1 731 , pr^s da Tillage 
de Soigny, k qu&tre lieues de Chalons, k 
Page d'environ diz ana. On a cm qu'elle 
avoit ^t^ abandonn^ a la snite d'un nan- 
frage sur les cotes de France, et que de 
fori^t en fordt elle 6toit parrenue an lieu 
oh on la trouva. Sa force, son agilit(: k 
la course ^toient etonnantes. La maniere, 
suiyant Racine le fils, dont elle couroit 
apr^s les li^vres, n*offroit presque point 
de mouyement dans ses pieds ni dans ses 
corps; c*6loii moitu eourir que gliaer. 
Elle a pass^ la plus grande partie de sa 
Tie dans un conyent de Chaillot, oU les 
bienfaits da due d*Orl^ns ayoient poarru 
ii sa pension et li son entretien. Elle 
est morte yers Tan 1760, apr^s s*^tre con- 



form^ayec facility aox usages de T^tat 
social, et ayoir adopts ayec zdle les prin- 
cipes de la religion.** 

The early life of this young woman 
rather resembles the account of Ca- 
milla's childhood, whom her father 
Metabus 

in damis interque horrentia lustra .... 
Nutribat. (iEn. xi. 570.) 

while her residence in a convent partly 
reminds us of the words, 

SoU contenta DianA 
jEternum telorum et virginitatis amorem 
Intemerata colit (1. 582) ; 

though perhaps in the case of the 
French foundling it was hardly an op- 
tional matter, as she was not likely to 
have proved attractive, or to have be- 
come very polished. However, in any 
case, that the wildness of her early 
life had neither stultified her mind or 
her soul, it is highly interesting to 
learn. Yours, &c. Cydweli. 



SOME PARTICULARS RESFECTINO THE ENGLISH ECCLESIASTICAL COURTS. 



NOTWITHSTANDING the atten- 
lion which the exercise of the Eccle- 
siastical Jurisdiction has for many 
ages attracted, on account, not only of 
the direct and intimate connexion be- 
tween its legal principles and the na- 
tional religion, but also of the practi- 
cal importance of the questions which 
are submitted to its decisions, the col- 
lective information to be found re- 
specting its early or later history in 
this country, is of the most meagre 
and scanty description. 

This neglect, therefore, of what ap- 
pears to me an interesting subject has 
been the cause of my attempting the 
following general sketch of the rise 
and progress of the English Ecclesi- 
astical Courts ; confining myself, how- 
ever, to the more striking and curious 
features exhibited by them, either in 
their origin or in their subsequent ex- 
tension and developement. The es- 
tablishment of these courts in England 
was of considerably later date than in 
almost any other state of Europe. On 
the continent they had been in active 
operation ever since the reign of the 
Emperor Theodosius the Younger, to 
whom must be ascribed their first le- 
galization. But even before that age 
the separatioa of the Christian body 



from the nation at large, which still 
adhered to paganism on almost all 
material points, both in practice 
and opinion, had occasioned many 
peculiar questions, in which their 
faith might be iu some degree 
implicated or compromised, to be 
treated upon and determined by their 
own assembly, under the supervision 
of the higher priesthood, and without 
the intervention of the ordinary civil 
tribunals of the state. This we have 
every reason to regard as the first germ 
of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction, an 
authority, perhaps, co-existent with 
Christianity itself, and to which it is 
impossible to find an exemplar or ana- 
logy in any pagan state of antiquity. 

Whilst m England, these courts, as 
we shall afterwards see, owe their os- 
tensible birth to a sudden and for- 
tuitous introduction of foreign usages 
and principles of law, on the continent 
they had been the spontaneous though 
gradual product of opinions deducible 
from and connected with the dogmas 
and traditional practices of the Chris- 
tian religion itself. The mode of thif 
developement may be illustrated in 
few words. The Church militant, as 
governing power, possessed, simultan 
ously with the authority of inflicting 



18i4.] Rite aitd Progrttt oftht Ecclesimticut C<Mfl». 



35 



private pcna^ncc for the more :»ecret 
offcncett of a minor grade, a corres- 
pondtng jurisdiction to impose a public 
admoDition or censure on offenders of 
a glaring and scandalous cbaracter.* 
And to the exerciic of the tatter of 
these powers we are indebted for the 
criminal processes of the Charch, pro 
salute anima, or for the reformation of 
moral eiicesses. In the same manner, 
the circumstance of marriage being 
regarded irj the light of a sacrament, 
or sucrameutal rite* necessarily and 
consistently placed it, together with all 
matters relating thereto, under the care 
and control of the Church. 

This jurisdiction being, therefore, 
native and inherent in the Church, re- 
ceived at the hands of Theodosius no 
more than a general confirmation and 
stipport. But from the simple text of 
the codfx ThtodorianuSt by which the 
bishops arc pronounced to be the 
proper judges in all cases, *' quoties 
de retigione ayitur/'f the ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction received a liberal amplifi- 
cation in succeeding ages, through the 
voluntary concessions of the secular 
government. For the Church subse* 
quently acquired a complete power of 
adjudication, not only over the mis- 
conduct of clerks, or laicis, and over 
its own revenues, and marriages ; but 
also over the accessary questions of 
dower and alimony, the breach of 
faith in sworn compact or mere pro- 
mises, the validity or invalidity of last 
wills> the enforcement of legacies, and 
the administration of a deceased per- 
son's property* 

This was the condition of the con- 
tinental Ecclesiastical Courts at the 
, epoch of the accession of the Norman 
rConquwor to the tlironc of England, 
LAnd they had already excited the 
jealousy and awakened the late re- 
_pentance of the secular authorities, 
Fwith whose '^Jurisdiction they on 
[many occasions clashed and even sue- 
^ccssfully competed. In the words of 

* Mftnifeitii peccata non sunt occultA 
^«orrectioDe ptirganda. (Decret. Greg. 9, 
I lib. 5, tit. 3fe», cap. L) OflfeDces of this 
r^indi according to the canon law, cannot 
rbc absolved by a priestt but must be re- 
[^lerred to the bishop of the diocese. 

f Cod. Theod. leg. 1, de rcllq. **> Quo- 
I tics de rcligione agitur episcopos convenit 
iudicarc/* 



B great French antiquary,} describing 
their state at this time, ** Curio.* 
Chriatianitatis amplissima fuit juris- 
dictio, cum questionum et causarum 
omnium qu^e non modo res ecclesise, 
scd et sacramenta ct quidquid ex cis 
dubietatis oriretur, apectant, cogni- 
tionem sibi arrogasset." 

Nothing of this kind was to be seen 
in England at the time of the Norraan 
Conquest. The Anglo-Saxon common 
law never recognised the principle of a 
separate civil or criminal jurisdiction 
exercised by the Church ; though^ 
either out of respect to the sacred cha- 
racter of its members, or from a sense 
of their superior learning and intelli- 
gence, it had certainly admitted the 
episcopal order to a participation in 
the muQicipal judicature of the 
country. Ever since the introduction 
of Christianity into England, the 
bishops had sat to hear causes tn the 
county court, in conjunct ion with the 
ealdorman or his sheriff. 

It will be a mistake^ however, to 
suppose that the secular authorities 
even in those times interfered (at least 
legally) in tlic administration of jus- 
tice by the bishops in matters which 
regarded the assignment of penance 
for a public immorality, or in the cog- 
nizance and punishment of the ex* 
cesses of the clerks of his diocese. 
These questions, though discussed 
and tried in the presence of the hun- 
dred « were reserved for the judgment 
and decision of the bishop alone. But 
this hybrid union of courts* besides its 
great practical inconvenience, was for 
other reasons unlikely to iind favour 
in the minds of the foreign church- 
men, who had succeeded to the epis- 
copal sees of England on the expul- 
sion of the native prelates. The former 
had been educated under a totally dif- 
ferent system. Many of them had 
previously acquired fame for their pro- 
ficiency in the peculiar law of the 
Churchy and during the old constitu- 
tion of things in England there was 
little or no scope for a display of the 
powers and ambition of cultivated in- 
tellect and learning. The Saxon mu^ 
nictpal courts, as it would appear, 
never possessed a bar of professional 



I DncaDge^ sub voce Curia Christiani* 
Utis. 



3G 



Rise and Progress of the Bcdesiastical Courts, 



[Jan. 



advocates, and their (Gothic manner 
of trial could not fail to wear a bar- 
barous aspect to men whose minds 
were fraught with a prepossession 
in favour of the more refined juris- 
prudence of the code or the ecclesiasti- 
cal canons. But a stronger and (at 
the same time) less worldly motive 
may have influenced the Norman Con- 
queror and his clergy in effecting the 
revolution to which I am now allud- 
ing. It is not improbable that reli- 
gious scruples might have occasioned 
a reluctance on the part of the latter 
to countenance a scheme which con- 
tinually exposed them to the risk of 
violating the canons, by personally in- 
terfering in secular causes, or which 
compelled them to endure the scandal 
of seeing matters of religious censure, 
if not directly submitted to the deci- 
sion, yet, at least, occasionally sub- 
ject to the interposition, of a lay judge. 
For, as the bishop and the ealdorman 
presided over an united court, the se- 
paration of causes would not con- 
stantly be so strict but that the one 
should at times intermeddle in the 
peculiar province of the other ; and 
finally, there also existed another rea- 
son for this change. The scyrgemot, 
or county court, soon after the acces- 
sion of William the First, was consi- 
derably abridged of its legitimate 
powers, and from its former high 
rank was converted into a merely se- 
condary court of justice, by the insti- 
tution of the Norman " aula regis," 
which, as a tribunal of the first in- 
stance, began to absorb the general 
legal business of the kingdom. And 
accordingly the attendance at the de- 
graded county court, however, it might 
have satisfied the unassuming tempe- 
rament of the English bishops of that 
period, could scarcely square with the 
more elevated pretensions of the fo- 
reign intruders.* 

The persuasions of the clergy there- 
fore, backed probably by the authority 
of the Pope, may have been the induc- 
ing reason to William the First to 
separate the unnatural conjunction 
which had hitherto existed between 



* The necessity for their attendance 
was not, however, formerly repealed until 
the statute of Marlborough, at the close 
9f the reign of Henry III. 



the municipal and ecclesiastical juris- 
dictions, and to ordain that, " for the 
future, no bishop or archdeacon should 
hold pleas founded on the canon laws 
(de UgihuM episcopalihus) in the hun- 
dred or county court, or lay before 
secular men any question which con- 
cerned the government or cure of 
souls. These enactments were con- 
tained in a statute of the Norman Par- 
liament, (for such it is, though com- 
monly styled a charter of that 
monarch), the date of which is not 
expressed, and cannot be now sup- 
plied from any extrinsic source. 

This Act, though brief in its expres- 
sions, is pregnant with the clearest di- 
rections respecting the constitution 
and regimen of the new intended 
courts. It not only defines the nature 
of the suits to be tried there, at the 
same time providing a code of laws 
for the guidance of those whose pro- 
vince it should be to administer justice 
in relation thereto, but it also pre- 
scribes a fixed and settled locality for 
the courts ; and finally — without de- 
rogating from the rights of regal pre- 
rogative by setting up an imperiutn in 
tmperio, a consequence to be fairly ap- 
prehended in that era of clerical pre- 
tension, if this new creation had been 
endowed with the power of effectually 
enforcing its decrees by a direct course, 
through its own ministers and satel- 
lites — it subjects the infant jurisdic- 
tion by a consummate stroke of policy 
to a complete dependence on the mu- 
nicipal authority, by taking the im- 
mediate execution of all its sentences 
out of the hands of ecclesiastics, and 
referring it entirely to the secular arm 
of the justiciaries of the crown. 

This is plainly shewn by examining 
the details of the instruraent.t It com- 



t Ancient Laws and Institutes of Eng- 
land, by Thorpe, 1840, p. 213. From a 
transcript in the Liber pilotut of the Dean 
and Chapter of St. Paul's, London, and 
in the Register of Lincoln, Remig. fol. 9. 
Co. Instit. 4 par. cap. 53, fo. 260, Godolp. 
Rep. Can. cap. 10. Willielmus, gratia 
Dei rex Anglorum, comitibus, vicecomiti- 
bus, et omnibus francigenis, et quibus in 
episcopatu Remigii terras habentibus, Sa- 
lutem. Sciatis vos omnes et caeteri mei 
fi deles uui in Anglia manent quod epis- 
copales leges quse non bene nee secundum 
sanctarum causarum pnecepta usque ad 



1844.] 



Hise and Progmt of the EceleriaMcal Courts. 



mences by reciting that " until Wil- 
liam's time the episcopal laws had not 
been well administered, or according 
to the precepts of the holy canons, and 
he therefore adjudged by the advice of 
the common council, and the council 
of his archbishops, bishops, and ab- 
bats, and all the chief men of the 
realm, that the same should be 
amended." 

These terms unequivocally stamp 
the document with the impress of an 
Act of Parliament. Hiey declare it to 
be an ordinance eammunis concilii, &c. 
i.e. of the National Assembly, such as 
the Parlement of Normandy or the 
Witenagemot of England. Those terms 
are totally inapplicable to a charter, 
which is a purely royal act. 

Next follows the enactment.* "I 
therefore command, and by royal au- 
thority ordain, that no bishop or arch- 
deacon shall hold pleas any more con- 
cerning the episcopal laws in the 
hundred, nor bring to the judgment of 
secular men a cause which appertains 
to the government of souls ; but who- 
soever shall be impeached according 
to the episcopal laws, for any cause 
or fault, shall come to the place which 
the bishop shall have chosen and 
named for this purpose, and there 
answer respecting his cause, and do 
right to God and his bishop, not ac- 
cording to the hundred, but according 
to the canons and episcopal laws." 

This portion of the act, as I re- 
marked before, completely overturned 
the English common law previously 
existing on the subject. That law 
was now made to conform to the regu- 
lations of the rest of Europe. 

This section also provided that the 

mea tempora in regno Anglise fUenmt, 
commimi concilio et condlio archiepisco- 
pomm meoram et cKteromm episcopomm 
et abbatum et omnium principum regni 
mei, emendendas judicavi. 

* Id. Propterea mando et regia au- 
tboritate prcdpio at nollus episcopns vel 
archidiacoQiu de legibos episcopalibos 
amplios in hundretto placita teneant, nee 
caoaam quK ad regimen animarum per- 
tinet ad jadiciom secnlariom hominum 
addncant, sed quicnnque secandom episco- 
pales leges de quacnnque causa vel culpa 
interpeUatus fiierit, ad locum quern ad hoc 
episcopns el^erit et nominaveriti veniat, 
ibiqoe de causa sua respondeat, et non 
secondmn bundrettom, sed secundum ca- 
nones et episcopalci leges rectum Deo et 
cfifoopo fuo fiwiat. 



3T 

Ecclesiastical Court or Consistory 
should have a fixed and permanent 
locality, viz. in the see of the bishop, 
or such other convenient place in his 
diocese as he should elect for the pur- 
pose. The sheriff's jura, or the 
hundred court, being perambulatory, 
the ecclesiastical jurisdiction, such as 
it was in Saxon times, necessarily 
shared in the same unsettled condition, 
and yet, as the consistory was, agree- 
ably to this enactment, a local court, 
it would be productive of the same or 
nearly equal beneficial effects in that 
respect; an advantage which was 
afterwards sensibly felt when the mu- 
nicipal courts became centralised at 
Westminster. 

We accordingly find that, in obedi- 
ence to the statute, each bishop es- 
tablished his tribunal in the cathedral 
church of his diocese. The Archbishop 
of Canterbury also selected for the 
exercise of his metropolitical and ap- 
pellate powers the parish church of 
Saint Mary -le- Bow, or Sancta Maria 
de Arcubus in London, on account of 
its being situate within a peculiar and 
immediate jurisdiction belonging to his 
see within that cit^. But his court 
as ordinary of the diocese of Kent was 
held in the cathedral church of Can- 
terbury. The former court, called par 
excellence, curia Cantuarienais, shortly 
afterwards received the additionid 
name of the Arches Court of Canter- 
bury, which it still retains as its sole 
judicial designation. 

The final sentence of the Conqueror's 
ordinance, " sed secundum canones et 
episcopales leges rectum Deo et epis- 
copo suo faciat," strictly enjoined the 
law of the courts to be that of the 
canons, without admixture of munici- 
pal principles or customs. Along with 
the law the English Ecclesiastical 
Courts adopted the practice of the 
Roman consistory, and to which they 
have closely adhered, up to the present 
time, the modern formulare varying 
little, if at all, from its originu 
standard. In causes of the first in- 
stance the citation, the libel, the Utig 
conteataiio, the answers, the compul- 
sories, or litera compuharialea, to en- 
force the attendance of witnesses, were 
and still are identical in form with the 
instruments in use at Rome. There 
was also the same examination of wit- 
nesses in secret, and the consequent 
decree of publication pasaed by the 



38 



jRise and Progress of the Ecclesiastical Courts. 



[Jao. 



jodge before their depositions could be 
UDsealed and read. In appellate causes 
the same inhibition issued to the judge 
a guo, or inferior ordinary, and to the 
party respondent, enjoining them to 
forbear innovating or attempting any- 
thing to the prejudice of the appellant, 
and of his appeal, &c. In a word, the 
formal instruments and pleadings are 
still rendered in the terms prescribed 
by the ancient practice of the Courts 
of Rome.* 

But a few remarks upon the general 
process and formulare of the Ecclesi- 
astical Courts may not be out of place 
here. The offender was summoned 
into judgment by letters of citation 
under the seal of the ordinary; and on 
his appearance the libel, or the articles 
containing the accusation, werebrought 
in and proffered to him. If the latter 
were unexceptionable in point of law 
or relevancy, they were admitted to 
prove, and the judge then called upon 
the accused to give a general answer 
or issue, in the affirmative or negative, 
to the charge of the accuser. This 
was an imitation of the litis coniestaiio 
of the civil law, and was simply an 
averment in the negative or affirmative 
of the truth or falsehood of the charge. 
If a denial were given and the suit 
contested negatively, a sworn personal 
answer was then exacted from the de- 
fendant, though the plea might con- 
tain criminal imputations, and he 
should consequently, by a full and 
sincere response, if guilty, confirm the 
accusation of his enemy. If the nega- 
tive issue were followed up by an un- 
qualified and consistent denial in the 
personal answer of the defendant, or 
party cited (as he is termed in the 
technical language of the Ecclesiastical 
Courts), the plaintiff or promoter would 
then be obliged to produce witnesses 
in support of his case, who were ac- 
cordingly sworn in open court, in the 
presence of the adverse party, the oath 
of testimony being administered to 
them by the judge. f The latter after- 
wards himself strictly examined the 
witnesses in a secret chamber, /ort6K« 
chusis, assisted by his registrar or ac- 

• Of this any person may easily con- 
vince liimsclf, and for that purpose we refer 
hiin to the Formularium Variarum Com- 
miMionum, Articulorum, Exceptionum, 
Jnt«^^^ogtttorio^um, et Petitionum, Senten* 
"•ninti et Appellationum, &c. Romae, 1602. 

t XbU WM prohibited by 13 Car. S, c. 



tuary, who faithfully recorded in writ- 
ing their several depositions. The 
same process was adopted in regard to 
the sworn answers of the defendant.^ 

The defendant of course had the 
liberty of counterpleading, and the 
same ground was then gone over by 
him. When each party considered 
his case to be sufficiently made out to 
enable him to bring it before the court, 
the original cause was concluded or 
wound up, and the judge decreed pub- 
lication to pass on the sayings or de- 
positions of the witnesses. Informa- 
tions were next taken, i.e. the evidence 
was read and its credibility and suffi- 
ciency debated upon by the advocates 
of each party in open court, and the 
judge finally determined the question 
by a definitive sentence in writing, or 
by a verbal interlocutory decree. 

This is but a slight sketch of the 
strictly ancient practice. But I have 
said enough to shew that the same 
plan is still pursued, except in a few 
instances, where the express provisions 
of the legislature have innovated on 
its principles, or an idea of conveni- 
ence has effected some inconsiderable 
alteration. 

The scheme of practice adopted by 
the Ecclesiastical Court consists of a 
series of interlocutory orders, tech- 
nically called assignations, which are 
the gradual and progressive steps of 
the cause. These are the same in 
their character, and also bear the same 
appellations in the English courts, as 
they now do or formerly did at the 
Supreme Court of Rome. 

The constitution of the Ecclesiastical 
Courts was in all respects superior to 
that of the municipal tribunals. Deriv- 
ing the forms of their judicial proceed- 
ings from the refined and ancient 
source I have before intimated, they 
at the same time adopted the custom 
of a regularly admitted and stationary 
bar of advocates ; and, as a further 
assistance to the illiterate and inex- 
perienced client, a certain number of 
authorised ministers of the court, de- 
nominated procurafores or proctors, 

12, § 4. Onr historians invariably call it 
the oath ex officio, as if the jurammtum 
eahtmnia or malitia, the Juramentum sup- 
pletorufHt or any other oath known to the 
canon or civil law, were not equally an ex 
ojfflcio oath. 

t Onghton, Ordo JodiciQr. de caosis, 
tit,4,s.8;etinNota, 



L] 



Rise and Process of the Ecchsmikal Courts, 



59 



were orddned* who might guide him 
through the di/Ecultics and niceties of 
his suit, aod legulty represent him in 
the presence of the court** The latter 
privilege was long uoknowa to the 
suitor at common law. 

But there is little doubt that the 
eatabli&hment of the Ecclesiastical 
Courts gave a higher tone and charac- 
ter to the general judicature of the 
country. Their grave and eiudile 
sy&tem of practice, and iheir precise 
and accurate method of taking evidence, 
formed a striking contrast to the rude 
and summary proceeding of a trial 
purjmU at that period. The prepon- 
derance of relative merit must obvi- 
ously have been in favour of the tri- 
bunals of the Church, The foreign 
juflata, who presided over the infant 
coQsistorics, and their English suc- 
cessors, were all men of the highest 
learning in their department ; and their 
efforts* of which one result was the 
Court of Chancery, produced in the 
sequel the most beneficial conse- 
quences for the English law and con- 
ftitution, by imparting to the theory 
of both more refined and extended 
pri&crp(c9. 

But the weak point of the ecclesi- 
astical jurisdiction haaal ways coufiiated 
ia its inability to enforce its own 
decrees. ^Fhis was originally owing 
to a reluctant delicacy of feeling on 
the part of the Church itself, but it has 
been maintained up to the present time 
by the unnecessary jealousy of the 
Legislature, aud of the lay judges of 
the Crown. The concluding sections 
of the statute, which refer to this sub- 
ject, are devoted to applying a remedy 
for the contumacy of oD'endcrs, They 
arc as follows :t ** If any person elated 
by pride will not come to the Bishop's 
justice, (ad justitlam episcopalem,) let 
him be called once, twice, and thrice, 
and if he will not then come to make 



* The Constitutions of Otbobon coataia 
miDj ctirious regutcitiuns respecting the 
>py ointment of Proctors , tit, Sa* deofiHcio 
mcsntonun. See also a Conilitution of 
rsnihamp in Ljod. lib, 1, tit. IS. 
t Id ^i vero aliquts per supcrbiam ela- 
3i'i epificopalem venire non 

•ntr : Bcmcl et secundo et 

ic na ad emendationem 
iiicatur ; et si opus fuerit 
1 lum, fortiludo ct justilia 
I vet Ticecomitis adljibeaturt 



compensation (ad emendationem) let 
him be excommunicated. And, it need 
frhall be, let the power and justice of 
the king or hh sheriff be employed in 
vindicating this," 

Excommunication was the only 
weapon which the Church pusees^ed, 
and we may easily conceive tb*it to a 
hardened offender it could have had 
few terrors, as the penal result lay in 
so remote a perspective. This specie* 
of spiritual outlawry had, conse* 
(luently, been found to fail in its desired 
effect on many occasions when ibe pe- 
cuniary claims of the Church we»e to 
be enforced, or her correctional urders 
obeyed, and she had felt herself, tbougJi 
with aversion, compelled to iesojt to 
the fortifying arm of the secuUr law. 
This invocatio hrachii ^tecuhria, as the 
canonists quaintly termed it, was^ the 
only resource that lay in htr puwrrs 
for the acceptance of an authcmty of 
equal strength and sternness with ihe 
ordinary secular jurisdiclion, though it 
were the voluntary and unaolicited 
offer of the princes who were entitled 
to confer it, would in her appreheDsion 
have exposed her to the imputation of 
having abandoned the sacred precepts 
of her divine Founder, whose kingdom 
had been by him declared to be not of 
this world. This feebleness of the 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction was therefore 
originally of its own choosing. 

The epoch of the fu^t application of 
this nature h uncertain, hut it was 
undoubtedly early, and the temporal 
power appears to "have teen in all ages 
subse(|uent to the establishment of 
Christianity attentive to the wants of 
the Church in this respect, and ready 
to afford aid of this limited kind on 
all occasions of her invocation. 

But even when custom had fami- 
liarized it in the minds of men, and 
the highest authorities of the Church 
had sanctioned it by their express 
approval and practice, there were many 
ecclesiastics to whose rigid conscicoces 
this resort to the secular arm was a 
source of doubt and anxiety, as an in- 
ferential breach of the canon whenever 
blood followed its active and strenuous 
interference. We have an instance 
where a pope condescended to remove 
scruples of ibis kind which bad arisen 
in the mind of a well-disposed but 
timid churchman* Clement lU. in a 
decretal epistle addressed to a bishop 



Rise and Progress of the Ecclesiastical Courts. 



40 

(whose name and diocese are sup- 
pressed by the compiler,) in order to 
silence the doubts which the other 
appears to have entertained and ex- 
pressed on the subject, urges that " if 
the king (to whom the sword of justice 
is committed to uphold the good as 
well as to punish the bad) has directed 
upon the rebels of ecclesiastic authority 
the power so entrusted to him, on the 
complaint of the Church, the con- 
sequences of such contumacy must 
alone be imputed to their stubbornness 
or guilt."* 

The Conqueror provided for the 
English Ecclesiastical Courts the same 
relief and support which were allowed 
to them on the continent. 

The next section of the act contains 
a remarkable enactment, " He who, on 
being called, has refused to come to 
the justice of the bishop, (ad justiciam 
episcopi,) for each calling shall amend 
the episcopal law."t This alludes, 
without doubt, to the loite of the 
Anglo-Saxon sera, for ofer8ewennis9e, 
which the defendant incurred by con- 
tumaciously absenting himself from 
the court of the judge by whose 
summons he was convened.^ The next 
section is as follows: "This also 1 
forbid, and by my authority prohibit, 
that any sheriff, bailiff, or minister of 
the king, nor any layman, intermeddle 
in the laws which belong to the bishop, 
nor any layman bring another man 
without justice to trial before the 
bishop. "§ 

These enactments are only intended 
as a piece of advice to each court to 
mind its own jurisdiction, without 

♦ Decret. Greg. 9. lib. 5, tit. 12, c. 21. 
" Si te hujusmodi querimoniam simpliciter 
deponente rex (cui ad bonoram laudem, 
vindictam vero malorum gladius est corn- 
missus,) in eosdem rcbclles traditam sibi 
cxercuerit potcstatem, eonim erit duritis 
aat malitise imputandum." 

t *' lUe autem qui vocatus ad justitiam 
episcopi venire noluit, pro unaquaque vo- 
catione legem episcopalem emendabit.*' 

I Spelman's Codex, p. 349, Laos Hon. 
I. c. 24, 81. 

§ Id. ' * Hocetiam defendo ct mea autho- 
ritate interdico ne ullos vicecomes aut pre- 
positus aut niinister regis, nee aliquis 
laicus homo, de legibu:} quae ad episcopum 
uertinent, se intromittat, nee aliquis laicus 
homo alium bominem sine justitia episcopi 
ad judicium adducat.*' 
5 



[J« 



encroaching on the prorince of the 
other, and from them was afterwards 
deduced the practice of prohibitions. 

Another section concludes the ordi- 
nance, " Judgment shall be given 
(perhaps it should rather be rendered 
trial shall be held) in no place but the 
episcopal seat, or in that place which 
the bishop shall have appointed for the 
purpose."|| This lastsentence is hardly 
more than a repetition of part of the 
aforegoing provisions. Though this 
ordinance effected aconsiderable change 
in the legal constitution of the country, 
and deprived the municipal judicatare 
of a portion of its seemingly former 
occupation and employment, yet it 
must have been in no degree a source 
of regret to the Norman lawyers who 
now presided over the English courts, 
as they could hardly feel any disincli- 
nation to relinquish the cognizance of 
matters with the study of which they 
were totally unfamiliar, as such sub- 
jects had formed no part of their pre- 
vious legal discipline or training. 

The same extent of jurisdiction which 
existed on the continent would appear 
to have been transplanted, without 
curtailment, into this country. Inde- 
pendently of the entire control over 
the peculiar affairs of the Church, and 
of all ecclesiastic structures, the ordi- 
nary was the judge who signified to 
the king's justices the fact of a marriage 
and the legitimacy of a birth. He pro- 
nounced a sentence of divorce between 
married parties, and determined the 
validity of a will or decreed payment 
of a legacy. These and other points 
occur in the early common- law records 
as admitted portions of the jurisdiction 
of the Church. In addition to this she 
afterwards acquired the undisputed 
management of tithe suits, and a com- 
plete power over the personal estates 
of all persons dying intestate. 

Doctors' Commons. H. C. C. 

(7b he continued.) 



II Id. ^< Judicium vero in nuUo loco por- 
tetur nisi in episcopali sede ant in illo loco 
quem ad hoc episcopus constituent." The 
expression ♦• portare judicium" occurs in 
Domesday, Lincoln. 33G. ** Sed his 
jurantibus contradicit Vluiet, et offert se 
poriaturum judicium quod non ita est 
sicuti dicunt.'^ 



1844,] Chapter by Dr. Johnson in « 7^^ Female Quixote:' 



41 



k 



Mr. Urban, B^h^ll. Dec, 20. 

I NOW send for msertioD the rhiip- 
ter of Mrs* L«noox*s Female Quixote, 
which, in a previous communicftlion, 
(vol, XX, p. 132.) I informed you I 
had discovered to be the production of 
Dr. Johnson's pen. It is carious that 
it should have escaped the notice of 
different critics and commentators ; 
the book in which it is found is 
txow so tittle known, that probably 
rzry few of your readers have ever 

ked into it. The proof of the paper 

ing the production of Johnson rests 
on its inttmal evidence ; to which is 
to be added, that twice in the same 
book (the Female Quixote) Mre. Len- 
nox diverges from her subject to praise 
Dr. Johnson in the highest terms ; 
that the heading of the Chapter is 
tery significant of its not having been 
written by the author of the rest of 
the volume; that Dr. Johnson highly 
esteemed and praised the talents of 
Mrs. Lennox ; and that this chapter is 
totally different both in style and sub- 
ject from the rest of the work. I take 
gome little credit to myself for this 
discorery of a production of Dr. John* 
toik^s thmt has so long been concealed 
froni the many critics and admirers of 
his works, who have all been laudably 
afixioas to find and preserve the 
aoiftlksl fragment that dropped from 
liin. 

Yours, dec- J. M, 



P.S. Johnson quotes the dedica- 
tion to Mrs. Lennox's " Shakspeorc 
Illustrated.'* Mr. Crokcr says, "John- 
son was always extremely kind to her " 
(Mrs, Lennox) ;vid. Recoil. vol. i.p, 308. 
He wrote the Dedication to Mrs. Len- 
nox's Female Quixote, RecolK voL ii. p. 
134. In 1775 lie wrote proposals for 
publishing the Works of Mrs. Charlotte 
Lcouox, Recoil, vol. v. p. 222, Here 
Eoswcll says, "In his Diary, January 
2, I find this entry, 'Wrote Char- 
lotte's Proposals ;' but, indeed, the 
inti*mal evidence would have been quite 
iujfficimt." When Goldsmith told 
Johnson that some one had advised 
him to go and hiss Mrs. Lennox's play, 
because she bad attacked Shakspeare, 
Johnson said, "And did you not tell 
hira that he was a rascal ?" See vii, 
35 S, " May 15, 1784. He told us he 
dined at Mr. Garrick's with Miss 
Carter, Mrs. H. More, and Fanny 
Burney. Three such women nre not 
to be found ; 1 know not where 1 could 
go for a fourth, except Mrs, Lennox t 
who in snpfTwr to them aW." This ex- 
ternal evidence shews what wouid be 
Johnson's disposition to assist Mrs. 
Lennox ; the internal evidence of this 
chapter, that he did. Of course I 
consider that part of the sentence " to 
use the words of the greatest genius 
of the present age," to be the ex p res- 
sion of Mrs. Lennox's gratitude for 
the assistance afforded her. 



Chap. XL 

IK TUK author's OPINtOK, TIIK BEST CtlAFTlfa IN TUIB HISTOAT. 



THE good divine, who had the cure 
of Arabella's roind greatly at heart, 
no sooner perceived that the health of 
her body was almost restored, and 
that he might talk to her without the 
fear of any inconvenience, Iban he in^ 
tfoduced the subject of her throwing 
llCT9€lf into the river, which he had 
before lightly touched upon, and still 
cteclartd himself dissatisfied with. 

Arabella, now more disposed to i\e- 
fend this point than when languishing 
under the pressure of pain and dejec- 
lioo of roind, endeavoured, by argu- 
ments founded upon romantic heroism, 
to prove, that it was not only reason- 
able and Just, hut also great and glo- 
rioQs, and exactly conformable to the 
rules of heroic virtue* 

The Doctor listened to her with a 
mixed emotion, between pity, revc- 

G»XT. Mag. Vol. XXL 



rence, and amazement : and though ia 
the performance of his office he had 
been accustomed to accommodate his 
notions to every understanding, and 
had therefore accumulated a great va- 
riety of topics and illustrations, yet 
he found himself now engaged in a 
controversy for which he was not so 
well prepared as he imagined, and was 
at a loss for some leading principle 
by which he might introduce his rea- 
sonings and begin his confutation. 

Though he saw much to praise in 
her discourse, he was afraid of con- 
firming her obstinacy by commenda- 
tion : and, though he also found much 
to blame, he dreaded to give pain to a 
delicacy he revered. 

Perceiving, however, that Arabella 
was siient, as if expecting his reply, 
be resolved not to bring upon himself 
G 





Chapter contributed % Dr. Johnson 



tbe gnOi of abaoiloniag her to her mis* 
take, and the Decessity of speaking 
iorctd htm to fiod something to say. 

"TlKOUgb it is not caay. Madam/* 
taid ht, "for any one that has the 
KoDoar of conversiDg with your lady- 
iliip to preserve his attention free to 
any other idea than such as your dis- 
coune lends immediately to impress, 
yet J have not been able, while yon 
WM tpeaking;, to refrain from aome 
very mortifying reflections on the im- 
perfection of all hiiman happiness, and 
the uncertain cooseqiiences of all those 
advantages which we think ourselves 
not only at liberty to desire, but obliged 
to cultivate/* 

** Though 1 have known some dan- 
gers and distresaes/' replied Arabella 
gravely, " yet I did not imagine myself 
such a mirror of calamity as could 
not be seen without concern. If ray 
life has not been eminently fortunate, 
it has yet escaped the great evils of 
persecution, captivity, shipwrecks, and 
dangers to which many ladies far more 
illustrioua both by birth and merit 
than myself have been expoeed. And 
indeed, though I have sometimes raised 
envy, or possibly incurred hatred, yet 
I have no reason to believe I waa ever 
beheld with pity before/' 

The Doctor saw he had not Intro* 
doccd bis discourse in the moat accept- 
able manner i but it was too late to 
repent. 

"Let roe not. Madam," said he, 
" be censured before I have fully ex- 
plaiued my sentiments. That you 
have been envied, 1 can readily be- 
lieve : for who that gives way to 
natural passions has not reason to 
envy the Lady Arabella? But that 
you have been hated, 1 am indeed less 
willing to think, though 1 know how 
easily the greater part of mankind 
hate those by whom they are ex- 
celled/' 

" If the misery of my condition,*' 

replied Arabella, " has been able to 

b^txcite that melancholy your first words 

[jieemed to imply, flattery will con- 

Ltributc very little towards the improve- 

iaient of it. Nor do I expect from the 

tie verity of the sacerdotal character 

lAny of those praites which 1 hear 

Lperhaps with too much pleasure from 

I the rest of the world. Having been 

•o lately on the brink of that state, in 

which ill distinctions bul thst of good- 




ness are destroyed, I have not re- 
covered so much levity but that I 
would yet rather hear instructions 
than compliments, if therefore you 
have observed in me any dangerous 
tenets, corrupt passions, or criminal 
desires, i conjure you discover me to 
myself. Let no false civility restrain 
your admonitions. Let me know this 
evil which can strike a good roan with 
horror^ and which 1 dread the more, 
as I do not feel it. I cannot suppose 
that a man of your order would be 
alarmed at any other misery than 
guilt: nor will I thiuk so meauly nf 
him whose dircctioa I have in treated 
as to imagioe he can think virtue uti- M 
happy, however overwhelmed by dia- ( 
asters or oppression. Keep me there- 
fore no loEigcr in suspense : 1 expect 
you will exert the authority of your 
function, and 1 promise you, on my 
part, sincerity and submission/' ^ 

The good man was now completely H 
embarrassed; he saw his meaning 
mistaken, but was afraid to explain it, 
lest he should seem to pay court by a 
cowardly retraction : he therefore 
paused a little, and Arabella supposed 
he was studying for such expressions 
as might convey censure without of- 
fence. 

*' Sir," said she, "if you are not 
yet satisfied of my w^illingness to hear 
your reproofs, let me evince my do- 
cility by intreating you to consider 
yourself as dispensed from all cere- 
mony upon this occasion/' M 
'* Your imaginations, Madam/' re- I 
plied the Doctor, " are too quick for 
language ; you conjecture too soon 
what you do not wait to hear, and 
reason upon suppositions which can- 
not be allowed you. When I men- 
tioned my reflections upon human 
misery, I was far from concluding 
your ladyship miserable, compared 
with the rest of mankind ; and, though 
contemplating the abstracted idea of 
possible felicity, I thought that even 
you might be produced at* an instance 
that it is not attainable in this world. 
I did not impute the imperfection of 
your state to wickedness, but intended 
to observe, that, though even virtue be 
added to external advantages, there 
will yet be something wanting to hap* 
piness. Whoever sees you. Madam, 
will immediately say, that nothing 
can hinder you from being the happiest 



1844.] 



to ** 7%€ Female QnUote:* 



4S 



jof mortals but want of power to un- 
Idcrstand your own advantages. And 
I whoever is admitted to your convcrsa- 
I lion will be convinced that you enjoy 
lalJ that inteUectual excellence can con- 
|f€r ; yet 1 see you harassed with in- 
Bunierahie terrors and perplexities, 
rHicb never disturb the peace of po- 
jTcrty or ignorance." 

I cannot discover/' said Arabella, 
f " how poverty or ignorance can be 
Iprivilegcd from casualty or violence, 
Ifrom the ravisher, the robber, or the 
|«nemy. 1 should hope rather that, if 
irealth and knowledge can give no- 
I thing else« they at least confer judg- 
neot to foresee danger, and power to 
I oppose it/' 

"They are not, indeed;" returned 
Ithe Doctor, "secured against real mh- 
Jibrtunes, but they are happily defended 
' om wild imaginations : they do not 
»u5pe€t what cannot happen, nor figure 
^favishers at a dt&taucep and leap into 
F rivers to escape them/' 

"Do you suppose, then," said Ara- 
bclU, "that I was frighled without 
L cause?" 

"It is certain. Madam,*' replied he, 
' that no injury was intended you/' 

'* Disiagenuity, Sir/' said Arabella, 
•* does not become a clergyman — I 
think too well of your understanding 
J to imagine your fallacy deceives your- 
laeir: why then should you hope that 
lit will deceive me ? The laws of con- 
(ference require that the terras of the 
Lquestion and answer be the same. I 
Ittik if I had not cause to be frighted ; 
|%hy then am 1 answered that no in- 
|liry was intended ? Human beings 
pcanuot penetrate intentions, nor regu- 
late their conduct but hy exterior ap- 
prarances. And surely there was suf- 
ficieot appearance of intended injury, 
ad that the greatest which my sex 
ftn sotfer/' 

" Why, Madam/' said the Doctor, 
' should you still persist in so wild an 
erlion ?" 

•• A coarse epithet," said Arabella, 

:^' ia so confutation. It rests upon you 

shew that in giving way to ray 

9, even supposing them ground- 

at, 1 departed from the character of 

i remsooable person/' 

" I am afraid/* replied the Doctor, 

if* of a dispute with your ladyship, not 

^becanae I think myself in danger of 

defeat, but becau^e^ being accustomed 



to speak to scholars with scholastic 
rugged uess, I may perhaps depart, in 
the heat of argument, from that re- 
spect to which you have so great a 
right, and give offence to a person I 
am really afraid to displease. But, if 
you will promise to excuse ray ardour, 
I will endeavour to prove that you 
have been frighted without reason/* 

" 1 should be content,'* replied Ara- 
bella, "to obtain truth upon harder 
terms, and therefore iotreat you to 
begin/' 

"The apprehension of any future 
evil. Madam/' said the divine, " which 
18 called terror when the danger is 
from natural causes, and suspicion 
when it proceeds from a moral agent, 
must always arise from comparisoo. 
We can judge of the future only by 
the past J and have therefore only rea- 
son to fear or suspect, when we see , 
the same causes in motion which have 
formerly produced mischief, or the 
same measures taken as have before 
been preparatory to a crime. Thus, 
when the sailor in certain latitudes 
sees the clouds rise, experience bids 
him expect a storm. When any mo- 
narch levies armies, his neighboura 
prepare lo repel an invasion. This 
power of prognostication may, by 
reading and conversation, be extended 
beyond our own knowledge : and the 
great use of books is, that of partici- 
pating without labour or haxard the 
experience of others. But upon this 
principle how can you find any reason 
for your late fright ? Has it ever been 
known that a lady of your rank was 
attacked with such intentions, in a 
place so public, without any prepara- 
tions made by the violator for defence 
or escape } Can it be imagined that 
any man would so rashly expose him- 
self to infamy by failure, and to the 
gibbet by success t Does there in the 
records of the world appear a single 
instance of such hopeless villany I** 

*• It is noTv lime. Sir," said Arabella, 
" to answer your questions, before they 
are too many to be rememhered. The 
dignity of my birth can very little de- 
fend me against an insult to which 
the heiresses of great and powerful 
empires, the daughters of valiant 
princes, and the wives of renowned 
monarchs, have been a thousand timea 
exposed. The danger which you think 
ao great would hardly repel n deter- 



44 



Chapter etnlrtMcd ly Dr. Johwm 



[Jan. 



mined Bind ; for, in effect, wlio wonld 
hnTe attempted my rceciie, aeeing dint 
no kntght or Tmlinnt csTnlier wms 
within Tiew ? Whmt then shonld haTe 
hindered him from placing me in a 
chariot, dming it into the pathlem 
desert, and immuring me in a castle, 
among woods and monntains? Or 
hiding me perhaps in the caTerns of a 
rock, or confining me in some island 
of an immense lake :*' 

'*From all this. Madam," inter- 
mptcd the clergyman. '* he is hindered 
hr impossibility. He cannot carry 
Tcm to any of these dreadful places, 
becanse there is no such castle, desert, 
eavem, or lake.*' 

''Vou will pardon me. Sir,'* laid 
Arahella, " if I recnr to your own 
principles : yon allow that experience 
may he gained by books, and certainly 
thei« is no part of knowledge in which 
we are obliged to trust them more 
than in descriptive geography. The 
moat restless activity in the longest 
lif^ can survey but \ small part of 
the habitable globe : and the rest can 
only be known from the report of 
others. Universal negatives are sel- 
dom safe, and are least to be allowed 
when the disputes are about objects of 
sense, where one position cannot be 
inferred (\tom another. That there is 
a castle, any man who has seen it may 
safely affirm. But you cannot with 
equal reason maintain that there is no 
castle, because you have not seen it. 
Why should I imagine that the face of 
the earth is altered since the time of 
those heroines who experienced so 
many changes of uncouth captivity ? 
Castles, indeed, are the works of art, 
and are therefore subj^ to decay; 
hut lakes, and caverns, and deserts, 
must always remain. And why, since 
you call for instances, should I not 
dread the misfortunes which hap- 
pened to the divine Clelia, who was 
carried to one of the isles of the Thra- 
symenian Lake ? Or of those which 
hefel the beautifVil Candace, Queen of 
Ethiopia, whom the pirate Zenodorus 
wandered with on the seas ? Or the 
accidents which embittered the life of 
the incomparable Cleopatra ? Or the 
pertecotions which made that of the 
ndr Elisa miserable ? Or, in fine, the 
▼arious distresses of many other hir 
and virtuous princesses ; such as those 
which happened to Olympia, Bella- 



mira, Putsatis, Berenice, Amalagan« 
dm, Agiodne, Albysinda, Placidia, Ar- 
sinoe, Deidamia, and a thousand others 
1 oould mention ?" 

" To the names of many of these 
illustrious sufferers I am an absolute 
stranger,*' replied the Doctor. " The 
rest I fainUy remember some mention 
of in those contemptible Tolumes with 
which children are sometimes inju- 
diciously suffered to amuse their ima- 
ginations ; but which I little expected 
to hear quoted by your ladyship in a 
serious discourse. And, though I am 
very far from catching occasions of re- 
sentment, yet I think mi^self at liberty 
to ohserre, that, if 1 merited jour cen* 
sure for one indelicate epithet we 
have engaged on very unequl terms 
if 1 may not likewise complain of audi 
contemptuous ridicule as yon are 
pleased to exercise upon my opinioiia 
by opposing them with the authority 
of scribblers, not only of fictions, bat 
of senseless fictions; which at once 
Titiate the mind, and pervert the un- 
derstanding ; and which, if they are at 
any time read with safety, owe their 
innocence only to their absurdity.'* 

" From these books. Sir," said Ara- 
bella, " which you condemn with so 
much ardour, though you acknowledge 
Tourself litUe acquainted with them, I 
hare learnt not to recede from the con- 
ditions I have granted, and shall not 
therefore censure the licence of your 
language, which glances from the 
books upon the readers. These books. 
Sir, thus corrupt, thus absurd, thus 
dangerous alike to the intellect and 
monls, I have read, and that I hope 
without injunr to my judgment or my 
virtue." 

Tlie Doctor, whose vehemence had 
hindered htm from discoTcring all the 
consequences of his position, now found 
himself entangled, and replied in a sub- 
missive tone, 

" I confess. Madam, my words im- 
ply an accusation very remote from 
my intention. It has always been the 
rule of my life not to justify any 
words or actions because they are 
mine. I am ashamed of my negli- 
gence, I am sorry for my warmth, and 
intreat your ladyship to pardon a fault 
whidi 1 hope never to repeat." 

" The reparation. Sir," said Arabella 
smiling, "overbalances the offence, 
and, by thus daring to own you favre 



to " The Fmale Quixote." 



a 



I 



been in the wrong, you hire raised m 
me a much higher esteem for yoa. 
Vet I will not pardon you/' added 
ihc, *' without enjoining you a pe- 
nance for the fault you own you have 
committed ; and this penance shall be 
to prove, lirai, that these histories you 
condemn are fictions ; next, that they 
are absurd { and lastly, that they are 
criminal/* 

The J>octor was pleased to find a 
reconciliation o^ered upon bo very 
easy terms with a person whom he 
behdd at once with reverence and af- 
fection, and could not oflfend without 
extreme regret. 

He therefore answered with a very 
che< rful composure : " To prove those 
narratives to he fictions. Madam, is 
only difficult because the position is 
aJmost too evident for proof. Your 
tadyahip knows, I suppose, to what 
aothors these writings are ascribed ?" 

"To the French wits of the last 
eentary/' «aid Arabella. 

"And at what distance, Modaro, 
are the facts related in them from the 
a^e of the writer ? 

'• I W8« never exact in my compu- 
taHoa/' replied Arabella ; " but I think 
iDOti of the events happened about 
two thousand yeani ago. 

" How then. Madam," resumed the 
Doctor, ''could these events be so 
aria«tely known to writers so far re- 
mote (ram the tiaie in which they 
happened ?'* 

** By records, monnmeotfl, memoirs, 
and histories/' answered the l&dy. 

** But by what accident, then," said 
thaOoctorv smiling, ''did it happen 
tfacte records and monuments were 
kept universally secret to mankind till 
the last century f What brought all 
tbe meoioirs of the remotest nations 
and earliest ages only to Prance ? 
Where were they hidden that none 
oosid rooanlt them but a few obscure 
anthors? And whither are they now 
vanished again that they can be found 
DO more t** 

Armbdla, having eat silent a while. 
iM Kim that she found hia questions 
imyiltfficutt to t>e answered ; and ihat, 
dMMifh perhaps the authors themselves 
could have told whence they borrowed 
their matertalfi, she should not at pre- 
sent require any other evidence of the 
first aaaertion : but allowed him to sup- 
poae tkam fictions, and required now 
t&fll Wihoiddthew Uiemtc^ beabvord. 




"Your ladyahip," returned he/* has, 
I find^ too much understanding to 
struggle against demonstration, and 
too much veracity to deny your con- 
victions ; therefore some of the argu- 
ments by which 1 intended to shew 
the falsehood of these narratives may 
be now used to prove their absurdity. 
Vou grant them. Madam, to be fic- 
tions?" 

" Sir," interrupted Arabella eagerly, 
"you are again infringing the laws of 
disputation^ You are not to confound 
a supposition of which I allow you 
only the present use, with an unlimited 
and irrevocable concession. I am too 
well acquainted with my own weak- 
ness to conclude an opinion false 
merely because 1 find myself unable to 
defend it. But 1 am in haste to hear 
the proof of the other positions, not 
only because they may perhaps supply 
what is deficient in your evidence of 
the first, but because 1 think it of more 
importance to detect corruption than 
fiction. Though, indeed, falsehood ia 
a species of corruption, and what false- 
hood is more hateful than the falsehood 
of history f" 

"Since you have drawn me back. 
Madam, to the first question," returned 
the Doctor, " let me know what argu* 
ments your ladyship can produce for 
the veracity of these books. That 
there are many objections against it, 
you yourself have allowed, and the 
highest moral evidence of falsehood ap- 
pears when there arc many arguments 
against an assertion, and none for it.'' 

"Sir," replied Arabella, "I shall 
never think that any narrative, which 
IB not confuted by its own absurdity^ 
is without one argument at least on 
its side ; there is a love of truth in the 
human mind, if not naturally im- 
planted, so easily obtained from reason 
and experience, that 1 should expect it 
universally to prevail where there is 
no strong temptation to deceit. We 
hate to be deceived, we therefore hate 
those that deceive us ; w^e desire not 
to be hated, and therefore know that 
we are not to deceive. Shew tne an 
equal motive to falsehood, or confeai 
that every relation has some right to 
credit" 

"This may be allowed, Madam,** 
said the Doctor, " when we claim to 
be credited ; but that seems not to be 
the hope or intention of these writers/' 

" Surely, Sir," rcpUed Arabella, 



Ckapicr coMiribuitd bjf Dr. Johnson 



46 

*' you must mistake their design ; he 
that writes without intentioQ to be 
credited, must write to little purpose ; 
for what pleasure or advantage can 
arise from facts that never happened? 
\Miat examples can be afforded by the 
patience of those who never suffered, 
or the chastity of those who were 
never solicited? The great end of 
history is to thew how much human 
nature can endure or perform. When 
we hear a story in common life that 
raises our wonder or compassion, the 
first confutation stills our emotions, 
and. however we were touched before, 
we then chase it from the memory with 
contempt as a tritle. or with indigna- 
tion as an imposture. Prove, there- 
fore, that the books which I have 
hitherto read as copies of life and 
models of conduct are empty fictions, 
and from this hour I deliver them to 
moths and mould ; and from this time 
consider their authors as wretches who 
cheated me of those hours I ought to 
have dedicated to application and im- 
provement, and betrayed me to a waste 
of those years in which I might have 
laid up knowledge for my future life." 
"Shakespeare." said the Doctor. 
*' calls just resentment the child of in- 
tegrity, and therefore 1 do not wonder 
that what vehemence the gentleness of 
your ladyship's temper allows, should 
be exerted upon this occasion. Yet. 
though I cannot forgive these authors 
for having destroyed so much valuable 
time. I cannot think them inten- 
tionally culpable, because I cannot 
believe they expected to be credited. 
Truth is not always injured by fiction. 
An admirable writer* of our own time 
has found the way to convey the most 
solid instructions, the noblest senti- 
ments, and the most exalted piety, in 
the pleasing dress of a novel, f and. to 
use the words of the greatest genius I 
in the present age. ' has taught the 
passions to move at the command of 
virtue.' The fables of iEsop. though 
never. I suppose, believed, yet have 
been long considered as lectures of 
moral and domestic wisdom, so well 
adapted to the faculties of man. that 
they have been received by all civi- 
lised nations; and the Arabs them- 
selves have honoured his translator 

* Richardson. 

t Clarissa. 

; The author pf the Rambler. 



[Jan. 



with the appellation of Locman the 
wise." 

" The fables of iEsop." said Ara- 
bella. " are among those of which the 
absurdity discovers itself, and the 
truth is comprised in the application ; 
but what can be said of those tales 
which are told with the solemn air of 
historical truth, and if false conTey do 
instruction ?" 

"That thev canoot be defended, 
Madam." said the Doctor. " it is my 
purpose to prove ; and if to evince their 
falsehood be sufllcient to procure their 
banishment from your ladyship'scloset. 
their day of grace is near an end. 
How is any oral or written testimony 
confuted or confirmed ?" 

" By comparing it." says the lady. 
" with the testimony of others, or wiUi 
the natural effects and standing evi- 
dence of the facts related, and some- 
times bv comparing it with itself." 

"If then your ladyship will abide 
by this last." returned he. "and com- 
pare these books with ancient histories, 
you will not only find innumerable 
names of which no mention was ever 
made before, but persons who lived in 
different ages engaged as the friends 
or rivals of each other. You will per- 
ceive that your authors have parcelled 
out the world at discretion, erected 
palaces, and established monarchies 
wherever the conveniency of their nar- 
rative required them, and set kings and 
queens over imaginary nations. Nor 
have they considered themselves as in- 
vested with less authority over the 
works of nature than the institutions 
of men; for they have distributed 
mountains and deserts, gulfs and 
rocks, wherever they wanted them; 
and. whenever the course of their story 
required an expedient, raised a gloomy 
forest, or overflowed the regions with 
a rapid stream." 

" I suppose." said Arabella. " you 
have no intention to deceive me. and 
since, if what you have asserted be 
true, the cause is undefensible. 1 shall 
trouble you no longer to argue on this 
topic; but desire now to hear why. 
supposing them fictions, and intended 
to be received as fictions, you censure 
them as absurd ?" 

"The only excellence of falsehood." 
answered he. " is its resemblance to 
truth. As, therefore, any narrative is 
more liable to be confuted by its in- 
coneistenc^r ytiOi known facts, it ii at 



io " The Female Quixote:' 



B grestrr distance from the perfection 
of iiction ; for there can be no diffi- 
culty in framing a tale if we arc left 
at liberty to invert all hiatory and 
nature for our own conveniency. When 
a crime is to be concealed^ it is eoay to 
cover it with an imaginary word. 
When Virtue is to be rewarded, a na- 
[>n witli a new name mavi without 
ly expense of invention, raise her to 
be throne^ W^ben Ariosto was told 
f the roagnificeuce of his palaces, he 
Dswered that the cost of poetical ar- 
ikitecture was very little; and still 
BS h the coat of building without art 
ban without materials* But their 
historical failures may be easily passed 
?cr, when we consider their physical 
' philosophical absurdities ; to bring 
en together from different countries 
es not shock with every inherent or 
imonstrable absurdity, and therefore, 
then we read only for amusement, 
such improprieties may be borne: but 
who can forbear to throw away the 
story that gives to one man the strength 
of thousands, that puts life or death 
ID a amile or a frown, that recounts 
labours and sufferings to which the 
powers of humanity are utterly un- 
equal, that disfigures the whole ap- 
ptarance of the world, and represents 
every thing in a form different frora 
that which experience has shewn ? It 
is the fault of the best fictions that 
they teach young minds to expect 
stnmge adventures and sudden vicis- 
iUidcs, and therefore encourage them 
1icn to trust to chance. A long life 
»y be passed without a single occnr- 
renee that can cause much surprise, or 
produce any unexpected consequence 
of f reat importance ; the order of the 
world b ao established, that all human 
fairs proceed in a regular method, 
ad very little opportunity is left for 
^lies or hazards, for assault or res- 
oe; but the brave and the coward^ 
be sprightly and the dull, suffer them- 
ilves to be carried alike down the 
ean of custom.'' 

Arsbella, who had for some time 
atened with a wish to intenupt him, 
ow look advantage of a short pause. 
' I cannot imagine, Sir/' said she, 
p'tbAt you intend to deceive me, and 
bcrefore 1 am inclined to believe that 
ou are yourself mistaken, and that 
_ r>of application to learning has hin- 
dered you from that acquaintance with 
\t world rn which these authors ex* 



celled* I have not long conversed in 
public, yet I have found that life is 
subject to many accidents. Do you 
count my late escape for nothing ? Is it 
to be numbered among daily and cur- 
sory transactions that a woman flies 
from a ravish er into a rapid stream }" 

*' You must not, Madam/' said the 
Doctor, ** urge as an argument the fact 
which is at present the subject of dis- 
pute/* 

Arabella, blushing at the absurdity 
she had been guilty of, and not at- 
tempting any subterfuge or excuse, the 
Doctor found himself at liberty to pro* 
ceed. 

*' You must not imagine. Madam," 
continued he, *' thatl intend to arrogate 
any superionty when I observe, that 
your ladyship must suffer me to de- 
cide, in some measure authoritatively, 
whether life is truly described in those 
books; the likeness of a picture can 
only be determined by a knowledge of 
the original.. You have had little op- 
portunity of knowing the ways of man- 
kind, which cannot be learned but 
from experience, and of which the 
highest understand! ug and the lowest 
must enter the world in equal igno- 
ranee. I have lived long in a public 
character, and have thought it ray duty 
to study those whom I have under- 
taken to admonish or instruct. 1 have 
never been so rich as to affright men 
into disguise and concealment, nor so 
poor as to be kept at a distance too 
great for accurate observation* I 
therefore presume to tell your ladyship, 
with great confidence, that your writers 
have instituted a wo rid* of their own, 
and that nothing is more different from 
a human being than heroes or he- 
roines." 

" I am afraid. Sir," said Arabella, 
•' that the difference is not in favour 
of the present world." 

" That, Madam," answered he, 
" 3'our own penetration will enable 
you to judge when it shall have made 
you equally acquainted with both, I 
have no desire to determine a question, 
the solution of which will give 90 little 
pleasure to purity and benevolence," 

*' The silence of a man who loves 
to praise is a censure suJliciently se- 
vere," said the lady, '* May it never 
happen that you should be unwilling 
to mention the name of Arabella. I 
hope, whatever corruption prevails in 
the world, to live in il with virtue, or. 



Chapter hf Dr. Johnson in '^ The Female Quixote.'* [Jan. 

any preserved by natural softoess^ or 
early education, from learoing pride 
and cruelty, they are yet ia danger of 
being betrayed to the vanity of beauty^ 
and taught the arts of intrigue. Lave« 
Madanij is, you know, the business^ the 
sole buBiness, of ladies in romances." 
Arabella's blushea now hindered him 
from proceeding as he had intended, 
*' I perceive/* continued he» ** that my 
arguments begin to be leas agreeable to 
your ladyship's delicacy ; I shall there- 
fore inaiat no longer upon false tender- 
ness of sentiment, but proceed to those 
outrages of the violent passions which, 
though not more dangerous, are more 
generally hateful." 

*' It is not necessary, Sir," inter- 
rupted Arabella, " that you strengthen 
by any new proof a position which 
when calmly considered cannot be 
denied ; my heart yields to the force 
of truth, and I now wonder how the 
blaze of enthusiastic bravery coald 
hinder me from remarking with abhor- 
rence the crime of deliberate unneces- 
sary bloodshed, I begin to perceive 
that i have hitherto at least trifled away 
my time, and fear that I have already 
made some approaches to the crime of 
encouraging violence and revenge*" 

'* 1 hope, Madam," said the goodmaa 
with horror in his looks, " that no life 
was ever lost by your incitement." 

Arabella, seeing htm thus moved, 
burst into tears, and could not imme- 
diately answer. " Is it possible,'* 
cried the Doctor, " that such geottc- 
ness and elegance ohould be stained 
with blood }" 

" Be not too hasty in yout censure," 
said Arabella, recovering herself, '* i 
tremble indeed to think how nearly I 
have approached the brink of murder, 
when 1 thought myself only consulting 
my own glory ; but, whatever I suSer^ 
I will never more demand or instigate 
vengeance, nor consider my punctilioe 
as important enough to be balanced 
against Itfe/' 

The Doctor confirmed her in her 
new resolutions, and, thinking solitude 
was necessary to compose her spirits 
after the fatigue of so long a conversa- 
tion, he retired to acquaint Mr. Glan- 
ville with his success, who in the 
transport of his joy was almost ready 
to throw himself at his feet, to thank 
him for the miracle, as he called it, 
that he had performed. 



L M I Und myself too much endangered, 
lo retire from it with innocence. But 
if you can say so little in commenda- 
tion of mankind, how will you prove 
these histories to be vicioust which, if 
they do not describe real life, give us 
An idea of a better race of beings than 
LDow inhabit the world ?" 

** It is of little importance. Madam," 
replied the Doctor, " lo decide whether 
in the real or fictitious life most wick- 
edness is to be found. Books ought 
to supply an antidote to example, and 
if we retire to a contemplation of 
crimes, and continue in our closets to 
inflame our passions, at what time 
must we rectify our words, or purify 
our hearts ? The immediate tendency 
of these books, ivhich your ladyship 
roust allow me to mention with some 
•everity, is to give new fire to the pas- 
sions of revenge and love ; two pas- 
sions which, even without such power* 
fol auxiliaries, it is onfi of the severest 
labours of reason and piety to suppress, 
and which yet most be suppressed if 
we hope to be approved in the sight of 
the only Being whose approbation can 
make us happy. I am afraid your 
ladyship will think me too serious." 

" 1 have already learned too much 
from you," said Arabella, " to presume 
to instruct you ; yet suffer mc to cau- 
tion you never to dishonour your sacred 
office by the iowiiaes& of apologies." 

" Then let me again observe," re- 
sumed he, " that these books soften 
the heart to love, and harden it to 
murder; that they teach women to 
exact vengeance, and men to execute 
it ; teach women to expect not only 
worship, but the dreadful worship of 
human sacrifices. Every page of these 
volumes is filled with such extrava- 
gance of praise and expressions of 
obedience as one human being ought 
not to hear from another ; or with ac- 
counts of battled, in which thousands 
are slaughtered for no other purpose 
than to gain a smile from the haughty 
beauty, who sits a calm spectatress of 
the ruin and desolation, bloodshed and 
misery, incited by herself. It is im- 
possible to read these tales without 
iestening part of that humility, which, 
by preserving in us a sense of our alli- 
ance with all human natare, keeps us 
awake to tenderness and sympathy, or 
without impairing that compassion 
which is implanted In us as an incen- 
live f' ^ kiudnm. If there be 



4 



49 



REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



Memorials of the great Civil fFar in 

EHtjlaml.frmH l64G^/o IGj2 ; editnl 

/rom Oriijinal Letteis in the Bodleian 

Library. By Henry Gary, M,A, 

2 vqIs. Bvo. 

THIS is uoe of the most impoiUnt 
hUtorical work« publUhed for some 
yemft pAst ; important, Dot as preseot- 
ing ** new lights** calculated to amuse 
and mislead the general reader, hut as 
addiog to the materials for English 
history a collection of valuable papers 
relating to a period which is universally 
interesiiDg. All our fashionable bia- 
torical works sink into their uatural 
ini^igDiticaQce, upon comparison with 
Mr, Cary*o unpretending but really 
valuable volumes. 

The letters here published are de- 
rived from originals in the collection 
of MSS. which formerly belonged to 
Biihop Tanner, and are now in the 
Bodleian » They are partly of Ms- 
toricol and partly of biographical in- 
lereAt^ the latter relating indirectly to 
public affairs, but principally to the 
life and fortunes of Archbiahop San* 
croft. 

The p4?riod witliin which the letters 
range commenced with the King's 
leaving Oxford and putting himself 
into the power of the Scots at Newark, 
acid closed with the confusion which 
terminated in the advance of Crom- 
wetl to the Protectorate. It embraced 
the great events of the surrender of 
Charles by the Scots, his unsuccessful 
attempts at an arrangement with the 
parliament, the interference of the 
army, the king's executiooj the parlia- 
ment's victories in Ireland and Scotland, 
and Charles It's eicape from Wor- 
caalcr. All these events are more or 
illiistrated in the volumes before 

[ and some of them aresubatantjated 
and eipUined with a power and clear- 
Qe«i which can only be found in the 
le»timuoy of intelligent eye- witnesses. 

'iTie private papers — those, that is, 
fvktitU relate to Bancroft and his 
friends, possess considerable interest, 
anrl *»tnp/-i.,l]y because they show the 
fcti I irejudices of a respectable 

id* M j|y, and the way in which 

Gtirr. Mao. Vot. XXI. 



its members were affected both in 
mind and estate by the public troubles. 
Some of ihem are of a pathetic turn, 
some mock* heroic, whilst others are 
satiricaU When the Royalists failed 
against the parlioment men in the 
field, Cromwcira nose became a grand 
point of attack, and one of Bancroft's 
correspondents is very humourous 
upon the subject. 

'*One, in discourse about tlic Lord's 
anoioted, stuck not to say, * he thought 
CromwcU the very same.* (This was in 
1G51>«) ' Add shall that oily nose at last 
go for the Lordii anoiutcd ? No, we have 
better terms to express so much desert 
by. It is the saints' minimum quoddam 
naturaie ; a Noh with- the- wbisp . . . the 
commonwealth's no/< me tan^ete^ . . . 
that whicli people rather ga2c at than de- 
light in, and wherewith they are mRsteredr 
like a eompaaj of jackdaws In tlie night 
at sight or a torch ; were that quenched 
they would be at their nest again. It is 
Samson'!! foxes* firebrands, and all beaten 
together into an intolerable nose, . . . 
the devil's breeches tamed wrong side 
upwards, and elapped by mischance to the 
gcneraPs face. But iSics must not be too 
bold with the candle for scalding their 
wings: it is, God knows what^ and, do 
what I can, I must leave it the same I 
found it' ^ (lL22t>,) 

Sancroft pictures Cromwell's mind 
rather than his appearance, and truly, 
if the future Archbishop's character of 
the Protector was an accurate one, his 
copper-nose was not the worst thing 
about him. 

'*\Ve know his method well enough; 
namely, by courteous overtures to cajole 
and charm all parties when he goes upon 
a doubtful service, and as soon as it ts 

over to his mind to crush them 

I like him worse when be is stealing of 
hearts with Absalom, than when he is 
lopping off heads like John of Le}'den ; 
ttccQunting the devil far more dangerous 
in the serpent than in theliou.'* (ll.^.'i.) 

These are the representations, 
probably the misrepresentations, of 
prrjti diced adversaries j but listen to 
the man himself, and mark at once the 
superiority which his forcible lines 
seem tu indicate, in spite of the colour 
H 



50 



Rbvikw.— Gary's Memorials of the Civil War. 



[Jan. 



of his nose. Afler writing to the 
Speaker a detailed account of his 
saccesses in Ireland, he thus proceeds : 

" Sir, what can be said of these things ? 
Is it an arm of flesh that doth these things ? 
Is it the wisdom and counsel or strength 
of men ? It is the Lord only. God will 
curse the man and his house that dares to 
think otherwise. Sir, jon see the work 
is done by a dinne leading : God gets 
into the hearts of men, and persuades 
them to come under you. I tell you, 
a considerable part of your army is fitter 
for an hospital than the field. If the 
enemy did not know it, I should have 
held it impolitic to have writ it. They 
know it, yet they know not what to do." 
(II. 202.) 

Read also the manly lines with 
which he transmits to the Speaker a 
petition forwarded to himself, the con- 
tents of which related to "justice and 
faith-keeping/' and the performance 
of an agreement to which " the word 
and faith of the army" were engaged. 

*' If he," says Cromwell, ^* desires that 
which is not just and honourable for you 
to grant, I shall willingly bear blame for 
this trouble, and be g^ to be denied ; 
but if it be just and honourable, and tends 
to make good the faith of your servants, 
I take the boldness then to pray he may 
stand or fall according to that ; and this 
desire, I hope, is in faithfulness to you, 
and will be so judged." 

In this straightforward style the 
Protector's despatches were gene- 
rally penned, as the volumes be- 
fore us amply prove, although his 
letters are neither the least known, nor 
the most numerous, nor the most valu- 
able portion of their contents. 

The advice given to Charles I. by 
the bishops, whom he consulted in 
reference to his conscientious scruples 
as to the overthrow of episcopacy, and 
the application of church lands to 
secular uses, is here shewn by a letter 
from Bishops Juxon and Dappa, 
dated Oct. 4, 1G4G, in which the king 
is clearly told, that, in their opinion, 
without breach of his coronation oath, 
or trespass in point of conscience, he 
might consent to a temporary "exercise 
of the Directory for worship and 
practice of discipline/' In the follow- 
ing year, in consequence of a proposal 
made to the king for a general tolera- 
tion in religious matters, the opinions 
of several of the bishops were taken 
upon the question, whether, upon a 



necessity of state, a Christian prince 
might lawfully tolerate other religions, 
so as to bind hiniself not to punish 
any subject for the exercise of any 
of them. We have here the opinions 
of Bishop Skinner and Archbishop 
Usher in favour of such toleration, 
under the circumstances aupposed. 
Bishop Warner, of Rochester, was also 
consulted, but his answer simply 
amounted to the intimation of his 
willingness to be of any opinion that 
might please the king (i. 346) ; and 
Bishop Morton, of Durham, sent an 
answer, the tenor of which does not 
appear. 

But the most valuable opinion up- 
on the questions of conscience upon 
ecclesiastical matters, with which 
Charles I. seems to have been troubled, 
is contained in a very long letter of 
Jeremy Taylor's, which, in spite of a 
great deal of sophistical pedantry, con« 
tains much practical wisdom. In some 
of his conclusions, respecting the alien- 
ation of church lands by the state, we 
could not concur ; but the following 
simple sentence contains a common- 
sense view of the obligation of the 
coronation oath which has been gene* 
rally overlooked, even down to very 
recent times. 

"Theking*8 oath binds him to main- 
tain the rights of the church as it ties him 
to defend the laws; which he is to de- 
fend so long as they are in being, but nc^ 
bound against all changes, popular peti- 
tions, necessities and emergencies, to pre- 
serve their being." (II. 99.) 

The same great writer in this re- 
markable paper expresses also an 
opinion upon another important ec- 
clesiastical subject, which is well 
worthy of being pondered. 

" I consider that God is not always heft 
served by the richest clergy; that our 
blessed Lord commends poverty, and 
entailed it upon his church by his doctrine 
and example ; that he speaks so harshly 
of riches, that himself was once put to tt 
to expound tlie meaning of his words; 
and yet, after that, his Apostles, when they 
received the spirit of Christ, still prose- 
cuted the words of Christ against riches. 
1 add, that, although lands are not easy to 
be had, yet the Apostles parted with them, 
and put the sequel to God's providence.** 
(11. 95.) 

It is extraordinary, and presents a 
somewhat melancholy picture of the 



164'!.] Rbtibw.— Gary's Memorials of the Civil War. 



SI 



character of Cbarlefl, to find that, 
aithoagh his conscience was so tender 
upon theae queatioo^ of eccleaiastical 
government, he could yet quibble, 
and what in ordinary life would 
b€ termed BhutHe, witli the solemn 
obligation of his own given word. 
An iDBtaoce of this occurred whilst 
he waaat Carisbrooke, if the facts here 
stated are to be depended upon. Charles 
had passed his royal word that he 
would not go out of the Isle of Wight 
daring a treaty with certain commia- 
sionersp nor for 3$ days afterwards. 
It was, however, whispered to Ham- 
mond, the governor of Carisbrookc 
caalte, that the placing guards round 
the king might be construed by him 
to make hi* engagement void. He 
accordingly, in the presence of the 
conunlssioners. " pressed the king * * 
to declare whether he made any such 
question ; if so, that he would please 
to utter it/' Now here was a plain 
question put to the king with a soldier* 
like frankness. A clear candid mind 
would have dictated an immediate and 
certaJD reply ; a splitter of straws 
might indulge doubts, and endeavour 
to shield biniMelf uuder ambiguities 
and refined dtstinctioos. Hammond 
relates the conduct of the King thus : 

** He seeming somewhat surprised, 
d«atfed time to congidtir it, professing not 
lo have IbQUj^lit on it before. But I, per- 
Mivtag t^ danger of such a reserve^ 
mrnaeA mUh. gmater eamestnefls to a clear 
flaalsraiioa of himaelf on the point, tcU* 
tog him thnt otherwise bis parole signified 
notbing, and d^ired his positi?e answer 
AS the caae now stood with him. Uis 
mi^sty aToided it long. 1 then told him » 
il^ie ceotincU at bif door (I having kept 
aoe^MT since the engagem<^nt of hia word) 
were Hfeniive to him, and would abr 
•otetaH' clear him in that question be 
nenM to m&ke scmpte, thej should be 
talten t»0, (they being onlf set to keep off 
pcopJe from pressing into his lodgingi,) 
and p tailed at a farther distance with the 
guard which b kept to pre§erve his 
majjcilj's person from Tiolence ; assuring 
him I only depended upon his word, which 
the parliament had pleased to accept, for 
hifl not removing out of the island. He 
told me J it wonJd be then more dear, and 
tbei fcmr or ftre tcveral tlmea : at length, 
upoa ray importunity, not being to be 
asljafied with a doubtful nnswer, he con- 
daded himielf to be obliged by hii parole, 
if the laid ceatiiials were takan away ; 
wfekii I thaa pfomiied hia should be 



done before the commissioners, and ae* 
cordingly it was immediately observed.** 
(11. 55.) 

It was almost immediately after thit 
transaction that Cromwell declared 
of the King in the House of Commons, 
" that he was so great a dissembler* 
and so false a man, that he was not to 
be trusted." 

Tn the brief notice of a work of thia 
kind to which we are limited, by the 
small space we can devote to it, it ia 
impossible to do more than to express 
a general opinion of its value, and 
give one or two examples of its con- 
tents. The passages we have already 
quoUd are sufficient for this purpose, 
and ure indeed fair specimens of the 
nature of the documents here printed, 
but we will give one more, relating to 
the heroic Earl of Derby, husband of 
the equally heroic Charlotte de la 
Tremouille, who was a grandaughter 
of the great Prince of Orange (*' Father 
William," as he is atil) called in Hol- 
land), and through him connected 
with a race of heroes. When the Earl 
of Derby was captured after the battle 
of Worcester, the parliament did not 
forget the terms Id which he had re- 
fused to deliver up the Isle of Man, 
and the noble loyalty to his sovereign 
which he had at all times evinced. 
" I scorn your proffer, I disdain your 
favour, I abhor your treasons ; and 
am BO far from delivering up this island 
to your advantage, that 1 shall keep 
it with the utmost of my power to 
your destruction/' These were the 
terms of his scornful rejection of 
Iretoo's summons to surrender his 
impregnable island, and his whole 
conduct during the war was in keep- 
ing with it. But times were now 
altered. Once in the power of the suc- 
cessful rebels be was tried by a court- 
martial^ and received sentence to die 
at Bolton in Lancashire, a place 
where he was extremely unpopular, 
in consequence of being accused of 
having had a share in some bar- 
barities acted there by the army of 
Prince Rupert. The unfortunate gentle- 
man strove to propitiate the ruling 
powers, but the reading of his pe- 
tition to the house was delayed, de- 
signedly as has been alleged, until the 
morning when he had been appomted 
to suffer, and his offered concessions 
were sneered at as mean-spirited and 



52" 



Review. — Arclideacou Matiuing's Sermohs. 



^Jhh, 



diBCrecliUbic. What they were has 
jicvcr beca exactly known, but Ihe 
following paper e^iplams their nature 
fiftttafactorily. 

The Earl of Derby to the Speaker, 

** Sir» — Being now by the \uU of God, 
for HUght 1 kDuir, brought to the lan^t 
mmtitfs of my life, I once more most 
buoibly proy the Pnrlbiuent will: be 
pleased to hear nic before my ileatb. 

♦• I jrlend ntithiiig in viddication of my 
offences, h«t hiiinbly t-'ust my self down at 
the Parliament's feet, bej^ging their oiercy. 
I have several times addret^Bcd my bumble 
petitions for life, nrtJ nou ug-n uravc 
leave 10 submit my«tlf to tl»cir mercy* 
vttb assurancea that the lb\e of Man shall 
be given np to eueh hands as the Partia- 
mcut entruit to receive it ; with this 
further eugagemcnt (which I shall con- 
firm by Bureticii)i that 1 shall never actor 
endeavour any tbiDg against the estab- 
lished power of this uation, hut end my 
days in prigon or baniiibmcnt^ as the 
lIouEe shall tbink ht. 

" Sir, it is a greater o/Qiction to me 

[ than death itself, thut I am sentenced to 

I die at Bolton; so that the nation will 

f look upon me aa a gacrifice for that hlood 

Iwhich flome have unjustly cast upon me, 

{•nd from which I hope I am iie(|uUted in 

your opinions, and the judgment of good 

men, hiTing^ cleared myself by no deniable 

evidence. 

*' Indeed, at my trial it was never men- 
tioned agaiuet me, and yet they adjudge 
mr to suffer at Bolton, ait if indeed i had 
been guilty. 1 heg a respite for my liftJ 
upon that issue, that, if I do not acc|uit 
myielf from that imputation, let me die 
without mercy. 

•• Bat, Sir. if the Parliament have not 
tbia mercy for roe, I liurably pray the 
place appointed for my death may be 
altered ; and that if the Parliament flunk 
it not fit to give me time to live» they 
will be pleaaed to give me time to die, in 
rea piling my life for some time^ whilst 
I may fit myiclf for death ; since ttma 
long I have heea perftiiaded by Colonel 
Duckeufteld, the Parliament woald give 
I me my life. 

*' Sir, I submit myself, my fiiinily, wife^ 
and children to the mercy of Parliament ; 
and ahaU Kve or die, Sir, 

'* Your contented and humble aenrant, 

••Oct* II, IfjAL VKtLBY.*' 

•* Sir, I bombly beg the favour that the 
I i^UoQ of a dying mnn, here inclosed, 
f ihay by your favour be read in the Houie." 

Tlie earl wa« rxccoted at BoUon on 
Ihe 15th October, 165L Several 
Sarrntivei of bis candact nt the place 



of execution will be found in the State 
Trials, vol. V. p. 294. 

The pipspnt work is dedicated to 
Lord John RusacU, and has an intro- 
duction written rather too much with 
a view to his lordship's position and 
opiuionsr If, instead of the introduc- 
tion, Mr. Cary had given a few more 
explanatory notes, hia general readers 
would have been better satisfied, and 
hia work would have been improved ; 
but the valuable papers it contains 
entitle it to a place in every historical 
librarvi and give its editor a Just claim 
to the thanks of every lover of truth* 



Scrmtmn % Archdeacon Mannings 
M.A. 
THESE diacouraes consist of very 
eloquent expo&iliooB of the divine law, 
and very earnest appeals to the con- 
Bcieoce and feelings of Christians, in 
this their appointed life of trial. The 
main object — the engrossing theme — 
the abscdute ])urpoac of the whole 
body of doctrine contained in the se- 
parate discourses, is to represent what 
is truly a Christian life — a life of duty, 
of denial,— of duty ever wakeful, of 
denial never wearied — in contrast with 
the low standard by which the world 
and those who love the world are con- 
lent to regulate their way of life. The 
preacher endenvoura to remove all 
ftijth false and ftital im press ions ; to 
waken men from the lethargy in which 
they have been lulled, and to point out 
to them, amid their imagined ease and 
security, what dangers nre thickening 
around them. In fact, his object has 
heen to bring Christians back to the 
truly Christian life and Christian 
spirit ; not that which passes for such 
in worldly estimation, and which ii 
compatible with the most unchristian 
estimation of things, and which seems 
only to denounce or abjure certain de- 
viations from God's law, in order to 
have on undisturbed and tranquil pos- 
session of others ; but the preacher 
endeavours to bring before hi* hearers 
the true archetype of the Christian 
roau — the humble and contrite spirit — 
the self-denying will-^thc steadfast 
resolution — the pure and clean and 
chastened heart — the meditative mind 
— the faith that does not falter, and 
the strength that does not weary. To 
recall forgotten principles, to restore 
forsaken ordinances, to pour the life* 



* 



1844.] 



Rkvibw.— Archrlcacou Muiaiiugs Sermomt. 



as 



bbod tvr«crjpturft( truth into the laa* 
guid and exhausted veins of a luxuri- 
ous and milulgent society, to open the 
eyes of those who arc immersed in the 
pictusures or entangled in the cares 
which Ihe pursuit or possosaion of 
riches bring ; such is the general ob- 
ject, we should Bay, and tenor of iheae 
excellent and animated discourses : 
which, delivered with that power which 
all acknowledge, and we ourselves have 
witnessed » the preacher to possess, 
must have produced no transitory eflfect 
on the minds of those who beard tbeca, 
and now more widely diffused by the 
preFs, we believe will increase that high 
reputation which the author enjoys as 
a scholar and a divine, and will satisfy 
the labour bestowed on them, by the 
success they will receive. Yet, after all 
we have said, we caunot do justice to 
the Archdeacon's volume by any ex- 
tracts we can make. How is a volume 
of thought and ability to be judged of 
by a few sentences, or small fragments 
taken from an entire and we!i con- 
ducted argument ? No works of any 
class in literature are so little formed 
for extracts as sermons, unless, indeed, 
an ample space is at hand, and then 
little less than the abridgment of the 
whole discourse is required. The 
eloquence of the pulpit, generally 
spealcing, is not distinguished by the 
brilliancy of its corruscation, or the 
flaming rapidity of its course; but 
rallier by the pure luminous tether in 
which it is seen, tracking its serene 
and tranquil way. It can occasionally 
launch forth its thunders, but the 
** still small voice" U that by which 
it ordinarily speaks. One sentence 
could display the withering sarcasms 
of a Chatham, or the bold apostrophes 
of Erskiue ; but the masculine rea- 
soning of Sherlock, or the eloquent 
ei position of Barrow, require a con- 
tinued attention, and must be pursued 
througli the entire discourse. All we 
can do at present is to extract a pas- 
sage on the subject of Self denial from 
the seventh discourse, as a specimen 
of the author's manner. It is taken 
from Sermon VIJ. entitled, " A severe 
life necesaary for Christ's followers:" 
*' And if we carmot find soy thing in 
which we deny ourselves already, wc most 
^9ec4s resolve on something in which we 
tot J deny ourselves henceforward. And^ 
JQ resolving, we should remember that it 




is .1 poor srlf deutal whi^b foregoci 
only ioexpedient or unnecessary things. 
These are not the subject matter of self* 
denial* It is in thingE lawful sad inno* 
centf and it may be gainful and honoura- 
ble, and in keeping with our lot in life, 
and such things as the world* by iu own 
measure, esteems to be necessary things, 
that we may really try oursclvej ; as, for 
inbtance, in living more simply than our 
station in life may prescribe, or our fortune 
require ; in withdrawing from contests of 
precedence ; in contenting ourselves with 
a lower place and a less portiOQ tlian is 
our acknowledged due ; in living toil- 
some Uvej of well-doing when we might 
do well and yet live without toiling : — in 
these, or in points of the hke kind, wc may 
find matter for self-denial, and that in 
many ways* A man may cither deny 
himself greatly, and once, so that his 
whole afrer-Ufe shall bear the marks of it ; 
as in giving up some high and lunng offer, 
and choosing a lowlier and simpler one; 
in foregoing some dearly'cherished pur* 
pose, that he may be more absolutely His ; 
in crossing some deep yearning of the 
heart, that he may have more to by out 
in His service ;^-or he may so order bis 
•elf-denial as to make it a daily and con- 
tinual sacrifice ; he may so mete out his 
acts ai to spread them over a wider sur- 
face, and along a more protracted time ; 
which is, indeed, Uke retaining what we 
hare, and adminifitering it by a continual 
steward:>hip, compared with che seMLng at 
one cast all that we possess,'^ Stc. 

Again, on the same subject io Serm. 
XIL p. IfiT. 

'* They that give up only what they 
care not to retain, moke but poor obla- 
tions ; rich and easy people seldom reach 
the point of renl self-deniaL It ia in 
things 1 awful f and as the world deems 
necessary, but, in the severe judgment of a 
devoted mind, tending to relax the t4}ne 
of our obedieoceT that we may prove the 
singleness of our purpose* For instauc^i 
in things harmless in themselves, but in- 
expedient for our own sake or for others ; 
in narrowing the freedom wemight ourselves 
enjoy, lest any other for whom Christ died 
should be milled by our example ; in. 
leaving unsaid and undone many things 
which may tend to irritatoin or questioning 
in noiostnicted or prejudiced mindi?* 
Moreover, it is not only for the safety of 
others, but of ourselves, that we mu§t 
needs limit our use even of lawful tilings. 
He is in great peril of jndgmeot who 
never foregoes anything that he might 
lawfully enjoy. He that lives on a dubious 
boundary line, trusting his own steadfait- 
nessi Is ever ready to shp over into a 



M 



Rbtisw.— *WVi/in^a of Sydney Taylor* 



Kofc nuen perish by ex- 
J la tlie meutu^ of Uirfiil thmgt 

» Ia deliberate coronutsion of thinga 
it U ■ perilous fooliog on the 

J t4gc of » precipice. Again , a man 
deaf Uaitelf io thing* held by the 
h^ eligibte and good, mch em 
hg^ fiiB» ve almost forced upon us, and 
|» t^amdiea are ML of pronuae, and it 
asf bt fl# e^jojmeDt, and yet are cum* 
|p0^ and Mnder the devoting ouraetvea 
tip Ckfiat. Th«re waa nothing of evil in 
Mtttlka'a life; bat Mary's waa the 
r and more hallowed. Martha was 
about many things ; yet all these 
were innocent: Mary about only 

, and that alone was needful. There 
li oothiog evil in the possession of lands 
tad richei ; yet they bring mueh toil of 
iMMt attd orerburdening of care. Thej 
dtfrmvd a man of much of himself, and 
mike hmi pay tribute of more than half 
of all hia hopea, and fear«t and thoughts, 
end hours of day and night — half, that is, 
of his whole eartlily being, and it may be 
poverty in the world to come, as the ooat 
or tax at which he buya the trouble of 
being rich. The very thought of being 
contented at any point short of tlie utmost 
gain, is lost from among men. They have 
no horixon to tbetr aims for this world, 
tod therefore they have their reward. It 
la a pooff palpable, proximate reward 
here on earth. The aim of most men 
&lla short and terminates in something 
on this side of the resurrection; some 
phantasy of earthly happiness* It may be 
then tbatcachooeofusraayiind something 
which he may forego for the take of the 
world to come ; some poiseasioD, or pur- 
poae of Ufe, or wish of heart } some of the 
permitted self-indulgenoei common to his 
rank and fortune » and thia foregone for 
the aake of liviog a life of larger charity ^ 
or of mora abatnctad devotion, that is, 
for the take of oiakiag charity or devotioa 
th* great and governing aim of the whole 
life, and all other tbinn as means and op- 
portualtiea to it» ahaU not bt fioraottea 
wber« all M^UAtfoUk U9 ffiimimniifniil } 
and so ahatl yov liave your loi wi& him 
who aaid» Behold ! we have left all things, 
what ahall we have therefore ? Remember 
then, bnthno, that in all thsM ants of salf- 
ritlrittiMi tlkWB oiiat bo tht iliiearo in* 
tml Id do it Ibf Qudit^i Mke 4 other* 
iH» ovr acta are like iaarticalita aoimda^ 
vltkonlamphaaia or meaning* Maaymeo 
BMOi to live a mortified life, and, aa 
far aa mere aelf^raatraint, really do aOt 
•tti ytt not for Christ's sake, but for 
earthly end. Doubtleaa the rich 
dtftiad himself for his grett 
Nona forsake and forfeit 
mam Ibaa * t^ tbit wiU be nch/ But 



we know tliat the severest life, without 
8 cooscioua choice, is teas than the least 
acts of Belf-impoverishmeut, with a clear 
and BLQgle aim of foregoing something that 
we may find it in His kingdooa. Feter^a 
worldly all was a boat and a net ; and the 
alabaster box of ointment had a great tea- 
timony of acceptance, because she had 
* done what she could.' They are often. 
times the little ministries of love that 
shew most devotion, and most intimate 
resolution of heart. And remember 
also that, having choseu deliberately, a 
man must act boldly, not looking back. 
Half our difficulty in doing anything 
worthy of our high calling, is the slmak* 
ing anticipation of its possible aftcr-conse- 
i^uences* But if Peter had tarried and cast 
up aU that was to cotne, tbe poverty, and 
wandering, and solitude, aod loniffy old 
age, tbe outcast life, and chance of a fearful 
death, it may be he would have been 
ueither on Apostle nor a Christian/' &c. 
He who reads these extracts will 
wish to rcft«l more, and few will open 
the volume who kare any part of it 
unread. 



yottnf naa < 



Selections fi'om the Writinffi qf the 
late Sydney Taylor, A,M, 
JOHN SYDNEY TAYLOR waa 
bora in Dublin in 1795, He was well 
descended, and on hia mother's side 
from the distinguished chief. General 
Sara field. Earl of Lucan, the devoted 
adherent of James the Second. The 
surname of Taylor was assumed by hia 
grandfather on succeeding to the pro- 
perty of a maternal grandfather, wnicli 
was, however, by thoughtlessness and 
law combined, so utterly wasted, that 
he was forced to find subsistence in 
line engraving. Sydney Taylor was 
placed at school at Dublin with Mr, 
S, White, and in that school Thomas 
Moore and Sheridan also received their 
education. From this school he was 
removed to the university, the Rev. 
Dt* Hall being his tutor, and there he 
made much proficiency both in classi- 
cal learning and Tnathematical stu- 
dles« In lihe year of his examination 
for scholarship, the candidates were 
forty in number, the places twelve; 
yet he obtained the second place, and 
that too upon a heit mark from all his 
ciamincrs. About this time he formed 
an intimacy with the late Charles 
Wolfe, so well known by his " Ode on 
the burial of Sir John Moore/' and an 
anecdote of the rtadtneMt of bis own 



4 



i 



1844,] 



Rktibw.— l?Vt«i«5r^ 0/ Sydney Taylor. 



55 



poetical powers it here given, Cwhich, 
his biographer says, may be called 
aurpming). Some argument taking 
place relating to Southey's poetical 
powera, which Taylor at the time was 
willing to reduce below the proper 
leveU his antagonist quoted a passage 
Uom Thalaba. " Call you that poetry V* 
1 S. Taylor ; '* surely any one could 
lie poetry like that.*' The challenge 
W«a accepted; Taylor took pen and 
fwper» aad, almost as fast as he could 
write, improvised the following de- 
scription of a man left to perish in the 
wilderness. The verses were as follows : 

"He looked upon the wilderness; 

No ligbt wM in its gloom — 

No earthly gleam was there. 

No sparkling gem of night. 

He listened to the winds | 

They swept no grove of pidm, 

No wood of flattering leaves. 

They bore not on their blast 

The torrent's nishingroar, 

Wlioae sound, like beavenly music, might 

awake [doomed 

The quick rejoicing sense; no, he was 
To hear that desert howl, commingling 

harsh, 
With burling drifts of sand, 
Or linger on the pauses 
Which utter silence gave. 
That mere expression smote 
The solitary man V 

S, Taylor's course of life was now 
destined to the bar, and to qualify 
himself for public speaking he became 
a member of the Historical Society, 
and soon obtained notice among that 
body ; indeed, so much so, that he was 
solicited for the arduous duty of closing 
the session of J 8 13 with a speech, 
which was praised by Dr. Magec, 
honoured with the society's gold 
medal, and which was dedicated by 
permission to Lord Plunket, S« 
Taylor stood soon after this for the 
professorship of oratory, which had 
been generally filled by a senior fellow ; 
but a candidate of the name of Cramp- 
ton (BOW a judge) carried away the 
prize. In 18 16 he visited London for 
the first time, for the purpose of serv- 
ing his term in the Temple, with a 
iiew of being called to the Irish bar ; 
bat, after he had resided here some 
little while, he determined to remain 
in England, and, having obtained a 
letter of introduction from Lord 
Pluniel to the Duke of Buckingham, 



he determined to settle as a permanent 
resident in the capital. He then be- 
came connected with the public press, 
and contributed to the columns of the 
Morning Chronicle. In conjunction 
with Mr. C. Cooke, he commenced a 
weekly paper, called the Thlisman ; but 
he subsequently accepted a proposal 
made by the proprietors of the Morn- 
ing Herald to assist in its manage- 
ment ; his time being divided between 
his profession as a barrister and his 
labours as a public journalist. On 
account of the illness of the proprietor, 
he remained the editor for more than 
a year. In 1823 he joined Lord 
Brougham I Dr, Birkbeck, and others 
in the formation of the London Me- 
chanics* Institute; and, in 1822 being 
called to the English bar, he joined 
the Norfolk Circuit in 1824, and be- 
came the professional adviser and 
friend of the Duke of Buckingham. 
Id the course of his early professional 
career, the claim of Michael Jones 
Bobert Dillon to the earldom of 
Roscommon was placed in his hands, 
which was determined in favour of his 
client, and he himself was compli* 
mcDted by the Chancellor, Lord Lynd- 
hurst. for his ability. A year previous 
to this, he married Miss Hall, niece of 
his friend Mr, James Perry, of the 
Chronicle, and enjoyed with her the 
most perfect domestic happiness. Mr, 
S. Taylor interested himself for the 
preservation of the Lady Chapel at 
St. Saviour's, Southwark ; as also for 
that of the beauliful screen at York 
Minster* After the passing of the 
Reform Bill, he was invited to go into 
Parliament to represent one of the 
boroughs — but he felt that to do bo 
would be to abandon his profession j 
and, as he did not possess in his own 
right the necessary property qaalifi- 
cation, lie considered that alone an 
insurmountable objection. His life, 
however, soon after this, was drawing 
to an early and untimely close. 
Though uaturally of a sound consti- 
tution, he was unable from the pressure 
of business to take the needful exer- 
cise ; and functional derangements 
arose, for which he provided no suf- 
ficient remedy. l*he last great case 
he was employed in, was that remark- 
able one of the youth (Oxford) who 
fired off two pistols at the Queen : 
His biographer tells US| 



56 Retiew.— Mott*8 Lait Days of Francis the First. [Jan. 

a pillar of polished granite, sur- 
mounted with an urn of the same ma- 
terial. The inscriptioD is as follows: 



" Upon this he stood opposed to the 
whole strength of the Government bar, 
and managed the cause of his client 
with sach consummate judgment, that 
the jury after a most patient investiga- 
tion returned a verdict that amounted 
to an acriuittal ; because they added to 
their verdict of insanity, that there was no 
proof that the pistols were loaded. The 
prisoner would therefore have been forth- 
with discharged had not the jury been 
sent back by the judge to reconsider their 
verdict — when they found him simply of 
unsound mind, and then justified his de- 
tention in a place of confinement.'* 

The last Norfolk Circuit he went 
was the spring one of 1841. He then 
defended an unhappy young woman, 
on the charge of infanticide. Return- 
ing from this Circuit in ill health, he 
soon after retired to his bed, and never 
permanently rallied. In his illness he 
was attended by his friends Dr. 
Arnott and'^lr. W. Coulson. 

'' We cannot," says the writer of his 
life, ** dwell upon his lingering disorder, nor 
the agony of doubts and fears which alter- 
nately during weeks and months agitated 
his sorrowing relations and friends. Suf- 
fice it to say, that, after suffering the most 
excruciating pains — which he endured with 
the fortitude and resignation that were 
worthy of his character, and of the faith 
he professed, — on the 10th December 
1841 he breathed his last, his confidence 
being unshaken in that Saviour who had 
been his humble trust, and through whom 
alone he looked for life and immortality. 
He was only forty^five ; ' but wisdom is 
the grey hair to men, and an unspotted 
hope is old age." * 

At a public meeting in Exeter Hall, 
convened by advertisement, and pre- 
sided over by Sir John Chetwode, to 
consider the best tribute to his memory, 
a meed of praise was bestowed on him 
by eminent men of all parties. A 
subscription was entered into, with a 
view to the publication of a selection 
from his writings in a permanent 
form, and a committee, including the 
Duke of Buckingham, nominated to 
secure that object ; and it is under the 
superintendence of this committee that 
the present volume has been compiled : 
at the same time, another subscription 
was opcne.l for the purpose of raising 
a public niunumcnt to his name. This 
object has also been accomplished. 
The monument ercctrd over his grave 
i-* in ihi* ri'nietrrv of Kcnsall Green— 



" To John Sydney Taylor, A.M. Trin. 
Coll. Dublin, Barrister-at-Law of the 
Middle Temple, who died Dec. 10, 1841, 
aged 45. This tomb was raised by the 
unanimous vote of a public meeting held 
in London, Feb. 19, 1842. To mark his 
maintenance of the principles of Consti- 
tutional Liberty, and Christian Morality ; 
and his successful exertions in advocat- 
ing the abolition of the Punishment of 
Death.** 

Such is a brief memoir of the life of 
a clever, industrious, and estimable 
person : the contents of the volame 
published are very various, consiatiog 
of the papers which he wrote on the 
topics that engaged the attention of 
the day, connected either with law or 
politics, or on other questions of im- 
portance that arose regarding the 
well-being and improvement of the 
social system of the country, as Par- 
liamentary Reform, Evils of the Beer 
Act, of the Game Laws, on Capital 
Punishments, on Trades Combinational 
on Trial by Jury, and other subjects 
of the same kind. Not less interesting 
are the characters of the stateamea 
which he has drawn, either from 
personal recollection or from general 
character ; as Romilly, Sheridan, 
Erskine, Sir James Mackintosh; to 
which are added three speeches at 
public meetings. The whole volnme 
IB certainly creditable to him — both as 
to his talents and acquirements, and 
to the useful and honourable direction 
which he gave them. 



The Last Days of Francis the First. 
By J. Thomas Mott. 
THE poems in this volume show 
the author to be a person of cultivated 
taste and poetical feeling, though of 
higher genius there are no strong im- 
pressions. We like best the lost poem, 
called "Farewell, Campania!" of 
which wc give a few stanzas as a spe- 
cimen of the whole. 

(}\i ! well may tlicy whose lot has been 
Onlaiiicil in rohlt^r cliiiios to dwell, 

KnjoymentH find in this ^clad srcno, 
Where Kiiushine is |N>r|M;tiial ; 

Where nature lures us with a sjiell 
S» soft, HO wiiuiin^, that the mind, 

Awhile released, cau scarcel> quell 



1844.3 



Review-— WrigLt's Si, Patrick's Purgatmy. 



A wUb tA spread its wing's before tlie winil* 
And nng^e tlie world at willi unbia5s<^d, ua- 
confined^ 

Come, stand witli me upon tbe belgbt 

Of fniJ' Airbta, thence to view 
Tlie jETlories of approacbiug night 

Blending cacb tint of ligbter hue 
With disUQt Detail*! deeper blue. 

WhUedoQbly beares the wave below. 
And Iscbia*8 peaks are ^leaininj^ thro\igb 

Tlie farhoriiOD, stretch'd in tbat brijicbt g-low 

Wluch Done but soutltem climea and »ou th- 
em lutiseia show. 

CSin aliiM, and acaa, and shores combiiie 
ThiiMiffa all tbe worlds that aims survey 

To make a r^oa more divine ? 
Aim! shall not traveller love to stray 

Where teitA>1d raptures still repay 
Hia weary toils ? When Nature's kiss 

Of beauty dimples o*er the bay» [as this, 

Which mirrorB back such matchless forms 
Thy lolly wave-encircled throne— Neapolia ! 

How hrightly glow you bumishM skies, 

K% if ten thousand hosts of air 
Blended thf^ir ^teveraJ aai!ri6ce : 
Slow sitiks the orb in glory ibere, 
OcsceodiBg to bia ocean-lair» 
WMte hia contracting drcle throwi 
QuTwelt fiance of gladness, ere 
waves divide and quench his burning 
browp [sanle'is now, kx. 

The waters o'er him close— the heavens are 

U!tEi roa MLTIIC. 

How sweetly smiles the summer morni 
The bre«e is Ujfbt, the bark is sure i 

And precioti5 is the burden borne 
Alon^ the bonnie banks of Dure. 

Let othen bask in southern skies. 

Or ftae upon the castled Rhine, 
We ask not fkirer, brighter eyes. 

Than those that now around us shine. 
Hay ail that dwell on foreij^i thoreM 

Be blest with hearts aa mild and pure 
As those Ikir friends whose bark U modred 

BcskSe the bonnie banks of Bore. 

M warmer wdcome I would sing, 

Bad I that minstrera magic power 
1fh0 tovad In days gone by to bring: 
flMl tammt to his "Ladyea bower." 

liar are your charms tluui hers less bright. 

Le» wtfcbinf at the evening hour, 
To him, yoor own devoted knight, 

Xow resting in his *' Ladyes bower." 

Dear Udies ) tlieti our thanks we pay. 

And drink a health to you and yoif r#j 
In mwaory of that pleasant day 
.W* paaaed upon the banks of Burt. 

iln a little poem tike this, the merit 
"* which roast consist rather in the 
propriety of the expression thao it\ 
tbe novelty of the ideas, or the elegance 
of the iltastrAtioDS, such imperfect 
rhymes an we have marked in italics 
GiNT. Mao. Vol. XXI. 



57 



ought not to have been suffered to pass 
It D corrected. 



St> Patrick's Purgatory ; an Eaaay on 
Me Lcgenih of Purgatory, Hdt, 
and Paradm, current during the 
Middle Agei. By Thomas Wright, 
Esq, M.A, F,S,A. 8{c. Poat%vo,pp, 
192. 

THIS is a §Tnal] volume, but pos- 
sessing the interest of works of larger 
bulk, whether regarded in connection 
with its relation to poetical literature* 
or its more important subjects of su- 
perstitious belief and corrupted re- 
ligion. Among the many procluctiona 
of its intelligent and very industriouft 
author, it wili not, we thinks be the 
least popular nor tbe least contribu- 
tive to his well* earned reputation, 
produced, as it mainly was, during 
tbe leisure and with the care of his 
earlier years, and now corrected under 
the advantage of hia greater critical 
experience and acquaintance with 
ancient literature. 

Though expressing a decided opinion 
upon tbe subject us respects religion, 
Mr, Wright treats it principally as a 
curious chapter in medieval literature. 
At the same time he remarks in his 
preface that there is a third point of 
view in which it may be turned to 
profit. 

^* Compared minutely with each others 
and with the ancient peniteutialii these 
legends would fumiab most valuable ma- 
terials for the Btatiatical history of Crime. 
By the researches and observations I have 
made myself, I am satisfied that crime and 
vice were infinitely more prevalent and in 
their worst forms, during the ages of 
papal supremacy than during any other 
period of history, if we eicept, perhapi, 
the most degenerate period of the Roman 
Ciesars* I can add^ both from my own 
observationSi and from those of a friend 
who ha» passed much of his life in ex- 
amining the judicial records of the Eng- 
lifh local courts, that the amount of crime 
dlminlahed in our own country constantly 
from the Refommtion to the end of the 
reign of Eliaabeth ; that it appears to have 
riien again very suddenly under James I. 
and Charles I. ; that it began to diminish 
quickly again under the Commouwealtb ; 
and that, in spite of the immorality of the 
higher class ei after the Restoration r the 
general morality of the people has been 
continually improving down to the preieut 
time," 

I 



58. 



Mitetttaneout SetAews. 



[J. 



In a religion! point of view Mr. 
Wright's researches shew how the 
Christian faith was. during the Middle 
Age, gradually, and with continual ad^ 
ditiona, corrupted by adventitious le- 
gends and superstitions. 

** Nothing WIS ever more true than the 
stigma of idolatry applied by the earlier 
Reformers to the reUgion of papal Rome. 
The Roman Catholic system was (and con- 
tinnes to be) a miztore of Christianity 
with Paganism, in which too generally the 
pure religion of the Gospel is stifled under 
the weighty superstructure. Superstitions, 
such as those described in the present 
Essay, were at first tolerated among a 
newly converted and ignorant people ; but 
they were subsequently approved and «i- 
eouraged by a political priesthood, as a 
powerful instrument of domination and 
oppression, till they were finally accepted 
•• an integral part of the doctrines of the 
Church.»' 

Mr. Wright's original intention was 
to treat the subject generally, and he 
'^•« ^ proceeded on that plan in his 
earlier chapters, which comprise a 
▼ariety of Purgatory legends, Anglo- 
Saxon, Welsh, and Irish, and also 
continental. In his fifth chapter he 
proceeds to the examination of the 
»any poetical works to which the 
■^^J^ctgave birth, from the Pilgrimages 
5J. William de Degnilleville to the 
■"ivina Commedia of Dante, and the 
popular Pilgrimage of our own Bun- 



yan, aome of whose protot3rpe8 have 
been recently discussed by oar cor- 
respondents. The sixth and aeventh 
chapters are devoted to the Pargatory 
of St. Patrick, which has given name 
to the work, and which has obtained 
that prominence " because it U the 
most remarkable of all the Purgatory 
legends, and the only one which haa 
remained in force to the present day." 
Lough Derg, or the Red Lake, is 
situated among the barren monntains 
of Donegal, not far from the county 
town, and contains the famons island 
which has for ages attracted its crowds 
of devotees. There still stand the 
chapels and toll-houses, and thither 
still repair the trains of pilgrims who 
would wash away at once, by a Tisit 
to those holy shores, the accumulated 
sins of their lives. Mr. Barrow has 
stated a revenue of 200<. or 300<. a vear 
is derived by the land- proprietor irom 
the trafiic, and that sometimes 900 or 
1000 pilgrims are in the island at once. 
The modern superstitious proceedings 
of the pilgrims have been well detailed 
by Carleton in his " Traits andJBtories 
of the Irish Peasantry.'* 

The eighth and last chapter, on the 
influence of these legends on the lite- 
rature of the sixteenth century, is not 
the least valuable and interesting of 
the whole. 



^.^•ndwy Rhymet. By Mary A. E. 
Jl^haniock.— The writer of this volume, 
^^ husband informs us in his preface, is 
^ ^^rt. The poems are not discrediUble 
to her fame, and, had she lived to correct 
^m, would have deserved a higher praise. 
We shall quote two of the souneU. 

TO THE WHABV. 

^ moorland river t beautifbl and wUd, 

* lovie to tee thy lljfht waves onward roll, 
^•petuoqi and impatient of control 
^■■pina untamed and fearless mountain child. 

Thou rushest swiftly past the haunts of men, 
as uncongenial to thee ; for thy choice 

la the lone meadow, or the rocky glen, 
Or ancient wood, where ringdoves* plaintive 
voice 

Akme is heard ; mirrored in thy clear flood 
Art mould*ring towers, relics of those whose 
name 

And ruthless deodn, in characters of blood 
Are written in the immortal page of Fame. 
But they, with all their pride and power, are 
ITOae, [on. 

wiuist thou, unchanged, stiUbUthely boundest 



TO THE cALnia. 
Such wild romantic beauty is not thine. 
Oh ! gentle Calder, river of the dales ; 
Yet art thou lovely when thy waters shine 

In the bright sunset ; when the snowy saila 
Of richly-freighted vessels, swanlike, glide 
Dovtn thy calm stream, to many a Imsy 
scene 
Of never-ceasing trsi&c ; thy swift tide 
Has long the source of wealth and plenty 
been. 
But, as the studies that enrich the mind 
Leave on the brow of man their withering 
trsce. 
So, to increase thy useftdness design'd, 

Art has despoiled thee of thy native grace;— 
Where thy free waves once flowed throngli 

woodlands green. 
The forge's glare, the factory's smoke are seen. 

Tales of the Town. By Henry Wal- 
ford Bellairs. Henry Howard — Ambrose 
Elton. — Of these tales, intended to cor- 
rect the laxity of opinion so prevalent on 
religious institutions and faith, and to in- 
culcate the doctrine, that to neglect or 



1644,'] 



Miscellaneous Reviews. 



59 



I 



I 



kzity id religions principles mty be traced 
the thoQgiitleHiiCM and error of a worldly 
life, ht^diag at ODoe to Ihe lost of prirate 
hoDOor and of public character— of tbffse 
tales ire tboold mj , that tbey are written 
la watk m minner, that the very Qfeful 
iaitnictioD they convey ia rendered 
doubly interetting by the lif dy and dre- 
m^tic form it aaiuznes in the reipective 



7%t Sjtirihui Creaiitrt, or S(mV$ Nrw 
Birth. A PoHn, By Mrt, M, Roberta. 
TJm poem is written in a truly philoao- 
phieil «ptrit» and with macb poetical feel* 
infiad power. **Itii an attempt,*' at 
theittthor AAyif ** to express spirituolideafl, 
ai drawn forth from material exiatence.'' 
It ia written with great oorrectnesa of Ian- 
gnafe andVeraification, andsubjecta remote 
from ordiaAry tnqniry and common aym- 
patky are treated at once with clearneft 
of FeasooiDf t sod elegance of illustration. 
7W eorretpoDdenee or relation between 
te cpiritoal lad physical creation, be^ 
tween the objects of fiense and the quali- 
ties of the miudt are promineotly brought 
forward, and therefore a careful peraiol 
of the anthor*s preiiminary observations, 
in which the principles and plan of the 
poem are nniblded, should on no account 
be omitted. 

7^ Latin Govemef#,/or MotAin and 
GmfmmnK B$ J. W* Freese, B,^,— 
Hoe jovng ladies may learn to coujugate 
' and decline "fidditaa.*' Here they 
Oiay gel by heSLTt the short and monitory 
loaons, '* lupus Torat agnum/' and 
paella tenet poculum i** or they may 
DOW that in certain cases of delicacy 
' 'ficulty , ' ' Epitiola ab ancUk dumlnffi 
** but, if they turn from the moral 
to the grammatical construction, 
dicy wiU find t£^s little monnEil to be very 
daarlf sad soeorately drawn up, and snch 
la spttt teae^ the elements of the language 
la the ordsv »i»d to the extent that is re^ 
(l^red. 

Tht Ckmrthm^m** Compam^m ; a Help 
h CkHslian Knowlnd^t. — ^A little work 
admirahle in its purpose, and ju- 
dicioma in its eicecation. In it are some 
bat pleasing sketches of females, 
t at emoe for their jnety and talent, 
m Mrs. U. More, Mrs. Carter, tkc. 



d MHricat VerHfm of tht Book of 
P m hM v Bf Francis Skorray, B.D,— 
This roliiiiie U dedicated to Mr. Words- 
worth i not only ** us n mi#tpr in the art of 
MeCry, Irat becau i^e has always 

oeen the handmai i i und virtue/* 

It ocmiiits of A vitis.x.1. vt the P»alme, 




followed by sacred misceUames* We are 
only able to give a single speoiment Psalm 
cxzii, p. 353. 

A SONG or DEOHEBS OF DATID, 

The words were mnsic io my heart, 
When friends were heard tosay. 

Come let us iuBtantly depart. 
To hear, and singi and pray. 

Unto God*B temple let us crowd ^ 

With neighbours all around* 
To hear men shout with voices loud, 

And instruments resound. 

Magnificence shall soon be spread 

To our admiring eyes* 
Then shall we pass the gates &nd tread 

The city of the skies. 

The tribes prolong their stay from home. 
The while the fea&t shall last, 

They pray for bleasings yet to come* 
Praise God for mercies past. 

And now the p&laces appear 

Where Jadab's kings abide ; 
And bftlls of justice too are near, 

Where magistrates preside. 

Let not thy prayer for Salem cease, 
When joy to thee would spring, 

Pray for the royal city's peace, 
And honour fur the King. 

For friends who of my love partake, 

I wish thee peace and food. 
And I will, for thy tempte's sake, 

Still seek to do thee good* 



Ctmtf a 5ff/iVe.— A severe satire. The 
author intends it to be on tlie Clergy ; 
for ** Cant** means ** Clerical Cant/' 

Cant m this age infects tlie very air, 

Caiit Alls our morning and our evening prayer« 

&C. 

And, speaking of ** Fancy,'" he says, 
Nor wonid she f^ar of theme to be bereft, 
^Tiilst Oxford* Cambridge, Exeter, is left j 
Najr, were the ailent, or made Mricter search 
For argament to prop a faiiitif^ Churcli, 
RapACity of reverend parents boruj 
That child of ostentation and af»cora« 
Revenge— the lijrlit of Persecution** brand. 
These bolr vnlturea shadowing the Uind 
With meaimeBSi whose lean figures all detesti 
Hare wrought men's hatred— l^sey does the 
rest. 



KtpQtithn (if the Church Caieehism. 
By ihe Rtv, Thomas Halloo, yrf.A/.— 
We have read this little work with much 
satisfsctioQ, for the able manner in which 
it is executed : in a abort compass it 
oontains much correct information. 



Fentalt ffyiUrt, &fc. M. A, Stodart. 
— W'e are informed in this work, (p. 11} 



GO 



Mi^ceilancoffS R^v'tcwh 



'[Jan. 



of a rather Btartliiig fact, '^ that there 
are at preseot more women tban men 
devoted to literature ia EogUtid ;" and 
yet» DotwitkstaDding the number, *'that 
never was there greater scope for th<: 
literary taleots of women than in Bnglartd 
in the present day/* Now considering 
that the ** weaker veflsel** is growing^ 
the stronger, and that Mr. Tennyson 
mtist, in his next edition, alter the ex- 
pression in hi* vcr»e» ^' Woman is the 
Jeascr roan/' — seeing this forthcoming 
change, we thinkit ad viftable at least for our 
male readers to peruse Chia little work, 
in which one of the literary amazona of 
the age has given her ** thoughts on the 
proper sphere of female writer*, and on 
their power of UBcfuln^si/' We think to 
chap. XL in which the xociai di&advotn- 
tages of literary women are pointed out, 
might be appended another containing 
the prieaie atid domestic ; among which 
wc beg to say, that we never yet saw a 
literary lady with clean fingers and naila, 
as if the very body of learuirag had turned 
to dust and ashes with them. The 
cecruleancolour of their stockings preventa 
any nice obserTatioo of aimilar defects 
in them. The author has a chapter on 
the literary women of ancient times, in 
which she baa failed to notice that, m 
Greece I literature^ and poetry» and the line 
artj, and the cultivation of the mind, 
were exclusively the profession of ladiea 
whose characters were rather eqtiiroeai^ 
and who, having more time on their hands 
than fell to the lot of the matrons and 
mothera, hecnme the companions of the 
poetA and prime mii^istera of the age ; 
while in our days, sueh is the change, 
we seldom hear that these ladies favour 
us with any of their productions ; or, if 
they do, that they attract much attemtion 
beyond their own level. Sappho and 
Corinna are still read with delight ; but 
what haa become of the fame of the H" 
lottrioua Mrs. AphraBehn, Mr^. PilkiDg^ 
ton, Mrs. Bellamy, and a host of others . 
whoae fairness aud whose frailty are alike 
proverbial. But their works are rotienneftt 
and have properly perished. A better 
generation has succeeded, and we gladly 
hail the names of Edgeworth^ and Aoada, 
and Joanna B«i]lie, and Miss Carter, as 
fwnofli whone ma»culioe undertsktugs 
01 iisorted with their female attire. But 
we must add our great surprise, tliat 
Ihe author has paased over in silence 
one name, not less worthy of praise and 
admiration than any mentioned'~we 
mean that of Mrs. Barbaald, whose 
elegant and interesting works we con- 
fidently rank among the English classtct. 



Church Arrhitetture. — A vwy useful and 
interest! og little work, containing ob- 
servations, and sketches, and illustratiooa 
of Church architecture, adapted to the 
rites of the English Church. So much 
has authority and the example of the 
ancient Church been lost sight of, that 
there i^ scarcely any innovation that may 
not now be ventured on ; and, as a striking 
instance ol this fact, it appears that the 
mother church of one uf the largest 
parishes in London, viz. that of St. Mkry- 
lebone, is built north and MQuth ; and, aa 
a consequence of this irregularity^ a 
difficulty arises as to how the dea4i are 
to be laid, or the grave^stones fixed, and 
it was only settled by the authority of tlie 
bishop, who directed that the interment 
and laying of the monumental slabs should 
take place croinvixe to the church* A» 
to heterodoxy in places of sepulture, the 
author refers to the interments in Kenaall 
Green CemeteryjtwwiliJi. Tliis little work 
may be referred to with great advantage* 
as an authority on the subject of church 
architecture and decoration. 

Ptimm 6tf Alej^ander J* B. Hope, M*P, 

^Sucb lines as 

"Augustus Caesar led the Italians to the Aght— ** 

a»d, 

" Shame, follows him an E^'ptian wife " 

won't do J nor will (p^ 80) 

'* And be felt it, tlie Mcde with Aowing hain** 

But there is better stuff in other parta ; 

and we quote the verses to the Rev. C* 

Whyteheadf with a copy of St. Augufitine*s 

Works. 

Bear firiend, who at stern duty^s call, exile 

To fame, prefieiredst well content to dwell 

Where round old Vectis' roek-«?ncirclcd isle, ' 

Witji endless boom, tumultuous billows swell. 

As once from out Itixurioaa Italy 

AuguatinCt at Ambrosius^ call, did ftee 

To distant Hippo, there with wstch and ward 

SteadfsstlyGod^s beleagui^red Church to guard. 

Receive his writing^s, then, that worthy art 

Of converse with an spof tolic heart, 

Ail ihrough thy life to these cold times appears 

The meeV deep piety of byi;?one yeari», 

And in tby youthful countenance we trace 

Faatiires all brij^ht of an old salutly face« 



Atfnet dt Tracy ; a TaU 0/ the Tiui*» 
of St, Thomat 0/ Canterluty. By the 
Rev, J. M. Wale.— Why the author 
should have named his book from a per* 
ton who is an inferior personage in hii 
history wc cannot say ; but the work 
really ts a clever and elegant history, formed 
in the framework of a tale of fiction, of 
the dispute of Becket with the Crown, and 
of bit dettb. 



J 84 40 



Mhcellaneotis Rtvicws, 



61 



— Few iubjects hiire of late years heen 
I #ore improTcd in the mode in which they 
' wve bcea treftted than that of arcbi- 
iectore. efpecially th&t ofoarowD country. 
This improvement ure owe both to the 
existence of iadiyiduals atid the forma- 
tion of architectural societies, to which 
the revival of religious feel i tig, and a 
nr?ereiioe for those who lived in older and 
better timet tlian otirs^ bus j^vcn a true 
direction. Thi^ enlarf^ed and unproved 
feelinf ftod tuate it practically developing 
itself, both in the erection of chorchea of 
t njiore orthodox construction, and in the 
ImproTcd decoration and arrangement of 
the old. This Httle book seems to us to 
be very correct, and will be useful to 
jotiJi^ rcaderSt as an introduction to a 
fuller knowledge of that subject ; and it 
will be particuUrly serviceable to those 
who live io SutseZi as it contains a very 
pvticcdJU' accoont of the architecture of 
tlie churches in that county. In her next 
editioD, on the subject of altar-cloths, 
(p. 121), the author roust not omit to 
mention the beautiful clolli worked by the 
_J*d7 of Young the poet, which now adorns 
_^ t tjible. and the still handsomer hangings 
Vbich on festivals are suspended round 
tKe ci:»i&mandments, in the church of 
Welwyn* The rarity of the gift, and the 
celebrity of the girer, dike demand a 
public and peculiar acknowledgment, in 
1 work of this kind, when the instructor 
in wt And our teacher in poctiy is a 
female. 



Ept Jei9p0/t« ; or, Ltttert of Bitkop 
Compfom^ with Memoir of the author. 
By S, N. Cornifih«— Bishop Compton was 
■ prelate of the Church, whose memory 
most always be held in honor, and his 
Hfto^ mentioned with reverence* He was 
A loimed and conscientious churchman, 
A aaft of enlightened mind, Arm in his 



prinuieA, imd mild and conciliatory in 
th€ dHMsbarfe of his sacred office. 



His 



hment to the Protestunt principles 
qI the Cbtircb to which he belonged, was 
•ttcfcly tried, and was always superior to 
the triaL When he was sospcnded fro en 
tbc ■piritatt functions of his bbhopric, 
be retired to Fatham, and amused his 
Jeifnre in the study of botany and horti- 
culture, and waa among the first persons 
in England who introduced exotic tree* 
into Ibis coantry, of which some fine 
Wj^tKimen% remain even now in the garden 
of the pAhtee* The present little publica- 
tion is very Acceptable, and for which we 
Ibank the editor. 



La Mattt Fouqni mul ofAfr**.— Some of 
these tales have not been translated he- 
fore ; others, like that of the '* shadow- 
less man,''^ are more generally known. 
There are three by Tieck, one by Cha- 
miaso, a^nd the remainder by Foucju^. 
They partake more or less of the fancy, 
wildness, and grotesque and strange 
imagery which distinguish the fiction of 
the German writers, miied with those 
occasional touches of tender and natural 
simplicity, that find their way at once to 
the heart, often leaving the path they have 
trodden wet with tears , 



SiUct Taiu from the Gftman of JDe 



The Britnh Church ^ and other Poems. 
By the Rev. D. J* Waugh, A.B, \9mo. 
pp, X. 136,— The principal poem in this 
little volnme, entitled *' The British 
Church," takes a view of that subject 
from its origin to the present time, con- 
cluding with an acknowledgment of our 
missionary obligations to the heathen. 
The author appears fully sensible of the 
difficulties of didnctic poetry ; nor is it 
surprising tl^at he should occasionally ex- 
emplify ihem, for, to say that he does not, 
woidd be greater praise than almost any 
one U entitled to who has encountered 
them. He has, nevertheless, many pleas* 
ing thoughts and lines ; and somepA8sa|fes, 
particularly that at page 24, on the cx- 
altAtion of England, as owing to religion, 
might fitly be chosen by teachers for their 
pupils to learn by heart. The rhythm 
might occosionaUy be revised with ad- 
van tAge, as, for instance, at page S^O, iu 
one of the smaller poems : 
Does He in sacrifice bo much rejoice. 
As in the soul that hearkens to his voice ? 
Where the former line wo«id read 
better as 

Does He so much in sacrifice rejoice ? 
unless our ear is unreasonably critical. 
The poem on the subject of ** Bring back 
the days of youth," is one of the most 
pleasing* But we would hint, that, in the 
sixteenth itanza, ttri and retmiin do not 
rhyme ; and in the fourth line there U a 
redundant syllable, in the particle fo, 
which the sense docs not require, as it 
follows the conjunction and. Yet an au- 
thor, we must say, in fairness, CAunot be 
wanting in poetical mind, who has found 
materiaU for poetry in Lord Strafford ; as 
at pugc 81, in the poem on Contentment; 

And how too generous Went worth bled. 
To save his master* s doomed head ; 

Alluding to that nobleman's urging 
Charles to pass the bill of attainder 
against himself. We are not aware 
whether the author appears before u« at 




MiiceUofiemtM Reviewt, 



rj«a* 



■Qcb for tbe flnt time, or not ; but at all 
cftntt, we may tay, Fe^tina lenti, or, ia 
plain EogUah, jf*rftfvfr« an<f r<7'i#e. 

The Statutet of the P^rth General 
Cihmeil of Laieran^ recopihed nnd «- 
Uhhthed by wubiffueni COuncilt and 
9yneda, down to the Qmncit qf TYtnt. 
By ike R€9. J. Erani, M.A. 8t^. pp^ 
mi. 90. — The third c«oon of thii oouocil 
hai long been aii object of coatrovcrvyp 
though the battle bai not tteen fought 
precipe] y upon that ground. By its de- 
cree* all perions conrictedof hereby were 
to be delivered far capital punishment to 
the temporal rulera, whoie backwardness 
in puniining tbem was to be cbnatised by 
the releaae of the VESsala from homage and 
fealty f and by bestowing their poBsessioua 
on others who would obey the injutictiou 
more readily. In order to evade the 
charge ol peraccution, drawn from thia 
canon, it has been arguedi that the acts of 
the council hare not the character of de- 
crees, but are merely constitutions of 
Pope Innocent III. and thia representa- 
tion has been too easily acquiesced in 
on the other side. Mr. Evans baa there- 
fore undertaken a new and imjiortaut line 
of research, to chow that their decretory 
character is recognised by a succeHiiou of 
Councils and Synods. The Council itself 
was held in 1915, and its acts are apeci- 
flcally referred to as '* Statata Concilii 
Latcranenaii IV/' by the Council of 
Aiksin 1334, indudtng the third or per- 
■ecvdng canon* They are quoted in even 
an earlier document , the eonstitutioni of 
Richard Poore, bishop of Sorum, in 12^, 
as is evident from the phroae, in LaieraUf 
Conciiio siatutum est. From that period 
to the Council of Trent there is a chain of 
similar authorities ; and even if there 
were not| the language of that assembly 
would thfmceforth aub&tantiate them, 
*' per Late-rnuense Concilium Ecclesia 
ttstait." (Sestio xir, cap. 5.) To this 
It may be added, that they are cited by the 
irnod of Lambeth, held In I5&(t, at 
which Cardinal Pole presided, as the pre- 
face distinctly maintains ** the decrees of 
the General Council celebrated under 
Imiooeiit II L*' It has been further ar- 
godd, that the third canon is wanting in 
the Mazarine MS. ; but the fact is. that 
tike leaf which contained a poKion of it is 
wmlfiiig, so that it is imperfect, the deii- 
eivoef haf log been occaaioned by mulila* 
tloft. Some writers bare regarded the 
cation as only directed against the Aibi- 
geoia ; hot, Uioiigh that persecuted com* 
mnnity may baTe been Intended, the Ian- 
goage is too general to be reftrieted to 
nam : *' Eiteommtmiamns et anathemm- 
tSstzDttiomnemhitrctiftiiu" TheabftFacI 




we have thus given wHl lerre to convince 
our readers of the rolue of the book, as 
illustrating and con&rming a most Im- 
portant point in ecclesiastic history. 



A History nfthe Churchy injlt^e Book$, 
frQm 322 fo 427. % Theodoretus, BUhop 
of Cyrtts, A new translation* Svo. pp* 
jtxiv. 360, — This volume belongs to the 
series of Greek Ecclesiastical historians 
of the first six centuries, which has been 
introduced to our readers in a notice of 
the History of Eusebiua,* A Life of 
Theodorct is prefixed, with an account 
of his writings, including a critical notice 
of thia very work, to which we refer aur 
readers t fof a view of the particular cha- 
racter of this history. It containa many 
important events omitted by other writer*, 
and also several epistolary document!. 
The celebrated exclamation of the emperor 
Julian, ** Galilean, thou hast conquered!*' 
rests on the early authority of this history 
(b. iii. c. 26). Its chief defect is tiic 
want of chronology, and occasional over- 
gightsj which require attention on the 
part of the student, though they do 
not aifect the value of the history ai a 
whole. For an extensive notice of the 
life and writings of Theodorct, the reader 
may consult the Succession of Eccle- 
siastical Literature, by the late Dr. Adam 
Clarke, and his son the Rev. J. B. B* 
Clarkct vol. ii* p. 154—195^ where his 
history ia praised as abounding in original 
documents* 



I 

4 



The Gntmbierf a novel. By Miss Ellen 
PickeriDg, auMor o/*' The Fright,** ** The 
Expectant " 6(c. 3 tots. — Whilst we are 
writing this notice, we perceive the decease 
of the talented authoress announced in 
the papers. The rleath of this lady will 
be felt as a loss by all lovers of works of 
fiction. Miss Pickering has for some 
years held a high place amongst writers in 
this chus of literature. She was particu- 
larly successful in sustaining the interest 
of her Tarious tales up to the very termi- 
nation of the story, and also In her delinea- 
tions of character, some of which are 
drawn with no slight degree of force and 
spirit, and are, moreover, in very good 
keeping. The present work Is one of the 
best of her productions, and possesses both 
the characteristics to which we have al- 
luded in a marked degree. The ♦* Grum- 
bler ' ' is true to himself and his title 
throughout. Blanche St. Aubjn, the 
heroine, as a beautiful union of the play- 
fulness of childhood and the strong sense 

• Gent. Mag. February, 1843, p. ITS. 
t Now Incumbent of Bagborough, 



[1844.] 



Literary and Scientific Intelligence. 



63 



fniB^turer age, U • chArming dellneatioa, 
must^ we are inclmed to tbiok, in 
Bom« of iu lending features ^ hare befio 
traced from a liTing example. 

SfUei Pi€ee§ from th§ Poiim Q^Wtt- 

liam Wordsworth. Square ISmo.— ThJi 
ii a beantiful yoltiine* Each pag« U mr- 
rounded bj a highly ornamental woodcut 
border of varied pattern, and in additioOf 
at the head of each poem, is introduced an 
tngraring on wood, the anbject of which 
is taken from the piece to which it i« pre- 
fixed i many of these are deaigued with 
great taste, and the earecution b equally 
good. The editor also has displayed great 
judgment in his aelectiou of the poems, 
which are all choaen from those writings 
of the great poet of the Lakes which possess 
a more popular character, and the meaU' 
iDg and spirit of which it more intelligi- 
ble by the ordinary reader. We cannot 
conclude our notice of this Tolume with- 
out ezpressing our gratification at the ap. 
appearance of what promises, in a form ao 
worthy of the diitinguished authofi to 
make his admirable productions more 
enerally known. 

L€tttrit fa my Children on the preemi 

Dangers of the Church qf Christ. Fcp, 
8*0. pp* 828. — A short prefatory adver- 
tiaement mentions that theae letters were 
really written, as the title intimates, for 
the benefit of the author's children. 
They are intended, he sayi, to help the 
reader to distinguish ** between true and 
false doctrine— between a gospel which 
taket lh»m Christ to give to man, and that 
pare and besTen-taugbt Gospel which 
sets Him before us as the only Mediator 
between God and man — ^the only sacrifice 
for sin — the only way to the Father, and 
the Lord our righteonniess/' The writings 
of fiCTeml of the bishops of the church 
are quoted, and the sermons of Dr. 
O'Brien, the present Bishop of Ossory, 
are referred to throughout. A list of 
books on the anti-tractarian side of the 
question is subjoined. 



Pertr^itt qf Martpre, Rrformert^ and 
Sminent Dhinee, Not. I, 2, and 3. 
4lo.*--These portraits were originally ea- 
graTcd for the Ckrittian Ouarditmt a 
religious periodical containing many bio- 



graphical memoirs. They are now re- 
published, as *^ illuitrattTe of Fox^s Book 
of Martyrs, Milner's, Moshcim's, Fuller's, 
and other Church Histories.'* The siae 
in which they were engraved is octavo i 
but they are taken off in quarto, to suit 
editions of various sizes. The first num- 
ber contains the portraits of Wicliffe, 
John Buss, Jerome of Prague, and 
Zuingljua; the second, (Ecolampadiuip 
Luther, Bugenhagen, and Vadianus ; the 
third, MelaDcthon, TyDdal, BuMinger, and 
Bucer, If the design meets with en- 
couragement, it will be carried on to 
eight or ten numbers. Mr. Soames's new 
translation of Moaheim, the new edition 
of filler, the republication of Fox (which 
is now proceeding), the volumes of the 
Parker Society, and the recent History of 
the Reformation by M. D'Aubign^, con* 
cur fortunately with the issue of this 
series of illustrative engravings. 



Letter to the Right Hon, Lord Aghley^ 
M.P*on the pretent Defective State of 
National Bducalhn^ and the Neceetity qf 
Government Interference. By the Ren, 
Thomas f^ige* Ai*A> Incumbent of Chriet 
Chureht Virginia Water, Egham* Pap* 
800. pp. 171. — Since this volume ap* 
peared, the queition of Government in- 
terference boa (for the present at least) 
been abruptly disposed of, as the well* 
meant intentions of Her Majesty's minJf 
tert have been thwarted by sectarian 
opposition. Still we would hope that the 
cause of National Education may gain by 
the delay, and that this opposition, having 
obtained its own purpose, may experience 
the wholesome effects of reflection and 
reaction,. In the mean time, a careful 
perusal of this little volume will do much 
towards a right understanding of the sub- 
ject. While it shows the advantages of 
national education, it does not conceal 
the defects of the present state of religions 
instruction, and In that respect is well 
worth reading by every person who hai 
the superintendence of a weekly or Sunday 
school* The facts and extracts from in- 
spectors' reports, &c. which are scattered 
tnroughout the volume, Increaae its usei 
particularly as few have the means of ob- 
taining or condensing such a body of In* 
formation on the topic of which it treati. 



LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 



NSW PtTBUCATtOMt. 



^^V Hittorg tmd Biography, 

^^V Greece under the Romans : a Histori- 

r cal View of the Condition of the Greek 



Nation, from the time of its Conquest by 
the Romans until the Extinction of the 
Roman Empire in the East, a.c. 146 — 
JL.D. 717. By Gionos f inlat, K.R.Q. 

8vo. 16f. 



64 



New PMkatumi. 



[Am. 



Retearcbes into the Ecclesiastical and 
Political State of Ancient Britain under 
the Roman Emperors ; with Obserrations 
upon the principal ETcnts and Characters 
connected with the Christian Religion 
during the first five centuries. By the 
late RcT. FaANcis Thackeray, A.M. 
3 Tols. 8to. SU. 

History of the Church of Scotland, 
from the Reformation to the present 
Time. By Thomas Stxphxn, Medical 
Librarian, King*s College, London. 3 
Tols. Vol. 1. 8to. I3t. 

St. Patrick*s Purgatory : an Essay on 
the Legends of Purgatory, Hell, and 
Paradise, current during the Middle Ages. 
By Thomas W&ight, esq. M.A. F.S.A. 
&c. Post 8yo. 6f . 

The Life, Voya^, and Exploits of 
Admiral Sir Francis Drake, Knt. : with 
numerous Original Letters from him and 
the Lord High Admiral to the Queen and 
Great Officers of State. Compiled from 
MSS. in the SUte Paper Office, British 
Museum, and the Archives of Madrid, 
never before published. By John Bar- 
row, esq. Bvo. 14s. 

Brief Memoir of Sir Clement Wearg, 
Knt. some time Solicitor-General to his 
Majesty King George the First, and M.P. 
for Helston. By George Duke, esq. 
of Gray*8 Inn. 13mo. 3«. 

Memoirs of Admiral the Right Hon. 
the Earl of St. Vincent, G.C.B. &c. By 
Jedediah Stephens Tucker, esq. 
2 vols. 8vo. 30t. 

George Selwyn and his Contemporaries : 
with Memoirs and Notes. By John 
Hbneaoe Jesse. Vols. 3 and 4, 8vo. 
28«. 

Correspondence between Bums and 
Clarinda, with a Memoir of Mrs. M^Le- 
hose (Clarinda), arranged and edited by 
her Grandson, W. C. M'Lehosb. 8vo. 
8«. 6<f. 

Memoirs of Robert William Elliston, 
Comedian, 1774 to 1810. By George 
Raymond, esq. With Portrait and lU 
lustrations by George Cruxkshank, 
8vo. 15«. 

Memoirs of Joseph Shepherd Munden, 
Comedian. By his Son. Crown 8vo. 
lOf. M. 

PolitUi and Staiitiict, 

Political Philosophy. By Henry Lord 
Brougham. Part 3 — of Democracy; 
Mixed Monarchv ; 8vo. 5«. 

The Law, or the League — Which ? A 
Letter to Robert Palmer, Esq. M.P. By 
Albert Williams, esq. 8vo. It. 

Letter to Nassau William Senior, Esq. 
in reply to the article '* Free Trade and 
Retaliation," in the Edinburgh Review, 
8 



No. 157. By R. TommiKSi esq. F.R.S. 

8vo. 2». 

Theory of a New System of Increns- 
ing and Limiting Issues of Money. 
l2mo. 2f. 

Remarks on the Present State of the 
Coal Trade : with a retrospective Glance 
at its History ; addressed to tiie Maraiiis 
of Londonderry, K.C.B. By Anti-Mo- 
nopolist. 8vo. U. 6<f. 

Visit to the Wild West; or, a Sketch 
of the Emerald Isle, Picturetqne and 
Political, during the past Autunm. By 
AN English Traveller. Bvo. la. 

Local Parliaments the Coiistitntioiial 
Remedy for Local Grievances. 8vo. la. 

Hints on Sea-risks ; containing some 
Practical Suggestions for diminishing 
Maritime Losses both of Life and Pro- 
perty. Addressed to Merchants, Ship- 
owners, and Mariners. By Lieut. Ed- 
ward Jennings, R.N. 8vo. fit. 

Observations on the Practicability and 
Utility of opening a Communication be- 
tween the Red Sea and the Mediterranean 
by a Ship Canal through the Isthmns 
of Suez. By Arthur Anderson. 8vo.2ff. 

Inquiry into the Means of establishing 
a Ship Navigation between the Mediter- 
ranean and the Red Sea. By Jambs 
Vetch, Capt. R.E. F.R.S. 8vo. 2». 

The Ameers of Scinde : Letter to the 
Hon. the Court of Directors of the East 
India Company from the Right Hon. Sir 
Harpord JoNsa BRYD0E8,Bart D.C.L. 
8vo. It. 

Letters from Settlers and Labouring 
Emigrants in the New Zealand Com- 
pany's Settlements ofWellington, Nc^on, 
and New Plymouth, from Feb. 184S to 
Jan. 7, 1843. 12mo. It. 

The Mothers of Eng^nd, their In- 
fluence and Responsibility. By the Au- 
thor of *'The Women of England." 
Cr. 8vo. lOt. 

The Married State ; its Obligations and 
Duties ; with Hints on the Education of 
a Family. By John Foster, D.D. 
18mo. 2t. 6<f. 

Prize Essay on the Evils which are 
produced by Late Hours of Business, and 
on the Benefits which would attend their 
abridgement. By Thomas Davies. 
With a Preface by the Hon. and Rev. 
Baptist W. Noel, A.M. 8vo. 6<f. 

Trateh and Topography, 

Italy, Classical, Historical, and Pictur* 
esque, illustrated and described. By 
Wm. Brockedon, esq. F.R.S. Imp. 
4to. 60 plates and letter-press, 5/. lOt, 
Proofs, mor. 8/. 18t. 6<f. 

Pictorial Tour in the Mediterranean, 
including Malta, Dalmatia, Turkey, Asia 



18440 



New PubUcatwns, 



65 



Minor, Grecian Archinelngo, Egypt, Na- 
hUt Greece, lonisn Islands, Sicily, ll^J^ 
9nain. Bj John H. Allax, Imp. 4to, 
Sf. S#. 

Travels in tbe Interior of North Ame- 
rica. ByMAXtiftLiAN Pnnt-e of Wbid. 
With Diuserons engravingi9 on wood and 
a larire map. Tranislated from the Ger- 
man b J H* Evans Lloyd ; to accompany 
the original seriei of 81 eluborately- 
coloured plates, iixe impeiiat folio. Im- 
I>ertal 4 to. HL I St. Si, The work com- 
plete, 33/. 

Soenea and Scenery in tbe Sandwich 
Ijlandf t and a Trip through Central Ame 
rial ; being Observations from my Note - 
Book daring the yean 1837 to 1842. 
By J Allans J. Jarnbs, Author of ** Uii- 
tory of the Sandwich lalanda." l?mo. 

?^. erf. 

Iapre«fiona, Thoughta, and Sketches 
dmifig two years in France and Switzer- 
Uod. By Martba Macdoptaud La- 

MONT. 6t, 

Wanderings of a Jonrneym&n Tailor 
throttf h Europe and the East during the 
^earjt l«:?-l la 1840. By P. D. HolthaitSi 
rtieyman Tailor, from Werdohl, in 
•t phalia^ By W i l li a » H o w itt , 6«. 
foyafti ronnd the World, from the 
Death of Captain Cook to the Present 
Time. 5t. (Edinburgh Cabinet Library, 
VoU 54.) 

The Sandwich Islands : Progress of 
Evcnta since the DUcovery by Captain 
Cook ; their Occuption by Lord George 
Fratet ; their Valne and Importance. 
By kiMXAtTDMB. Simmon, esq. late 
mAkm there as her Maje8ty*a Conml. 

Twtire Months in Wellington, Port 
?ndioUon, Of Notes for the Public and 
the New Zealand Company. By Lieut. 
J OB w Wood. KK. Anthorof ''Travels 
to tlw Oxua.** l^mo, U. fid. 

Ptfii and ita People. By the Author 
of •• The Ofeat Metropolia/' fl^c. S vola. 
erowB »vo, *li. 

The History of the Town of Gravesend, 
ifl the county of Kent, and of the Port of 
London. By Robeat P. CltUDE>f* Roy. 

Glimpses of Nature and Objects of 
intereatt described during a Visit to the 
lale of Wight ^ designed to assist and en. 
cottra^ Younf Persons in forming habits 
«if ohterratJon. By Mrs. LoirnoN, Au- 
thor of *• Botmy for LAdies,** &c. IGmo. 
lU. Crf, 

Trekod, Dublin, the Shannon, C^rk 
ifi4 the ICIlkenoy Raees, the Round 
Towera, the Lakes of Killamey, the 
CoQDtj of Wick low, O'Connell and the 
Repeal Anodadon, Belfast, and the 

G»WT. aMao. Vol. XXL 




Giant's Cauieway. By 3. O. KoHt 

8 TO. 5«. 

Z)*Vini/y. 

The Pars} Religion, as contained in th#^ 
Zand-Avast^t, and propounded and de-J 
fended by the Zoroastrians of India and! 
Persia, unfolded, refuted, and contrasted j 
with Christianity, By John Wil«ok» 
D.D. M:R.A.S. 8vo. 1G#. 

The Protestant Reformation in alt ; 
Countries ; including Sketches of tbo i 
State and Prospects of the Reformed 1 
Cliurches. By the Rer. John Moai^ONp ] 
D.D, 8vo. 12*. 

Discourses for the Festivals of tho ' 
Church of England ; with Notes. Bf ! 
the RcT. J. B. MARiroEN, M.A. Recto^ 
of Tooting, Surrey, «to, 1^. 

Sermons bearing on Subjects of tho 
Day. By John Henry Newman, B*D. 
Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. «vo. 12*# 

The Gospel according to St. Matthew 
and part of the first chapter of St. Mark, 
translated from the Greek, with original 
notes. By Sir John Chkkb, Knt, Svo. 
Is, 6rf. \ 

The Voice of tho Glorious Reformation ; 
or, an Apology for ETaugellcal Doctrinefl 
in the Anglican Church. By the Rer. ^ 
CBAitLBfl PopHAM Miles, B.A. iSmo- 

Aaron^s Rod Blossoming ; or, the Di- 
vine Ordinance of Church Government 
vindicated ; so as the present Erastiatt 
Controversy concerning the Distinction 
of Civil and Ecclesiastical Government, 
&e. By G. GiLtESPja. Svo. 6*. 

Sermons preached in the Church of i 
St. Matthew, Brixton. By the Rev, j 
William HillTijciceb,M.A. Fellow of 
King's College, Cambrid^, and Late 
Curate of St. Matthew's. Vol. 2, 6*. 

The Faith once delivered to the Sainti 
considered in its Distinctive Principles 
and Sure Resntts, in Six Discourses. By 
the Rev. Joseph Riooewat, M.A, 
Rector of High Roding, Essex. 

What is Christianity .> By Thomas 
VowLEK Short, Biahop of Sodor and 
Man. 2#. bU 

Primary Charge of the Right Rev. 
RoBKftT Daly, D.D. Lord Bishop of 
Cashcl Waterford, and Liamore. De- 
livered to the throe dioceses in July 1843. 
dvo. 2rf. 

Charge to the Clergy of the Diocese of 
Bangor, delivered in the month of Sep- 
tember, III43. By CttRifrTOPBSR, Lord 
Bisbop of Bangor Hvo. la, 6rf. 

Serious DJssuasives from Popery. By 
Archbishop TiLLOTSON, and Bishofa 
Hall and Jeremy Taylor. With 
Introductory Esaay by the Rer. Edwaro 
Nanglk, B.A, of Achill. l«mo. 3*. 



Niw Pid>Hcationi. 



[Jut. 



Some Renuirks on the Sermon of the 
Rer. Dr. Piuey, lately preached and pub- 
lished at Oxford, in a Letter addressed to 
that Gentleman. By Samuel Lee, D.D. 
Regius Professor of Hebrew in the Uui- 
versity of Cambridge. Hvo. 3«. 

The Tendency of '* Church Principles '* 
fto called to Romanism, proved and illus- 
trated from the recent Pamphlet of the 
Rer. Wm. Palmer, and from Dr. Hook's 
« Church Dictionary.** By the Rev. F. 
Close, Incombent of Cheltenham. Hvo. 
OVf. 

Dr. Pusey and the Fathers ; or, a Com- 
parison of the Doctrine in the Sermon of 
the Former with Writers on the First Five 
Centuries. By the Rev. T. W. Mkllbr, 
M.A. of Trinity College. 8to. It. 6tf. 

The Great Change, a Treatise on Con- 
▼ersions. By George Bedford, D.D. 
LL.D. ISmo. It. 

Israel's Ordinances ; a few thoughts 
on their Perpetuity, respectfully suggested 
in a Letter to the Right Rer. the Bishop 
of Jerusalem. By Charlotte Eliza- 
beth. 8vo. It. 

Companion to Family Prayer, compris- 
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Br the Hon. and Rev. Samuel Best, 
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esQ. 18mo. 2t. 

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Pottry. 

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True Stories from the History of the 
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18440 



New Publications, 



67 



I 



I 



Tale« of the Great ami Brave. By M. 
FiiASKa TxTtKn.. Second S«He«. 5<r. 

Tales for Boys. By Ma«y Etuorr. 
lemo. St. 

Stories of Greek Buitory, in a series of 
Tales related to bis Son. By B, G. 
NiBBUHR. TransUted from the German. 
8to. 3#. 

Heroic Tales of Ancient Greece, related 
by Berthold Nicbxihr to his little Son 
Marcus. Translated from the German. 
Edited, with Notes and References to 
Ancient Sculptures and Pictures in the 
Britiah Museum, &c. By Fblix Sum- 
is balt. 4m, Sd, 

Aslaoga and her Knight, an AUeg^oryt 
from the German of the Baron de la 
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IJlerature and Itan^age, 

Greek Prosody; containing Etiles for 
the Structure of lamb^Ct Trochaic, Ana- 
peestic, and Dactylic Verse : with Two 
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Homer, and the use of the Digamma in 
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btc, Trochiaci and AoapKstic Verse. By 
GaoEoB Dunbar, A.M., F.R.S.E. %io. 

The Enkheiridion of Hthfabticon con* 
cemiog Metres and Poems, tmnslsted into 
English, and illustrated by Notea, and 
A Rhythmical Notation, with Prolegomena 
on Rhythm and Accent. By Thomas 
Efi Babiiau, M.B, formerly of 
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Poetical Works of John .Sketton : with 
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A CotlMtkm of the Romances, NoveU, 
isd Hiitorifii used by Shakei* 



_ f»eflM, isd 



peare as the Foundation of his Dromasf 
now first collected and accurately re* 
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The Mabinogion, Part .5, containing 
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The Nursery Rhymes of England, col- 
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Life in the Sick Room ; Essays by aft 
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Lmr, 

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Digest and Index, with Chronological 
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Manual of Medical Jurisprudence. By 
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Geoeral Highways Act, 5 and (> WilL 
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Mtditine, 

Caloric : its Mecbonical, Chemical, and 
Vital Agencies in the PheoiOmcin of N«|^ 



68 



New PutUeaiumi. 



[Jan. 



ture. By Samuil L. Mbtcalvv, M.D. 
of TranaylTtnia Univenity. S toU. 8vo. 

35#. . .u u 

On SupentltioDi oonnected with the 
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The Cold Water Cure, as practised by 
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Observations on the Proximate Cause 
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Hinte on the Health and Disease of the 
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Seiemee ouf ArU. 

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HTegi 



18440 



LUerary and Scientific Intelli^enct, 



OM EngUndt a Pictorial Miuemni of 
ftl, EccleaiAstioftl, SifoniAl, and Po- 
pultr AntiqtiJtiet. Bj CKARLtti Kniost. 
Part L folio. U« tiif. 

Part Singing } or» HarmoDy for Cboral 
SocieticB and llome Circlei — Baie and 
Pianoforte ScorCi pp. 104, 8vo. h§. 6rf, ; 
Sopjaiio, pp. 100, A»,\ AUO| pp* 54, 
3f . ; Tenor, pp. 58^ 3#. 

School Muaic, or Soogi and Hymns 
from t.be Siofing Maater ; comprising 
Se?eDtj*fijc Moroi Songs for Children 
arrfjifod to Popular Airsi and Seventy 
Pfialma and Hymna with their appropriate 
TiLoe«* Hvo. 5#, 6«f. 

Victoria Annual, 1844: 18 emblenm- 
tlcal design 6 printed in colouri and gold, 
drawn ia the Misaal styU. Royal 4to. 
2/, 2*, 

The Priim of Imagination for 1844. By 
the BAR0NRf4!i i>i: Calabarlla. Bvo. 

!21ir. 



UNivaaaiTY or cAimaiDOM* 

The following subjects have been iaiueU 
for the priies of l«44 t 

Chancellor' I gold medal, for English 
verie.^'* The Tower of London*'* 

The Marovicsa Camden'a gold medal, 
for Latl^ bexameter verse, — *' Arobi- 
medaa/^ 

The Members' priiea for Latin ProM 
Composition : 

1, For the Bachelors,—" Quomodo in 
ledibua aacna omamenta artesque '<1 ^-^ 
chitecturam pertinentev Terie reitgioni 
urosunt." 

2, For the Undergradiiatci,— *' Qaoc- 
nam beoeficia a kgibua pmseriptia dili- 
geiiter obtervatis Academis Alumni per- 
ctpiant.** 

Sir WiUiam Browne's gold medab ; 

1. For the Greek Ode,— '• Victoria Be- 
gin a Academiam suam Cantabrigienseoi 
inviiit.** 

2. For the Latin Ode,—** N«Uoai Mo- 
nnmeotnmJ* 

3. For tlie Greek Epigram, — ** Non 
fumum ex fulgore," 

4. For the Latin Epigram,—** locidit 
in Seyllam cupiens vitare Charybdim." 

The Por«on Priie, for Irunelation into 
Oreck veric, U Shakiperc, second part of 
Henry IV. Act IV. Scene 4, begiuning 
** Tby with was father,*' and ending 
*^ unto the worms." 

DUBLIN UNIVERSITY. 

The Regius Profesaor of Divinity bus 
awarded bis Arst premium to Ds. W* 
M*CaU \ secoad premium to Di* U. JcUet. 



Archbiahop King's Divinity Leoturar 
haa awarded his ftrit premium to H« F« 
HaB ', second premium to A. HulloweU. 

The ElringtoB Tbcdogioal Priae wa< 
obUined by Ds. H. Jelbt. 

The subject of the Elrington Theologi- 
cal prize for the nejtt year (U44), is, 
•" Whether any exercise of private judg- 
ment remain with the individual after he 
has determined the question — * Whi^h ii 
the true Church?' '* 

The Irish Scholarships, founded in the 
University by the Governors of the Col- 
lege of St, Columbia, were obtained by 
T, W. Skelton and E. Maguire. 

ROYAL SiOClETV. 

JVev. 30. At the Anniversary Meeting, 
the following noblemen and gentlemen 
were elected the CouocLl of the Society j — 

PaaaiOBNT—Tlie Marguis of Northampton. 
TRaASUHas^fiir J. W. Lobboelt, fiart. M.A. 
SKCRKTAaiBs— P. M. Rflget, M.D ; S. H. 
Chrintie, «ttj. M,A. FoaaioN iiKoaaTASY— 
i, P. Uaniell, et*]. C>THaa MaMBsas or this 
CotJUCiL— M. BAJff^', M.D. ; W* Movmutri, esq,; 
Sir T, M, »irkk9m0, KM.B.tH, J. Brooke, 
esq. ', It Brawn, esq. O.CX. ; IF. F. Ckamkert, 
ATD., KCM,: O.Dullimi, ««f, / T, Graham, 
««tf. M.A. / J. T. Grav«a. esq. M,A. \ R. Lee, 
M;D. ; W, H. Miller, eaq. M.A. ; «. / Murchi- 

Captain J. C, Rou^ 



[Tne f^entlatnen wbos« names aro printed in 
ItRHea, ware not Membeni of the Uut CoujiciU) 



THE WRSTMTNfiTBR PLAY. 

The Phormio of Terence was acted on 
the even in ga of Thnraday the Hth, Mon- 
day the iSth, and Tburtday the 2Ut of 
Dectfmber, by the ^aeen's scholars at 
Westminster. This play appears to be 
most frequently chosen by these youthful 
comedians on account of the comparative 
facility with which it is represented, and 
the variety of characters which almost 
equally share in the interest of the drama 
and the applause of the spactators. Its 
plot, however, doea not possess the in- 
terest which is to be found in those of the 
Adelphi and Eunuohus. The oharaetcra 
were well sustajned throughout) Messrs* 
Smyth and .... « * performed tbeir parts 
Bke experienoed actors. Phoedria and 
Pbormio were perfectly natural i and the 
female characters happy and spirited. 
The prologue and epilogue, as the reader 
will probably decide for himself, are both 
excellent in their kind, and were delivered 
in a manner worthy of their classic taste 
«nd humour. 

PROLOGUE IK PHORMIONEM, 1JM9. 

Lib«rttiH Aferim! n1 

Fnvoris ultrw se f ;>' ■ <*• 

StJiL'rat patronos «* ^ ' moa 

Ut priua, adesae, uckLuiue ctai jodicee. 
Uljertna iUe e»l, qui. jscente imtril, 
Adatudta norat applicare libera 




70 



LUerary and Scientific Intelligettce. 



IJ» 



Meutem, MenAmlri rultor, Afer fiibuUju 
CJnecam Latiuin inducus seriuonibos. 
Kulioi triumphos voluit, et nullus velit 
A Ms luibere dr subartii AnflU. 
Notf tdt Indifl ultimitaae Seribus, 
Quid arma potmint nontra, (^nidjastas dolor, 
HpreUnque Adci merita poMit uftio. 
HuflTecIt Ania virta ; non Uritannicis 
Vaataturarmis Libya: nonii^juriaa 
Quenintur hontcs barbari. Servilia 
Rumpunt llritanni rincla, vitamqae excolit 
Afer per artes lilieralea. Fabulis 
Fkviatis uauue nostriii ; nanc fkvebitis 
Appi»Uodori fkbulie fiaperstiti. 
Perfldia foraan, atque platquam Ponica 
INniHit putarl, judices, Terentium 
Uamnare, tenernmque histrionem explodere. 

KPILOOUS IN PIIORMIONRM. 1843. 

QBTA. UIMIPHO. 

Enter Geta in bin Greek dreM,— 

Quern video ? iii fallor, berum : proh Jupiter ! 
at quam 
MutatUA cultu I quv nova vestis ea est ? 

Knter Demipbo iu court suit. Geta continues— 

(> bere, quo tanto cursu 7 Dem. Non est 
mihi tempus : 
IVrceptis aveo ponere n\ffji%. novis. 
Qualia et llippocratem vincant, et Jephson, 
et ilium, 
(^ui, ni vana ferant, ipsa llrgiea Ik vet. 
G. Nenipv novam narras Meaicam. 8ed die 
inibi, quvso. 
Quid te (let 7 1). Bro, mi Geta, Hoxat- 

rATIIKS. 

G. Quidiiam illud monstri? D. A patiendo 
dictus ; et est, qui 
Kffectufl similes ipse dat et patitur. 
G. Kufre! At vixdum intelli^. Rem nam 
mibi, amalw, 
FusiuN. D. Id Faciam: et, quo doceare 
mai^is, 
Kxemplis utar. Cedo. si Jam occnrreret vf^^r, 
Tetiue rofraret opem, quid facerea? G. 
Facerem 7 
Sorbenda est dosiii atra: vomendum est; 
vena secanda } 
Mox pllula 1 et cert is potio temporibas. 
D. Sic Asclepiades pueros medicabat Acbivos ; 
Aut plebem igrreiitem rustica curat anus. 
Non iU nos : dedlt, ecce ! novam nunc liab- 
neman artcm, 
Dux iUe et prlnceps omnium Homce- 
opathAm. 
"PhiUyrides Chiron Amathaoniusque Me- 
lampus,** 
Cedite nunc omnes. Ipse marister erit. 
G. Verum ag^, si sit fas, indirnom quamlibet, 
artis 
He quoque fkc socium. D. Fiet, uti 
rogitas. 
Accipe. Principio, simiU uno in corpore 
morbos 
Natura hand unquam sustinet esse duos. 
**Curatur similis simili:*' penitusque ne- 
cctise est, 
Accedentc novo, det prior iate locum. 
Sic flt ut id, morbum quod in cgro corpore 



In sano contra fflf^nat ei simiiem ; 
Atqne omnis morbi medicinasit indepetenda, 
unde venit similis fons ct origo mali. 
G. Hoc teneo : populus nam, ** fur nirem capit," 
inquit : 
Morbus item a morbo captus, opinor,abit. 
D. Turn nova tractandi ratio hKc. Non stran- 
gulat atro 
Pulvere. nee potn macerat assiduo. 
Non Jam '< quoque die sumendus ter quater 
haustus :" 
Hkc ego vel " canibus projicienda " dabo. 



*Xi«BU Apollo*' 



**QaBBtala annt 
Tuitnla tlant 
Pharmaca. 8ic nobb 
canit. 
Ah ! miseris viz inttillanda est «i 

Sen sit mni milleaima pnrticaL. 
Qoanto cienim minor e^ taato sal 



Pondera, mole mit materia lp«wii 
G. At si quo minor eat, hoc fiofftior eaw Tideiar, 
(Aride)- 

Id fortissimnm erit deniqae, Uba« mOiL 
(To DemipkoJ— 
Verum aliis alia arrident. Bat oniit, at atent, 

Omnia qni pars tantnm ope auui aqos. 
Hanc potant ; banc InAudwit ; Uc imam' 
rantnr, 
Ommbus et semper frifida Irmphi plifit 
Jamqoe metn trepidi piaoei iMUv ftrvatw, 
Ne slocata sibi flamina defldant. 
D. Lp^phmt4e hoc mentia signun : ** ct maai- 
feita phrenesis." 
iir« ttvA»r 



Ah! 



"U.U 



Certa mea est medkina. G. O an dMaa 
salutis I 
Quam cuperem morbi i 
pati. 
I). Quin animo Jnbeo eiae bono? 
omnia que vis, 
Et possunt fieri, et, sis modotetoa, cnut. 
[Demipho takes flrom his pocket a^aae of 



homcpopNsthic medicines, and ctvea Octa aa 
infinitesimal doae of each tBlmiica» as fU- 
loirs :— ] 
Kn tibi, dant pfathiain A«ir, cholenm kmct 
" tardam iiim podagiam ;" 
Arsenicum kinc, si vis, mdeaconita habeas ; 
'* Suaves res " omnes, moltom et, aaihicnde 
<*salnbres:" 
litre fkuces angent ; dentibos farfs dolor. 
Hoc si qnisdegustethabebit ftigonLMwim: 
Sanat id insanos, et fhclt, H^eboraa. 
G. I>esine in hoc, vir magne, preoor, aaaiqvo 
bellebori, ainnt, 
" Danda est pars multo maxima" Hobobo- 
pathis. 
D. H»c sunt cuncta tibi conMdenda, Mbcadi | 
quod inde 
Consequitnr scribas ordine qoidqM boo: 



Quo stomachus tumeat motn : aa 
tentet. 

Quid latus, aut renes, cor, aqnit, ant ocvtos. 
Nam quo te sannm crucient plus phanaaea 
nostra. 
Hoc plus inde Kgri commoda pereipteiit. 

[Geta turns the medicines over io his haad, 
in dismay.] 
G. (Atide)-- 
liei mihi I quid fkciam 7 Nunc hand dabie 
pereundum est, 
Ni mihi subveniat protinns ipsa Salos. 
(To Demipho)^ 

At nosti quid agis? Nova dnm pnecepU 
medendi 
Pangis, ab antiqua et pergis abire vllu 
Prcslia quanU moves ! Gelaos vetat, atqoe 
Galenus : 
Non sinit Hippocrates jdamnatAristotelos. 
In te consuiTunt omnes, artemqne minantnri 
Chimrgi *' armamovent :*' cuncta Apotfaeca 
fremit. 
Ecce etiam Procerum magnns conventus ab 
Aul& 
Intonat, atque Gradum denegat et Titaloo. 
Agmina coi\jurant Medicomm, ut bdla ca- 
pessant 
Inque omnes cgros, atque in Homoso- 
pathas. 
D. Vah f nihil her terrent : etenem compicssa 
quiescent 



18440 



LUeratxf and Scwhtific Intelligence. 



» 



I 



Qojr ntrras *' j&ctu pulverls rxigtiiJ' 
Inridia inscqtiJtur Yirtutcm, at semper, et 
otiit. 
Qtum te forti abimo^ mi Gets, f«rre decet« 
^pememetum fauist sola cxpcricntia mon< 
strat 
Art is <iius xems, i[ub !»it itiauis Uofios. 
rTa the Attdience^h- 
Sciticet luec mtyit ratio «c mciu^. Q»«rrrr4f 

Hie doetrinftalimur: ere vimD s lib stud iia : 
Secuii indocti uuf! stt sent^ntia volf^i, 
Dum nMtnt hjec FoAm fmlicra rej* placrat, 

ETBKO LOGICAL SOCIETY » 

Abf?. 23. A metXlag waa held at the re- 
sidence of Dr. Hodgkin, in Brook-street, 
for the purpose of innuguratiDg uti Ethuo- 
logical Society* A paper, whicli displayed 
ft vast deal of research, '* On the progress 
iisd prospects of Ethnology,*' from the 
pen of Dr. Hodgkin, waa read by Dr. 
Kiii|. The choir was taken by Rear Ad> 
miral Sir Charles Malculm ; and, towards 
the close of the even if jg, by John George 
Shaw Lefevrc, esq. The businesn of the 
eyemng then commenced, when the fol- 
lowing elections were acceded to with the 
iiQAiiimou« cootient of the meeting : — Rear 
Adm. Sir Charles Malcolm^ President ; 
his Grace the Archbishop of Dublin, the 
Hon, Mouutatuart E)phiu$tone» George 
B. Greenongh, esq., and James Cowles 
Pricbard, M,D- Vice-Presidents i Richard 
King, M» D. Secretary; Samuel Duck- 
worth, esq. Treasurer; Me«sr«. J. A. St, 
Joho* Joseph Legg Postlethwaite^Willtum 
Aldam, M/P., WilHam Elphinstoue Mal- 
colm, Thomas May, Walter K, Kelly, and 
Sir i&cujainin Brodie, aod Dra\ Thomas 
Hodgkin, W. Holt Yate*, and Andrew 
Smith, Members of the CounciL In the 
room were present Sir Jamcst Clark, Dr. 
Haatings, Dr. Anthony Todd Thompson^ 
Signori Mayer aod Brandi» and the tra« 
Tellers who have lately returned from 
Abyaatoia, Mr. Charles Johnston and Dr. 
Beke, with a native who has accompanied 
tbat genUeman during his travels. The 
table waa co?ered with some remarkable 
dnwiDfi of natifeitt &c.f and the ipleadid 
work recently publij»hed by Ackermann, on 
the Red Men of America, by Prince Max- 
imilian of Wied i also an excellent model 
^ a Malay, from the studio of Mr. Fre- 
derick Archer, the sculptor. 



INSTITCTION OF CIVIL BXOINKERS. 

The Council of this Institution have 
awarded the following Telford and Walker 
premiums i- — A Telford medal in silver to 
Y. W. Slmms for his papers on the appli- 
ration of Horse-power to raising Water, 
he. and on Brick-making. A Telford 
medal tn silver to W^ Pole, for hiii papers, 
«*n 1? ' of Steam EngineiJi &c. and, 

on 1 1 . and density of Steam. A 

TeUwru luciiai 111 sllver to T. Oldham^ for 



n 



his Description and drawings of the Au*J 
tomaton Balance, invented by Mr. Cotton, I 
and used at the Bank of England for] 
weighing sovereigns, A Telford premium ^ 
of books to D. MackniD, for his paper,, J 
on the supply of Water lo the City of J 
Glasgow, A Telford premium of hooki | 
to D. Bremmer, for his Description and J 
drawings of the Victoria Bridge over the \ 
River Wear. A Telford premium of booki ^ 
to D. T, Hope, for his paper, on the re- 
lative merits of Granite and Wood Pave- \ 
mcnts and Macadamised Road^. A Wal- 
ker premium of hooks to R. Matlet, for ] 
liis paper, on the coefficient of Labouring- 
force in Water Wlieeb, &c. A Walker J 
preniiom of books to W. J. M. Rankicc, | 
for his papers and drawings^ on laying I 
down Railway -cun'cs, on the Spring-con- 
tractor for Railway Carriages, and on the | 
Causes of the Fracture of Railway Axles, j 
&c. A Walker |iri'mium of books to Wm. 
Lewi^ Baker, for bis Description and | 
Drawings of the Water Pressure Engine, 
at the A Itc Mtlrdgrube Mine ( Fr ey berg ) , A ! 
Walker premium of bocks to S. C. Homer- 
sham, for lib paper aud drawings, on the 
constfuctiuu of Valves for Pumps, &c. A 
Walker premium of books to J. O. York, 
for his paper, on the comparative strength 
of Solid and Hollow .\xles- A Walker , 
premium of books to G* D« Bishopp, for 
liis Description of the American Loco- 
motive Engine " Philadelphia,'* used on 
the Birmingham aud Gloucester Railway, 
A Walker premium of books to G. B. W* 
Jackson, for the drawings illustrating the 
description of Machines for raising and 
lowering Miners, by John Taylor. 



ttOYAL INSTITUTION AT LtVERPOOl.. 

At the ItiCe annual distribution of prizes 
to tlie jmpils of this Institution, Dr. 
Freckleman, the Chairman, read a letter, 
signed on behalf of several students at the 
Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, 
formerly pupils at the Institution, an* 
nounciug that they had subscribed, among 
themselves, a sum of money, which they 
were ready to place at the disposal of the 
Committee, to aid them in founding an 
exhibition or scholarship for the boys of 
the school ; and that thi^ sum (whicli now 
amounted to 200/,) they hoped would 
serve as the nucleus of a larger sum, 
which the friends and patrons of the In- 
stitution would subscribe, to carry out the 
object proposed. 

THIi CilABTEil MOUSK. 

We arc lia]ipy to fmd that the branch 
of thisi noble institution which provides 
for the refiidenee and support of Poor 
Brcthreu, is oow likely to benppioprjikteJ, 
under the higlie?it auspicest iirinc jpally to 



72 



^*»^^ «^ Aawwfc 



the reHefpf .,»_.,_-,. 
Her M^eKr. i,j[Uw ~_ •., ■ 

*«?«•«. ud aittT orlrfT ^:ra . i^- _y . 
MoocnHr.tbedniMiittEd.:r. XL- ." vw* 

wn^erjaence of hii fcmiji« u i Da. 
»«»t*'', Mr. JohD DvtIk, irt-^ -/ ys,. 

l7Vr-9. WM tppr/rrt^f i i , -;^i,^ . ^.^ 
<«"^. yt t rw^ '/ •/. fr;« rart a.:Tii 



^JT livr : 




4r ;^ij«^:4 






■-Me.- ii, 

.MiuuiKRiaie : 
aixacaL wr- j 

.-JinD.i«r..ia liife, i-^^ 
:ae :aun i«ii»ik ,1-^,. ^^^ 

anwn^ .iwrirr. run Jr- -^ - *• 
2 »**? ^^'^•t a uwfiteraiiii 

•i«««T *>?r-d Tie »fcB„ o/joi:'^ ■ 

in *: ::rta5 "ie .^:ai>:socB* «. 






■7 ''^■.4»*- 



VI*.- K.W'.'.t ■■'•*. '/■/■.€» - 

MM««« f'»' fVi' ''..**^ ',7 'r.* ■>fe/r.^ '•■'iT- 
|^/t«y • r/.*«t f',* f',T i%\t.f\ ',1 •!-.!» «4fn#: 
'//»r.;.'ft*' , * fr.»t» f'/f •r.f**- •»'>./;*• -,t 

|K»««-r fi««i*'l Ut^tiUfi* 'kir.hArd, f>n. 



All .... ., 

Urrvnl f,rtwr»ri I fft'f *nd I l^j. The«<* 
inuKm < .ir<- f'illoivrfj f/jr Oip mot^f. '• ^>rWii 
t#-fi.iriiffi ■' t',r ii,nr roi*.*:^, hy BuRnoi^ ; 
• " .\ri(<iiift»«». " for fhffft irokr* ; fhij 
fflifi'Mit ( hi inf ttum t li«nt for four ; «notli«;r 
" Mii|{iHfif «( " (or four; tUr fnotrt* *' A»l 
crrfmrri fi|{iii |irr»iriiji " fur ihrrr ; " Ariirn- 
mtm I1..U. fii,i« r»f " for thrri- ; " Victirns 
PMi'»i-l» Imi.l. .," for four; " Kegin* c«li 



frr^z -B^J^n of :h* Coua? de'S^rKST 
,poo • M-Ti.:«a lad ATercaa A«k»i: 
rj^ , • I? iMcn^fs the w.>ad*rf4l «oa«. 
m«o« *" vchiterture which Mtion,, kN^ 
iinc« 'sstiE':-. IitTe left behinJ thcnjC 
•ho«!i« r«r»M— ^ne rem&ias of Xochnlco. 
Mitla- P»:*nca. Ac. ic. : !iad if enricM 
wjrh *o 4006.^ uire of larve ind bcwiii. 
filly coloar*.! plites. 

Ptfh^r G. Morell hu published aa 
ae«:oQnt of the library of the ConTeat of 
Eitidlen. which was founded ia the 16th 
century. It contains seTermi thoannd 
volamea. amonf which are 1,300 works 

frinted between the years 1460 and 1500. 
t alfo posflesies 4,00(j Roman medals and 
jfXi Greek, besides many modern onet. 
The archives of the Abbey are said to be 
in a good state of preservation . and pre. 
tent a faTooraUe contratt to the general 



itate Ktf the monastic establlBhiDeiiCi in 
Siriticrliiud. 

The Mioistcr of Public iDatmciton has 
tueceeded, nftjr con«iderabte oppoisitiotir 
on the groaiiil of the expense, in obt&in> 
infir from the Chamber of Deputies a vote 
tv) ' ,)val of the Biblioth^que de 

> rr#, at Vwn&t from the iiae, 

bu. ., gallery which it occupied over 

th« College Henri IV., to ft new building 
to be erected far its reception. The sum 
driuAoded was 1,820,000 francs. 

A letter from St. Petersburg states that 
M. AUiert profesaor of the untvcr^iity of 
that city, has JQSt discovered iu the imp«. 
rial library 341 autograph letters of Betiry 
IV. of FrsQce, hitherto unknowD. He 
im mediately imparted his discovery to a 
commission at Paris specially occupied in 
collecting the letters of tbat lovereign. 

A letter from Rome states that a curious 
autograph of Napoleon was discovered a 
few days ago at Perugia. It is an order 
for the army and a bill of exchange for 
j?,CXK),0O0f., addressed to General Maj- 
Hiis autograph was detected in a 
franc piece, which had been given in 
kcnt to an individual, who thinking it 
runtcrfeit piece, had it broken. 

M. Susao, of Deventer, has recently 
|}rtnted in Holland, what is a great novelty, 
an edition of Macbeth in Enghsht with 
note« in Dutch, for the use of tlie studeniet 
of Shaksperc. It is, we believe i the first 
timQ any play of Shaksperc has ap- 
peal^ in print from a Dntch press, whe- 
ther in the language of that country or in 
bis own. 

A recent trial at Rome has convicted 
the Count Mariano Alberti of wholesale 
forgery of works which he had professed 
to discover and publish as Tosso's. Some 
small portion of these works, which ia 
eonsidmd to be genuine, he had inter. 
larded with tho rest, to leaven the mais 
and gtf« it the greater air of aothcnticity. 
In his lodgings were found an immense 
collection of writing-tools Jnks of different 
klads and tints, old copybooks, blank 
torn out of old books, and innume- 
eierdsea io imitation of the hand- 




writing of more than fifty eminent indi- 
viduals of Tasso^s time. 

The results of the last journey made by 
the celebrated archieologisf, Karl Ottfried 
MiiMer, are in the course of publication at 
Frankfort-ou-the Maine, The first Part, 
which U already published, contains 'The 
An tit|uurian Collections of Athens;* the 
second will comprise in it the architecturp 
and sculpture of that city; and tliP third 
will contain an account of the author^ a 
traveb in the Morea and Rumelia. 

Morttz Retzsch has just issued another 
serieif of illustrations, having for their sub- 
ject * The Merry Wivrs of Windsor/ They 
are, however, inferior to his former works . 
The Falstatf is a mistake from beginning 
to end, being rather the hopeless sot than 
the witty profligate. There are many 
graceful figures, especially in the scene 
with Heme the hujjter, but we have seen 
them all before in Mr. Ret ttich*s previous 
Otitlinca. 

A work is about to appear on the 
Egyptian Museum at Rome. The execu- 
tion of the plates has been intrusted to 
the architectural engrnver Troiani, to 
whom a sum of 8,000 scudi has been 
allowed for the purpose. The letter- 
press will be from the pen of the Bar- 
nabite, I** Utigarelli. 

The Italian architect Canina has just 
published a work on the cooBtruction of 
the most ancient Christian church ea, 
which is very highly spoken of. It 
contains 57 engravings on copper, and 
147 folio pages of letter-press. 

Dr. 8ckreiber, Professor at Freiburg, 
in the grand duchy of Baden, an 
antiquary of high repute in Germany, has 
published a pamphlet on the well-known 
Mosaic discovered at Pompeii, which has 
hitherto passed for one of Alexander^i 
battles with Darius« The author of this 
little treatise, after detailing the eveuta 
connected with the discovery, canvatses 
and rejects the opinion that it represents 
one of the battles of AleiLander, and at-^ 
tempts to prove it to be a repreaentation 
of a victory won by Marcellus, nt Clai< 
tidium, over the Gauls. 



FINE ARTS. 



xnw SCHOOL or oksion* 

the School of Design has been 

curing the last six years, com- 

tlj few persons are aware of the 

the arrangements, and the ad- 

i of tbat interesting nationsl cstab- 

lishseolU 

Th« Schools of Design (for there are 
; OiMT. Mao* Vol. XXI. 



two distinct schools, one for males and 
the other for females,) occupy several of 
the rooms formerly allotted to the Royal 
Academy exhibitions in Somerset House. 
Tlie old Council Room is formed into a 
museum ; and among its object » of art are 
specimens of fresco painting, to which the 
attention of several of the students is now 
L 



74 



FbuArtt. 



tJn. 



beio; directed, and three exquisite pleeee 
of encaostic work, brought by the director 
from Munieh. Here also are copies of 
the fretco arabesques, from the Loggie di 
RaffMlo, in the Vatican. They are ex- 
ecuted in distemper on cuTass screens^ 
and, haTing each four sides, form an en- 
casement to each of the eight pillars hj 
which the roof of this room is supported. 
They are of the sise of the celebruted 
originals, in excellent preserration, and 
are said to be the best, if not the only, 
copies extant. The sum of 510/. was paid 
fbr them at one of Mr. Christie's sales. 
This room is about to be enriched with 
numerous specimens of ornamental art from 
France and Germany, including the most 
beautiful examples that can be obtained of 
stained glass, carving, modelling, metal, 
silk, cotton, porcelain, and paper-hanging. 
The large room, a noble and spacious 
apartment, is appropriated to elementary 
drawing and modelling. The lower part 
is furnished with large tables and the 
Tarions drawing and modelling apparatus 
of the students, while the walls are well 
covered with plaster casts from valuable 
originals of various ages. 11 ere are some 
recently executed pieces of fresco, which, 
considering that they are not the work of 
professed artists, but of ornamentists, are 
highly creditable and promising. Surround- 
ing this room is a gallery, the front of 
which is furnished with copies of the 
celebrated Scriptural subjects, known as 
Raifaele's Bible. The gallery it«elf is 
enriched with a valuable collection of casts, 
upwards of HCH) in number, exhibiting in 
enronological order the various styles of 
ornament used in the Greek, Roman, 
Byxantine, Gothic, and Renaissance agee 
of art. These valuable casts have been 
obtained chiefly from Paris. In this room 
Is also a lending library of works on de- 
corative art and its history, from which 
the students obtain books for a trifling sum. 
The figure room is an apartment con- 
taining easts of Theseus, Ilysnus, a few of 
the Elgin marbles, the Apollo Belvidere, 
Venus of Milo, the Fighting Gladiator, 
Apollo of the Tribune, together with a 
fine collection of has reliefn, of busts, 
hands, feet, «cc. Two caKtu of knockers, 
lately brought from Venice, are exquisite, 
too beautiful, we fear, for imitation in a 
country where gentlemen do not think 
it beneath their dignity to wrench articles 
of that description from their neighbours* 
doors. Among the contents of thirt room 
are several very beautiful Gothic statues, 
and »ouie particularly interesting lipeci- 
mens of Italian-Gothic from Venice, 
together with a number of arehiteetural 
casts, in which figures are combined with 
ornaments of various periods. There are 



also cftstf of lome magiimoeiit i _ 
as capitals of the colnmna of the 1 
of Mars, Ultor, and the Fantheon. ~A 
skeleton and a valuable coloured uiaComledl 
figure are in this eolleetion. The chn Ibr 
figures if superintended by J. Hethertt 
esq. A.R.A. 

The school is readily aeeetalble on Oe 
payment of very small fees for admfwkm. 
It is open both morning and eTening every 
dny, except Saturday, Sunday, and certidii 
intervals of vacation. The nambert et 
present enjoying the advantage of the 
school are about 200 in the male, and 40 
in the female branch, which nnmbera here 
generally been in attendance since the 
school was opened. The male department 
is under the direction of C. H. Wiiaon, 
esq. A.R. S.A. who exercisei a general 
superintendence and control in ererj mat- 
ter relative to the duties of all who are 
engaged in giving instruction in the 
schools, and under whose able goidanee 
the institution promises to secure all the 
ends for which it has been established. 
The female school is under the tuition of 
Mrs. M'lan, the progress of whose popUa 
is most satisfactory. A class for wood- 
engraving has been lately established ander 
Miss Waterhouse. 

A branch school of design hu beta 
opened in Spitalfields, for the adTantage 
of the silk -weavers and carvers, who, mm 
well as the weavers, are very numerons In 
that neighbourhood ; more than 200 attend 
this school, to which they are admitted on 
the payment of Gd. a week, and respecting 
whom the most satisfactory progress ia 
reported. Branch schools are extending 
gradually over the country, and are now 
formed at York, Nottingham, Manchestert 
Sheffield, and Birmingham. In these 
towns the instructions are varied, so as 
to benefit the particular art for which the 
locality is distinguished. 



IMSTITUTK OF THE FIXE AETS. 

A meeting was held at the Freemasons' 
Tavern, on the 3d of June, for the purpose 
of forming an association, calculatea to 
facilitate a general intercourse of the pro- 
fcKsors and friends of art, in a house to 
be provided as soon as the funds will 
allow. It is intended ** that the Institute 
shall be essentially an independent and 
deliberative body, and shall not originate 
or connect itself with any exhibition or 
school of instruction in art.** The 
members are to pay an annual subscrip- 
tion of one guinea, the affairs to be di- 
rect c»l by a committee of twelve, six general 
meetings tu be held annually, and a 
journal of transactions published. 

The Society may now be considered as 
established, and it ahready numbers be- 



1844.] 



jirchiteciure. 



7b 



twecQ iOO aad 300 oaembflri. The iirat 
meeUDf for the aeuon waa held on the 
\S\h Dec, in the rooms of the Society of 
Arti. Lelterti were read from Lord 
Francis Egertoa and Sir John C. Swin- 
burne. Bart., accepting the iovitatioD of 
the CottQdl to become Vice* Preside nil. 
A paper wu read bj Mr. Park, sculptor, 
on the propriety of petltioiiin|^ the legis- 
lature to eatahlisk a " Hall of Sculpture/' 
to cootain '* ca^tafrom all the ^eat works 
of antiquity/* to be open during the day 
to the public, im the evening to artiati 
omly^ properly lighted for atuiiy. — Aoother 
p^er, on the »ubject of framet for move- 



able frescoea, was read by Mr. Boas, 
showings by means of dla^ams, bow to 
provide against the chaDeee of the In- 
tooaco cracking, or chipping olF, which* 
he said^ was to be feared from the aixe 
required by the Royal CommiBsion in the 
uext competitioQ. — Refioliitioa« were then 
passed^ of thaoks to the Royal Commisaion 
for its efforts to advance historic art^ and 
expressive of the approbation of the meet- 
ing: at the ^* appointment of two artists of 
distinguished professional rank^ to the 
oMoes of Keeper of the Nation al Gallery, 
and Conserrator of the Pictures in thf 
Royal Paiacei." 



ARCHITECTURE. 



rnVTB Of BHITISB ARCHTTROTB. 

Aw. 4. W. rite. esa. F.R.S, V.P, 
The chairman opened the proceedings of 
tke seasion by making some observations 
m explaoatioD of what he had stated at 
th« conctuding meeting of Che last session. 
He alloded to what he had said as to the 
effect of the Rowing tendency to introduce 
Gothic Ut^hitecture. What he intended 
to afirm was* that it was not the duty of 
the architect to make a servile copy from 
th« works of the andenta, but to avail 
himtelf of them only as exemplificatioos 
of the great principles which would re- 
q^n- •''•^Hoo for modern edtftces. In 
all jis subject he pointed out 

th. vru of atudytng the remains of 

the domeetic architecture of the time of 
Edward HL as useful studies in the 
present day. So far from disapproving 
of the legitimate study of Gothic archi* 
lecture, he r— - • i-»'< *hc members 
00 the num i> of ancient 

moQumcntfi II h were daify 

aasuming ail tUctr ancient beauty. All 
he had wished to do waa to caution junior 
memheri against the exclusive study of 
that style, and the neglect of the classic 
raoouments of Greece and Italy, which 
he considered to offer more suitable types 
for domestic edifices, and he reminded 
them of the eaeeUeot examples set them 
in this respect by Inigo Jones and Wren« 
lie thrn proceeded to give some ac* 
count tit his tour into Germany doriog 
the Ia«<t feummer, when he had an oppor> 
tuoity of viewing the Walhalla in Ba- 
varia. He sUted that the building was 
well studied, its situation admirable, and 
the blending of architecture^ sculpture, 
and painting exquisite, while the colour- 
iQf is not so elaborate or so glaring as to 
m^e the contraat too great. In passing 
tlutragh the town of Ulm in Wirteuiburgh 
be imt/fA tbe oathedral, which he de- 
li % T«ry fine building, and welt 



deserving the inspection of architecta 
who may be travelling in Germ any. Al* 
though It ia a Lutlieran church, there are 
aereral objects well deserving of notice. 
It has four aisles, with arches supporting 
a clerestory. The wood earring in the 
choir is extremely good. There ia also 
a fine specimen of architecture, the taber^ 
oacle for the host, which is on the north 
side of the choir. In the new public 
edifices of Munich he considered colouring 
waa carried too far, the effect of colouring 
in external decoration not being good. 

Profcsaor Donaldsoo read a paper de< 
scribing thirteen models of churches kept 
in Heury V/s Chantry at Westminster 
Abbey. They were designs submitted to 
the Commissioners appointejd in the reign 
of Queen Anne for the building of forty 
churches in the metropolis ; but only three 
out of the thirteen models had been 
erected, via. the New Church, Strand, 
Greenwich Church, and St. James's, 
Westminster ; the others were designs of 
a high class » and he considered it a great 
loss to the architectural character of the 
metropolis that they were oever carried 
into effect. The models are well executed 
and in good preservation, aod it is to be 
reg^retted that they arc not opened to 
public inspection. 

Profe&sor Donaldson also made some 
observations on the application of fresco 
by the old Italian masters to the exterior 
of buildioga for decoratioa, and exhibited 
an origin^ drawing by Poltidori io illus- 
tradoQ, He then read a letter from Mr, 
Crace, of Wigm ore -street, giving some 
account of the freacoea which had fallen 
under his notice during a recent tour in 
Germany and the north of Italy. Mr. 
Crace observes, •' that in Italy, Switxer- 
knd, and the south of Germaoy, the 
paintings in freaco are so general, that 
there is scarcely a town in which, both in 
the exterior and in the interior of the 
houses, some are not to be met with. In 



ArckUectnie, 



[JaD. 



Italy this kiad of decoration is the most 
frequent ; /Acre, in many cases, the ar- 
chitectural effects seem to have been 
arfftnged with the riew of being afterwards 
aided by painting; the enrichments of 
the monldlings and the ornaments being 
giten in chiaro oacnro. In other cases, 
again, the whole surface of the wall is 
covered with historical or allegorical and 
ornamental painting. My principal object 
in traTclling was, firstly, to learn the pro- 
cesses employed in fresco and encaustic 
painting ; secondly, to form an opinion 
as to tne effects produced ; and thirdly, 
to judge how far those effects would sur- 
pass painting in oil in appearance and 
durability. For the two first reasons it 
was, therefore, the modern specimens of 
the art to which my attention was prind- 
pally directed. At the Royal Palace at 
Venice I noticed decorations lately exe- 
cuted in firesco; bat it was at Munich 
that I saw the art most extensively em- 
ployed. In this city it is to be met with 
m erery modem public building. In the 
church of St. Louis is the grand picture 
of the Last Judgment by Cornelius, and 
other frescoes of considerable merit by his 
pupils. In the All Saints* Chapel are 
some beautiful paintings by Hess and his 
pupUs, on a gold ground. At the basilica 
of St. Bonifkcius, so splendidly decorated, 
Hess and others are employed at this time 
on a series of grand paintings; at the 
Glyptothek are the frescoes of Cornelius ; 
at the Pynacothek, those by Zimmerman 
and others ; and at the two royal palaces, 
each room is adorned by some artist of 
excellence, either in fresco or encaustic. 
In addition to these interiors, there are 
examples of exterior decorations at the 
Hof Garden, the fafade of the Post Office, 
and the Theatre. The effects prodaoed 
surpass painting in oil in solidity and 
clearness ; bat, owing to the limiution of 
colours employed, there always appeared 
to me a certain yellow-brown dry effect, 
*nd a want of the richness of paintings 
in oil." ^ * 

Alter the reading of Mr. Crace's paper 
wme observations were made by the Vice- 
J^sidcnt and other members on the effect 
-L 7*^^V ^^ «nccdote was related re- 
specting Cornelius, that, when the King 
or Bavana was viewing his famous fresco 
rvl |. ^*?* J^^Jgnacnt, he observed to 
Coraehus thatit appeared as if it were three 
untunes old; Cornelius replied, "That 

.tri!i;^w*. ' ''•'*'^" It was also oh- 
■ervcd that it was surprising what a golden 
!uf T". P~«!"ced by simple colours, 
^though done m dry and unshining ma- 
J«naii. In Munich the bricks are weU 
^rnt notwithstanding they are absorbent ; 
*"« Mmc it yery good, and a large quantity 



of it is used in proportion to sand. The 
bricks are laid with open joints ; the plas- 
tering is first laid on with a hand -float, 
afterwards the fine coat to take the fresco 
is laid on by the plasterer, who comes 
the first thing in the morning, and puts 
on just sufficient for the artist to worlr 
upon during the same day, and which this 
latter must finish before it is dry. The 
difficulty in England will be to get rid 
of the efflorescence of saltpetre, which 
can be removed by repeated washing. 
The frescoes by Aglio in Moorfields Chapel 
appear to have failed on this account. 

Mr. Arthur Johnson was presented 
with a prise consisting of the first volume 
of the Transactions of the Institute for 
the best sketches sent in by the pupils 
daring the last session. 

Abv. 80. Mr. Tite in the Chair. 

A highly interesting and practical paper 
on Timber and Deals by Greorge Bailey, 
esq. Hon. Sec. was read, and has since 
been published at length in " The Civil 
Engineer and Architect's Journal." 

Dee. 4. Mr. Tite in the chair. 

A paper was read ** On the Foundatious 
of the late Church of St. Bartholomew, 
by the Exchange," by C. R. Cockerell, 
esq. showing the rude but efficient mode 
of construction adopted by our forefathers, 
and the masterly judgment and skill with 
which Sir C. Wren availed himself of the 
existing anciont foundations in his new 
structure alter the fire. The piers in the 
east wall, as well as those under the 
pillars of the nave, were raised upon a 
mass of well made concrete, formed of 
chalk, broken tiles, and stone, p^bles, 
and lime, cast about a foot deep into the 
stratum of sound gravel. Where arches 
were required, as in the east and nortii 
wall, the natural soil was left undisturbed, 
and formed into a rude centering from 
pier to pier on which the voussoirs of the 
arches in chalk were at once placed. 
From the springing of the piers, the 
masonry was of a superior kind, the centre, 
however, being filled in with concrete— 
the side walls of the church were of a 
better masonry with upright foces. The 
tower was built of flint and chalk, with 
walls of the thickness necessary to resist 
the action of the beUs. 

Mr. T. W. Papworth exhibited a volume 
containing a collection of decorations for 
a chapel in the cathedral at Lisbon, made 
at Rome in 1755. It appears from these 
drawings that the architect sent his 

general designs to Rome, and that the 
etails were there filled up by the most 
eminent decorative artists. The name of 
Pompeio Battoni, who was to supply some 
painting of the higher class, occun among 
the number. There are designs for th^ 



18440 



ArchiUclUTt, 



pmvirmeoU, rft}ling», tiiuigiii£($r and every 
dC9cri|)tion of decomtton »nrl furaiture to 
Ijpdcc lUc work complete. The artistical 
^oOwledge displayed in these drawing! 
throiigfaout the variety of operations 
occeasiiry to carry out a work of this kind, 
aod the unity of purpose with which it is 
broQgUt together and applied, is the 
principal delicieney in our modern sy&trm 
of arcliltcctnre. 



PAITATS CHAPEL AT WINRWOR, 

Dtc, 19. The ceremony of con5e- 
cmtiDg the Queen's new Private Chapel, 
bt Windsor Castle, was performed by the 
Bishop of Oxford, iti the presieoce of her 
Majesty, hii Royal Ilighness Prince Al- 
bert, the Dnchetk of Kent, and mnny 
members of the roynl household. The 
ap«r1bxieiiit which has been appropriated 
for the purpose adjoini St. George's Hall, 
and was used occasionally for a e Imp el in 
tbe reignf of George IV. and William IV. 
The ceiliog, which \a flat, is filled in with 
Gothic moulded ribs and points, and re- 
maiuA in tbe state in which it was left by Sir 
Jeflfry Wyatville, The extent of the chapel 
is about 40 feet from north to south, and 
■ :{0 feet from eatft to west. Her Majesty's 
clcM^t is at Ihe south- west angle, and op- 
posite to the puTpit; it is approached 
from the corridor aud private ajmrttnent^ 
tbrongh the vestibule at the top of ihe 
Tuitor;}* stair-case, nnd is placed at an 
elevation of ten feet from the floor. At 
tbe back of this apartment is n large 
slMDed-gliiaa Gothic wiodow, which re- 
t^eivea light from an outer window, and 
t*a» a pjeafiing and subdued effect. In 
iKc upper centre compartment arc the 
red and white rose*, with the shararock 
■ and thistle. On either side are the arms 
ll of her Majesty and Prince Albert. The 
Bj^npcr portion of the window is divided 
^^^■^ ^\%hi compartments, with the rose, 
^^^Bmrock, and thistle, in lozenge divisions 
of e»cb, of orange and straw- coloured 
gksi. On thia window is also emblazoned 
tlie garter aud tbe motto of the order. 
Tlw roof IK beautifally grained to cor. 
PKp — ,.1 »Mi»i, ^}^f ceiHng over the entrance 
to The royal clo*ct is abont 

les r jud 13 feet in width, is fur- 

»uiahc<i Willi tbree elbow chair». and six 
or right smaller chairs. In tbe centre of 
tbe chapelt suspended from the ceiling, 
tj a masaive Gothic gilt chandelier for 
d^bt lights, of exquisite workmanship. 
Tbe pulpit is of wainscot nok, richly 
earred jo Gothic, with an octagonal hose 
and tap. Tbe lower portion consists of 
1iJ^n^ biittre«tea and carved pinnacles ; 
tbe rt, springing from the pe- 

dc> IS fan tracery, divided into 

C%i«i f^»ju*ix wompartments. At tbe ba;SC 



k. 



and upper iKirtion of *lie pulpit is> a cai ved 
cornice, and at each angle of the lower 
cornice are figures of satnts, ^c. The 
reading'dcik is of similar workmanship 
and design, and the communion-table is 
of carved wainscot. The windows at the 
back of the communion-table, and also 
on cither side, are of stained glass of a 
dark orange colour. Thtfre are seven 
pews oti tbe floor of the chapel^ around 
the south, e^Lst, and west sides ; three of 
which are {qv tbe members of the royal 
houRchi^ld, ill attendance upon the Queen 
and Prince Albert, and the remaining four 
are for tlie royal domestics. These seven 
pews, the fronts of which are of Gotliic 
carved wainscot, will afford sitting ae-* 
commodation for between ad and 60 per* 
sons. For tlie use of the domestics in 
livervr six wainscot seats are placed on 
the floor of the chapel, facing the com- 
tn\inion- table, affording room for upwards 
of 40 of the scnatitSr The chapel is 
warmcil by means of hot air, conveyed 
from the basement of the castle. The 
organ, which has been erected in a recess 
behind the screen on the Dortb side of 
the difipel, was the favourite instrument 
of his Majesty George 111. and was for- 
merly in the private cbapcl at Bucking- 
ham House. It was built by Samuel 
Grecn» the celebrated organ-butlder, about 
1770, when it consisted of one row of 
keys, and but six stops. It has recently 
undergone considerable alterations and 
repairs, and it now contains 10 stops. 

CAMBRIDGE CAMDEN SOCIETY. 

Dec. 5. At a very full meeting, at whicb 
the President was in the chair, after re- 
ceiving the usual report of the Committtc* 
some beautiful Church plate was exhibit* 
cd, executed from the designs of W. But- 
terfield, eiq. from ancient models. These 
fpecimens of the revival of ancient art 
were much admired. 

The Rev. Professor Willie explained 
the use and construction of the Cymo. 
graph, designed by him for more accn* 
ratcly obtaiimng the contours of mould- 
ingF, and al^o his plan for taking tbe 
groining of vaults aud drawing them on 
paper. 

The Rev. T. Myers, of Trinity college, 
detailed the efforts of the Yorkshire Ar- 
chitectural Society, in the restoration of 
the ancient s^taiued glass in tbe churches 
of York, particularly in that of All Saints, 
and stated the cases in wliirh succcsj* had 
attended the exertioni of the Society to 
restore a better ta^te in Church architec- 
ture in that city. 

The Rev. H. Goodwin, M.A. Fellow of 
Caiua college, then read a paper on the 
Orientation of Churche*i and explained 



78 



Architecture. 



[Jan. 



the method he had adopted for marking 
the orientation accurately. He pointed 
out some remarkable instances in which 
the churches of Cambridge confirmed the 
suggestion thrown out by the Society, of 
the chancel of most churches pointing to 
that part of the east where the sun rises 
upon the day of the saint in whose ho- 
nour the church is dedicated. 

The ReT. P. Freeman, M.A. of St. 
Peter's college, read an account of the 
gradual progress of the restoration of the 
church of the Holy Sepulchre in Cam- 
bridge, from the time of its being first 
placed in the hands uf the Society. 

Adjourned to February 13. 

OXKORD ARCIIITKCTL'RAL SOCIETY. 

JVor. 'J*J, Dr. Richards, the rector of 
Exeter college, read a paper on the 
history and origin of rural deaneries in 
England, and on some of the duties of 
the office of rural dean, with especial 
reference to the deanery of Woodstock, 
of which an account is about to be pub- 
lished by the society in their " Guide to 
the Architectural Antiquities in the neigh- 
bourhood of Oxford." He shewed that 
the office of rural dean was in use in Eng- 
land in the eleventh century, and in the 
Christian Church as early as the sixth 
century ; that the probable origin of the 
name was, that this officer originally pre- 
sided over ten parishes, although in the 
subsequent increase of |)arishcs, and the 
union of two or three deaneries into one, 
this origin has been almost forgotten. 
One great use of the office at the present 
day, is, to prevent further mischief being 
done to our churches ; and, as no altera- 
tion can be made without the consent of 
the ordinary, the rural dean may, by an 
appeal to him, prevent the introduc 
tion of galleries, the conversion of open 
benches in close news, the removal of 
screens, &c. ; but that for the restoration 
of our churches to a decent sUte where 
the muchief lias been already perpetrated, 
he must rely rather on persuasion, re- 
peated admonitions, and appeals to the 
better feelings of the parties interested, 
tban on the expensive processet of ecde- 
Mastical law. In his own deanery, great 
credit 18 due to the incumbent and pa- 
nshioncrs of Steeple Aston for the very 
^K***u^ restoration of their church; 
wnich he referred to also as a successful in- 
stance of the introduction of open benches 
ir,°?|5^out the church. The manner in 
J^MJli u has been effected was also very 
Jj«auable to Mr. Plowman, the architect. 
^ucb credit is also due to the incumbent 
,l»y'*"**ng:ton, for his zealous efforts to 
ff*^'_ the same object, though he had 
*?*« but iU seconded in general by the 



pariahionera. The churchea in this dean* 
ery are not generally whnt would be called 
fine churches, although perhaps Kidlinf- 
ton, Handborough, and Stanton Harooort* 
might deserve that distinction ; but al- 
most all of them are ancient, and posaeu 
features of interest, and are worthy Uie 
attention of the architectural student. 

The secretary then read a deacription 
of the supposed Anglo-Saxon church of 
Corhampton, Hants, communicated by 
the Rev. C. Walters, M.A. ; and illus- 
trated by plans, dctslls, and elevations, 
drawn by Mr. Alfred Vanghan Waltcn ; 
with an introductory essay on the sup- 
posed Saxon style, which he supported 
with the usual arguments and extracts 
from Bentham. Corhampton church ia 
a very good specimen of this daaa of 
buildings, having thelong-and-ahort work 
very clearly developed ; Uie pilacter-atrips 
of stone projecting from the surface, aa if 
in imitation of timber-work ; singular 
rude impoats; bases of universal form, 
unlike >orman ; and a curioua consecra- 
tion cross, similar to that at Wamford, 
which appears there to have bcmi pre- 
served from the original chorch built by 
Wilfred. 

Mr. Freeman, of Trinity College, read 
some extracts from Godwin's Lives of the 
Bishops, mentioning churchea in the 
Saxon times in such a manner as to shew 
they were of wood. He thought, how- 
ever, that in Northamptonshire, from the 
abundance of stone, they used that mate- 
rial in preference, and inquired whether 
Brixworth was not acknowledged to be 
prior to the Conquest. 

The principal of Brasenoae obierved, 
that the chun^hes of Northamptonahire 
are not generally built of the stone of the 
country, but of stone brought from some 
disUnce, such as Ketton. He had been 
one of a party who had carefully ex- 
amined Brixworth church, and, althou^ 
they found some Roman material*, the 
church had evidently been reconatructed, 
and there did not appear any decided 
character in the building itself to shew 
that this reconstruction had been made 
prior to the Norman times ; he did not 
give this as his own opinion so much aa 
that of others, much better able to judge 
from their greater experience and oppor- 
tunities of observation. 

The secretary read some extracts, to 
shew that the Saxon buildings were of 
wood, even in cases where we should have 
naturally expected them to use atone, if 
any where ; as at Shrewsbury, the church 
built by SiKard, thecouain of Edward the 
Confessor, which is expressly mentioned 
by Orderic Vital, whose father commenced 
ft stone church on the aite in 1082, Ho 



1844'0 



Antiquarian Uesesrches* 



79 



■bo menitoned instances to %hevf that 
nearly •!! the features ositaUy said to be 
clmracteristic of the Saxon style, arc to 
Se fotiTid in Norman work, and often 
much later ; long and short work is used 
in the jambs of windows, &c. occasionally 
at all fieriods, from Norman, as at Syston, 
Lincolnshire, to late Perpeodiculnr, as at 
r _ ... -^^ Suffolk, and Eyzey , near Crick- 
Its ; and eTt*n in modem build- 
: same modi* of conatmclioti is 
sometimes used. The triangular- headed 
opcoiogs are found In Norman work, at 
Norwich, Hndisco«t Norfolk, and Her- 
riii^eet, Suffolk j in early English work^ 
at Blackland, Wilts* and Hereford Cathe- 
dral ; in Perpendicular work f at Goodnes* 
tone, near Wingham^ Kent* The ab- 
ience of buttresses it no pecular feature ; 
maoy ch arches of all the styles are with- 



out buttresses. The peeu! larky of the 
balustre In windows is overturned by 
Tewkesbury and St. Alban^s. Mr, Syd- 
ney Smirke, after a very careful examina* 
tion of the mai^onry of Westminster Hall, 
the work of William Rufns^ obserres that, 
if we find masonry of so rude a character 
in the principal ball of the royal palaoe, 
we may safely assume that at this period 
good and experienced masons were want- 
ing. He did not mean to assert that there 
are no Saxon remains, but that the fea- 
tures said to be characteristic of a Sazon 
style are not to be relied on. 

Mr. James Park Harrison, of Christ- 
chureb, made »ome obsenrations in sup- 
port of the Saxon theory, and relied much 
on the constractioQ, which in the best 
specimens of that style is rather that of 
carpenters than of masons. 



ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES. 



SOOIKTT QT AJCTtaUARies. 

i>#e. 7. Ixjrd Viscount Mabon, V.P. 

J, Y, Akerman, esq. communicated an 
■ccaunt of Tarioua relics discovered at 
Roaodway Down, near Devizes, on the 
esutea of E. P. Colston, esq. At the 
depth of seven feet a skeleton was found 
IB the remains of a wooden cist, which 
kftd been bound with iron. Various curious 
artiolsi of jewellery were disinterred, 

SaBvel fiirch, esq. communicated some 
observations on an Etruscan vase in the 
British Museum, representing a myth of 
U«rcules aod Juno. 

Six Henry Ellis, Sec. read some in- 
slriictinnsof the Privy Couucili dated June 
26, H»00, addreaaed to the Lord Treasurer 
and the Lord Admiral as Lieutenants of 
Uw oonnty of Sussex, for the levy of fifty 
SBB for aervioe in Irelaad, of whom 12 
f Co b« armed with pikest 6 with bills, 
ith muskets, 6 with bastard muskets, 
I 20 with calivers, aod all provided with 
fwordi and daf^en. Earnest admonition 
WM given both for the provision of better 
neo and better arms and clothing than 
kad been eustomary ; andr because many 
men bad been known previously to run 
away, or be exchanged, on the marchi they 
were to be conducted by men char^^ed by 
Uieeottiity as far as Chester, where captains 
were appointed to receive them. 

Df€. 14. W. R. Hamilton, esq. V.P. 

William Diiout esq- of Alnwick, Clerk 

'^tbc Peace for Northumberland, was 

1 a Fellow of the S>ociety. 
nTabei Allies, esq. made a communi- 
cation reapecting various antiquitiea dis- 
eovered in Worcestershire. 



Philip Howard, esq. of Corby, com- 
municated some account of the recent 
opening of the monuments of the Howards 
in the church of Framlingham, Sulfolk: 
ascertaining that the bodies interred were 
removed, together with the tomb^, from 
the priory of Thetford after the disso- 
Itition, The remains found are suppoiied 
to be those of the third Duke of Norfolk 
and his wife, of the poet Earl of Surrey* of 
his brother4n-law tbe Dnkc of Richmond 
(natural son of Henry VI 11.) and his 
Couatess, and some others. 

Studley Martin, esq. communicated an 
account of tbe discovery of a ^epulchrul 
urn in Lancashire. 

Georze Stevens, esq. presented a verti- 
fied and alliterative translation of *'Tbe 
Phoenix, the king of birds,"' one of the 
Anglo-Saxon poems contained in the 
Exeter Book. 

Dec, 2\, Mr. Hamilton in the chair. 

Mr. C. R. Smith communicated a no- 
tice of some Roman remains recently found 
near Boulogne, in a locality identified as 
the site of a cemetery appertaining to the 
ancient town Gessoriacum. Mr. Smith 
exhibited aeveral urns, bracelets, f^bulte, a 
glASS veaael, lamps, and coins of Claudius, 
Vespasian, Gordian, Postumus, and Te- 
tricus. On one of the small vases in red 
earth was scratched the word casta. It 
appears that this ancient burial place has 
furnished an immense quantity of anti- 
quities, among which glaas vases of a 
variety of elegant patterns hold a con- 
spicuous place. There were also found 
some coffins in lead, examplea of which, 
Mr. Smith stated, had also been found at 



80 



Antiqnarmn Researches. 



[Jan. 



Couttticesi and In London ; t!iat from the 
former pLice contained a gloss bottle and 
a coin or Posttmius. 

A mazar-cap, engru^ed wUli various 
devices in oulLinej wa*} exhibited, and oc^ 
compauied by some iUubtrativc reniarkis 
from Albert Way, eaq. Director* Tbis 
wa9 the favourite kiod of drinking -vessel 
with every class of society in ancient 
times ; was u^iiatly made of mapJe^ or 
other light wood^ oocaflionally mounted by 
rings or bands of the precious mctols, and 
called murruf in Latin from a supposed 
resemblance to the famed Myrrhene rases 
of antiquity. 



TUE, cms A WALI^, 

Father Hyacinth Duts^hurin, who was 
many years a member of the Russian 
efltablishment at Pckin* hag, in a late 
number of ** The National Memoirs,*' 
produced much navel information on the 
subject of the construction of the cele- 
brated ^* walL" lie controverts the 
opinion, prevalent among Europenni, 
that thia extensive work» w^hich strctchea 
from the Gnlf of Corea westward to the 
fortress of Zyayni-quin, is wholly built 
of stone, and hag eiifitedr without any 
essential decay or injury, for thirty 
centuries ; and he sliowa that there are 
ao grounds whatever for the assertion. 
The design of protecting the frontiers of 
the empire with walla was conceived in 
the fourth century before the birth of 
Christ, at a time when the territory with- 
in the wall, or what now constitutes China 
Proper^ wa£ parcelled out Into seven 
distinct Bovereignties, many of their 
princes adopting the system of defending 
themaeheii againat the inroads of their 
rivals by erecting walls along their frontiers. 
Father Hyacinth quotes many instances 
in point from the records of that age, 
aiMl observes, that remains of these de* 
iieiiO«f are still found in the interior of 
China. The system was afterwards 
adhered to anil extended, but the material 
Qied was usually what the Chinese call 
*' beaten earth, "not stone. In the course 
of time I however, the walls so constmcted 
have almost crmmbled away ; nor does it 
appear probable that war has had much 
to do with their decay ; they seem to have 
ll»en levelled, if not by the effects of rain 
and storma, by the appliance of the plough* 
share. 

When the Mongolians of Tshuchar and 
Odos infested the northern borders of 
China in the middle of the tifteenth 
century, the ruling powers set about the 
reatoration of the wall in that direction, 
rebuilt that portion of it which extends 
frmn 0a*|elMn-fle westwards to Byan- 
10 



in 1 



tsheu-guan^ a distanco of GOB li, (about 
"14 mites), and in the year 1544] reno- 
vated a further portion of 300 It, though 
ju ivhait precise quarter is not specified. 
In the following year the great wall in the 
|truviuce uf Datchaufu was erected. AU 
Ihuu^h Chinese history gives no informa- 
tion respecting the further extension 
the wall to the Gulf of Corea, no doi 
can exist that the great wall now exiatii 
between .Shnnehaiquau Shopcbinfu 
Tshi-li, which is faced with stone and 
bricksr was constructed anew under the 
Ming dynasty ; for it is not possible that 
the barrier of eurth thrown up in tlie sixth 
century should have remained entire until 
the fifteenth. The great wall stretching 
from Shopcluufn in a westerly direction, 
is :^^SQ li (1410 miles) in length, aud was 
built in the Meenth and sixteenth 
centuries. Part of this chain, which ex- 
tends from i^hopchinfu southwards, and 
thence to the north-east, as far as Lake 
Chuamatshi, was constiucted in the year 
1471^; but the majority of the military 
colonists, who are appointed to guard 
the Chinese border, having ixed upon 
the northern side of the wall for their 
agricultural settle menis, the foundation 
of the existing wall was laid in 1^04, and 
the earlier line of defence was thenceforth 
designated "the second wuU;" similar 
duplications of walls an* to be met with 
in other provinces, for instance, inLyant- 
shcufu. Tbe facing of the ancient walla 
of earth with brick b and granite was be- 
gun in the fifteenth century ; this, there- 
fore, is the trite date of itll the lines lo 
faced. 

F ro ni the wcstc rn borders of th e p rovince 
of Tshili tlio wall thence tiikea a westerly 
direction through the province of Snn- 
st, is built of beaten loam, without any 
facing, of inconsiderable width, and not 
more than hve feet tn height ; further 
onwards, namely, from Sun*»i to Shon-si, 
the Hoang-ho or Yellow River forms the 
frontier defence lustead of the great wall, 
aud is protected by isolated posts : beyond 
this^ still in a westerly direction, the wall 
is low iiud narrow, buried in sand where 
sandy plains occur, and in other places 
completely levelled ; the only exception 
being in Sut»hen» near the fortress of 
Zyayui-tjuin, where it is in a good state 
of preservation. It may be remarked, 
that the walls of this fortress itself arc not 
built even of brickn, but of compressed 
earth. Lower down towards the south, 
no defence tit to be termed a wall exists \ 
the only approximation to it is a ditch, 
provided at certain points with a better 
kind of wall. 



fll 



HISTORICAL CHRONICLE. 



FOREIGN NEWS, 



tht a^iin of Spain give great uneAsU 
neia to the Fren<!fa Uovemment. M, 
BretfiORp the new Ambassador, wbo bad 
got at far as Bayonne on hk way to Ala- 
drid, baa been stopped, until more is 
Icoown BS to tbe turn afikir^ are likely to 
take. Tbe increased zeal of tbe French 
LcgittfQlsts in LfOndon, in apparently re- 
cofiiiaing tbe Duke of Bordeaux as Ktng 
of France, has also created uneasiness. 
Tbe applioatioQ of tbe Duke dVAumale 
for the band of tbe Princess^ Mnrie 
Teraae, aifter of tbe King of tbe Two 
Sicilies, bai been accepted. Tbe French 
Mint hos struck a very tine mediU in 
commem oration of the viait of Queen 
VTctoria to France. The foreign trade 
of France baa diminished considerably. 
Tbe subscriptions for tbe suiTerers by tbe 
late earthquake at Guadaloupe nmount 
to abont l,300,000f. 

SPAIN. 

Oloztga has been dismissed from the 
PremiATibip, which ba& been followed by 
llie bfeakin^ up of the whole of the 
Cabinet. A very serious offence is al- 
leged against the late Premier — no Jess 
than hia having, on the 28th of November, 
rudely and forcibly compelled the youiig 
Qoecn to^ign a decree for the dissolution 
of the Ckjrtes. Her Majesty's statement, 
delivered in tbe preaenoc of the National 
Notary^ was laid before the bouse m\ tlic 
SOth. Olozaga indignantly denies the 
truth of tbe allegation, and says that the 
story is trumped up by n cnboil which 
existed in the palace, iit the Uend of which 
are certain notables backed by General 
Narvae/, whote object , Olcfxaga says, in. 
tu render themselves masters of Spain ^ 
and to roarry tbe Queen to the eldest son 
of Don Carlos. Tbe conduct of the ex - 
Premier baa the appeuianee of openness 
and emndour, and bis demand to be put 
11BOO faia trial apeaka much in bis favour. 
Cmsilei Bravo, who b«& been elected to 
Cana « Moderado ministry » has succeded 
in haiol^«ct. An affray ha& taken pbcc in 
^fft\>^iA in roTisequence of some indi- 
vni Mig *' Bspartero for ever t " 

'iiu: « re culled outi and some few 

f ttmum were kiUed and wounded before 
md§tmm» restored. 

ORCECE. 

At Athena, a drfift of the new consti* 
tniKMi Ihu boen submitted to the King. 
GiiCT, Mao. Vol. XXL 



There are to be two Chftmbers,— namely, 
a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies ; and 
the country is to be divided into ten pro- 
vinces. The King is to choose the Sena- 
tors from a triple list of deputie-j. The 
King has opened tbe General Assembly, 
and eitjoined on all parties mutual coo^ 
cessions in forming the delinittve Con- 
stitution of the country. 

SICILY. 

An eruption of Mount Etna has lately 
token place* Tbe mountain bad been for 
some days beavily capped with densse 
clouds ; some rumblinj^s were heard at 
times resembling distant thunder; and 
many persons, especially on the wtatstde, 
near Bronte, innigined they felt at inter- 
vals slight shocks of earthquakes. About 
midnight, on Saturday the 1 0th Nov. 
several violent explosions were beards 
and fire was soon seen to ascend from 
near the mouth of the old crater. Tha 
stream of lava gradually increased in ex- . 
tent, and took a course towards the town 
of Bronte; luckily a few hillocks to its 
left served to turn the direction, which 
then flowed on towards the post -road to 
Palermo, having utuined tbe destructive 
breadth of upwards of two miles; the 
sight is awfully grand and beautiful, yet 
terrific beyond description. It bids fair to 
be the most magnificent eruption of tbe 
last century. As yet its diimages have 
been confined to a few bouses and vine, 
yards, and afiirge paper manufactory. 

INDIA. 

The Punjiitib remains in a state ol 
anarchy. Dholeep Singh, described as a 
son of one of Runjeet*8 wives, only seven 
years of age, is still the nominal Raja, 
and Heera Singh acts us Prime MiniBter; 
but the uncles of the latter are disstitistied 
with the new nnangecncnt* and Ghoolm , 
Singh, with an army of '23,(XX) men, wa« 
marching upon Labor e, where a seriouf 
contest was anticipated. Lord Ellenbo- 
rough has ordered an army of 36,0OiJ men 
to assemble on the Sikh frontier, to 
prevent any aggreaaion on British terri- 
tory, and to watch forthcoming events. 

Dost Mahomed, though not very popu- 
lar at Cabul, is making preparations, it is 
said, for a movement upon Pesbawur | 
and, unless the English governraent inter- ^ 
fere, would in a short time recover poa- i 
session of that territory, which had beett | 
conquered by Runjeet isingb, 

M 



82 



Domestic Occurrence, 



[Jan. 



Dewan Sawun MuU, the chief of 
MoulUn, was murdered about the time 
the horrible assassinations took place at 
Lahore. 

The utmost tranquillity prevails in 
Sinde, a good proof that the people are 
content with the new government; Sir 
Charles Napier remaining at Kurrachee. 
The treasure taken at Hyderabad has 
been brought to Bombay ; it amounts to 
about 700,000/. 

CHINA. 

The Chinese Government continue to 
respect the treaty, and affairs go on 
peaceably. The state of trade at Hong 
Kong does not appear to be satisfactory 
at present, and sickness still prevails 
there. The smuggling of opium still 
continues, though not sanctioned hy the 
British. The Bogue forts are rebuilt in 
nearly the same state as before. The 
Chinese Government has claimed four 
millions of dollars from the Hong mer- 
chants as a contribution on account of the 
Canton ransom. The Emperor has is- 
sued several prochunations, exhibiting 
a wish to protect <* the foreign barbari* 
ans," and to punish those who maltreated 
the sailors shipwrecked in the Nerbudda 
and Anne in toe beginning of 1842. 

CIRCA8SIA. 

A battle has been lately fought between 
the Russians and the Circassians. The 
Utter, with about 1,200 men, attacked 
with great resolution two Russian bat- 
talions, when marching to relieve other 
troops. The Russians fought bravely, 
but were obliged to retire before the great 
numbers of the enemy. Six Russian 
officers were killed, and the loss on that 
side was in general great. A regiment of 
chasseurs came to the aid of the Rus. 
sians, and forced the Circassians to give 
wmj. 

ABYSSINIA. 

Seven thousand Christian slaves have 
been liberated from galling bondage at 



the intercession of Captain Harris, Ute 
Ambassador to Abysnnia^ whilst bun- 
dreds of doomed Pagan prisoners, taken 
in the bloody forays witnessed by the 
British Embassy, were set atlai^e through 
the same mediation. Several members 
of the Royal house of Shoa, and Princes 
of the blood, whom a barbarous policy 
has, since the days of Solomon, doomed 
to chains and a living grave, have been 
liberated. 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

The Anglo- Dutch farmers at Natu) 
have submitted to the British Gt>vem- 
ment. Major Smith has taken possesaioa 
of Pietermauritzbei^, and begun to erect 
a fortification there. Trade has been 
opened between Natal and the Cape Co» 
lony. The discretion and zeal of Com- 
missioner Cloete, in bringing about this 
satisfactory conclusion of troublesome 
hostilities, are highly commended. 

SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

Admiral Thomas has formally restored 
to King Kamehamea III. the Sandwich 
Islands, with the sovereignty of them, 
which that Prince had given over to the 
Queen of England by the hands of Lord 
George Paulet. 

ALGEUIA. 

General Tempoure attacked the camp 
of the Caliph Sidi Embarack-ben-AUah, 
on the 1 1th Nov. at Mallah, a place forty 
leagues to the west of Mascarah. This 
chief, who was on his way to join Abd- 
el-Kader, is described as only second to 
the latter in importance. His army, 
which consisted of several battalions of 
infantry and a regiment of ca\'alry, was 
entirely destroyed. Sidi Embarack him- 
self was killed, with 400 of his men ; 
aOO prisoners, and three standards were 
taken. It is said that the pretext for in. 
vading Tunis and Morocco has at length 
been afforded in the shelter offered in 
those States to Abd-el-Kader and his 
followers. 



DOMESTIC OCCURRENCES. 



JVbr. 23. The manor and township of 
^ton Qrmngtf in the county of Chester, 
was this day sold by auction to Sir Ar- 
thur Aston, GC.B. of Aston, Ute Am- 
bassador to Spain, for 22,100/. indepen- 
dent of the timber. It was the property 
of Sir Ricliard Brooke, Bart, and was 
sold by him in consequence of a recent 
purchase of the manor of Kekewich in 
the same county, for which he has given 
35,0001. 

Not, 28. The Queen and Prince Al- 



bert left Windsor Castle on a visit to Sir 
Robert Peel at Drayton Manor. They 
joined the Birmingham Railway at the 
Watford station, and were received at the 
Tamworth station by Sir Robert Peel. 
Lady Peel received her Majestv at the 
entrance of Drayton Manor : where the 
dinner party consisted of twenty-one per- 
sons, including the Duke of Rutland, the 
Duke and Duchess of Buccleuch, the 
Earl of Jersey, Lady Portnaan, Uc, On 
the following day the Queen Dowager 



1S44.] 



Ootnesi k Occn i ren ces , 



M 



jcrt?»r4 the \iAsty, Krince jMbert vj!>iteii 
Btrtiitngham, On Thiirsdny Nov. 30, her 
MH,csty» aUendcd by Prince Albert and 
^'vrrnl of the most didtinpished go&siR, 
r^itod Lichfieid. On Fndny Dec, 1, tlic 
\%irrn Mnd Prince removed from Tarn, 
to Ckatmtortft, (still ncconipiiriied 
'^'Om Dukes of Wellington tind Buc- 
I,) and were received by tlie VnUt 
of Devonshire and Lady L<jui«i Caven- 
di:>b. On ihe west tcrraee her AJajesry 
visited an oak tree plnnted by herself 
eleven year* ago, and Prince Albert 
ftiited another by its side* A ball took 
in the t-vening. The nent day ihe 
Ktid cofisorvnrory was illuminated before 
dinner. On Sunday divine service was 
performed before the Queen in the pri- 
rate chapel, and her Majesty afterwards 
rode CO tile gardens, where Mr. PaxtoOt 
the giirdeneft presented her with his 
** Mapzine of Hotany/* in 8 vols. A 
selection of «<acred music was performed 
by the Duke'schamberbind in the evening. 
On the morning of Monday, Dec. 3, 
' er Majesty left Chatsworth for Beivoir 
kjiile, attended by the Duke of Devon. 

'tlnre, as far as Deroy, where he presented 
a county address as Lord Lieutenant, at 

_tbe railroad station. At Nottinghann 

evcral triumphal arches were erected, 

nd other demonstmtions of respect paid. 

Duke of Rutland received her 

fajesty at Belvoir Castle, and the key of 

'^thc Staunton tower was presented to ber 
bj the Rev. Dr. Staunton. The next 
monung there was a magnilicent display 
of the Slelton hound.*, about iOO scarlet 
roots being in the field. The Duke of 
Wellington Joined the sport. In the 
evening, before dinner, the Mayors of 
Gfsatham and Leicester jiresented tid^ 
4twmeM from the corporations of their 
townf. On Thursduy the ()th her Majesty 
rttumed from Belvoir CiKstleto Windsor. 
T/t* Anffelt JE^/a/e*.— The celebrated 
^icn to these immense estates, which has 
4lccupied the attention ot the legal pro. 
fe»sion and the public for many years past 
in various parts ot the kingdom^ was de- 
cided in an ejectment case before Lord 
Chief Justice Tind»l nnd a special jury, 
at Croydon assizes, on the t?6th Oct, after 
a triiil of t^^o days* continuance, by a ver. 
diet for the plaintiff, William Angell ; 
thua eDtablishing the hi^irship and claim 
of this once poor man (hite an agricultural 
labourer) to the property in Sui*'« ex, Surrey, 
and Kent, formerly of William Angell, 
the first Durehaser of CrovvhurRt, in Snr- 
rey^ of tuc value of upward'* of a million 
of money. Some lighthoti&es, parr of the 
property, were lately sold to the Trinity 
Hotite for about 230,a00/.^Ou the 2d of 

yoftmber, however, Mr. Xhefiigcr ap- 



plied ill the C^urt of Queen's Beitth for 
a rule ni*i for « new trial, ou various 
grounds; among others, on the ground 
that the parish registers produced in court 
to prove the descent of the plaintiff had 
evidently been tampered with^ ns was 
proved by comparing them with the tran- 
scriptis in the Bishop's Court, Among 
other iBstances was a register &aid to cori- 
tniij an entry of the death of Marriott 
Angell in the year 1728, wliich name 
occurred in the will of the testator, in 
virtue of which this property is claimed. 
On comparing the register with the tran- 
EcripC, it appeared that the real name had 
been Margaret Ange, which had been 
altered in the register to Marriott Angell, 
Tlie learned Counsel, however, com- 
pletely ejtonerated the lessor of the plnitt- 
tilf and his adviseis from the charge of 
tampering with the registers, inasmuch as 
for the last thirty years the registers had 
been in the pos5ession of the vicar of 
the puri^b. For many years before that 
period, however, ditTerent persons had 
been making claims to this property, and 
to some one of the former claimants 
these tnmpe rings with the register were 
attributed. The Court granted a rule niti 
on all the f?rounds. 

Wreck of ihe Rnyai George.— The 
operarions which have been for some 
years in pi ogress for clearing away the 
wreck of the Royal George at Spit* 
head arc at length completed. When the 
Royal George went down, in 178*2, there 
were 100 guns on board, viz, 28 iron 3S?. 
pounders, IG iron 1*2 -pounders, 28 brasa 
g-t-pounders, and 2B brass l2*poundenr. 
Of these, six iron r2- pounders and nine 
brass 12- pounders were removed in the 
cour!;e of the same year liy means of the 
diving-bell; after which nothing was done 
till the year 1B34, when Mr. Charles An- 
thony Deane first brought his diving hel- 
met and dress, which was a very old idea, 
suggested in various books for nearly 
three centuries^, back, to such a state of 
|ierlection as to reuclLr it nvuilablc for 
praclicHl ptir poses. In the years 1834"^ 
183j, and 183G, Mr. Deane recovered 
seven iron 32-pounders, 18 brass 2^^ 
pounders, and three brass l3.pounderS| 
2B in all i for wbieii be received salvage 
from the Board of Ordnance ; ofter which 
the remaining guns being buried in mud, 
or under the limbers of the upper part* of 
the wrerk, eluded his efforts, as nothing 
but gunpowder coiihl render them accea- 
sibte. hx lS3iK when Major-getJeral 
Paaley, then Colonel of the Roynl Engi- 
neers, commenced his operations, in which, 
he has never spared thot most essential 
article, without which nothing could have 
been done, he reoovercd I2fiins, II mor« 



u&9ite'^ 



fC(f^i 



m Mir nduMinlMlibui in 1S42 be 
mUfmeennnd one iron 12-pound«r, be- 
CMM0 b« cbeo directed that the divers, 
who had cot down to the floor* dm bent 
isd Ip0cl, iboiild couiine tbeir efforts to 
tk« reiDOfal of die woodwork of the hull ; 
and h« pursued tbe Mme Byvtem in the 
■noMDcr of 1643, until the whole of the 
Iml and bottom planking were i^ot up^ 
tilmwb^h the half -anchor creeper drawn 
transvervety, and a frigate'* onchor longi- 
tudinfeUy acroA« tbe originil position of 
the hul), proved that no more woodwork 
ivmained, when he directed that guns 
only «houtd be »on^ht for, in consequence 
ol whirh 110 lesii than 13 have been reco. 
¥ered thia season. Hence 4^ guns in oil 
We been recovered by tbe divers cin^ 
ployedunder Mi^or-Oeneral Pasley.whicb^ 
with 15 recovered in 1782» and 29 reco- 
rered by Mr. Deaiie, a* before mentioned, 
amount to a total of 66, leaving 14 guns 
•till at the bottom ^ of which number six 
are iron 12-pounderB, one h a htAsa 24- 
poundcr, and six arc brass I2«puimdprs> 
The quantity of iron ballast in the hold 
of tbe Royal George when she sank was 
126 tons 1^ cv/u, generally in pig« of 
teven to the ton, of which more than 119 
torn have hten i.eiit of by the militarv 
dlrers and delivered into I'ort^tnoutli 
dockyard, fto (bat the quantity now re- 
maining at the bottom is less than seven 
tons, liing only 17 pigs, which, iiiivlng 
been scattered about by the constant 
areeptngp Hiid by tbe numerous cxplostonSf 
cinnot obstruct the (inL'homgc. In re- 
•paet to the 11 guns stitl remaiiungp all 
blvM about four feet under the mud, and 
of wbieh one only is tt heavy gun, nhould 
a ahip's anchor hereafter get bold of one 
of them, which is posiible, though Vf'ry 
onUkeiy, it will, on being weighed, raise 
the gun up to the surface of the mud^ or 
a little above it, after which it will release 
it, and it may then be ft\uii^ with ease. 
The quantity of gunpowder fired this sea<> 
sou amounted to nM931bs. that is^ to 
nearly ?li barrels. 

Mr« Piirdo, the principal master- 
attendant of Portsmouth dockyard, bav. 
Trig examined tbe tf^ by dragging a fri. 
gate's anchor pqiMledfy o%xr ir, and 
Oiectincr no obttniist&OOt has reported to 
Rear-Adiii. Hyde Parker, that the ground 
where tbe wreck ot tbe Royal 6eorge 
Apmcfljr laf i* ^ovf clear and quite as 
il fer toe ute of bcr Maiesty'a ships as 
Mf Otber part of tbe anchorage at Spit- 
bead ; wbleb report, in corroboration of 
General Pialeyls ODinion, having been 
communieaied oAelally to tbe Admiralty, 
tbrir loedtblpa bave ordered tbe wieck 
buoy to be removed from tbe ipot, as 



being no loiifer neeemry* Formerly 
there were lut or tevm Snouts of water 
only over tbe wreek of the Royal Geor^, 
the bull of which, then nearly perfect, 
stood 33 feet higher than the general level 
of the anchorage grounds At present, tbe 
ground where the wreck lay is on the 
same level nearly with the remainder of 
the anchorage. 

TVopkieM from China, — A curious 
collection of gtin^i and swords, cap* 
tured during the hite war in China, Iiy 
Commander W. H. Hail, at that time 
Captain of the Nemeais iron steamer, 
ana now the Commander of tbe Royal 
Victoria and Albert )'afbt, haa ar. 
rived at Windsor Castle, having been 
accepted by her Majesty, a portion of 
which mny be thu<i brietly described :— 

1. An immense brass gun, 12-pounder, 
upwurds of eleven feet iu lengthy nod 
beaytifully cost. Thia was captured from 
the war-juTtk of the ChincAC Admiral, at 
the mouth of the Canton tiver, in 1941* 

2, A brass four.pounderj nearly six feet in 
length, beautifully carved with dolphin's 
head I. Tht6 gun was taken from tbe 
junk of the Chinese Commodore, and 
presented to Commander Hall by the 
officers of the ship's company of the Ne- 
mesis, 3. A i^mall brass *ilk gun, so de- 
nominated from its being elnhorateiy 
bound round and ornameiiled wiih silk^ 
over which, still further to preserve it, is 
also hound, with great taste, various folds 
of catgut. This guUf which was taken at 
Tstykee, iu 1842, is about two feet in 
length, and will carry a ball of 31b. This 
de^rnption is considered a great curiosity; 
only nine such guns were captured during 
Ihe'whole war. The piece i^ not mounted 
upon a cainagc, but tin either side are 
two hand lea, to be held by four men when 
it ifl discharged. 4* Two gingals, or long 
muskets, with tight«, and of recent ma* 
nufiicture. These muskets, which are 
about eight feet in length, proved the 
moBt destructive weapons, and did the 
greatest execution during the war. When 
diicharged they are loaded with at leact 
three, and iomctimeif four and five, small 
bullets, which they will curry an immense 
diitnnce. They were taken in the north 
ot China in 184:^. ^. Three Cbineite 
matchlocks, or uiuaket«, ^vith inscrip- 
tions, in Chinese chamcters, on the lodti. 
These were also captured in the north of 
China during the tast yenr. 6. A rurioua 
matchlock, with a reit ; the barrel bound 
round with rings, apparently to give it 
increased streugth, 7. A double-handed 
tword, or, rather, pair of swords, fitted 
into one scabbard ; the blades being 
about two feet six incbet in length. 



ta 



PROMOTIONS, PREFERMENTS, &c. 



BaZ^TE PftOMOTTONS. 
Wm* W^jrtk HilmA, Jolu Btlfonn mq, to 

_. I mnet esq. Advocate, to be 

PipBlt of ttm tmre or abetiilUoni of 

Dtniel Florence O^htvry, e«i. (now 

Pyvt^ru* r^iliflloj to be Charifc d*Af- 

il to the Republic of 

'T ]|[Acb«an, esq. to 

i mstatd aiitler the 
' m^ht Key. £ilw4nl 

^1.^ — :., ... ;.\eTcis« all tlic fwii*?- 

«9 wfU witli ffpird to the 
ai)tnttiAbtie<>, tif the Rif^ht 
«i»:G«0BPB-He»i7Bialiotof Bfiti, ^u>i wviK 
Utetv 5. Thomu Fred, Eniot , ' ^^^e 

flksir liBf^vre, and Cbarlea Al&x 1 1 ». 

» be Cotumiadoaera ftir snpi i 'he 

kd Mttleioimt of the wa^-' i he 

ia tbc Brillah Colonies, "n- 

,^_ii<ieof tmifrantstbithcr,— I I .. ;, . ..ijur 
Oiarbtt DcADc to be Lieat,-Cal.; <apt.A» B. 
Motilgmnery to be lllajor. 

/Jrr. 8. John Blakiston, esq. late brei?et 
Major and Qtjjtaiu )i. ]>, QTHt Vtrnt, to be one 
of tlurr MajeAls's Hon, Lbrp^ of Gentlemen at 

/?rt. M, TliomAj* UkXt of Mellifonl Abbey* 
CO. J^onu'fiwt, Gent, and Rmiua- Phim>eii Lh 
mift't cldf«*t dan* .iml fobinr of Ricbard Gilliiiir, 
Itfr of Ched^Ur. i>st|. t<i take the oaine of Gil- 
oialy, and bear xhf- itrra«. 

12, l.ieut.-f ■ ^ •^' -^qriouMaitlaiid, 

tu be Gov ilomouuider in 

thfCapet: .— James Hiid- 

\v Hfr . Mi k.t-^iiiniu at Waabin^i 

rotiiry of liuj^ation at tbo Hague; 

J,.. ., Jvt Lsq. (now Secretary of f.^a^ 

J to lie ispcrr'tary of Ug^aliijn at 

Georift^ JoliJi Kuliert Gordon, 

Attach*' at Rif* <h^ J :*n..rnk to 

of I>'i^»tii>u iit ^-T ' md 

;raven, ^^i^q- mow 1 nt 

b» to hit H+Mfrtajy ol L. id- 

7Sth Fixit, Major R. D. iiMiiiii\ ir* l»e 

" ilot**-! ; brevet Major J. H. En^flaiid to 

:izUt Boo. Richard I'aken- 
r Miyeaty'a Privv CounriU 
^rr. to be one of Her Ma- 
j ' uttemen at Aims. 

James McLaren, C*B, 
I < ^ the Order of the 

i* I trie tljirdctfts*. 

/'. y SterlJn|^re»q- to bcAttor- 

Mr '- iiland of Honff Kong,— 

I oUSir H. H, Sale. aCB,, 

1 r H.X. Vigo^l»tobcLic1lt.- 

< Meredith to bo Major,— 

J lUt'trn, on haif-iiay Unattached, 

I r iiiAut of the Royal Militaiy Asy* 

A Edmund Morris, CB., to be 
1 -ftoner and Magistrate for the 

i: ^^or^c. Cape of Good Hope.— > 

7 ' '\\if Mjyor Robert Riehard- 

<\>'t ^pt. T. L« Marcbajit 
r Foot, Capt. A. H. Ferry- 

trquesa of Granby; to be a 
L 1 1 amber, and Admiral Lord 

olviHc 33) *^ua Lord of the Hedcliamber, to 
' t Ooyal Highneaa Priuce Albeit. 



NaVAI. PROMOTlOlTfl. 

Promotion*, — Licutcnanta. Sir W, Hoiiet 
Bart, C, W. Matbiaon (Ftar Lieatenant to 
Admiml SirC. RowkvkaouJ. Moore (son of 
the late Sir Graham Moore), to the rank of 
Commander. 

Appttinfmentt.—CammhndBT E. B. H. Howlef , 
to the SatelUte j CotnmaQder W, Chambera, 
to the Albion; Tlioraas Read, to the oot- 

rision of Greeawicb: T. H. Maaon* and 
Ev Biiticbam, to the Royal Naval College ^ 
J. Wolfe^to the Tartarufi. 



Member returned tr/ iterve in Parliameni, 
Ktfkenmy Co.— Pierce Somerset Butter, taq,. 



EcCt^HSTASTICAL Pill FB KM X NTS. 

Rev% W. B. Knight, to be Dean of LlandafT. 
Rev. W. M. Wttde, to be Dean of Glasgow. 
Rev. John Sinclair, M.A. to be Arcti deacon ot 

Middlesex, 
Rev. \\\ Crawley, to the new Archdeaconry of 

Moninoutb, 
Rifv, J. Garbett, to be Preb. of Chirbeater. 
Rev. H^ Wookombe, to be Preb. of Ejcetcr. 
Rev. R, C. Clifton, to be Canon of llttncbeat«r. 
Rev. Fx. Hrown, to hv ft Minor Canon of OrUale. 
Rev. W. G. AUfr**fv SouOieaBe R. Sussex. 
Rev. H. Aslir^ - ' " -rrinjrton R. l*inc» 
R*?v,T. Bsx.i ri V. Norf. 

Rev. W. J. i= Tirrold R. Derka. 

Rev. w. A C IN y,^^':t dtffttun -en-le-Fiefd* 

R, Herb. 
Rf'v. W. K. Clav, Holy Trinity P. C. Ely. 
Rev. R. Cowplkiid, Uinta ajid Weeford P. C 

StalTordishire. 
Rev. J. C. Crawley, St, John'a R. CornwalL 
R^v. C. l*ay, St. awitbeii's R, Norwich. 
lU'v. H. Klfiott, Cfl^itle .Sowcrby V. Cuniberl. 
Rev. W. OrigifOn, Wbinburgli and Weatfield 

R. R. Norfolk. 
Rev. U. Goest, St. Katharine's V* C. North- 
am ptou. 
Rev. L Guthrie, Cranlcy R. ^lurey. 
Rev. J. Hutchiiiiioit, Hiurton P. C. StalL 
Rev. r. H. Huriont Tubncy R. Berks. 
Rev. H. B. Joties, St, PauPs, Werneth P, C. 

Cheshire. 
Rev. R. H, Kinf?, Broomswell R- Suffolk. 
Rev. T. Ktiox, Ran well and Ramsden R, R. 

Grays^ Kiflex. 
Rev. it. beifrh, Hal sail R. Lane. 
Rev. E. A. Litton, St. 'rUomaa's, Stocktou 

Heath P. C Cbe«hire. 
Rev, 9. J. Lott, Bradniuch P. C. Devon. 
Rev. H. M. Marewell» rrarnptonV. Dorset. 
Rev. J. Middlcton, Brotnpton P. C. Yorksli. 
Rev. C. R. Muaton, St. Jobo's P. C Moubham, 

Bsaeic. 
Rev. H. L.O«wcU, StouJton P. C. Wora. 
Rev. W, Parkinson, Lani^rnhoe R. Bftsea. 
Rer. W. Parks, St. Baniabaa Opeuahaw P. G. 

Manchester. 
Rev. R, Pigot, Longrittfre P. C. Lane 
Rev. E. Richardson, Trinity Church P. C, 

Louth, Line. 
Rev. W, Richardson, Staioforth P. C. Yorksb, 
Rcy, L, Sanders, Wblmple R. I>evon. 
Rev. J. Sbaek|e\', tistiaidwirk V . York. 
Rav, J. P. i^imp'son, Cix»fton R. York, 
Rev. G. W. dtratton. Aylc«ton R. Leic. 
Rev. T, Trevanion. Whitby P. C, York. 
Rer. r. B. Tmm, U^Vf V. Wilt*. 



86 



Rev. J. White, SUlham V. Norfolk. 
Rev. W. Williams, Upton P. C. Southam, 
Warwickshire. 



Pre/ernienls. — Births . 



[Jan. 



Chaplains. 
Rev. W. Caras, to the Dake of Manchester. 
Rev. F. J. H. Rankin, to Her Majesty's settle- 
ments in the Gambia. 



Civil Prsferments. 

Rev. William Thompson, to be Principal of St. 

Kdmund hall, Oxford. 
Rev. Dr. Jelf, to be Principal of King's Col- 

lege, London. 
Rev. H. MelvilU to be Principal of the Hon. 

Bast India Company's College at Hailey- 

bnry. 
Rev. W. Singleton, M.A. to be Principal of 

Kingston College, Hull. 
A. Basther, esq. B.A. to be Vice-principal of 

the Collegiate School, Huddersfield, Yorksh. 
John Robert Kenvon, esq. D.C.L., Fellow of 

An Souls, to be Vinerian Professor of Com- 
mon Law at Oxford. 
Mr. George Weidemann, Fellow of Catharine 

Hall, Ckmb. to be Professor of Bishop's Col- 
lege, Calcutta. 
Rev. G. C. Hodgkinson, M.A. to be Second 

Master of the Granunar School, Bury St. 

Bdmund's. 
Rev. A. Anderson, M.A. to be Master of the 

Diocesan School at Newport. 
The Rev. W. J. Kennedy, M.A. (Cnrate of 

Kensington), to be SecreUry of the National 

Society: 
Sir Augustus Callcott, R.A. to be Keeper of 

Her Majesty's Pictures. 
C. L. Kastlake, esq. R.A. to be Inspector of 

the National GaUery. 

BIRTHS. 
Nor, 6. At GibralUr, on board the Great 
Liverpool, the wife of Major T. T. Pears, C. B. 

a dau. 16. At Pearl-hill, near Sonthampton, 

the Hon. Mrs. Harris, a son. 17. At Dur- 
ham, Viscountess Chelsea, a dau. 30. At 

Naples, the wife of Mijor Darby Griffith, dan. 

of the Hon. Baron Dimsdale, a dau. 91. At 

Stallbrd-house, the Duchess of Sutherland, a 

son. At Cranhill-house, near Bath, the wife 

of Simon Digby, esq. a dan. 23. In Dublin, 

the wife of the Rev. Sidney Smith, D.D. a son. 

35. At Femhill. Shropsh. the Hon. Mrs. 

Lovett, a son. At Warham Rectory, Nor- 
folk, the wife of the Hon. and Rev. lliomas 

Keppel, a sou. In Portman-sq. the Hon. 

Mrs. Adderley, a dau. 28. At dt. Helen's, 

Derby, the wife of Kdward Strutt, esq. M.P. a 

son. At Cahir, Tipperary, the wife of Col. 

Vandeleur, 10th Hussars, a son. 29. At Im- 

berhome, near Eastgrinstead, Sussex, the wife 

of Frederick C. Worsley, esq. a dau. At 

Clifton, the wife of C. T. Alleyne, esq. a son. 

30. The wife of Robert Bristow, esq. 

Broxmore-park, Wilts, a son and heir. 

Lateljf, In Grenville-st. Brunswick-sq. the 
wife or Harry Selfe Selfe, eso. Recorder of 

Newbury, a son. ^The wife of B. A. Holden, 

esq. of Astou-hall, co. Derby, a son. At 

Bolton-le-Moors, the wife of Ueut.-Col. Malet, 

a son. At Seend, Wilts, the wife of Ludlow 

llruges, esq. Ute M.P. for Bath, a dau. 

Dec. 1. At Longwood, HanU, the Countess 
of Northcsk, a son and heir. 2. At Broad- 
lands, near Romsey, the Viscountess Jpcelyn, 

a dau.^ At Formosa^rottage, Berks, the lady 

of Sir George Young, Bart, a |;on-— -«; At 
Peainore, tfie wife of Samuel Trehawke Keke- 
^>ch, esq. a dau. At Fftrieigh-cwitle, So- 

»«f»«t, the wift Of H^wry BwkenrlUe, c»q. « 



dau. 6. At W^okefield-park, Berks, the wife 

of Robert Allfrey, esq. a son. At East 

Sheen, Surrey, the wife of Francis Ommanney. 

esq. a dau. At Holywell-house, Hants, the 

wire of Thomas fiourke, eso. a son and heir. 

7. At Clarens on the Lake of Geneva, the 

wife oi the Hon. Fred. Pelham, Capt. R.N. a 

son. 8. At Bearwood, Berks, the wife of 

John Walter, inn. esq. a dau. 9. At Barking 

vicarage, the Hon. Mrs. Robert Uddell, a son. 

^The wife of W. H. Hull, esq. of Marpool- 

house, near Kxmonth, a son and heir. 

10. Mrs. William J. Thoms, of Marsham-st. 
Westminster, a son. 



MARRIAGES. 

Sept, 90. At Nnsseerabad, Uent. Matthew 
Ward, 4th Bengal Cav. (Lancers), third son of 
William WaniT esq. of Connaught-ter. late 
M.P. for the City of London, to Mary-Ann, 
eldest dan. of Capt. S. Nash, of the same regt. 
He died seven days after. See p. 110. 

Oct. 10. At Kaioa, Guxxerat, the Rev. Geo. 
Loacombe Allen, to Sarah, third dau. of the 
late Thomas Parkinson, esq. of Brook-st. and 
Kemsing, Kent. 

90. At Calcutta, Francis BuUer Teinpler, 
esq. of her Mi^esty's regt. and only son ofF. J. 
Tempter, esq. of Columbo, Ceylon, to Rmroa, 
eldest dan. of Thomas K. M. Tnrton, esq. Re- 
gistrar of the Supreme Court. 

ao. At Walmer, Simon Watson Taylor, esq. 
of Edinburgh, to Lady Charlotte Hay, dau. of 

the Marquess of Tweeddale. At Bombay, 

Capt. W. C. Barker, commanding the Hon. 
Company's steamer Victoria, to Miss Strong, 
niece of John Pinder, esq. oi York-gate, Re- 
gent's-park. 

31. At Enfield, Middlesex, Edward Cafe 
Tyte, esq. of Harrow, eldest son of Capt. 
Tyte, R.N. to Fanny, youngest dau. of William 
Henry Holt, esq. of Enfield, M.D. ^At Mil- 
ton, Kent, WilUam Lee, esq. Capt. R.M. to 
Mary-Anne, youngest dan. of the late Capt. 

Mundell, Ogth regt. At Tor, the Rev. T. 

Shelford, Rector of Lamboume, Essex, to 
Bliia-Jane. dau. of the late Count de Vismes, 
of Bsmoutb, and relict of J. Kane, esq. ot 

Withvcombe, Devon. ^At St. Gluvias, Jas. 

Henderson, esq. Royal Dock-yard, Devonport, 
to Margaret-Anne, dan. of William Kirkncss, 
esq. of CemickjComwaU. 

Lateljf, At Florence, the Hon. H. Dudley 
Ward to Eleanor-Lonisa, dau. of T. Hawkes, 

esq. M. P. At Lewlsham, Malor A. B. 

Stransham,R.M.,toBlixa,dau. of H. Coombe, 

esq. At Portsmouth. Viscount Kenmure, 

to Mary. Anne, dau. of the late James Wildey, 
esq ^— At Berne. Hugh Montgomery, esq. to 
Maria, dau. of tne Kupon de Feilenberg.— - 



up rrucwyr, oan. 

of Langley-park, Norfolk. ^The Rev. Henry 

Glynne, brother of Sir Stephen Olynne, Bart. 
M.P. to the Hon. Miss Lavinia Lyttelton, dau. 
of the Dowager Lady Lyttleton, and niece to 
Eart Spencer. At Brighton, Wm. Easter- 
ton, esq. of Manor-hoote, CbelaeiL to Anne, 
relict of John Allen Cooper, esq. formerly of 
Comberwell-park. WilU. 

Nor. 1. At Finsbury Chapel, Charles C. 
Hennell, esq. of Hackney, to Elisabeth- 
Rebecca, dau. of R. H. Brabant, esq. M. D. of 

Devixes. At Dovercourt, Lieut. Thomas 

Wood, R.N. to Sosannali, only dau. of Lient. 

Stephens, R.N. of Dovercourt. At Daw- 

lish, the Rev. James Hoare Moor, M.A. of 
Magdalen Coll. Oxf., to Emma-Jane, youngest 
dau. of the late Capt. O. G. Maitlan^; Madras 
European Regt. — At the British Embassy, 
Vienna, the Earl of SMburne, to the Uoq, 



»«♦.} 



Marriage$. 



ffl 



WmStf fiplilM&oae ite FlahAult, eldest dtu. of 

1|eOMii&de>lahAnir, rrcii b Ambassador at 

1^1 ' ■ i: ^■■' ••ntl Naiid. 

I * I !*»% t'«q» of 

, co. Lcicc^tvr, to Fniiicrs- 

-i% tUa, lit W. J, CarapiOTi, 

1. M stcj>Di»). Mr. \Va»cy Junes Xc»mati» 
# JkKpm V%ifk, St, Ojryth. l-^ue^t fiiurth 
Wtt of tlie Ute Kev, John Nfwiitaat M.it. 
War o# Witluun Ami niiUl^rditrb, to £iiima- 
Htria* onlf dan. of Mr. Robert L^ixi^, of 

Opwtl^^ctoQ- ^x\t Ardovne, tUr Hev. L. K. 

li. Clarke, Rector of Kmn<>r^J€'y, »oii of 
J. A. G- Oirke, efu. of Kimif rj^Uy CAi^tle. 
Ilff^nl»li« to IsabclJa-Horatia, third lUu. of 



CK AouoMP* Butler, BAft. of Bsillin lemple, 

ea GvlfiV' At IJwllnw, \V. Martin, r«'i. of 

Ka»i f '•*-!: luiin, Kent, to Amit secojjil dan. of W* 

' M\. of lladlon.^ — -At Lf-wtahnm, 

•ny U. i>lriiusbani, K.M, lo Eliita, 

f ll^rvev CtMnnli*, c,*q. At Sit* 

ry Myers, esq, of Miltou^tt. 

^ry, dkii. of tlic late Wtlliaia 

—At I**(ldiii)rton. tiK' llcv, 

[fftuaJ L'urati? of Pfiikridg^c^ 

son of J, ^, i?alt, i'Mi, of 

I iiv. -ik^rni.ii (iati. of Henry 

1*1. Hul€ Park. 

; ) Brov» n, M,A., 

i . - ,. . , Curtain road, to 

Uarw, ddr^t dau. uf tlic Lord Ul^hop Of 
Lsudofu 

Kf \iiirJ!n.i,.iiirii <ir[i||^ii Brown, e#q. 

lu tn Eliaabetb, 

Brown, esq- of 

**.-. .»i " '^. Hanover- 

I Bulk Hey I ■[. of the 

H«2t. to » dan, of 

Jolin B.ii.v . , , .. ... .^1 Hiorpc- 

Wh' and of Wc^stbonrnt'i ^uj^Kex. 
oath, Georjre L. Nortock, esq. 
S, St. ViuceJitf Fortiimouth, tu 
V, Htet dau. of till' Intu Major 

Hiutsani. At Hrriniidda, tlip 

..^.i.. ii„^... w,„ .i,..r of tlie 

t of Lieut, 

litest dau. 

I fif tboiic 

i ..i;. 1 Vrcad 

.-r-i ...I! i.f the 

. . .u< V, ijt Muiidniilf 

I 01 the kte S^iiijuel 

uy-hal I, Cheshire, and 

,_,Jllti-»JUU:^l-t IJrcii Liii^ruool. 

0* AlAllJSoiuls*, iJing^uarn-pI, WilUain Jaii. 

Hin^naT «^- c^f FatrHcId^ Uamible- 

n,-^r, »t*.Kf-.-.. . . -ti^c-it dan, of the 

r Yapton House, 

ic Kev. lleiuy 

, iii^^i...^^ ., . L . .>' ifiiifttiii, to Pris- 

iiii, of ttie laie 4aiDi.s Wilkinson, ea<i. of 




. envtock^ the Rev, Charles Raikes 

son of Lietit.^tien. Sir Wilham G. 

•nd K,*Mt. of Tracey Pnrk, Glonc. 

' rounffej<t dan. of Ale,x» 

t(, Wiltf, and urand- 

ij> of Uftlb and Well-^* 

M T « - -^^ vkar of 

' Hll,»erond 

.|,of Bir- 

fbc PieJds, 

, to tjouisa, 

C, B. 30th 

1 j,„ Hyie 

jine- 

iWijMMr,..^, .,-...-.... ;... ^. w. 

ringTattif t*f KiUbewford, VVorr. At Hor- 

LjitKwl, tUr Rev, W. ILCarwUUen, M.A, Rector 



of Challacombe, to Lotiiiia^ Albert ina, seen^nd 
dau, of thy Hcv, J, Dcne^ of Hork^^VH] Ituuie, 

At Barnstaple, the Hev, Jo* Uby 

Bryjin, Rector of t'liddesdeii, ! :en- 
BusanuA, dan, of the late Keii , "^lar- 
Bhalil^ Hector of Bow.^— .\t GriUistnnt, Nor- 
folk, tlieRev, W. C. Fearon, MA. of Sr. John'ti 
Coll. C^mbride, to Klixa, eldest *laif. of th« 
Rev. ^Vm. Fortfo, M. A,, Rector of Kitifif*a 
Stnnleyt Gloucesler»liire.- — At Stepney, IL 
P. West, esq. to Harah, dau, of Cjipl. Towns- 
end, <30th Rifle Corpii. At Briffhton, George 

M. Livesay, esq. to Heiiriotta-Phylia f and at 
the &atne time J. R, lllaruond, esq, voiinf^est 
son of W, B. Diamond, esq. to Amelia, daus. 
of tl)e late Horace Ellis, esq. of llof ihnm.— ^ 
At St. GcorsreX UIooin»four>% 1 1 ti^h Lennox, 
second «on of H. H. Mortiiu'er, es<u of l?pper 
Tooting, to Klixa-WatKonr second dati. of the 
iRte Charles BartrutOt, tan* of Peckhaiu. 

». At IJucklaiid,!<urrev, Rev. Henry Samuel 
Kyre, M.A, eldest son of Walnote Kyre, esiq, 
of BryatiHton-sq. to MariaUbftrlotle, second 

dm. of the lato John C-arbonell, cs<). At 

Camberwell, Joseph Tritton, esq. of Olnev 
Lodjre» Battcrsea, tn Amelia, dau, of Joseph 
lluiison, esq. of tlie Grove, Ciniberwcll.— ^ 
At Madron, Oeorije UeriTii* John, esq. soli' 
eilor, of Penzance, to Wilmot-Annf, only 
daw. of the late George Hichens, esq, of Pen- 
lance,— At Mointon, NorthaiDptonalu the Rev, 
W. A. Frances, M.A. Carate of Pag^leAham, 
Essex, to Emily, second dau. of the Rev. S, 
B. Ward, Rector of Qui n ton. — ^At Swana^, 
the Rev. T. Grey Clarke, to ^tatllda-Barbara, 
dau. of .Mrs. Coventry, of the Grove, Swaniupe. 

9. At C4jmntoii Vidi^nce, the Rev, Ed- 
ward Wil*on. Vicar of Whitchurch Canoni- 
corum,, iJorset, to Aniie-I>oiii»a Wardj dau. of 
the late Bishop of 8odor and Mati.^— At 
Riilinhur^h, Jas. Matbeson, esq. of Achany, 
M.P. for Ap*bbnrton, to Mary.Janc, fourth 
dau. of the late Michael tlenry Perceval, esq, 

At Tunbrid;?e Welta, Capt. G, S. Meynoldfl, 

R,X. to Eli/a.riusatiiiali, strond dan. of the 

late Janjci* Walker, esq. of llLacktieath. At 

Trinity Church, Marylcbone, Ediimiid Ludlow, 
e^q. of Weymouth'Bt. Portlaod-pL to Mrs. 
Rooke, late of Renm, Hert'*, — At Amster- 
dam, and on the following day at the Ha^ue, 
John'Le<^nard Wollenbcck, esq. to Elizabeth^ 
Grant, younarcist dau. of the late Francis Bor- 
row, eaui. of BoclieHter, Kent. 

13. First acconliu^ to the ritei of the Ca- 
tholic Clmrch, and afterwards at Leamiorton, 
Baron .Idolph Phtlipp llrnest de Weilcr, rlrst 
Licat. of the Ist reg^t. of Uranus, iu the aer- 
vice of the Grand T>ukc of Itaden, to Louisa, 
dau, of the bte W'illiaui Le Blanc, esq. of Pip- 
pill)fford-lo*lJ^:e, Sussex. 

It. At Stonehouso, Lieut. Harry P. Veitch, 
of HM.ri. K\cellent, to Georriana -Umanney, 
youngeflt dau, of Capl» J. Lawrence, C,B., 

ILN. ^At Saxmundhani, ijuffolk, Jane, fourth 

dan. of tlie late John Woods, est], of Darnham 
CottAfe, to Edward Lubbock, esq. M.D. of 

Norwich, ^At St. Margitret^s, Westminster, 

Henrv Macg^regor Clark, esq, to Anue^ dau. of 
David Haberlson, esq. of Great Georye-street, 

Wcsslnijnster. George, fourth son of Wil- 

liani'Mitchell Inuett. csn]. of Parson 's^Rreen, 
near Ediiibiirg-b, to Alary-Litliaa, eldest dun. 
t>f the Ucv. I'jilwin Sandys Luintviljiine, of 
LunvAdaine, and rector or Cpfier Hanlrea, 
Kent. — -At York, Thomas Garnet t, an. of 
Biogley, to Mar^ret, dau. of the Rev. John 
liple, .M.A. rector of ftunsin^ore. and sitter of 
the Rev. J, Ojfle, M.A, rei'tor of iloston, 

15. At Craigrdarroch, Dumfricfl^hirei Jolm 
George Jarvis. c:ant. sad Lii;bt Inf. third son 
of Col. Jarvis, of tHHldtiiprton Hall, UiKOluah. 
to Philadelphia, youugest dau- of ilie tate 



88 



Marruiffes. 



[Jan. 



Gtoorge H. Jenkin, mu and ntoet of li|Sor- 

Oen. VerguMaou, At Fttrnlum. the Rev. 

John Mannoir Sumner, Hector of North Wal- 
tham, Hants, to Mary, accond dan. of CoL Le 
Gonteor, Aide-de-Gamp to Her Hi^eaty, and 

ViMX>unt of Jeraer. At FlnchteT, the Rev. 

B.O. Bendall, of Ktnr*e-wood, OloQceeterdi. to 
Bmma, second dan. of T. C Newman, esq. of 
Fftllow-lodffe, Finchley. 

16. At Brighton, the Rer. F. M. Connincr- 
bam, second son of the Rev. J. W. Cunnini^- 
ham, Vicar of Harrow, to Alice, eldest dau. of 
the (ate and sister of the present Sir Bdward 

Foore, bart. of Cofftaals, Hants. ^At St. Dnn- 

ttan*8, William Woodgate, esq. of Greenwich, 
to Marr, younger dan. of C Haselar, esq. 

M.R.C.B. of Cranbrook. ^At Stoke Damerel, 

Thomas Edward Gawes Moore, esq. Lieut, of 
H.M.8. Osledonia, to Bmma^ane, third dau. 
of the late Lieut. Tftnlen, R.N. of Plymouth. 
——At Cheltenham, Henry Adolphos Shuck- 
boif h, esu. Capt. 40th Bengal Nat. Inf. young- 
est son of the late Sir Stewkley Shuckburgh, 
Bart, (and brother of the present Sir FVanctt,) 
of Shuckburgh-park, Warwickshire, to Sarah- 
Sliabeth, dan. of the late William Dwarris, 
esq. of Golden-grove, Jamaica. 

18. At Banll^ N.B. Peter Macarthur, esq. 
of Malda, Bengal, to Christina A. youngest 
dau. of Capt. Macgregor, Banff. 

11. At Southmolton, the Rev. Cliarles Mel- 
hnish. Rector of High Bray, to Kliia, dau. of 
tiie late A. Venn, esq. of Rnding, and niece 

of Wm. Venn, esq. of Southmolton. ^At 

Heavitree. 8. Savile Shepherd, esq. of Exeter, 
to Anne. dan. of the late Rev. Edward Houl- 
^tch, of Woolcombe, near Wellington, Soroer- 

■et. At Bristol, Andrew Martin, esq. son of 

the late Rev. John Martin, D.D. of Kirkcaldy, 
Flfeshire, to Bomia-Matilda, dau. of the late 

John Roberts, esq. of Bristol. At Bedford, 

the Rev. James C Mallalieu, Moravian minis- 
ter, Pertenhall, to Harriet, dan. of the late 
Rev. Ignatius Montgomery, niece of James 
Montgomery, esq. the poet, and sister of the 
Rev. James Montgomoy. minister of the Mo- 
ravian establishment, Bedford. ^The Rev. 

John Alcherly Ashley, to Sarah-TheophlU. 
eldest dau. of the Rev. E. Jermyn, rector of 
Cariton Colvillc, Suffolk. 

as. At Easeboum, Sussex, Henry E. Dray- 
•son. esq. second son of William Dravson, esq. 
of Brompton, near Chatham, late of Waltham 
Abbey, to Rosina^ane, Younjrer dau. of Tho- 
mas Hills, esq. Lieut. R.N. orHolder-hill. Sus- 
sex. At Chisledoa, John Sharp, esq. of Wal- 
tham St. Lawrence, to Marv-Anne, eldest dau. 

flf Thomas Brown, esq. of Caversham. ^At 

West Ham, Essex, Charles Nash, esq. of the 
Grangrc, Hinxton, Cambridgesh. to Catherine, 
dan. of the tote Robert WayTcn, esq. of Dcviies, 
Wilts. 

SB. At Croydon, John l*rice, esq. to Rebecca, 
only surviving dan. of the tote William Win- 
ter, esq. of Croydon. ^At Kennington, John 

WaDer Hewett, esq. of Fftreham, Hants, to 
Elixabeth-Catherine, eldest dau. of the tote 
Gspt. George Couse, Royal Art. At Mere- 
worth, Kent, Blades Pislfister. esq. of Graves- 
end, to Charlotte. 9d dan. of the tote John 

Goodwill, esq. of Mereworth. At St. Mary- 

lebone, ueoige Nelson, esq. of Buckingham, 
to Georgiana-susannah, dau. of AlAvd Umney, 

esq. of Stone-cott-hiU, Surrey. At St. Mary- 

lebone, William Price, esq. of Richmond, Sur- 
rey, to AmeUa-Hannah. dan. of the tote John 

O. Ravenshaw, esq. of Hartoy-st. ^At Wa- 

tergrasB-hill, Bertie Bntwisle Jarvis, esq. 
Member of Council at Antlgna. to Lncy, 
youngest dau. of the tote Kilner Bruier, esti. 
of Sunt>n-hill, co. Cork, and Rivers, co. Lime- 
rick. ^At Richmond, Sorrey, William 

11 



fat, eaq. tote of the Bengal Civil Serv. to 
i-Bdmnnda, second dau. of the Rev. Tho- 

Boordilkm. ^At Pofanailly, in Glen 

Urqnhart, the residence of Gen. Cameron, 
Gspt. Brown, of the late 4th Ceylon r^. to 
Margaret, dan. of the late Alexander Manson, 

esq. of Tain. At Billesley. the Rev. Francis 

George Jackson, only son of Sir George Jack- 
son, 1LC.H. to Maria-Blaii^aretta, youngest 
dan. of the Rev. F. Fortescoe Knottesford . of 
Alveston-manor, and Rector of Billesley, War- 
wkkMk, 

25. At Upper HoUoway, Richard Smales, 
esq. of the Terrace, Walworth, to Catherine- 
Bhxabeth, only child of the late Rev. William 
Ctoyton, Principal of the Mill-hill Grammar 

School. ^At All Souto', Langbam-pl. WiUtom. 

eldest son of Fergus James Graham, esq. to 
Dorothea, only dan. of R. H. Holtond, esq. of 
Holles-st. Cavendish-sg. 

17. At Liverpool, Edgar Corrie, esq. Jun. 
to Helen, second dau. of Joseph Pilkington 

Brandreth, esq. M.D. At Leamington, the 

Rev. Frederick Coortenay Chahners, tote of 
the Madras Army, to Matilda-Harriet, second 
dan. of the Rev. William Marsh, D.D. Incum- 
bent of St. Mary's. Leamington. 

IB. The Ear! of March, eldest son of the 
Duke of Richmond/ to Frances-Harriet, eldest 

dau. of Alj^mon Greville, esq. At Streat- 

ham, Daniel, eldest son of Thomas Langton, 
esq. West-hill, Wandsworth, Surrey, to Emma, 
second dau. of James Wilson, esq. Balham- 

hill. At St. George*s, Bloomsbury, John 

Kendal, esq. to Jane, youngest dau. or the tote 

Martin Hind, esq. At St. George's, Hano- 

ver-sq. Robert Jenner, esq. Lieut. R.N. third 
son of the Right Hon. Sir Herbert Jenner 
Fust, to Selina-Helen, youngest dau. of the 

late James Jameson, esq. or Calcutta. ^At 

St. Andrew's Undershaft, London, John Hun- 
gerford Grifln, esq. Capt. Royal Art. to Ann- 
Augusta, eldest dan. or John Gunner, esq. of 

the Crescent, America-sq. ^At Ansty, Henry 

William Adams, of Ansty Hall, Warwicksh. 
Companion of the Bath. Lieot.-Col. of the 18th 
Royal Irish, to Katherine, second dau. of the 

Rev. T. Coker Adams. Vicar of Ansty. At 

Ripon. the Rev. John Wilbraham Hill, M JL of 
Broughton, Flintsh. second son of John Hill, 
esf|. of Standish Hall, Lancash. and Attorney- 
Gen, of the Chester Circuit, to Maria-Frances, 
only dan. of H. R. Wood, esq. of HoUin HaU, 

Yorksh. At Prestbury, Cheshire, the Rev. 

WOUam Hinson, Minister of Sutton Church, 
Macclesfield, to Margaret-Jane, eldest dau. of 
the tote Philip Antrobus, esq. of Bollington, 
Cheshire. 

19. At Cheltenham, J. N. Balme, esq. of 
Leeds, to Louisa, dau. of James Newman Tan- 
ner, esq. of Sherwell Honse. Plymouth. At 

Woodborough, T. E. Simpkins, esq. of Abling- 
ton, to Martha-Brown, eldest dau. of John 

Clift, esq. At Cannington, Somerset, the 

Rev. Charles Deedes, Rector of West Camel, 
to Letitia-Anne. eldest dau. of the Hon. P. 

Pleydell Bouverie. At St. George's. Hano- 

▼er-sq. David Wilson, esq. smgeon, of Eccles- 
ton^. to Sarah, dau. ttf the tote Francis 
Ayerst, esq. of Brompton, Kent. At Kint- 



to Sarah, dau. tif 

Ajciat, esq. of Brompton, 1 

bnry, James Contts Crawford, esq. of Overton, 
Lanarkshire, only son of the tote Capt. Craw- 
ford, R.N. to Sophto, youngest dan. of Admiral 
Dnndu, C.B., M.P., andnmnd-dao.of the tote 

Lord Amesbury. ^At Chelsea, Gapt. Thomas 

Coleman, R.N. to Eliza-Ann. eUlest dau. of 
the tote Joseph Robert Bullock, esq. Commto- 
sarv Gen. of Her Mi^esty's Forces. 

ao. At St. James's, Edward S. Donner, esq. 
of Scarbro*, co. York, to Maria-Sophia, only 
dan. of the tote Thomas Dove, esq. of Guild- 
ford, Surrey.— —At All Sonto', George Green, 



16440 



Marrifjgei. 



f r Hurlef'St* to Ctroline, relict of 

V "p^, p^. of Ashant Purk^ Kenl* 

— At Mdbiiry Ahbas, Dor- 

;r, es4i. of Coombf Priory* 

^'^ wia, eldest flail, of (lie R€V. 

J I A lAni>, of Mclbury Abbas. At 

\. I. I i-^,tjil)bon N> Walker, eaq.toMary- 
All ^'^ i 'lau. of Jobn Johuisoiii eaq. of 

l.Mt£hf, At Munich, id the Protestant Ger- 

ttti n Cntirrh, urul afterward* at the Drjli«li 
>1 ito Vog^t de HunalN 

*' Aitl-ile-Cfinip to the 

K s.Man, dau. of WiU 

HajTi \ ^s&ry-Gen. to ber .Ma- 

jesty*^ son of the Ute Rev* 

John I new of C. B. Lawton, 

q, of Lrt^ftoii n.ill, to EmUy^Annc, vounffest 
UK of the laie Thru, Le^h* eso. of Addinrtotl- 
- At r!io Cuptof (iood Hope, WiMiarii- 
i. only SOD of tbe Utu Major 
lire, H. B. I. C.^- to Jobaiina- 
^^est dau, of A- ^Lhiappiiii, 
v^ebonc, R» H. Pratl, esq to 
i L'» seootid dau. of J'j bn Car- 

:ir I.1W At St. Mary 4c- 

"f Kensinffton, 
^t. Edmund's, 

I. of Maltsi, 

. Vuikibire. tlit Rev. 

r of ii^uncbrlaiub to 

. flobert Gray, MA* 

St and eldes^t dan. of 

r ilLshoij-Wearmotitb. 

tbe Rev* Joku IK 

! Ituibey-healli, Herts, to 

yo unrest daii. of Jobn 

Hatfield, late or Jamaica. 

ijri Stewart^ esq. of CMio^an- 

^idow of William Tyrrell, 

IJtTon, W. R, 

ard, Eftstferry, 

-t tlau. of the 

.»h. 

lacdonald 

L* n ofCapt. 

LJurtiucr, ii.^s\ to llarv-Khia* t^ldcAt dau. of 

tUUi Rear-Adm, Hancock, C.B, At Gljr- 

»rlck, Yorkshire, the Rev. Jobn 5tan»feld. 
at Ktn of Robert atativfeld, esq, of Fielil 
, near Halifax, to EUiabeth, eldeitt dau. 
a BtrkbHeck. esu, of Auley Hoini!e» near 

til*. At Derby, the Ven. John Kusbton, 

ebdeacon of Manchester, and Incuinbent of 
[ewchurcli, in Pendle, Vv|iaik»v, Ltnca^iibtri', 
> Heorietta, eldest dan. of \Villiam Leaper 

lewt«n» e9*j, of Leylanda, near Derby. At 

MS, Henry, only son of H. Saimdersj esoi. 
er, to Jane-Ann, only dau. of J. \V. Wall, 
solicitor.- — At Westbuo -upon-Trymt the 
11, A, Hughes. A.M. of Ci&nnaboroufcbf 
V of Hen n.' Quint yne 
rv Hill, Gloncestcr»b. 
I ^ii l». Raincock, esq. of 
i .t', lo Ebiabeth-Hrain, only 

ttic late B. 1$. QuareL*>sq. of 

.M . M^sex. At Lf)09e, WillWi 

JliHin , eb«4. third ion of the Her. George 
Hoore, Prpbendary of Cimterbiiry, to Anne, 
iro init'-.-i s]au. of the late Walter Jones, esq. of 
t . CO, l^eitrim, Ireland, ajjdHaj'le*- 

I AT HanimersTnith, Charles Cocks 

: rurnhniii tireen, to (liarlotte, 
ksbaiik. K.ll.of Bath, 
rrle«i Johnson, Rector 
ilirent, &c. and Preben- 

VVtiiU, Ai .Mary lebonc New Church, 

rfurd HarriMon, esq. of Percy-«it. Bed- 
1. and of Stoke, Devon, to JeAHle-Hiy, 
OiJfT. Mas. You XXL 



dau. of TtiomosCory Hftwkes, esq. of Oke- 
httmpton, Devon. 

6. At Bath, Capt> Orrosby, Indian Navy, to 
Anne Jane, second dau, of Capt. Leigh Lye, of 
Bath.— At -St. PancrJifl New Church, Baron 
Alfred de Zedtwiii, of Dresden, to Miss Gould, 

of thu Crescent, S«iithanipton. At Little 

Alunden, HeDrj.Edward. second sou of Robert 
iSurtees, esq. of Redwortli House, co. Durhaoi, 
late of the J 0th Hu'isars, to Elita-Suell, onlv 
dau. of Charles Chauncy, esq. of Dane End, 

Herts, At St.Georj;e''», Hanover- su. Charles, 

son of BaJdffin Diippa Dupiwi, esq, of Hollinff- 
botjrtie House, Kent, to Ellen-Pink, dau» of 
Alajor-Gen. Faunce, of Caledonia-pL Clifton. 

7. At Paddine^ton, the Rev. Edward Lut- 
wyclie Davies, M.A. Incumbent of KJIpeck 
and Jvendercburch^ Hcrefordsb.to Ann Hard- 
wick, of Ci-aveti- lull, Hyde I*ark-^rdeB«, and 
yonnge?)t dau. of the late William Hardwickp 
esq. of Llang^arreu, Herefordiihirc, — —At St, 
John's, Oxford-!q,the Rev. J. George Venablen, 
MA. of Jesua Coll. t'anibridjce, to Caroline, 
widow of James II. Ilosken, esq], of FJlecocIazer 
Cornwall, and youngest dau. of tlielate Lieut.- 
Col. Sandys, of Lluiiarth House, same county, 

At Ctiflon, the Rev, Charles Boweu. Lec- 

tnrer of Armley-in-Leefi«, and Chaplain to 
Lord BatemaB, toCTbarlotte-EUiabpth,youn4Ecat 
dau. of the late Rev. Lesb Richmonif, Rector 
of Tnrvey, Beds.- — -At Lewisham, Fredeiick- 
Richard, eldest son of Richard Parsons, esq. 
of Wootton Bnssctt, Wilts, to Jane, eldest dau. 
of the late John BirchanatI, esq. of Walworth. 
At Fawley, Hants, Commander Graham- 
Eden William Hamond, R.N. youogest son of 
Vice-Adm. Sir Grnhaini F^Jen Hajitond, Bart. 
K.C.B. of Norton Lodre, Isle of Wight, to 
Lucia, only dau, of L. Dodda, esq. of Hythe 
House, Hants.— At Islington, William-Akid, 
second son of the late Rev. Alexander Rogers, 
Vicar of Rolvenden, Kent, to Matilda, dati. of 
the late Robert George, esq, of Rochealer, 
Kent.~At St, George's, Hanover'Sq. John- 
Goodrich Dick, e^sq. Commander R.N. eldest 
son of Rear-Adm. Dick, to Harriet, only dau. 
of the late Rev, Charles Baker, rector of Til- 

manstone, Kent. At St. Georg«-the- Martyr, 

South wark, John Walter F. White, esq, to 
Mary-Ann, youngest dau. of the late George 

Moxon, esq, of Chatham dock- yard. At 

Dublin, Frederick George Greene, esq. young- 
est son of the late James Greene, e»q. M.D, of 
Proffheda, to Eliia, M-cond diw. of the late 
George Ball, esti. of BalPs Grove, Drogheda. 

9. At Westerliam. John Howe, esq, ot St- 
DunstanVbili, to Eli2.ab«th. second daw. of 
R, Kidder, esq, of Westerham - — —At St. 
James's, Piccadilly, William Warwick Hodge, 
esq, of Charles-st, St. James^s-sq. to Pene- 
lopeSarah, eldest dau. of Henry Porter Smith, 
esQ. of tbe Crescent, New Bridge street, 

11. At Medboumc, Leicestersh, Henry, son 
of W. H. Neville, esq. of Esher, to JIary, only 
dau. of the late John Gilder, esq, of Bombay. 
—At Sidraoiith, Mr. W, S. Hoyte, to 8o* 
sauna Fanny, eldest dau. of the late Rev, Tims. 
Atkinson, Rector of St. Edtnimd's, Bxeter. 

12. At Paddinrlon, Frank Somenille Head, 
esq, eldest son of Sir Francis B. Heail, Bart to 
Man-Jftne, eldest dau, of Robert Garnett, caq. 

of Wyre side, Lancash. At Peckham.Charlea- 

Pitt BartJey, esq. of Weatbonrne. terrace, to 
Martha- Drew, eldest dau. of Thomiis Salmon, 
esq. formerly of Stoke Ferrv, Norfolk. 

13. At Cad bury, the Rev. John Rogers, Of 
Penrose House, Cornwall, Canon of tbe Cathe- 
dnl Church of Eseter, to Grace, eldest dau, of 
the late *ieorge Sydenham Fiirsdon, ewj. of 
Fu radon Hoii»e, Devon. 

N 



90 

OBITUARY. 



The sx-Kino or Holland. 

Dec. 12, At Berlin, in his 72d yetr, 
hit late Migesty William Frederick 
Count of Nassau, ex-King of the Nether, 
lands, and K.O. 

He was bom August 24, 1772, 
the eldest son of WilUam V. Prince of 
Orange and Nassau, and K.G. b^ the 
Princess Frederica- Sophia Wilbelminaof 
Prussia, daughter of King Frederick IIL 

At an eanj period of his life he ar- 
dently applied himself to the acquisition 
of knowledge, and spent some years, not 
only in foreign travel, but in serious 
study at the university of Jjeyden. In 
the month of June, 1790, he received the 
command of the garrison of Breda, and 
in the foUowing year he was appointed a 
General of Infantry. On the 1st Oct. 
1791, he married the Princess Frederica 
Wilhelmina Louisa of Prussia, daughter 
of Frederick William II. The eldest 
child bv this marriage is the present Kins; 
of Holland, who was bom on the 6th 
Dec. 1792. 

When the French republic in the yev 
1793 declared war against the Low 
Countries, the subject of this noHce re- 
ceived the command of the army of Hol- 
land, and so much distinguished himself 
during the hostilities whicn ensued, as to 
attract in a remarkable degree the favour 
of the Emperor of Austria ; but, as every 
one remembers, that severe struggle 
proved unsuccessful, and the partisans of 
the deceased King and his fismily were 
obliged to take reftige in England, while 
he himself remained in Prussia. From 
the time that the resistance to republican 
France proved unsuccessful until it was 
renewed against imperial France, there 
occurred scarcelv an event in the life of 
the late King oi Holland worth record- 
ing, if we except the fact that he com- 
manded a division at the battle of Jena. 
He waa also at the battle of Wagram, 
after which event he proceeded to Berlin, 
and finally visited this country, which be 
did not quit till the year 1813. He was 
proclaimed King of the Netherlands (his 
lather being then dead) on the 16th of 
March, 1815, and as a Sovereign entered 
Brussels on the 5th of April following. 
On the return of Buonaparte from Elba, 
foreseeing that his territories were likely 
to become the scene of great operations, 
he lost no time in labouring to put their 
military positions into the best state of 
defence toat circumstances would permit, 
and to organize his troops with as much 
expedition as possible. The command of 



these forces was confided to the present 
King of Holland (then Prince of 
Orange), who was wounded at their head 
in the battle of Waterloo. 

The late King for many years of his 
life resided alternately at Brussels and 
the Hague. He is said to have been a 
person of great simplicity of life, very at- 
tentive to business, and of most econo- 
miod habits. 

The French Revolution of 1830 gave 
rise to another change, and the days of 
July were followed by the days of Sep. 
tember. Belgium recovered her inde- 
pendence, and the alliance of France and 
England secured the durability of the 
new kingdom. At the same time the 
constancy and pertinacity worthy of his 
race witn whicn William defended his 
cause are entitled to respect. 

The popularity of the King of Holland 
suffered ouring the latter part of his 
reign, firom his proposed marriage with 
the Countess d'Oultremont, she being a 
Belgian and a Roman Catholic; inso- 
much that before forming this union he 
found it necessary to abdicate. This 
took place in 1840. From that period he 
lived principally at Berlin, occup)ring 
himself with the management of his im- 
mense private fortune. 

According to information which seems 
deserving of credit, the late King has 
left 157,000,000 florins (13,000,000/. ster- 
ling), of which 153,000,000 of francs 
(about 6,000,000 pounds sterling) are 
bequeathed to the present King of Hol- 
land ; 12,000,000 will come to the 
Countess of Oultremont. The remain- 
ing millions will be divided between his 
younger children. Prince Frederick, 
Dorn Feb. S8, 1797, and the Princess 
Marianne, bora Mav 19, 1809, married 
to Prince Albert of Prussia. 

The Count of Nassau seemed to be in 
perfset health on the moming of his 
oeath. According to his custom, he was 
employed at an early hour in his cabinet. 
The Countess of Nassau was in the room 
with him, and had iust left it for a mo- 
ment, when his beU being rung violently 
his aide-de-camp hastened in and found 
the aged Soverei^ struck with a sudden 
fit of apoplexy, sitting motionless in his 
arm chair, with a paper in his hand. 
Every effort was used to recal him to 
life, but in vain ; death seemed to have 
been instantaneous. It is further stated 
that the body will be conveyed from Ber- 
lin to Hamburg, and there embarked for 
the Hague. 



» 



The fdtowiog mesugi} from his Ma- 
jesty the King of the Netherhifids to the 
Second Cbamber of the State«-Gener&l, 
announciug the decease of hia iUustrious 
Utber, WM lead Co that asaemblage on the 
Idth intftaiit 

** Noble uid Mighry Lords,--Xt is 
with profound affliction that I have to an- 
oattfice to your high mightinesses the 
■dft&eholy death oi m? bduved and ve* 
Mfabk father, King WiUiHm Fredenck 
Count of Nassau, who died at Berlin, on 
the l^th of thia month, in an apoplectir fit. 

** Thus has terminated a lubonous life, 
dllen ^led with caref> and sorrows^ but 
■lao abounding in glory — a life early de- 
nied to the Netherlandfr and of which 
27 yarn were dedicated to the cares of 
and the last days of which 
ndgnaiised hy acts which prove his 
mocen affection to hi6 dear native 
Qountry. 

•* While submitting with humble resig- 
nation to the adorable decrees of Provi^ 
dcDce, 1 am nevertheless with my whole 
§umij deeply affected by thl*i unexpected 

** Your high mightinesses, I am cer. 
taio, wUi understand our welUfounded 
gti^f, and you will participate in it in 
|»roportion to the attachment which the 
iMtion baa for us, and which on occasions 
oCvTCBtB that afflict or rejoice our family 
it with that sympathy the value 

[whkb we on our part greatly appreciate. 
'Signed) •' William. 

The Hague, Dec. 15, 1843.'»; 

The present King of Holland was 
married on the 21st of February, l« 16, 
to the Princes Anne Paulo wna, daughter 
ol the Emperor Paul of Russia, by whom 
he has four children. 



■ The 
^m married 
^ to ehfi f 



I 



Tmj! Hon. E. E. Viixikbs. 

(M, 30. At Nice, aged 37, the Hon. 
Edwird Ernest Yilliers, Clerk of Oergy 
Retitrna in the Privy Council Office^ and 
m Gonniiiaaianer of the Colonial Land and 
finigration Board ; brother to the Earl 
of Clarendon. 

He was bom March 23, 1806, the fifth 
•on ot the Hon. George VilUeni (third 
•on of the first Earl of Clarendon) by the 
Hon. Theresa Parker, daughter of John 
first Lord Boringdon, and sister to the 
KatI of Morley. 

** He was a man tittle known by the 
world in general — shy, reserved to Rtran- 
§•«, and of a coldness anproaching to au- 
ftofity; but, whenever this external frost 
was thawed t there appeared a refinement 
of manner, an innate sympathy, and a 
delicacy of taet, which were irresistibly 
attractive and attaching. He was not 
nature to busUc into public no- 




tice, and such ambition as he bad was not 
of the noisy and ostentatious kind. The 
extreme refinement and even purity of 
his mind, which rendered him almost 
fastidiously sensitive, in a great measure 
disqualifitfd him fur the rough work and 
miry ways of a political career. Upon 
the demise of the late Lieutenant Drum- 
mond the Irish linder< Secretaryship was 
offered to Mr. Villi ers, and his refusal of 
that office and preference of one much 
less conspicuous, but which he thought 
opened to him a wide field of practical 
ysefulnesB, well exempliiies the bent of 
his disposition* 

*' fio man was more beloved by hia 
family and friends, and none could be 
more agreeable to any society where he 
was completely tit hia ease. In conver- 
sation he was animated^ amuning, and 
profound j he bad an exceedingly nice 
sense of the proprirtiea of languuge^ and 
his own was, in the highest degree, pure 
and appropriate. His ffuency and cor- 
rectness of expression, united with an 
acute perception of the ridiculous, and 
ready sympathy with his listeners, ren- 
dered his colloquial excellence really re* 
markable. He was most warm-hearted 
and liffectionatet aineere, obliging, disin- 
terested, unselffsh, and of scrupulous 
integrttv, in tbe largest sense, whicb 
habitujly refers to conscientious princi- 
ples in every tronsan^tion of life. He 
viewed things with the eye of a philo- 
sopher, and aimed aCestabltsbingan exact 
correspondence between bis theory and bis 
practice •, he bad a remarkably acute and 
searching intellectf with habit*; uf patient 
investigation, and mature deliberutiun. 
His soul was animated by ardunt aspira- 
rations after the improvement, and hap- 
piness of mankiiid, and lie abhorred in- 
justice and oppression, in all their E>bapes 
and disguit<es, with an honest intensity 
which produced something of a morbid 
sentiment in his mind, and occasionally 
betrayed him into some mistaken tm- 
presstons. 

** But, while be clung with indexible 
constancy to bis own opinions, no man 
>vas more tolerant of the opinions of 
others, and he brough tsincerity, single, 
mindedness, and knowledge to bear upon 
every discussion. His life, though un- 
eventful and retired, was spent in tbe 
coiitempiation of subjects of tbe highest 
interest, and worthiest to occupy the 
thoughts of a wise and good man ; and 
tbe rare intimaciei be cultivated were 
with those congenial minds which were 
estimable for their moral excellence, or 
distinguished by their inteUectua! qualities 
and attainments. The world at large wiU 
never know what virtues and talents have 



9« GeH. Sir J. Pfuser.-^Gtn. W, Brooke.^Sir J. OHaliomn. [Jan. 

Liddy FrMer, sbout tbree years ago. Sbe 
w-as a Mitt A* Court. 



been prematurely tnatched away from it, 
for those only who have seen Mr. Villiers 
in the unreterved intercourse of domestic 
fiuniltarity can appreciate the charm of his 
disposition and the vigour of his under- 
standing. 

** He was in possession to the last of 
all his faculties, and was free from bodily 
pain. He died with the cbeerfulnets of 
a philosopher and the resignation of a 
Christian, happy, devout, and hopeful, 
joyfully contemplating death in the at- 
snrcd faith of a resurrectioo froas the 
dead.'*— (rtMet.) 

Mr. A'iUiert married, Aug, I, 1835, 
the Hon. Elinbeth Charlotte Liddell, 
fifth daughter of Lord Ravenswortl', and 
sister to the Marchioness of Normanby, 
the Countess of Hardwicke, Viscountess 
Barrington, &c. That lady survives him, 
without issue. 



Gbnsbal Sir John Fraber, G.C.H. 

iVor. 14. At Campden-hill, Kcnsing. 
too, in his 84th year. General Sir John 
Eraser, G.C.H. 

The deceased entered the army in 1778, 
and within a few months was called upon 
for active service. In Jan. 1780, he was 
with his reffiment on board the Defence, 
under Sir George Rodney, in the general 
action of the 16th of that month, when 
that ship captured the Spanish admiral's 
flag-ship Phoenix, of superior force. 
During the siege of Gibraltar, in 1780, 
81, and 82, he particukrly distinguished 
himself by his (pilhintry, and was severe- 
ly wounded on two occasions during the 
operations, first by a splinter, and suhte- 
quently bv a cannon -snot, which carried 
off his right leg. In 180l» while in com- 
mand as Colonel, on the African coast, 
he was attacked by a much superior body 
of the enemy, and eventually, after a san- 
guinary conflict, compelled to capitulate, 
the loss by the enemy exceeding the total 
number of the BriHsb force at the com- 
mencement of the action. In Sept. 1828, 
he was appointed Lieut.- Governor of 
Chester Castle ; and in 1832 nominated 
a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal 
Hanoverian Guelphic Order. His com- 
missions were dated as follows : — Lieu- 
tenant, Sept. 29, 1778; Captain, April 
21, 1783 ; Major, March 1, 1784: Lieut.- 
Colonel, Aug. 28, 1794; Colonel, January 
1, 1800; Major.General, April 25, 1808; 
Lieut.- General, June 4, 1813; and Ge- 
neral, July 23, 1830. 

Sir John Fraser was twice married ; 
and he has left one surviving daughter, 
the wife of Capt. Colgrave, formerly 
Manby. 

Sir John was married to the present 



General W. Brooke. 

Sept. 9. At his residence, Alfred - 
street, Bath, aged 73, General William 
Brooke, kte of the 5th dragoon guards. 

Thb ofieer entered the army as Comet 
in the 8th light dragoons in June 1793; 
received a Lieutenancy in the 83d foot in 
October, and an independent company in 
December of the same year. He was 
made Captain in the 96ui foot the S5th 
March I ?^. and in September of that year 
embarked for the West Indies. Whilst 
on his passage he became Major in his 
regiment; and arrived at St. Marc, in 
the isbind of St. Domingo, in March 1795. 
In June following he was appointed to 
the command of that garrison ; and he 
continued in that situation until Aug. 
1796, when he returned to England. The 
95th regiment having been reduced in 
1795, he continued unattached until 1798, 
and afterwards on half pay until Jan. 1805, 
when he obtained the Majority of the 
56th foot, and in June following that of 
the 5th dragoon guards. He received 
the brevet of Colonel in 1800, and that of 
Colonel in 1810. In 1812 he was ap- 
pointed on the staff in Spain and Portu- 

fal. He became a Major- General in 
813, Lieut.-General in 1825, and Ge- 
neral in 1841. He retired from the 5th 
dragoon guards some years ago. 

Major. Gen. Sir Joseph O'Halloran. 

Nov, S. At Connaught Square, Hyde 
Birk, in his 80th year. Major* General Sir 
Joseph O'Halloran, K.C.B. of the Ben- 
gal establishment, and M.R.I.A. 

This officer, the youngest son of Syl- 
vester O'Halloran, of Limerick, esq. by 
Mary Casey, was appointed a cadet in 
1781, Ensign in 1782, Lieutenant 1785, 
and Captain 1796. From June in the 
last-named year to Oct. 1802 he served as 
Adjutant and Qnartermaster to the sta- 
tion of Midnapore, during which period 
he constructed several public works. In 
the latter vear the appointment was abo- 
lished, and he joined his regiment, the 
1 8th Native Infantry. In Sept. 1803 he 
accompanied a detachment which crossed 
the Jumna for the conquest of Bundle- 
cund, and defeated on the 12th Oct. the 
Newaub Shumshere Behauder, and 15,000 
Mahrattas, at Ropsah. 

In Jan. 1804 Capt. O'Halloran served 
at the sieges of Bursah and Jessarie ; and 
was appointed to superintend the opera- 
tion of Shaik Ralb Alee's irr^ular bri. 
gade. In April he served at the siege and 
capture of the fort of Sonpah ; on the 15tli 



1844.] LiiuL'Col. W. Ingkbif.—Janm Baldwin Brown, LUD. Pa 



in the attAL'k niid scvrrc di'feat of the 
RaJHb Hum 4 of 10,0l»U ijooti dec talis, on 
tlie hilU and rocks ot Aluboba \ and »lso 
in the subsequent pursuit nnd defeat of 
th«ni on the IfltU. On the Ut July in 
the flame jetir beconimanded tbe irregulac 
briji^deff of the ^ame native chief and of 
Mofa«mfned Cauri in a eonteBt wltli Rajab 
Hitn, and 16,000 Boondeelubs and Nag- 
gak^, on ibe fortified hills of Tunnah. 
The enemy were defeated v^itlt great 
blaugbter, and tbc loss of all llieir baggage. 
On the 28lb July be was present nt the 
assault of Jeypoor, and on the 28lb Aug. 
Ml tbe dege and capitubttion of the fortress:. 
h\ December he served witb irregular 
brigades in storming several fortilied 
tovrn» and fort^ ^ end in Feb. 190.T he was 
at the Biege and aiptore of tbe fort ^ of 
Nifibgoug and Dowrahf in f'iiuvarree. 

On ibe IsC Nov, 180rj be vvus ap- 
pointed by Lord Lake to be CommiRsary of 
Supplies. On the 2aih April IBua he 
attiined tbe rank of Major. 

On tbe £3d Jan. I BOD be commanded 
a column of uttnek at the ns^uult of tbe 
fortiBcd bill of Ri'goioly iu BundleeuncI, 
under Cat. M^rtindellr to whom he waa 
appointed Secretnry tbc ^titti of tbc same 
month. In Feb. and Mareb followitighe 
\VM present at tbe siege of tbc fortress of 
Adjyghur in Bund lee nnd| \vbkb, iifter 
considerable loss to tbc assailants, was 
evacuated by the garrison. 

On (be 4th June 1H14 be became a 
Lieut - Colonel. In 181^, Ifi^ and 17 he 
served in the Ncpnul war. In tbe first 
ooipttign be was employed with five com. 
ptmies at Jan ick pore, to watch the fort 
wid pass of Seed ley, and to cover Ter- 
boot. In the second campaign be was 
with Col. Kelly's division at Hurree- 
burpoor, atid received the thanks of the 
Colonel, and afterwards of the Governor, 
ioT his gallant conduct in tbe uetion of tbe 
1st March. On tbe 2Uth May 1817 he 
served at tbe assault of Turloab, a 
«>tockaded pass leading into the dij^trict of 
Khoondah, in Ctittach. 

In IJfJlS Lieut, -CoL O'llalloran was 
removed to the 1st btittLilioit 20tb Nut. 
JnL and embarked in Sept. for Prince of 
Wale«*s Ireland : tbc battellun was rc^ 
heved in Mny following, and returned to 
Barnurkpore. 

He was appointed a Companion of the 
Bath in Dec. t8lG, received the honour of 
knigbtbood Feb. IB^ l«;i5; and whs ad- 
vanced to tbe grade of KX\B. in 1837. 
In tbe same year he attained tbc nmk of 
3fajor- General, In 1»38 the freedom of 
bis native city, Limerick, was presented 
to bim, 9& a tribute to his milUary cba- 
ncter. 



lie married in \yjn the daughter of 
Colonel Nicholas Bayley, of the West 
Middlesex Militia. 



Lieut.- GoL. W. Ikgleuv* 
Nqw 13. At Hammersmith^ aged 00, 
Lieut.. Colonel \fiUiam Ingleby, late of 
tbe 55rd Foot. 

This officer pyrcbased an Enaigncy, 
and joined the 58tb Eegt. to^vards the 
close of 1797, and in the ensuing year 
served at the reduction of Minorca. lu 
1799 be purchased bis Lieutenancy in the 
same corps, and the following year ac- 
companied tbe expedition to Egypt ; was 
with tbe reserve under Sir John Moore, 
at the landing at Aboukir B''Ay^ where be 
received a contusion in tbe arm ; was 
engaged in tbe siibseciuent battles of tbe 
KJtli nnd 21st Marco, and through out 
that campuign. In tbe course of that 
year be purchased his company, and on 
ibe return of tbe 59th to England in imt, 
WHS placed upon half- pay | with the other 
supernumerary captains. On tbe break- 
ing out of the war in the following year, 
he was appointed to tbc 53rd regimentf 
which he shortly afterwards accompanied 
to India, where he continued to serve for 
many years. In IbOO he commanded a 
detachment of the 5.'ird ttt the reduction 
of the strong fortress of Ajighur in Bun* 
dlecund, and was with the army in tbe 
subsequent operations of that year. In 
1«H he purehased bis Majority in the 
53rd; tndf in 1814, was woundt^d while 
in command of Ibe storming party, in Ibe 
assault of Kaluga, on the 37th November. 
The 12th August, JU19, he received tbe 
brevet of Lieut.* Colonel. 



Ja5ies Balowts BiiowN, LL.D. 

Nov, .*« hi his 59th year, James Bald* 
win Brown, esq. LL,D. Barrister-at-Liw, 

He was called to that degree by the 
Hon. Society of tbe Inner Temple, 24 
May, 1810, and practised on tbe Northern 
Circuity nnd at tbe Lancashire Quurter 
Sessions, where he h<td a large circle of 
professioMul friendit. He was appointed 
in JBIO to the Judgeship of tbe Oldham 
Court of Requests. 

He was a man of considerable literary 
attainment, and was author of tbe follow, 
ing works^ vi?.. 

*' Memoirs of tbe Public and Private 
Life of John Howard, the Phi Ian* 
toropist," J vol. quarto; dedicated to 
William Wilberforce, esq. M.P. 

'* An HiMorical .\ccount of the Laws 
enacted apinst Roman Catholics, with a 
review of the Merits of the Catholic 
Question/' as to which the Monthly 
Review of July 1813 speaks in the fol- 




i 



94 Obituabt."^1Z0V. Janm Farfuhantm, LLJ)., F.1LS. [Jan. 

Aurora Borealis— the appeAnuicea of 
whidi he studied doteljr for a long period 
of Tears. In 1823 he published in the 
£<UDbuiig[h Philosophical Journal a far 
more accurate descnptioa of that striking 
phenomenon than had previouriy ap- 
peared ; and in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions for 1829 he confirmed his views 
by new observations— ehewing that the 
arrangement and progress of its arches 
and streamers are exactly definite in rela- 
tion to the lines of the earth's magnetism, 
and that there exist such close relations 
between the streamers and arches as to 
prove that thev are in fact the same phe- 
nomenon. He also inferred, from his 
own observations, that the elevation of 
the Aurora is hr less than had been gene^^ 
rally supposed, being confined to altitudes 
not extending ha beyond the romon of 
the clouds ; and in a paper in the Trans- 
actions for 1830, besides detailinff new 
proofs of its intimate connection with the 
magnetic needle, he shewed that it was 
produced by the developement of dec- 
tricity by the condensation of watery 
vapour. In the volume for 1 839, he gave 
a geometrical measuroment of an Aurora 
(one of the first attempted), which made 
its height lees than a mile, and shewed its 
dependency upon the altitudeof the clouds. 
And, in the volume for 1842, he described 
an Aurora, which was situated between 
himself and lofty clouds of the kind de- 
nominated stratus or sheet-cloud. 

Another sutnect which engased his at- 
tention was the ice which is formed, 
under peculiar droumstances, at the 
bottom of running water, on which he 
gave an elaborate paper in the Philoso- 
phical Transactions for 1836. Arago, 
and other philosophers, had attempted 
explanations of this curious phenomenon, 
which attracted attention, but were more 
ingenious than satisfactory. Dr. Farqu- 
harson gave a new one, founded on his 
own observations on the river Don, in 
which he explains it bv the radiation of 
heat from the bottom or the stream eool- 
ing its bed more quidkly than the water 
which is flowing over it, in droumstances 
when the sky is exceedingly dear, and the 
water of great tnmsparency. 

To the Royal Sodety Dr. F. also 
communicated the results of the registers 
of temperature, which be kept for many 
years. The extent of his observations on 
this useful sub»|ect led him to consider at 
length the origm and progress of currents 
of colder and warmer air moving over the 
face of a flat country surrounded by hills, 
at diflferent seasons of the year, and their 
effects upon vegetarion. One of his 
most curious and valuable papers on this 
head is that « On the Nature and Loca- 



lowing terms : '* Learning, judgment, 
temper, and industry equally unite in ra- 
commendinff this respectable volume.'' 

" An Historical Inquiry into the 
Andent Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction of the 
Crown." 

Together with numerous poeticsl effu- 
sions, amongst them " The Battle of 
Albuers, a poem," which rsn through 
several editions, and was considered to 
possess great merit. 

Dr. Brown married a sister of the Rev. 
Thomas Raffles, LL.D. by whom he 
has left a family. 

Rbv. James FAaQUHARSON, 
LLD., F.R.S. 

Dee, 3. Aged 62, the Rev. James 
Fkrquharson, LLD. F.R.S.&C. minister 
of Alford, CO. Aberdeen. 

He was born in the parish of CouU, in 
that county, in 1781. At the parochial 
school in his native parish he received the 
rudiments of education, and afterwards 
completed his studies at the University 
of King's College, where he took his de- 
gree of Master of Arts. During this early 
period of his life, he gave strong indica- 
tion of those talents and tastes wnich dis- 
tinguisbed his maturer years, and imbibed 
thMe warm feelings of gmteful attach- 
ment to his Alma Mater, which prompted 
him at all times totske ■ lively and active 
interest in whatever concerned her wel- 
fare. In the year 1799,'when he was yet 
butdghteen, Mr. Farc^iiharson was ap- 
pointed to the situation of parochial 
schoolmaster of Alford. He soon after- 
wards commenced his courses as a student 
of theology, and received licence as a 
preacher of the gospel. He continued to 
fill the office of schoolmaster of Alford 
for thirteen years ; and, while he dis- 
charged the duties of that laborious situa- 
tion with exemolary diligence and success, 
be devoted his leisura hours to the ardent 
pursuit of professional and general study. 
In 1812 he was appointed minister of 
Alford, on the deatn of the Rev. Mr. 
Birnie. 

In 1831, Mr. Farquharson published 
a learned and ingenious essay ** On the 
Form of the Ark of Noah." This was 
followed by an essay, in which he gave 
an account of the animals dedgnated in 
the Scriptures by the names of Leviathan 
and Behemoth. In 1838 he published 
•* A New Illustration of the Latter Part 
of Daniel's Last Vision and Prophecy," 
which has never attracted the attention it 
deserves. 

Dr. Farquharson communicated several 
valuable papers to the Philosophical 
Transections of the Royal Sodety of 
London; Of these some are on the 



iwm 



OaiTtriiaY*— ll«?, John Foster. 



95 



Stictof Hoir Frott/' which wu pub. 
Iiilic4 by the Highland and Agricultural 
Soeietj of Scotland in 1840^ where he 
tmocB «iioeeMftilly the deicent of tDtiiea 
of cold tir upon flat and hollow lands, and 
tko inJ4triotu eflects which tbef produce 
apon file cropK of potatoes and grain. 

Tlwn ingenious and nble diKquisidons 
n g eOM Biended their author to the notice 
and friendship of many of the leading 

w of the day, and procured for him 

' well -merited honours. In 1830 he 
i elected a Fellow of the Hoynl So- 
ciety of London, Iti 1837 the University 
of King's College conferred upon him the 
degree of Doctor of Laws, Ju 1858 be 
WM elected an bonory member of the 
SImM^ ^^ttfaiMe de St a tuque Unwer* 
jteflf , an honour us unexpected nit it was 
tin*olicttedt iind which proved thtit the 
value of hit <)cientific labours ^"ai ippre- 
ciated in countries beyond his own* 
Among bis correspondents were Mr. 
Davief^ Gilbert, P.R.8. (Colonel Siibine, 
Sir WiUism Hooker, Sir David Brewster, 
md various others of seicnrific distinction. 
Nor were the energies of his active and 
inquiring mind confined to the subjects 
^bovc noted. His course of study cm- 
br^i^d a wide range of science and litcrn* 
Ciife* He was well skilled in botany, 
cbefltiatry, zoology, and all kindred 
bcmoches of knowledge, and wa« tntimilely 
aequaifited with every departnaent of bis- 
tOTf. tilTing in a rural parish, his atten* 
dmi wn Bammlly directed to agriculture, 

mamj an interesting essay on this 
i proceeded from his pen i many of 
ippeared In the columns of the 
I Journal* 

siastical affairs Dr. Farquhar- 
la consistent Moderate; in poIL- 
dca, a steady Conservative, In neiibcr 
cbincter, however, did be ever display n 
Mgoted or narrow spirit. While be could 
firmly yet temperately maintain his own 
principle?, be could freely accord credit 
for honourable purpose to those who con- 
scientiously dinered from him. In all 
the relations of private life his conduct 
was uniformly suefa as becime a Chris- 
dan pastor. 
** Remote from towns be ran his goodly 

race, 
Nor e^er had changed, nor wished to 

change hia place.' ' 

In the comparatively retired scene of 
his usefulness did he cherish the most 
ardent zeal for the welfare of all ^vithin 
the sphere of his influence, and was ever 
ready with his best aid in the cause of 
phllantbropby. His principles of action 
were inspired from sources which forbade 
the intfusion of ostentatious intent or 



sinister motive ; be sought the testimon 
of an approving conscience^ and was ** 
Israelite indet^, in whom there vras 
guile/' He baa left a widow and a nn* 
mcroas and foang family. {/i&€rde\ 
Jtmrtutl,} 



Rev. John Foster. 

Oct, 15. At Stapleton, near Bristol, 
aged 73, the Rev. John Foster. 

He was bom in Yorkshire* where in 
early years be attracted the notice of the 
late Dr. Faweett, Baptist Minister, of 
Hebden Bridge. Through his means he 
entered as a student at the Baptist eoU 
lege in Bristol, where be studied first 
yuder the care of Dr. Evans, and after- 
wards under that of the late Dr. Ryland, 
After leaving the college he was settled 
during a period of many years nt several 
places, the lust of which was Downend, 
near Bristol ; but the character of his 
mind not adapting him for the regular 
exercise of the pastoral office, being such 
as fitted bim rather to a life of meditntiDi}, 
he retired from public engagements, and 
^enC the remainder of his time in literary 
pursuits in Staple ton, where he resided 
for the last eighteen or twenty years, only 
preaching occasionally. 

** The well-known character of his 
various Essays, instinct as they are with 
an enei^y of feeling and surpassing vigour 
of conception, such as at once make the 
reader teei himself listening to a spirit of 
pre-erainetit poM^ers, makes it unnecessary 
for us to attempt any lengthened por- 
traiture of bis massive intellect. Few 
writers in the whole range of literature 
possess in an equal decree the power to 
touch and set in motion the springs of 
serious reflection. A closer inspection of 
his mind convinced those who were ad- 
mitted to the rare privilege of personal 
intercourse with him, that those really 
mastcriy prodiictionB, though much ela- 
borated, were not exhausting efforts, but 
rather natural specimens of the thoughts 
and sentiments which habitually dwelt 
within him. Tbe^ testify that with a mind 
profoundly meditative, deeply imbued 
with * the nowcrs of the world to come,' 
and ardently, even to impatience, desirous 
of the advancement of mankind in fne-^ 
dora, truth, and piety, be united vast 
stores of knowledge on a great variety of 
subjects, and an exqui^iite perception and 
appreciation of whatever was sublime or 
beautiful^ whether in thought, nature, or 
art. The same strong principle of bene- 
volence which has tinctured bis Avriltngs 
with so vehement a hatred of all that 
Cend<; to make mi^n vicious and miserable 
communicated to his conversation and 
demeanour a kindness, and even gentle* 



Obituary.— >F, S, Roicoe, Es^.— C (7, HarUy, Eiq. [Jan,. 



nesii which could not fail to win for him 
tlic love as well as venemtiori of uU who 
knew him. His piety towiird* tiod, anrl 
charity towards men, were as deep as they 
were uiiodlent»tJouB. He was an uriuf- 
fectedly ^(»t and good mwn*" — {Briniol 

III I80j he fir^t pubHahed his " £i»s»yi», 
in a series of Letters to a Friend, on the 
foHawing subjects : K On a man's writing 
nieraoirs of himself. 2. On decision of 
cbaraeter. 3. On the application of the 
cpicheE RomAntic. 4. On name of the 
causes by which Evangelical lieli^ion has 
been rendered less ucccptuble to persons 
of cultivated taste.*' The$.e Essays have 
pa^^sed through several editions. 

His celebrated friend, the late Robert 
Hall, bestowed upon them the followiug 
just and beautiful eulogium :— *' He puinta 
raetaphysics, and has the happy art of 
arraying what in other hands would appear 
cold and comfortless ubstiactions in the 
wara^est colours of fancy* Withoyt quitting 
hifl argument in pursyit of ornament or 
Jniigery, his imagination becomes the per* 
feet aandmuid of hit leu^on t rc'udy at every 
moment to s^prend her cttn\*us, and present 
her pencil. But what wtfords us the 
deepest satisfaction is to lind such talents 
enlisted on the Aide of true Christianity ; 
nor can we forbear indulging a bene vole tit 
triumph on ibc accession to the cause of 
Evungflica] piety of powers which ita 
most distinguished op|»onents would be 
proud to possess." 



Oct. 3K At Liverpool, aged 61, WiU 
liam Stanlev Roicoe, esq. eldest son of 
the late William Ho&coe, ctq. 

** To hi'i father he in many fMiints of hia 
character bore a itrong resemblance, and 
in none more than in his attachment to 
literary inirsuits. which he displayed at a 
ver^ earfy period of his life, and preserved 
to Its close with undimintsbed ardour. 
He received the rudiments ot his educa* 
tion under l>r. Shepherd, of Gateacre, 
and aftenvards passed some time at the 
University of Cambridge, as a student ol 
Petcrhouse. At ibat period of bi*i life 
he studied with great as^duity the clutsie 
writers of Greece and Rome, of which he 
continued the nerusal till within a short 
time of bis death. With «everal of the 
modem laitguugcs Mr* Roitcoe was also 
familiarly converviint, but more purtieu- 
Url^ with I he Itulmn. Of hia poetical 
gentut, which was developed in him at 
•0 almost prrcoeioufi age, the fruits have 
appeared m a volume of miscellaneous 
Poeni- j» ff w years since. In 

the vu I ihi» talent he never 

eeaM*d u* imiu » i<ivonrite «>^cupa(ioii for 

1/ 



his hours of leisure » and, amongst other 
less voluminous productions, he has left 
behind him a translation, in blank ver&e, 
of Klopstock's Mesiiahi and of the Apt of 
Rucellai , 

'* Soon after leaving Cambridge, Mr. 
Rijscoe, though hi?* views were originally 
directed to the profe5i»ion of the law, was 
admitted as a partner into his fnther**: 
bank, and continued to be connected with 
that concern until its failure in It* It*. 
This and similar disaster?, if be was, un- 
happily, not qualified to avert, his con- 
scious integrity, his plueid temper, and 
well -regulated mind, enabled him to meet 
with dignity, and to support with forti< 
tude. During the latter years of his life 
he held the office of Serjeant^at-mace to 
the Court of Passage at Liverpool. The 
health which be bad uniformly enjoyed 
some munihs since began to give way, 
III July be waj* lid vised to try the effects 
of a change of air, and for this purpose he 
visited Germany, and thenee extended hi« 
tour to Switzerland. The hopes which 
were reasonably entertained from thi>i 
source, and from the anxiomi application 
of the most eHicient medical treatnwnt, 
were destined to be disappointed* On 
Lis return home he became gmdually 
weaker, and, in perfect lesignatiou to the 
will of Wis Creator, he sank without a 
struggle into the arms of death. Under 
an exterior somewhat reserved, and great 
sedateness uf manners, his affections in 
every relation of life were warm and en. 
during, and by the friends who knew him 
intimately his memory will be long che- 
rished, and his virtues best appreciated.'^ 



C. G. Hawley, Esq. 

NcfV, 30. At Great Yarmouth, in bis 
TGth year, Cornelius Girting Harley, esq. 

Mr, Harlcy, who was a native of Yar* 
mouth, was from his birth afliicted with a 
defect in the organs of sight, an attempt 
to cure which in early life by an operation 
caused the entire los* of one eye, and was 
unproductive of betielit to tbe other. In 
addition to this misfortune. Mi. Hatley*s 
frame was of fo \veak a tuitiire as to unfit 
bim for any of the comnvon employments 
of life ^ but he pusse«<«ed a most active 
and inquiring miud, and applied himself 
vigorously to its cultivation. His sight 
rnabling him to read but very little, 
knowledge was communicated principally 
through the medium of fri**nds» and by 
their voices and his own retentive memory 
he arcumulated a large store of seientitic 
ar quiicRient. Chemistry, geography, and 
history, were his fsvomiie studies. In 
the f*r»t be kept sinpuluily near to the 
latest knowledge uhirh tbe rapid dis* 



1844.] 



Obituaey. — William Seguier, Esq. 



97 



coveries of our times have produced, and, 
at Pretideotof the Yarmouth Mechanics' 
Institute, a favourite object of his seal, 
he delivered many lectures upon history. 
But it was among his friends, and in the 
aodeCy of their children, that he most 
ddighted to discourse upon the benefits 
of study, and the blessiii^ of knowled^. 
His memory and the powers of his mind 
would then display themselves with sin. 
ffttlar fineshness, and no opportunity was 
lost of enfordngthe advantages of wisdom 
and virtue. His style of conversation 
was cheerful to an high degree, and 
admirably adapted to impress itself on 
the young. For more than forty years 
before his death, a constant succession of 
youthful friends were accustomed to read 
with him on subjecta the best fitted to the 
improvement of their faculties. Am^iig 
the earliest of these was the late Dr. 
Gooch, one of the brightest ornaments of 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital, who always 
spoke of the advantages be derived from 
his intercourse with Mr. Harley with the 
warmest feelings of gratitude, and re- 
membered him in his will with a hand- 
some li'gacy. 

With one exception, when the small 
indepeudeuoe he inherited from his parenta 
was for a time shaken by an unsuccessful 

E speculation, (but his friends speedily sup- 
lied the loss,) the whole of Mr. Uarle)r'8 
fe was passed in easy comfort, and in 
the agreeable pleasures of literary society. 
The late Mr. William Taylor of Norwich, 
the author of '< £nglish Synonymes dis- 
criminated," &c. was one of his oldest and 
most valued friends. Mr. Harley has left 
a large mass of papers on history, (partly 
written as questions for his young ac- 
quaintances, and partly as records of his 
opinions,) and a weather-journal of his 
native town, which, having been com- 
menced nearlv half a century ago, and 
continued without a day's interruption to 
the present time, is of considerable value. 
Sufficient eyesight remained to enable 
him to read the indices of his gauges and 
instrumeiita, and to write a Urge broad 



On the morning of the 30th he rose in 
his usual health, and ate a hearty break- 
£sst. Shortly after he was faleard to 
breathe heavily. Assistance was soon at 
handy but in a few minutes he expired, 
without a struggle, and without suffering. 
On the previous day he had dictated a 
letter to a valued friend in America, 
almost the hist sentence of which was an 
earnest expression of hope that his death 
might not be lingering, and might be free 
from pain. His hope was too soon ful- 
filled. He was buned in the family vault 
in St. NichoUs Church, Great Yarmouth. 

Gent. Mao. Vol. XXI. 



By his will, after leaving 100/. to the 
Yarmouth Hospital, and making a pro- 
vision for his fiuthful servant who had 
lived with him more than 50 years, he 
distributed the remainder of his property 
in legacies to the young friends he most 
loved, the children of those whose society 
and regard he most esteemed. 

WiLUAM Seguier, Ebu. 

Nov. 5. William SM^uier esq. 

Mr. Seguier was early initiated in the 
study of art, his fiiUher Ming an eminent 
dealer in articles of vertu. After his 
father's death he continued the business 
for many years, securing by his excellent 
taste and unimpeachable integrity the 
entire confidence of the principal collectors 
of the last 50 years. By his advice the 
beautiful collection of Mr. Watson Taylor 
was formed, which evinced, by the high 
prices the pictures produced when dis- 
persed by auction, the accuracy of his 
judgment. George IV. when forming 
his splendid gallery of Dutch masters, 
placeo much reliance on the taste of Mr. 
Seguier, and appointed him conservator of 
«all the royal collections, a situation which 
he ably filled during the reigns of William 
I V. and her present Majesty, and to him 
the public are indebted for the admiraUa 
arrangement of the pictures at Hampton. 
Court PiUace . By bis advice the selection 
of pictures for the various palaces was 
made. 

At the foundation of the " National 
Gallery" Mr. S^uier was appointed 
chief director, the trustees, in their pur- 
chases, relying greatly upon his experience 
and judgment 

Mr. Seguier also held the important 
situation of Keeper to the British Insti- 
tution, which frequently afforded him the 
pleasing opportunity of befriending a de- 
serving and gifted artist, and which he 
was ever anxious to avail himself of. 

United with these public situations he 
was honoured with the confidence of the 
Duke of Wellington and the Marquess 
of Westminster, having under his attention 
and direction the preservation of their 
valuable works of art. His sound judg- 
ment and high character procured for him 
the intimate friendship of those far above 
him in rank and fortune, by whom he was 
ever esteemed a welcome guest. As an 
amateur of engravings, the etchings of the 
early Dutch masters were ever delightful 
to him ; he formed a beautiful collection, 
particularlv of the works of Rembrandt, 
in their nnest state; his Ostadc and 
Claude etchings are of the rarest order, as 
is his general «*ollectioii of the works of the 
Dutch painters. It would be impossible 
to ovcr-estimata his ability as a restorer 
O 



98 



OBiTCAftY.— >i9/r. William Savage. 



[Jan. 



of pictures ; so judicious, so able in bis 
method, no picture was ever lessened in 
value under his superintendence ; where 
little was required little was done, but 
that little judiciously. In this branch of 
his business be was assisted bv his brother, 
oo-whoin the labour devolved, and to him, 
we doubt not, the confidence of his late 
brother*s friends will be continued. 

The Atheneum (Nov, 18,; gives the 
following moderated estimate of Mr. 
Siguier's professional qualifications : 

" The late director's knowledge of art 
was chieflv, or altogether, anecdotical and 
traditional ; be could cite a pleasant tale 
about Claude when a pastrycook, or tell 
what Cromwell said about his warts to 
the portraitist, or all the Emperor of 
Austria remarked about Sir xhomas*s 
* Pope Pius ;' he could descant upon the 
gnee of Raffaele, and the airs of Guido, 
iie, &c. but a deeper vein of criticism is, 
we trust, now in demand. The Catalogue 
he drew up for the National Gallery would 
vindicate more than we have said against 
his limited attainments ; it swarmed at 
first with errors, and is still uver-run with 
them. Of the Spanish school he knew as 
much as any cognoscente among us — 
quasi nothing; of tne German little more; 
of the Italian far from enough ; of the 
French perhaps a good deal (though his 
mistake between Laneret and Watteau 
renders us sceptical) ; but of the Dutch 
and Flemish schools we believe him to 
have been an excellent judge, and no ill 
one of the English. About sculpture we 
should guess he undcrtitood a minimum , 
about architecture nought whatever, about 
engraving much, especially of the par- 
tictUar schools. Upon the whole, as a 
connoisseur, if he was not in advance of 
his own era, he was fully abreast of it, and 
let this merit enjoy its due praise, when 
ao many a presumptuous man lags behind 
the present f while he thinks to lead it.*' 

Mr. Seguier was in his 72nd year, a 
period of life he appeared not to have 
attained, enjoying, till within the last few 
months, excellent health and spirits, lie 
has left several daughters, but no son. 
Few persons were more highly esteemed 
for integrity and urbanity of manners, 
while his superior and accurate judgment 
rendered his opinions truly valuable to 
every connoisseur in art. 

Ma. William Savage. 

Jtd^ ^. At his reitideiice, Doding. 
too Grove, Kennington, in bis 73rd year, 
Mr. William Savaee, author of the 
•• Dictionary of the Art of Printing." 

Mr. Savage was a native of Howden, 
hi the East Riding of the county of 
York, and was (be younger son of Mr. 



James Savage, of that place, an eminent 
clockmaker, who was well versed in the 
higher branches of the mathematics, and 
who bad been for many years employed by 
the late celebrated Henry Hindley,of York , 
in the makii^ of spring, or table clocks, 
for the nobility and principal gentry in 
the North of England. Mr. Savage was 
descended from a younger branch of the 
ancient and noble family of Savage, of 
Rock Savaee, in the county of Chester. 
He received his education at the church 
school in Howden, and was well grounded 
in geometry and mechanics. In 1790 he 
commenced business as a printer and 
bookseller in bis native town, in partner- 
ship with his elder brother, Mr. James 
Savage, now living in Somersetshire, the 
author of the History of Taunton, &c. 
In 1797 he removed to London, and about 
two years afterwards was appointed, under 
the express recommendation of the late 
Hon. and Right Rev. Dr. Barrington, 
Lord Bishop of Durham, and Count 
Rumford, Printer to the Royal Insti- 
tution in Albenuu-le-street, London, and 
was for ten years assistant secretary to the 
board of managers of that establishment; 
(the secretary being an honorary officer,) 
and also secretary to the patrons of the 
library, secretary to the committee of 
chemistry, and superintendent of their 
printing office. 

About the year I8U3, Mr. Sava^ 
commenced the printing business m 
London on his own account, but still re- 
taining his official situations at the Royal 
Institution. Among other fine and 
splendid works entrusted to him to print, 
was <* The British Gallery of Engravings, 
by the Rev. Edward Forster," and he 
was required to execute that work at 
least equal, but, if possible, superior to 
any work that bad been proauced in 
England. At tliat time (1807), no fine 
printing ink was to be purebred from 
the manufacturers, their best ink beinff 
comparatively of an inferior colour, and 
of a weak consistence. The finest printera 
in England had obtained their celebrity 
solely by the superior quality of their ink ; 
for there were others who possessed as 
good practical knowledge of the art ; but 
these fine printers as they were termed, 
for they were few in number who had 
obtained this distinguished appellation, 
were in the habit of themselves improving 
the ink of commerce, but the mode of 
efiecting such improvement they kept 
a profound secret. In this state was the 
art of printing when Mr. Savage com. 
ineuced his experiments for the improve- 
roent of this article, the results of which 
he afterwards detailed in his work on the 
'* Preparation of Printing Ink,** published 



1814.] 



ObitUarv. — Mr, Wiilinm Samge* 



m 



ifi 183^. He then found tliat it rcf|Hired 
n |iri(itcr who knew, from prnctieal cx- 
perifiK't', what propertifs were required 
in irikt tomitkc a rciil improvement in this 
article of commerce, and, when he was 
engaged on his greut wojrk on ** Deco- 
miive Printing/' he was still further 
obh'ged to pitrsiie his object by experi* 
ment^ with colon red inks» for there 
t^xme^ no precedents to guide him j and 
ill the lutter years of his life he felt a high 
grHtificntion in perceiving the grent im- 
provement that had taken place in orna- 
iiientul printing since the publication of 
thai book. The in form at ion which he 
threw open to the public in his work on 
the '* Preparation of Printing Itikj^' was 
the re«(iikof twenty-three years of applica- 
tion devoted to thic peculiar subject* 
ile punmed it with ardour, beeatme be 
BOW in it cspubilities which he believed 
be saw alone. Wonderful and extensive 
AS is tbe power of the printing prc&s in 
diffusing knowledge over the globe, he 
sanrand felt that it hud yet a capabilityi 
untried and uoacknowledgcd, of producing 
works tbut might deservedly raise its 
cLums to rank among the fine arts ; and 
he bad the satisfaction of realizing his 
expectations. The Society for the En- 
couragement of Arts shewed their sense 
of his success in his mode of preparing 
printing ink, by awnrding to him ibeir 
krge medal and a sum of mon^y, for bis 
imitation of drawings printed from en- 
gravings on wood with inks of his own 
preparing; and by an invitation to furnish 
them with a paper on the Fri^pamtion of 
Printing Ink, He bas shewn, in bis 
work on *' Decorative Printing/' bow 
succttsfnily drawings may be imitated by 
means of the common printing pre^F, to 
the surprise of all who could estimate the 
difficulties attcndiint on such an under- 
taking, toward fi which no precedent in- 
formation existed, and wherein every 
ad^nncewas to be made by experiment. 

It has been al ready mentioned, tliat 
the leiter-presfi of that splendid work, 
•* The Jiniish Gallery of Kngravingi^/' 
was ewcutcd by Mr. lavage. It raised 
the productions of his press to at least a 
level with those of the best conicmpomry 
printers; and he had the gratitication 
not only of witnessing bis employers 
comparing his printing with that or those 
who had acquired the bifjhest celebrity, 
but of their awarding to him the stiperi- 
oriiy. In one of the reviews of that 
elej^nt work on its publication, we find 
Ibii eulogium : " The letter-press of Ibis 
work is in the most superb style, and 
rivals the celebrated Horace by Didot. 
It i« from the pre«is of Mr. W. Savage, 
of Bedfordbtiry, and does him the highest 



honotir.*" He t bus, by perseverance, com- 
pletely succeeded^ both as to ink and to 
workmanship, the latter of which was 
executed at a wooden one-ptill press of 
the common const ruction « Mr. Savage 
at length accomplished the object he had . 
in view of making printing ink of tha ] 
most superior character, without any oil I 
in its composition ; thus getting clear of J 
the imperfections of ii^ferior or adulte* 
rated oil, and of the trouble and danger of j 
boiling that article. i 

In Tb21? he published by subscription . 
his elegant work entitled " Hints on.i 
Decorative Printing,*' which opened an 
entirely nevv^ era in that art, and procured i 
him the highest character for his ingenuitjf 
and knowledge of the businets of a letter- 
press printer. During the succeeding ten j 
years he was employed in arranging and ) 
digesting the immense mass of materiali [ 
which he had been collecting for nearly | 
the preceding forty year^i, for bis " Die- i 
tionary of the i\rt of Printing," which 
was published in IBl^l, and which reOecCc j 
the highest credit upon his character, nol I 
only as a printer^ but also as a man o£ I 
general and superior knowledge, Thi« I 
work contains such a mass of in forma tion 
upon every subject connected with tho I 
present improved practice in the best \ 
printing-houses in London, that w^e shall i 
be excused for entering into a brief sketcl^ ] 
of some of its more piominent articles* 
Amongst other things, it contains th©J 
alphabets of all the languages, the characip i 
tcm of which are cast in the British i 
found cries j these are, the Arabic, Arme- ] 
nian, Bcngalese, Black Letter, Coptic, 
Danish, Domesday, Etb topic, Etruscan, 
German, Mccso-Uotbic, Greek, Hebrew, 
Irish, Malay, Persian, PoUsb, EuniCp J 
Russian, Samaritan, Sanskrit, Saxoo, 
Syriac, Swedish, apd Tamul, The 1 
article on the ** Orthography of tbe 
Bible* is valuable and important, ai I 
giving the variations in orthography of] 
the several editions of the Holy Scrip, 
tures as printed by the Queen's printers, | 
and the L'niversities of Oxford, Canu 
bridge, and Edinburgh, ^* The late Mr, ! 
Thomas Beiislcy/* says Mr* Savage, j 
*' who was printer to the University o( | 
(Jxford, told me, abtiut the year 1805, , 
that they had a sealed copy of the Bible ^ 
there as a standard to read from : if thi« ( 
be the case, it is difliculi to account fof 
their copies of late years having ntimerom I 
variations from the eariier editiouft. Xj 
think it very desirable that there shouH j 
be a standard edition that we could refee 
to as a pure text, and it would also b« 
desirable to know oii what authority thes^ 
variations arc made in the Holy Scriptures^ ] 
for cvary word^ eveiy point, na/ every 



Li. 



100 



ca|iittl letter, I befiere, wbs caxefnSij 
considered before it was adopted in tbe 
first edition of the authorised Tersion of 
161 1, and this too bjr a considerable num. 
ber of the most learned men of the king- 
dom, who had the direction of the work." 
The list of abbreTiations, botanical, legal, 
medical, and in records, will be foand 
exceedingly useful ; the articles on GaU 
Yanism, Fine Printing, and Machine Print- 
ing, are highly valuabfe. Indeed tbe work 
recommends itself to every person engaged 
in printing or literary pursuits, as an in- 
diraensable guide at every step. 

In his younger days Mr. Savage was a 
good draughtsman ; in Britton's Beauties 
of England and Wales, in that part re- 
lating to Yorkshire, are four pnnts en- 
Saved from drawings bv him ; 1. view of 
owden ; 2. view of the gorgeous archi- 
tecture of the east window of Howden 
Church, now in ruins ; 3. view of Wressle 
Castle, near Howden ; 4. view of Hemin^- 
brough Church, near Selby, celebrated for 
its well-proportioned and elegant spire. 
The writer of this is in possession of 
some drawings of his of the interior of 
the rich architecture of the octagonal 
chapter-house of Howden Church, built 
br Walter Skiriaw, Bishop of Durham, 
about the year 1400, now unhappily in 
ruins. Mr. Savage has left three daugh- 
ters, one of whom is now, and has been 
for some years past, the highly respected 
housekeeper of the Royal Institution in 
Albemarle Street. S. E. 



OBitTrABT.-^t/bA» Bwddle, Ssq. 



[Jan. 



•.*. 



John Bcddle, Esq. 

The following particulars are additional 
to tbosegiven in our last Magazine, p. 656. 

Mr. Buddie's father was a person of 
talent far above tbe common order. 
He resided, in early life, at Chester-lc- 
Street, (where be is said to have con. 
ducted a school,) and aftenvards at Bush- 
bUdes, near Tanfield. In 1756 be is 
mentioned in the Lady's Diary as of 
the former place, and in 1766 in the 
Gentleman's Diary as of the latter. In- 
deed, after he removed to Wallscnd, to 
manage the famous colliery there for the 
late Mr. Russell, (the grandfather of tbe 
present possessor of Brancepeth Castle,) 
he still kept up his house at Bu^bblades. 
He seems to have written his name 
" Buddies,'* as that spelling is made use 
of in all tbe diaries in which be is men- 
tioned. It is more than probable thst 
the elder Mr. Buddie bad scquired a 
practical knowledge of mining previous to 
bis commencing as a teacher ; indeed the 
rtrj circumstance of his being selected 
for a very difficult duty by so excellent a 
Aacrirainator of talent as tbe kte Mr. 
Boiiell» is enough to establish the fact. 



He was not onlr a great lorer of books, 
but a great reader of them ; and he used 
every pains to fiimish his son with eda- 
catiomd means of making his way in 
the world . He died many vears ago. The 
son (who was bom in 1*374, near Pontop, 
in Northumberland) resided with his 
father at Wallsend. 

Mr. Buddie 0°8t deceased^ became a 
member of the Literary and Pnilosophical 
Society of Newcastle soon after its com. 
mencement in 1793, and was one of its 
firmest supporters ; and he took an active 
part in the formation of tbe Natural 
History Society — an institution to which 
he was much attached, and to which he 
has been the most valuable contributor. 
Amongst the most important of his 
donations are a model of a coal-mine, 
and four large sections of the Newcastle 
coal-field, which are now in the Societv's 
museum. The sections accompanied a 
paper entitled '' A Synopsis of the New- 
castle Coal Field,*' which was read at a 
meeting of the Society, held in December 
1830, and is published (with reduced copies 
of the sections^ in tbe Society's Transac- 
tions — in whicn several other important 
papers by Mr. Buddie are to be found. 

At the meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation in Newcastle, in 1838, Mr. Bud- 
die also read an account of the Newcastle 
coal-field, accompanied by models and 
drawings, being an extension of tbe 
" Synopsis,'* and certainly the best 
account of tbe Newcastle (or perhaps any 
other^ coaUfield ever drawn up. This 
valuable paper has not yet been published, 
but wc need hardly say that its publication 
would not only be an act of gratitude on 
the part of tbe Natural History Society, 
but would form one of tbe most fitting 
monuments to tbe memory of its author. 
Mr. Buddie filled the office of Vice-Pre- 
sident of the Society, and also received a 
similar honour from tbe Newcastle In- 
stitution for the Promotion of tbe Fine 
Arts. 

In 1813 Mr. Buddie addressed a letter 
to Sir R. Milbanke, on tbe imperfect 
system of ventilating collieries, a subject 
in which be interested himself deeply. 
He also materially assisted Sir Humphry 
Davy in those experiments which ended 
in tbe production of tbe "Davy lamp,*' 
tbe satety of tbe pitman being an object 
which he' seems constantly to have bad at 
heart. 

Mr. Buddie was also a Commissioner 
of Dean Forest, an office of no easy kind, 
but in which be was eminently successful, 
in conjunction with his colleagues, Messrs. 
Sopwith and Probyn. 

As the friend, as well as colliery, 
manager, of the Marquess of Londonderry, 




OniTViLRr, "Joseph Hatdm^t Esq* 



Mr. Bad(ilc was well known. In the 
fomiatian and completioti of Senhnm 
hurbour, his assistance was invaUitible ; 
uid be was present ^ with bia noMe friend, 
to wiUiess the swccefis of their enterprise » 
in the opening of the harbour on the 25th 
of Juljr, 1831, when be saw the first cods 
shipped from ** Port SetibHin '' in n vessel 
of his own. On the Marques;<f obtaining 
the Lord'Licuectinncy of Durham , he 
placed Mr, Buddie in the Commission of 
the Pence, an evidence in itself, if any 
were wanting, ol the estimation in which 
he was held. He qadtfied as a mfigistrate 
on the nth of October, 1842, 



Joseph IlAaDtNo, Esq. 

Dff, 19, At Finchkj% in bia 61st year, 
Jo«eph Harding, E^q, late of Pall Mall, 

Mr. Harding was the youngest brother 
and a»«istant of Mr. Jonn Harding, the 
agrictjltuml bookseller of St, Jameii's- 
street. He afterwards became a printer 
in St. John's. squarer under the firm of 
Harding and Wright, He then joined the 
well-known bookselling flim of Lacking, 
ton, Hughes, Mavor, and Co. in Fins- 
bury.»quAre ; and on the retirement from 
business of Mr, Geofffc Lackington^ be- 
came the head of that establishment, 
which be rvraovtd from Fmshury-square 
to Pall Mttll Eai^t. This firm publi^hi-d 
many very exteitsive works, chielly by 
subscription ; among others, Mr. Onne- 
rod'f History of Cheshire ; perhaps the 
most succeflftful, and one of the ablest, of 
ouf modern County Histories; Dug- 
dftle*8 Monasticon, in eight volumes, an 
jmoiense undeitaking, under the editor- 
ahip of Dr. Bandinel, Mr. Caley, and 
Sir Henry Elhs ; but we bijlievc almost 
the whole labour of this arduous task was 
sustained by the latter gentleman ; and 
Du^dale*s St. Paul's, edited by Sir Henry 
Elh* ; Wood's Athense 0;ionienscs, edited 
by Dr, Bliss; and Portraits of Illustrious 
reraonages of Great Britain, with Lives, 
by Edmund Lodge, Esq, This last work 
waa B little mine of wealth to Mr. Hard* 
!ng. It wa^ first published in folio with 
Urge plates, and wa^^ tolerably successful, 
having a very fair H*,t of tubst^ribers. But 
it (jcearred to Mr. HunJiu^', that the work 
would be more profiUtbic in a smaller 
aise, and be te-eugraved all the portraits 
in a large octavo form; when the work 
became exceedingly popular, and edition 
after edition was called for. Mr. Hard- 
ing made a public exhibition of the ori- 
ginal drawings, which we believe were 
Afterwards sold by auction. He al^o sold 
the copyright and plates by auction to 
Mr* Smith of Fleet*street, for a great sum* 
Mt» Harding waa a shrewd clever mim of 



bustne^«i ; from which he retired in 1836 
with a very hand some fortune. 



Alft. TrtOMAft Hotus. 

Oct. 14. In Ajjollo Buildings, Wal. 
worthy aged 25, Mr. Thoma« Hollis, a 
rising artist prematurely cut o^ at his 
entry into a profession of which he gave 
early promise of his ability to prove him- 
self ft distinguished member. 

He was the only son of Mr. George 
Hoi lis,* well known to our antiquarian 
friends ns the joint-projector, with the 
subject of this memoir, of n scries of en- 
gravings of Monumental Effigies on the 
plan of the late Charles Stothard, F.S.A. 
andgmndBonof John Buckler, esq. F,S. A. 

From his earliest youth, Mr. f, Hollis 
evinced a great fondness for the arts, and 
when a schoolboy he employed his leisure 
hours in sketching fiom nature in the 
neighbourhood of Monimartre, where bi» 
father then resided. He may be con- 
sidered as a self-taught artist ; he com- 
menced his studies in the gallerj' of the 
Louvre at tlie early age of fourteen, and 
made con's id cruble progress in copying 
several of the paintings there until bis 
return to England, when he resumed his 
favourite study at the British Museum 
and the National and DuUvich Galleries, 
constantly sketching from nature at the 
sarnc lime ; and in April, 1836, svft^ ad- 
mitted to iLc Royal Academy as ft St u- 
dentj pursuing the study of the figure to 
quatify himself us an historical painter. 
He afterwards became a pupil of Mr, 
Pickersgill the portrait painter. 

In 183f>, in conjunctiun with his father^ 
be commenced the work on Sepulchral 
Effigies, the first part of which was pub- 
lished in 1840; for this work be made 
the dmvvings, aiud, on the death of hts 
father in l^\2^ fearing the work might 
be stopiied, he unhappily came to the re- 
solution of carrying it on by his own ex- 
ertions, etching the plates as well us 
preparing the drawings, Hts close appli- 
cation to this object, added to the labours 
of his profession, which he pursued un- 
remittingly %vith the laudable hope of 
being able to add to the comforts of a 
widowed mother, was too great for bis 
powers ; his health sunk under his exer- 
tions, and made way for a rapid con- 
sumption, which ended fatally. 

Ttie study of costume he designed to 
have made subservient to his favourite 
pursuit of historical painting. We have 
seen two sketches of subjects derived fram 
the early history of England and Fnlnce, 
studies for larger jiictures, which gave 

^ See a memoir of Mr, Q. HoUu in 
vol, xvii. p, ^'^:i* 



102 



Obituary.— i(f. Castmir Dtlavigne. 



[Jan. 



promise of bis future talents, uniting 
accuracy of costume with the higher 
qualities of art. The early period of his 
illness was cheered with the hope, that 
he would be able to distinguish himself 
in the honourable competition which was 
opened to artists by the encouragement 
offered by Government in the projected 
enrichment of the palace of Westminster. 

The few etchings which Mr. T. HoK 
lis made for the work on Sepulchral Effi* 
gies, although his first efforts with the 
gnver, display great spirit and truth ; and 
the portraits painted by him are valued 
for their fidelity and the beauty of the 
drawing. 

He went to the grave with the respect 
of all who knew him for his unassuming 
manners, and the persevering energy with 
which he followed his favourite and fas- 
cinating purtuit, and valued by his im. 
mediate friends for the unceasing ex- 
ertions which in health he made to sup. 
ply to his family, as far as his exertions 
could do so, the loss of his parent. 

E. I. C. 

M. Casimie Delavigne. 

Dee. 10. At Lyons, in his 50th year, 
M.Casimir Delavigne, one of the most 
eminent modem French dramatists, a 
member of the Acadiroie Fran9aise, and 
librarian at the palace of Fontainebleau. 

He was on the way to Montpellier, for 
the re-establishment of his health, travel- 
ling by short stages. The immediate 
cause of his being obliged to stop at Ly. 
6ns on the 9th was a violent sore throat. 
He went to bed immediately on his ar- 
rival, and never rose from it more. His 
wife was reading to liim Scott*s Guy 
Mannering when he breathed his last, 
without pain, and in the fuU possession of 
his faculties. His son, a boy of ten 
years of age, was present. 

For many years he had been in deli(*ate 
h ealth, and his manner of composing his 
works contributed to increase it. He 
composed his works in declaiming them, 
and he thus corrected them until he was 
satisfied with both the language and situa- 
tion. He frequently left his room after 
such labours bathed in perspiration. 

His mortal remains have been brought 
(wck to Paris, where his funeral took 
place at Notre* Dame-de- Bonne-Nou- 
velle, in presence of all the celebrated li- 
terary men of the day. The Th^Htre Fran, 
cais was closed on the evening of the 
funeral ; and his bust, executed in marble, 
is to be placed in the saloon of the theatre. 

Delavigne was a native of Havre. 
The character given him by Jules Jantn 
in the Debats will be md with in. 
terost : 



'* How shall we express our admiration 
of the calm, dignified, and honourable life 
of the gr^t poet, whose loss France de. 
plores this day, after having applauded 
him for twenty years ? He is dead, the 
noblest and worthiest representative of 
the poets of former times in the best 
days of poetry. What life more abound- 
ing with the best works, and with the 
finest verses? What glory, and in this 
glory what modesty ? What career better 
commenced, and continued more deter- 
minedly or honestly? He has been one of 
the first to trace the career of modern 
poetry! A child of the Restoration, he 
has mingled with popular feelings ; he has 
always taken part with the right.judging. 
He was the first, with Lord Byron and 
Stranger, to comprehend that the Empe- 
ror, even living, had become a poetic 
being ; the first to celebrate Greece cap. 
tive and resuscitated ; he has cast himself 
at the feet of Joan of Arc ; he has wept 
with eloauent tears over the misfortunes 
of Waterloo. 

*' This fine and thoroughly French soul 
possessed the liveliest instincts on all 
relating to glory, pity, heroism. His 
first attempt, " The Sicilian Vespere,** 
raised great hopes in literary France ; and 
France was not astonished to learn that 
this new comer was from the same pro- 
vince as Corneille. Recal to your minds, 
you who were then young, the intoiica. 
tion you experienced from beautiful 
veree,and the choruses of *' The Paria,** 
and the burst of laughter that were ex- 
cited by the charming satire of ** The 
Comedians'* and " The School for Old 
Men.** Talma still lived! Mademoi- 
selle Mare had retained all the illusion 
and all the brilliancy of youth. Just 
Heavens ! how old it makes us ! I seem 
to be still at the first representation of 
*• King Louis XI." when Monsieur Ca- 
simir Delavipe wished to show that he 
also knew nghtl^ how to employ all the 
point and magnificence of tne modem 
drama. Indefatigable genius — eloquent 
pleasantry — he was terrible, he was 
charming ! He could play with the most 
dangerous heroes; witness Charles V. 
and Philip II., and that history of Don 
John of Austria, that Calderon or Lope 
de Vega would not have rejected. These 
were his palmy days — davs of triumph 
and of battles gained. He abandoned 
himself willingly to the inspiration of the 
moment ; he Delicvcd in chance, as do, 
in some degree, all men of genius. In 
the same manner that he found " Don 
John of Austria" in opening by chance 
the " Bii^raphie Univereelle," he found 
** Les Enfims d*Edouard " in Shakspere, 
wi in the Bible ** Uoe Fimille de Lu. 



1844] 



Obituary.— X E Kind.—Ckr^^ Deceased. 



103 



Iher/' and in the •' Cid '* of Omcille 
ihmt totrching elegy of ** LaFille du Cid." 
" An nble writer, still more a writer 
ot good sense thnn u writer of genius, be 
f gave up nil to poetry ciiept the liiws of 
^ gTHtnuiar ; he uns carty ntn ttired with tbu 
strongest and most seriona studies^ ine« 
ditsrive, diffident; loving retirement, hnppy 
in the charming solitude of his family! 
One dare» not say how old he was when 
lie died. One diirea not rakulnte all the 
noble tfioughts inclosed in ttiut nuble 
bcart, till the beautiful verses cotituined 
in that bead whieh its bluck locks still 
thudcd. He lived without other renown 
thon poetic renown, witbotit other um- 
bilion thtin success doiivcd from the 
theatre — be died in the midst of prtiise 
and universal Inmenfation , Weep for him , 
you who love iinc verses, tender thoughts, 
wit without gall, gface witbotit affecta- 
tion ; weep for him, you who love a 
laboriutts life^ well-carucd ^lury, domestic 
virlnes, salutftry examples, proud spirits, 
upright minds ; simplicity with talent, 
the sweet and calm good humour whicli 
oriies from a quiet conscience and from 
duties fulfilled. He dies still young ; byt 
biK life \iAB been a full one, but bis name 
cannot die, but he leaveis hi? masterpieces 
behind him, and even, for io this nvolu. 
lion of July all ought to be pucifie, in the 
popular VTOvks of our puet ^vc find (he 
song of glory and of pnrdon for the revo- 
lution oi July, Signal honour of a song 
of triuinpb under wbieb the calmest and 
moat loyal poet of France bus (bur^d his 
repose. He is no in ore I Lyons, the 
hospitable city, has accompanied him to 
her goteis, to which he wus lost with 
regret. Paris, which has so loved him, 
expecu him nfter to-morrow to bestow 
oil him funeral rites worthy of our grati- 
tude, our regret, our reverence/* 



ried '* to the music of Weber. He died 
on the night it was performed in the 
Roynl Theatre at Dresden for the 186th 
time. 



J. K KiNi>. 

July .. At Drei^den, in his 76th year. 
the once popular German novelist and 
dramatist, J, Fiicdrich Kind. 

He wm born at Leipzig, ^larth 4, 
1768. Hii productions arc so exceed- 
ingly numerous, amounting altogether to 
some fourscore volumes, that nothing but 
a tiist^rate reputation could keep the mass 
of theiij from sinking into cfbtivion, espr- 
ciaUy aa they arc of a elasa wbu»e readers 
require the stimulus of nuvi'lty^ He wns 
most of all sueeessful in h\s tales and 
ahorler narratives, which have the re- 
commendation of being of unobjectionable 
inorol tendency. Among his dramatic 
piece*, his *' Van Dyk's Landlcben " i» 
the most esteemed, but ** Dcr FrieschQts'* 
the only one which produced a Kensntion 
in the theatrical world, hy being *• nmr- 



(^:lergy deceased. 

Oct 25. At Streamville, Wexford, 
aged 4i, the Rev. Nicholas Otithtfert 
fen wick , Rector of KilHiiJck, 

A^uv. 2. At a very advanced age, the 
Rev. Ilumiihreif Lloyd ^ Vicar of Llnn- 
vawr, nearllala, Merionethshire, to which 
he was collated in 1810 by Dr. Luxmoore, 
then Bishop of St. Asaph. 

At Cottesmore, co. Rutland, aged 7D, 
the Rev. Henry IVttliam Net^ile, Rector 
of ihflt parish. He was of Trinity college, 
Cambridge, B.A. !798, M.A. 1801; and 
was presented to his living in 1812 by Sir 
Gerard Noel, Burt. He svus father of 
Henry Nevile, c^q. of Walcot l*ark near 
Stamford, and father-in-law of Henry 
O'Brien, esq. of Tixover, and of the 
II 00. and Hcv. J. Fortescne. 

N&p. 6. In the Isle of Wight, aged 37, 
the Rev. Thoma» Pi don Jenkins, for- 
merly Curate of Shalfleet, a nephew^ of 
Sir Thomas Ficton. 

At "^Vinehester, from being thrown 
from his horse four days before, aged 24, 
the Rev. John C. Utihhahs, S.C.L. 
Fellow of ^c\y college, Ostford, eldest 
son of Charles LiUlebaleSj esq, of Win, 
cheater. 

Nov. 7- Aged 49, the Rev. Jamn 
PHVctll, Vicar of Worminghall, Bucks, 
to which he was presented by Lord CI if- 
den in 1837. 

Not, 8. At Leedit, Ktnt, aged 84. the 
Rev. ThoTtwji Lomm^ for 45 years Per- 
perual Curate of that parish. He was of 
B ra zen ose CO 1 1 ege , Ox f o r d , M . A . 1 786 . 

JVoF. 10. At York, the Rev. WiHiam 
Flower t jnn. M.A, Reetor of South 
Hykeham, Lincolnshire, and Chaplain of 
York Castle. He was presented to South 
Hykehani in 1837 by the Lord Chuocellof, 

Nw. 14. At Tatenhill, Staffordshire, 
aged 50, the Rev. J—M— Cr^ieif, 
Cuiftte of that place. He was killed by 
falling ijito a well, after dark. 

Nov. 19. At fligh Hoyland, near 
Wakefield, ihe Rev. Samuel FenneU^ 
D,D. He was formerly Fellow and Tutor 
of Queen** college, Cambridge, and some 
time Principol of the Proprietary Sehool, 
Wakefield. Mr. Fennel I was \ 1 th Wrang- 
ler in 1821, and proceeded to his ALA, 
degree 1824, and D.D, 1839. Duiing 
the time he was tutor, he very greatly 
distinginshcd himself by his talentt and 
assiduity. As Principal of the Proprie- 
tar^ School, Wakefield, \\h conduct wi| 
nmversally approved. 



104 Qergjf Decetutd. 

N<M, 21. At OroftoD, Yorkshire, in 
bis 80tb year, the Rev. Utriin Jo9eph 
JV^iyfor.D.D. Rector of that parish. He 
was a native of Batley Carr, near Dews- 
bury. In due time he proceeded to 
Queen's college, Cambridge, where he 
was third Wrangler in 1787, and was 
bracketed indeed with the second ; M.A. 
1790, D.D. 1799; was Fellow of his 
college, and fulfilled the duties of Proctor 
at a time which called forth peculiar firm- 
ness of character in preserving the peace 
of Uie town. From college he went to 
Wdcefield, being appointed afternoon 
lecturer at the parish church ; was chosen 
head master of the Grammar School, and 
afterwards had the vicarage of Penistone. 
Both the latter prefermenu he resigned, 
after having resided at Wakefield and the 
vicinity for nearly half a century, on be- 
coming the Rector of Crofton. He still 
continued Chaplain to the West Riding 
Lunatic Asylum, having only recently 
vacated that duty. In 1810 be published 
a volume of Discourses on the Evidences 
of Christianity, in which the ar^ment is 
correctly, powerfullv, and satisfactorily 
stated. Also several occasional sermons 
and addresses, chiefly on Masonic occa- 
sions, in his capacity of Provincial Grand 
Chaplain. For 90 years he was Editor 
of toe Wakefield Journal, during the 
time it was published bv the late Mr. 
Rowland Hurst and his family, in which 
he showed himself a consistent friend of 
Reform. 

No9. 22. At Brinkworth hall, near 
York, aged 80, the Rev. John GMtlif, 
Senior Canon of the Collegiate church, 
Manchester, and Rector of St. Marv's in 
that town. He was of Brazenose college, 
Oxford, M.A. 1789. He was elected a 
Fellow of Manchester nearly 45 years 
ago, and had been Rector of St. 51ary*8 
for 39 years. 

At Walton-on-the-HiU, near Liverpool, 
aged 76, the Rev. Thomas 3iou, Vicar 
of that place. He was son of the late 
Robert Moss, esq. of Sandhill, near 
Liverpool f was of University college, 
Oxford, M.A. 1789 ; and was presented 
to his living by the Rev. Samuel Heath- 
cote, then Rector, in 1816. He had been 
in the commission of the peace for Lanca- 
shire from 1812, and was the third in 
point of seniority among the magistrates 
of the county. 

Nw, ... At Osbaldwick, Yorkshire, 
aged 50, the Rev. CAarJet InaU, Vicar of 
that parish, and of Haxby, Murton, and 
Strensall, all villages in the vicinity of 
York, and Fellow of St. Peter's coUcpe, 
Cambridge. He had laboured for nme 
months under severe nervous depression, 
and shot himself through the heirt during 
13 



[Jan. 

the influence of ''temporary derange, 
ment.** He was presented in 1827 to all 
his churches, which are in the gift of 
prebendaries of York. 

Not, 24. At Withycombe, Somerset, 
the Rev. JrtkMr OuarUt VertUi, Vicar 
of that parish, formerly of Wadworth near 
Doncaster. He was of Clare hall. Cam- 
bridge, B. A. 1802, M.A. 1806 ; and was 
presented to Withvcombe in 1820. 

Dee, 1. At Alcester, Warwickshire, 
the Rev. Franeit Palmer, Rector of that 
parish, to which he was presented in 1807 
oy the Marquess of Heitford. 

At St. John's, Cornwall, aged 68, the 
Rev. WiliiamBoWj for thirt^-five years 
Rector of that parish, to which he was 
presented in 1808 bv R. P. Carew, esq. 

Dec. 6. At Clophill, Bedfordshire, aged 
88, the Rev. William Pierce NethereoU, 
LL.B. Rector of that place, and Vicar of 
Pulloxhill. He was presented to both 
churches in 1799 by Lady De Grey. 

Dec. 8. At East Blatchington, afed 
75, the Rev. John Lewis, Rector of that 
parish, to which he was presented in 1804 
by John King, esq. 

At Wortley, near Leeds, aged 54, the 
Rev. George iiickardi, for more than 30 
years Perpetual Curate of that chapelry, 
to which ne was presented, by trustees, 
in 1813. 

Dec. 9. At Wortheobury, Flintshire, 
affed 38, the Rev. Hugh 3iaitkk, Rector 
of that parish, to which he wms pmented 
in 1832 by Sir R. Puleston. 

DEATHS. 

LONOON AND ITS VlCINITT. 

No9. 4. At Stamford-hill, aged 66, 
Jane, relict of Joshua Hobson, esq. 

Nov. 17. At his house, Clapham-rise, 
aged 83, Daniel Stewart, esq. 

Nov. SO. At Tottenham, Miss Julia 
Parkin, youngest dau. of the late Anthony 
Parkin, esq. of the General Post Ojffice. 

At Clapham-common, Lom'sa-Janet, 
youngest daa. of the late Alexander Gibb, 
esq. 

Nov. 23. Suddenly, at 08borne*s hotel, 
of disease of the heart, aged 65, Richard 
H. Alexander, esq. surgeon, of Corshyam, 
Wilts. 

Aged 48, Ann, wife of Geoige Banks, 
es^.of Bridge-st.Westminiter, and Thames 
Ditton, Surrey. 

In Bathurst-st. Hyde Park-gardens, 
Margaret, relict of W. F. Bridell, esq. 

Nov.23. Aged 88, William Greenwood, 
esq. of Featheratone-buildings, Holbom. 

At Hammersmith, Mary-Bremner, wife 
of James A. Roy, esq. late Capt. 71st 
Hkhland Light Inf. 

14 Geoi|^. Portmaniq. aged 38, 



»1MS.] 



Obitttaby. 



103 






AkxKDder Gr&Dt^ eftq* of the B^tig^nl Ciril 
Serrice, 

At ClaphAm^ a^d d9, Mrs. Summa 
_Onne. 

AW. 94, In John-9t. FibEroy-BC|, aged 

Bemani Bayley, esq. Aisistaat Com- 

flniMiry Geo., and many years at the head 

of tlie Audit Office for West lodia Ac 

counts* 

Ag«d 57, Lydltf wife of John Doggett, 

q. «f Shoreditch, 
^or, 85* At Kennington, aged 73, Elt- 
_ etb, relict of William Rins^sted Barber, 
9mi, of Wr«8tlingworth» near Potton, Bcda. 

Ag«d 77 r Mrs. Goulding, widow of 
Georgv Godldingr esq. of Soho-aq. 

In Regent>«q. aged 29, x\rthur Wood- 
hoaae, esq. 

At Heme-Mll, aged 83, MtM Charlotte 
Jones. 

Aged 61 1 George Cooj^er, esq. of Ely-pl. 

lo Chester-terr, Regent's F^rk^ aged 
83 r TliODiaa Parke, esq. 

Nov^ 26. At Ulington, aged 75 » Mrs. 
Sanh Rawlinii aunt to the Rev. J. S. 
Sergrofe, Rector of St. Mary Somerset. 

At BLickheath, aged«^l ,WiUiam Brown- 
ing, cjq. 

In B;rkeley-sq. John Hamillon Elriog- 
ton, e»q. late Lient.-Col. Scots Fusilier 
Guards. 

JVor. 27. In Blooroubury-sq. aged [m, 
Lady Siln!*ter, relict of Sir John Silves- 
ter, Bart, of Yardley House, Essex, and 
fsfinerly Recorder of London. She was 
Harriot^ dau. of the Rev. Owen Davies, 
of South amnton ; was married first to the 
IU*v. John tioghes Speedy of Eling, Itamp- 
sbire; and secondly, in Dec, 1793, to Sir 
Jolm Silvester, who died in l!d2^. 

Afed 82, Thotnas Dornford, es^j. for- 
merly Member of the Court of Common 
Coimcil for the City for 3i years. 

In DufourS'pL Golden-sq. aged 75, 
Mr. Joseph Too good, for upwar(& of 30 
yaars Surveyor of Pavementi. 

In fi loom^bury-sq. aged 79| James 
Brown, esq. 

Aged 4.H, Edward George Howell Shep- 
herd, esq. eldest son of the lata Edward 
€harte« Howell Shepherd, esq. of Devoa- 
•kire-tt. Portland -pL 

Aged 16, Mary- Ana, eldest dau. of 
John K. GiUiat, esq. of Claphum-common. 

iVor.Sd, In St. George*s-pL Hyde Park- 
comer, aged 83, Thomas Goding, esq, for- 
merly a celebrated brewer at Knights. 
bifidge. 

Aged 19, Prances-Georgiana, eldest dau. 
of Sir Launcelot Shadwell, Vice Chan- 
oellor of England. 

LiVot*. 29* At his house in Bolton-«t. 
Piccadilly, aged 47 » Charlei Brinsley 
Slieridan, c»<j. second son of the cele- 
brated Right Hon, Richard Brinsley She- 



I 



ridan, by hi« second wife, Miss Ogle, 
whose fortune he inherited ; and uncle by 
half-blood to Lady DufTerio, Lady Sey- 
mour, and the Hon. Mrs. Norton. 

At Harley House, Regent's Park, aged 
63, Rebecca, widow of Charles Day, esq. 

At Highgate, aged 56, William Vewens, 
esq. Conveyancer, of Pinners* Hall, Old 
Broad -St. 

At Htghgate, aged 76, Charles Griffith, 
esq. formerly of St. Andrew's, Holbom. 

In Upper Phillimore-pi. Kensington, 
aged 53, Richard Sarel, esq, 

L^iety, At his residence, Greenwich 
Hospital, aged 62, Lieut. Edward de 
Montmorency, R.N. only surviving son of 
the Rev, Redmond Morres, of Mallow, co. 
Cork, and nephew of the late Lord Vis- 
count Frankfort dc Montmorency, 

At Lodge-road, Regent's- park, aged 
70, Richard Chambers, esq. of Cradley- 
hall, Herefordshire, and late of Witburne- 
conrt, a Magistrate and Deputy-Lieut, for 
the counties of Hereford and Worcester. 

Henrietta, daughter of Sir M» H. Beachp 
Bart. 

At Stamford Hill, aged ^^, June, re- 
lict of Joshua Hobsoin e«q. 

J5ec. 1. In Pall Mall, aged 89, James- 
Henry Barnouiu, esq. late of the Ord- 
nance Department, Tower, 

At Clapton, Mary-Jane, wife of John 
Loxley, esq. and eldest dau. of James 
Morley, esq. of Green-street House, East- 
ham , 

In Bruton-pl. aged 32, Henry, third 
son of John Flower, esq. 

At Walworth, aged 73, Georg« Wil- 
liam Paddon, esq. formerly Major in 9Tth 
Regt, 

Dec. 2, At Parson's -green, Mary-Anne, 
wife of Jamea Lay ton, esq. 

Aged ^t Ferdinando Jeyc«, esq. of 
Chancery -lone. 

Having that day completed his 18th 
year, Mr. Robert Combs, fifth son of Mr. 
Henry James Combs, of Lawrence Ptmnt- 
ney Hill. His proficiency in the classics, 
and particularly in the Hebrew laoguage, 
had gained for him contlderabfe distinc- 
tion at Merchaat-Tailars' School, which 
he entered in 18113. In the present year 
he won the Montcfiore Medal as the best 
Hebrew scholar ; but the incessant assi- 
duity and zeal with which he pursued his 
favourite study, combined with physical 
disorganization, broke down his constitu- 
tion. To high mental abilities he united 
the mo?t estimable and endearing qualities. 

Dec. 3, Mr. George Douchex, surgeon, 
formerly of Gower-st. Bedford -sq* 

Dec. 4. At Walworth, aged 30, Ca- 
tharine, wife of George Kincaid, esq. 

In York -pi. Mile -end -road, aged 7ti, 
George Morrist esq. 

P 



W6 



OBrrvABr. 



[Jan. 



la 81. JolHi'ft Wood RMd, wgfd £9, 
C^dMriae, widow of Jofcpk Skdtim, 

ike. 5. At lUtlaidUfsU, H jde Pbrk. 
Mn. Wke, r^ct of Matthew Wke, oq. 

Oi MJtMWUBt^bO/tt» 

At l^aftOB, aged »l, Mr. Edward 
Latdock, of the EqaitaUe Amunaet 
OAce. 

ZVv. & la Bmiwidc-aq. aged 84, 
MfB. Sarah HadMra. 

la CliftoB.pl. Waadaworth^road, i^ 
61, TfaaoCkj HobMa, eiq. kte of the 
VktaaOiag Oftee, Soaicnet Honae, and 
of Kirkbjr Loaadale, WeadaorelaBd. 

Dte. 7> Afed 39, Mr. Heary Owen 
TalMmnfia, of the TUlie Coaimiiaion 
OAce. 

Heary Coode, eaq. of the Gnnre, Keat- 
iab Towa, leeoad soa oC Edward Coode, 
caq. oC St. Aaatdl, Corawafl. 

Dte. 8. Aged 79, Robert Laa^eyAp- 
pleyard, eaq. of Moatagae-st. aad Lm- 
eola's-ina. 

Dee, 9. Mr. Joha Harcourt. He for- 
merly reiided ia the pariah of Benaoad- 
aey, aad haa, by hii will, beqaeathed to 
the charchwardeas of that pariah the lam 
of 1000/. Three per Ceat. Coasola for 
erer apoa traat, to paj the iatereat (30/.) 
amoagat W poor widows of the parish 
who IwTe aerer recdTed paroehial relief, 
IS of whom to be the relicts of taaaers 
aad leather-dreaaers ; the distribotioB to 
be aiade yearly oa the 31st December. 

Dee. 10. Aged 65, Mr. Joha Hill, of 
Chariag Croaa aad Spriag Gardeas. 

Aged 63, Richanl Beaver, esq. at 
Hampstcad. 

Dee. 12. Aged 79, Isaac Moore, esq. 
of Portmaa-pL Maida-hilL 

lieat.-Col. Joha Moataga, late of the 
Coldstream Oaards. 

BsDf.— AToir. 16. At Bedford, aged 
83, Sarah, widow of Joha Staiaes, esq. 

BamKa.— AToir. 18. At Waatage, aged 
68, Aaae, wife of the Rer. Joha Viney 
Battoa. 

JVor. 30. At Old Wiadsor, aged 41, 
Joha, soa of Mr. Samael Bagster of Old 
Wiadsor, aad Pateraoster-row, publisher. 

Dee. 11. At Paagboarae Lodge, aged 
49, Elisabeth, wife of Sir James Fellowes, 
late of Adbary Hoase, Haats. She was 
the eldest daaghter aad coheiress of Jo- 
seph James, esq. of Adbary House, 
Haats, aad was aiarried ia 1816. 

CAMaaiDOE. — Lately. At Harstoa, 
aged 74, William Taylor, esq. 

Dee. 5. Fraaces, eldest dan. of the 
Re?. Nicholas Isaac Hill, Rector of Snail- 
well. 

CuMaaaLAMO.— ATov. 17. Aged G8, 
Joha Barwis, esq. of Laagrigg Hall. 



Dkbbt. — ^Tar. 23. At Radborae, i^ed 
23, Aaaa^Maria, ddeat daa. of E. S. 
Chaadoa Pole, esq. 

Dee. 5. At Derby, aged 73, Richard 
Forcater Forester, esq. M.D. 

Darox. — Aav. 1». At Devoaport, 
aged 76, Mr. Joha Kcat, kaowa as the 
aathor of " The Origiaal Goapd Hyains 
aadPocais." 

AW. 26. At Plyasoath, aged 60, Com- 
aiaader Hagh Doaald Caaseroa Doa^as, 
R.N. He accideatally fdl orer fht Bar- 
bicaa Qaay late at ai^ aad waa drowa- 
ed. He waa auide Lieateaaat to the 
Saa Doaiii^ 74 on the North Aaaerican 
statioa, Jaa. 11, 1814 ; aad adfaaeed to 
the raak of Coauaaader on the 28th of 
Aag. 1827; aad had jast paid off the 
Tweed, 20, from the North Americaa aad 
West ladiaa statioa. 

iVav. 27. Jaae, wife of Harry-Gobias 
Kcrsteaiaa, eaq. of Exeter. 

^Tor. 30. At T<»qaay, «ged 79, Maiga- 
ret, wife of Wm. Clarfc, eaq. 

Lately. At Teigaaioath,Thoa. Midiell, 
eaq. late of Croftwest, Corawall, brother 
of the late Adm. Michell. 

Dee. 2. At Maaihcad, aged 79, Hagh 
Elliott, eaq. 

AtWestoa Hoase, aeaiTotaeas, aged 90, 
William Vassall, esq. 

Dee. 8. Aged 61, Fraaces, dan. of the 
late John WilUaais, eaq. of Exeter. 

Dee. 10. At Topaham, aear Exet^, 
i^ed 73, Joha Yeatherd, eaq. late of Boa- 
logne-snr-Mer. 

Dee. 12. At his seat, Saadford Orleigh, 
Newton, aged 60, George Templer, eaq. 
formeriy of Stover Hoaae, Chadleigh ; a 
Magistrate of the oouaty, aad a gentle- 
Biaa of ancient family. In early life he 
was known as a keen sportsman. He was 
equalled by few for power aad ekgaace of 
oratory, aad possessed literary taJeats of 
no mean order. 

Dec. 13. At Exmouth, John Houghton, 
esq. 

Dorset.-— ATor. 19. At Poole, Thomas 
Johnson Aitkin, M.D., F.R.C.S.E., and 
Member of the Royal College of Physi- 
cians, London. For many years he waa 
a distinguished teacher of Anatomy, Phy- 
liology, and Materia Medica in Edin- 
burgh, and in 1838 published a work on 
Physiology. 

Dec. 2. At Piddletown, aged SO.Charles 
Burt, esq. Capt. Royal Engineers. 

Dec. 9. At Rhode House, Lyme Regis, 
Mary- Julia, lady of Adm. the Hon. Sir 
John Talbot, G.C.B., and sister of the 
Lord Arundell of Wardour. She was 
married in 1815, and has left two sons 
and fire daughters. 

Durham. — Lately. At Woodlands, 
near Darliogtoa, aged 57, J. Wood, esq. 



J«44.] 



Ob1T17AR\% 



107 



Es^Kx, — Aop. il. At Wa]tb«u9tow, 
i^ed 11, Joiiab IliiidmAQ, esq. 
Nov, 30. At Bftrkin^, Alexander Glea- 

At Grange, near LBjtoiir «ged 70^ Mr. 
Wiltiam Rhodei. In his business sa a 

brickoiaker he amassed immense wealth, 
and wft« the ovrncr of considerable estates 
^id extensive property in houses in dif- 
ferent outkt« of the metropolis, but par- 
ticoUrly in the neighbourhood of Dolston 
and West Hackney. Within the Inst few 
jears he made vast improvements in and 
t Dalstoa. He also made the Queen 's- 
, Richmood-roadr and Grange- road, 
bniU the numerous dwelling-houseis 
OQ either side. Some time ago he was 
uiToWed in a lawsuit with Mr. Benyou 
about hii lease of the Beauroir estate, 
Kingaland, which he lost, and which cost 
him from G0,000/. to lO.aOiiL He was 
iu the habit of paying tu the pere^ons in 
his employment from 1,300/. to 1,4(K}/. 
weekly. Numerous offers were made to 
him to construct machinery for moulding 
bricks, which would conaiderably lessen 
the necessity for manual labour, but he 
invariably opposed the introduction of 
madiineryfor sach purposes. 

Laielif* At Paafleld rectory, aged 77* 
Mary-Tebenham, wife of the Rer. Robert 
Leman Page, Rector and patron of Pan- 

Dtc. i. Misji Margaret Spicer, late of 
Gore Cottage, Romford. 

Gloucsster. — NiiV' 11. At Clifton, 
Anna*Manar relict of the Rct. Love Ro» 
bcrti4>ii, Vicar of Bridiitow, Herefordsblre. 

K9V. 18. At Briatol, Mary. Elizabeth, 
widow of the Rev* Christian Godfried 
Clemens, many years of the Moravian 
church* 

At Charlton Ktng^s, Commander John 
Bowen, R. N, (18;i6>, formerly of Bris- 
tol. 

At the Manor-houae, Swindon^ near 
Cheltenham, aged 59, Elizabeth, relict 
of John Hughes Goodlakc, esq. 

LaUly, At Rose-hill, Cheltenbani, T. 
Andrew, esq. 

Miss Dimsdate, of Frenchay, near Bris- 
tol, a member of the Society of Friends. 
She bequeathed by will to eight ebaritahte 
societies of that city ^OU/. each, to the 
Bible Society and Morav^ian Misaiouary 
Society ) ,000/., and to the parish of Man- 
gotafield 500/. ; in all 6,500/. which are 
in course of payment by the executors. 
After the decsaae of certain annuitaiiti, a 
dirther sum of about ^iQ^mmL will be 
divisible among the same ten institu- 
tions* 

At Coatcs, aged 19, James, eldest son 
of the Rev. Moss King, Rector of Critchcl , 
near Blandford, Dorset, 



At Cheltenham, aged 7^, Maria, relict 
of the Rev* A. K. Sheraon, of Fctcham, 
Surrey. 

JDec. 3. Aged 47, George Webb Hall, 
esq. of Sneed Park : a zealous praGtical 
agriculturifit and a very amiable man. He 
was the author of several conimunications 
to the British Association, and of others 
publiahetl in the Literary Gazette. 

Dtc. G. At Cheltenham, aged 79, Eli* 
xabeth, wife of William Merry, esq* 

Hants*— A'&i\ 20. At Ema worth, aged 
28, William Baynes, jun. esq. jbarriitcr- 
At-law of the Middle Temple. 

Nov. *21. Maria Bligh, wife of J. W. 
Newton, esq. of Frecniantle-lodge, Shir- 
ley, near Soutbampton. 

Lately. At St. HeleD*s, near Ryde, 
aged 6S, Mr. James Dawes, brother of 
the late Baroiiesa Feuchi^rea. 

At Bitterne, near Southampton, aged 
93, James Dott, esq. 

ht Caris-brook© Caalle, aged 87 f Mrs. 
Simdden. 

At Southampton, Elizabeth, relict of 
John Jones, esq. formerly of Lymiogton* 

Dec, 1, At Southampton, aged 57, 
Robert Wolniisley, esq. 

Dec, JJ. At Newport, L W. aged 79, 
Thomas Barrow, Cfic). late of the General 
Post Office. 

At Winchester, egcd 81, Miss Martha 
Hayter, in couseqaenoc of her dresi 
catching Are the preceding evening. 

Herts.— J\"ot?, 22. At Watford, aged 
57, William Pratt, esq. late of Russell-sq. 
and formerly of America -square. 

HtTNTiNGOOK, — Ntiti, 25. AtBeming- 
ford Grey, aged 67* Thomas Marge tti, esq* 

Kent. — Aug* l(i. AtToubridge Wells, 
Major- Gen. Edward Hutchins Belasis, 
Bombay Engineers. He was the third 
son of Major- Gen. John Bellasii, of the 
Bombay Artillery, who di^d at Bombay 
in 1808, by Annc-Martbtt, daughter of the 
Rev. John Hutchins, Rector of Warchami 
the hitftodan of Dorsetshire. 

Nov. 14, AtTonhridge, Geo. Lingacd, 
esq. solicitor. 

Nov. 20. At Tonbridge Wells, Jane- 
Mary, eldest dau. of the late James Mor* 
ris.iet, esq. of BruiiBwick.isquare. 

Nov, 22. At Summer- hill, near Dsrt- 
ford, aged 7^, John Ru&eeU, esq. 

Nov. 23. At Ramsgate, aged 74, Oi- 
mond Saffery, esq. 

At ELtham, Elizabeth, eldest dan. of the 
late Rev. John Wilgress, D,D. 

Nov. '25. At Ramsgate, aged 63, Na- 
than Egerton Gsrrick, esq. of Albion-at, 
Hyde Park. 

Dte. 5. At ChiiflehiirBt, aged 67, £u- 
phemia, wife of Henry Baskcomb, esq. 

Dec. 6. At Pembury, Lydia, relict of 
Thomas Dakiiiir esq* of Trinidad, 



106 



OBITDAftT* 



[J. 



IVe. 7. AtToDbridgeWells, Martlia, tc- 
lict of NichoUf Grahion, esq. of Lombard- 
street. 

LA.NCASTK&.— iVoo. 25. At Lrrerpool, 
M^or Holden Danbabin, late of the East 
India Company's Bombi^ Establishment. 

LaUfy. Aged 61, Mrs. Hopwood, wife 
of the Rev. J. iiopwood, incnmbent of 
Accrington. 

Dee. 3. Af^d 21, Sarah, secood dan. of 
T.R.Wil8onFfnmce, esq. of RawdiifeUall. 

J!>rc.ll. At Elm Fkrm, West Derby, 
near Liverpool, aged 71, Ekltrard Wilson, 
esq. lately a Director of the London and 
Bincingham Railway Company. 

Lbicbstbr.— Dec. 13. At Cliff Hovae, 
aged 74, Dorothy, wife of Robert Faaz, 

LiNCOLW. — Dee, 1 . At Sonth Ferriby, 
aged 54, Christian, relict of John Nel- 
thorpe, esq. and mother of Sir John Nel- 
thorpe, Bart, of Scawby. 

Dec. 10. At Lonth, aged S5, Anne- 
Jenny, wife of C. C. J. Orme, esq. 

Dee. 12, At thericarage, Bonby, aged 
46t Lillias, wife of the Rev. Weeber Wal- 
ter, M. A. 

MiDULVSEX.—iVbv. 17. At Hampton, 

rl three, Richard-Bright, third son of 
WUUam FoUett, M.P. for Exeter. 

Nov, S5. At Enfield, Edward Medgett, 
esq. late of the firm of I. B. Nerill & Co. 

Nov. 26. Aged 82, William Cogger, 
esq. of Hayes. 

Dee, 8. At the Butts, New Brentford, 
aged 80, Miss Catharine Hodgson, last 
surviving dan. of the late Thomas Hodg- 
son, esq. of Upnor Castle, Kent. 

MoKMouTR.-~JVde. 21. At the Castle- 
hill, Monmonth, aged 46, Richard Amph- 
lett, esq. Lieut. R.N. eldest surviving son 
of the late Rev. I. Amphlett, D.D. vicar 
of Dodderhill, Wore. 

NoEFOLK. — Nov. 23. At Walsoken 
House, aged 58, Thomas Broughton, esq. 
a Deputy Lieutenant for Lincolnshire. 

NoRTHAMPTOK.-^Aoe. 7. At North- 
ampton, aged 43, Mr. Thomas Cheslyn, 
solicitor. 

Nov. 15. Elizabeth, wife of Stephen 
Eaton Eland, esq. of Stanwick. 

Nov. 20. At Peterborough, aged 82, 
George Parsons, esq. 

Nov. 23. Ann, wife of the Rev. Henry 
Barry, Rector of Brockley. 

Oxford. — Lately, At Trinity college, 
Oxford, John Courtenay, eaq. Commoner, 
second son of the late Geo. Courtenay, 
esq. formerly of Swerford Park. 

Rutland. — Dee. 5. At Uppingham, 
Caroline-Anne, youngest dan. of the late 
Ralph Hotchkin, esq. 

Salop.— Xa/e/y. At Ludlow, aged 45, 
William Lloyd, esq. solicitor. 

SoMEBtRT.— -IViw. 15. At Staplegrove, 



near TtamtoB, ^ged G9, Churles Fowler, 

Ifov. 16. At Bath, at an advanced age, 
the Countess Nugent, relict of the Count 
FeUx Nugent, KiSght of St Louis. 

No9. 18. At West Coker House, aged 
67, William Rodbard, esq. 

At Bath, aged 8S, Thomas Best, esq. 
of Haselbnry Plunknett, near Crewkeme, 
brotiier of Lord Wynfbrd. 

ATor. 33. Ann, wife of the Rev. Henry 
Berry, Rector of Brockley. 

Nov, 26. At Brislington, near Bristol, 
aged 67, Sarah, widow of Philip J. Wors- 
ley, esq. 

Nov. S7. At Batii, Miss Mary Conlt- 
hard. 

iViMr. 29. At Marston, the Right Hon. 
Isabella Countees of Cork and Onery. 
She was the third dan. of tiie late WU- 
liam Poynti, esq. of Midgfaam House, 
Berks, and was married in Got. 1795, to 
the Earl of Cork and Omry, by whom 
she had a numerous family, only throe of 
which survive. 

Laielp, At Bath, aged 71 , Mrs. Sloper, 
relict of Jas. Sloper, eaq. She has be- 
queathed the following sums : — To the 
Bath United Hospital, lOOi.; to the Poor 
of Market Lavington, WilU (the birth- 
place of her late husband), 1002. ; Poor of 
Beaumaris, Anglesey, 50f . ; House of 
Protection, Walcot Parade, 2Si, ; Lying- 
in Charity, S5/. ; fihie Coat School, 35/.; 
Monmouth-st. Charity, S5/. ; Poor of St. 
James's parish, S5/.; Weymondi House 
National School, lOt; Octagon Chi^ 
School, 10/. ; to Miss Elwin^ Deaf and 
Dumb and Blind Sdiools, 201.; toUl, 
4S5/. In addition to the above, she has, 
by deed of gift, left to the Bath United 
Hospital an annual sum amounting to 
about S5/. 

At Clevedon, nte Bristol, aged 75, 
Elizabeth-Ann, widow of Capt. Jamea 
Gilbert, Royal Art. and eldest dan. of 
Gen. Sir A. Farrington, Bart, of Black- 
heath, Kent. 

Dec. 2. At Cannon's Grove, near T^um- 
ton, aged 46, Vincent Stuckey Reynolds, 
esq. a magistrate for the oo. Sonerset. 

Dee, 4. At Bath, Clan-Amelia, only 
dau. of the late Mijor Harriott, of West 
Hall, Surrey, and mfe of Robert Pany 
Nisbet, esq. of Southbroom House, Wilts. 

Stapfoed.— A^oe. 27. At Oz HiU, 
Handswortb, Sarah-Hden, youngest dan. 
of Walter WUliams, esq. 

Suffolk. — Nov, 21. At Chellesworth, 
Rebecca, relict of the Rev. J. Gee Smyth, 
many years Rector of that parish. 

Nov. 27. At Shadowbush, Poslingford, 
aged 81, Col. Weston. 

Dec. 12. At Becdles, aged 84, Mary, 
widow of the Rev. Hervoy Taylor. 



18440 



OlITtJARY, 



SummiT.— A^of. 25. At PostforcJ-hin, 
ncaj GoUdfordj Lucy, relict of Junes 

At Richmond r Lady Charlotte Wftlpole, 

~ r to the Earl of Orford. 

!)€€. 1. At Famhom» aged 61, John 
Lidhetter, esq. 

J}^. S. At Putney, aged Ift^ Carteret- 
Priaulx, eldest son of S* Dopree, ecq. 

Hie. $, At Netley, Sh«re» aged «5, the 
BaMOiin de Roll. 

Btc, U, Aged 57, Rebecca- SopHin, 
eldest ^urvWing dan. of the lote John 
Prior » esq. of Mortlake. 

S©Mix.— Of/. 17. Ag«d 83, Anne, re- 
lief erf Walter Elphick, e«q, of Pevensey. 

No», 16. Aged 58, Thomas Breton, 
e«^« attrgeon, of Bexhill. 

Nor, 19. At Bcnitcad Lodge, Bognor, 
the ueat of her sister Mrs. Smith, ngod 
75, the Right Hon. Arabclla-Mackworthp 
Cotmte«a of Mayo . She wm the 4th dau. of 
the late Wm. Mack worth Praed, esq. of 
Bitton, and sister of the late Mr. Serjeant 
Praell, and of Admiral Praed, and wos 
married id 179'i. On the acce«sion of the 
lat« King, she was appointed one of the 
Ladiet of the Bedchamber to Queen 
Adelaide, and continued in attendance on 
tli« Queen Dowager daring the earlier 
MVt of the present year. Her Ladyship 
find no iMac< * 

Nw.^i, At Hastings, aged (i4, Ann, 
Ncond dan. of the late Drake Hollingbery, 
D.D. 50 years Rector of Icklesham and 
WinchcUea, Prebendary of St. Paul's, 
mud Chancellor of Chichester, 

Nov, 94, At Brighton, aged 42, George 
Smith, e«q. formerly ReceiTer>Gen, in 
Jaouuea. 

JVo*. 30. At Brighton, aged 80, Diana, 
reKct of John Smith, esq* late of Brox- 
bourn, Herts. 

lAttiy, At Worthing, Anne, relict of 
John Kemp, esq. late of Branches-park, 
Cowlings, Suffolk, and of £dgcworth-pL 
U or ley, Susaex. 

Bee. 9. At Hastings, aged H^, Mary, 
widow of the Rev. H. J, Close, M.A. 
Rector of Bentworth, Hants, mother of 
the Rev, Francifl Close, Rector of Chel- 
tenham. 

At Brighton, aged 55, Daniel Stoddart, 
esq. of Ch^rlet'St. St. James's- sq. 

Dte, m. At Hastings, Thomai Eaton, 
aq. of the Middle Temple, of Chancery- 
lane, and Upton, Essex, BarriMer.nt-Law. 

Dee, 12. At Brighton, aged 13, Horatia- 
Mary*Maynard, dau. of t:hc Rev. Robert 
Walpole, Rector of Chriat Church, St. 
Mafjkbone. 

Warwick.— A^or. ?7. At Warwick, 
aged 68, Mrs. Smyth, widow of John 
Bohun Smyth, esq. 

Ntn. 38. At Rugby, ag«d 14, Aldin- 



L 



der-KnoX| youngest 9on of the late Joseph i 
Henry Butterworth, esq.of Claphamcom* j 

Dec. 1. At Rugby, aged 53, Carolineil 
wife of W, Terry, esq. M.D. and dau, olj 
the late Rct. H. Eyre, Rector of Land<^ 
ford, Wilts, a&d of Buck worth and Mori \ 
bonrne, both* in Huntingdonshire. 

Wilts.— ATor. efi. At Wibford, aged ] 
Ki^ Philip Pinckney, eaq, 

Nov. So, At Don head, Sani]i> widow of 1 
William Burl ton, esq. of Wykin Hallg ] 
Lcicestersh. and sister of the Rev. W. L* 
Bowles, Canon Residentiary of Salisbury* 

WoRCKSTKR. — Laitty, At Worcester, | 
aged G4, the Rev. Kdwr. Lake, for 30] 
years a minister in the Countess of Hunt* I 
ingdou*s connexion. 

At Worcester, aged 7^, Elinabeth, wi*! 
dow of Lieut. R. Gilchrist, late of the 7th ] 
Royal Veteran Battalion. 

kl Pershore, in her lOSth year, Mrs, 
Elizabeth Richards, better known as**Otd j 
Betty Hkhards.'* She was a native of j 
Redmarley, Worcesterah. of which parish I 
church her father was clerk upwards of j 
threescore years. She has often been f 
heard to say she could remember going j 
into mourning for George the Second* f 
" Old Btitty'' had been three times a wi- j 
dow, and buried her last husband about \ 
twelve years ago. 

YoRit — A'oe, 2:*, At Hessle, aged 67, ' 
Fraocia Hall, esq. one of the aldermen or 
the late corporation of Hull, 

Not* '27- At Loftus, near Guisborough| 
aged 65, the Hon. Frances -Laura, widow \ 
of Robert Chaltmer, esq, formerly M.P. 
for York, and aunt to the Earl of Zet- 
Iand« She was a daughter of Thorn a^ j 
first Lord Dun das, by Lady Charlotte 
Fitzwilliara, second dau, of William thir^ ] 
Earl Fitxwilliam ; nod was married in 1805. 

Laiefy. At Stones, in Sowerby, aged] 
87, Susy Haigh. She lived to see tho 
fifth generation of her family, which num* J 
bered, exclusive of herself, 170 ; she had] 
9 children, 48 grandchUdrm, 111 great* j 
grandchildren, and two great-great-grand- 
children. 

Dtc, II, At Beverleyi aged 8S, Mrs, 
Cattley, sUter of John Scbolrfietd, esq* 
Faatfleet, near Howden, 

Walss. — A'or, 17. At Swansea, F^an- j 
ces, wife of N. W, Simons, esq. of the Li- 
brary, British Museum ; dau. of the lata 
Rev, John Collins, M.A. Rector of Oj- 
wich, &c, filamorgansh.; and sister to the J 
late Mrs. Thomas Prichard, of Brietol. 

Laiffy. At Tonna, near Neath, aged 75, ] 
Mrs- Price, widow of the Rev. Watkln 
Price, of Pootardawe. 

I>^c, 1. At Pwllycrochon, Denbigbsh* 
the residence of her dau. Lady Erskinc, . 
aged 83, Mary, relict of the Rev. Uughl 
Williams, of PUsita, Coaway. 



no 



OfilTUARV. 



[JaiK 



D€c. II* AtCarmATtUeniaged 77, Mhs 
Dorothy loman. 

Scotland.— A'iw. 24. At Edinbur^b, 
Margnret, widow of Lteut.*Cot. Alei^nder 
Lorainei eldest dau. of iht l&te WilU&m 
Ker, esq. formerly of BroAdinendofrs^Ber. 
wickshirc. 

Nor, 2a. At Glasgow, Iwibelln Mitcbel 
Hay, wife of Cbarles CanipbeU, esq, ma- 
nager, at OlasgoWf for tbe Bank of Scot- 
land. 

Nov, 26, At Dingwall, AleJtaader Mack- 
CDxie, esq. of Scot^buro. 

Lately, At Edioburgh, Mary-Macgre- 
gor, widow of Capt. Alexander Wishart, 
of the 78th rcg. 

I BEL AND. — Noit, 21, At FitsEwilliam 
Lodge, f9<ear Dublin^ aged 37 1 tbe Rtgbt 
Hot!. Cbartottc Countesi^ of RoscommoD, 
itister of the Earl of SI»rcw§baTy. She 
waa the second dau, of tbe late John Tal* 
bot, esq. was tnamed in 1H3U, and lias left 
no iMue. 

Nov, 2^. At Charleville, co, Wicklow, 
aged 56, the Rt. Hon. Frances Counteas of 
Ratbdowne. She was the fifth dan. of 
WiQiam Power first Ear! of Cbiticarty ; 
was married in 18CH} ; and has left a very 
mimerous family. 

AtTyrella, aged m, the Hon. Emilia 
Montgomery, relict of tbc Rcv\ Hugh 
Montgomery, of Grey Abbey, and dau. of 
Viftoount Bangor. 

Dec. J. At Ardress, co* Armagh, aged 
74, George Enaofi esq. 

At Somerville, New Ross, aged 7B, 
Joba Kelly, esq. 

East Inoicb, — S^pt. h. At Calcutta, 
George- Soakh) second son of George 
Smith Weaver, esq. of Maidstone^ for- 
merly of FL M. Dockyard, Sheerness. 

SepL £0. At Barrackpore, Matilda^ 
wife of Lieut. Augustus Turner, 1st Ben- 
gal Nat. Inf. and dan. of tbc Rev. Rich. 
P&io» of Apsley, Beds. 

Sept. 2^, At Madras, aged 21, Susan- 
na-Maria, wife of Major T. B. Chalon, 
Judge Adr. Gen. of tbe Army, and dau. 
of J. T. E. Flint, esq. of Powick, Wore. 

Sepi, 24. On his passage from Madras 
to the Straits of Malacca, for the reco- 
f cry of his health, Sir Jobo David Nor- 
ton* one of the Judges of tbc Supreme 
Court of Madni. He was called to tbc 
\m at Lincoln's Inn, $0 May, 18|i, and 
was formerly Private Secretary to the 
Lord Chancellor of Ireland. 

Sfpl. 27. At Rajghur, near Nasscera- 
bad, of spasmodic cholera, seven day a 
after his nruuriage, aged 23, Lieut. Matth. 
Ward, 4th Btngsl Cav. (Lancers), third 
•Oft of WUUam Ward, esq. of Connaugbt' 
l^rrace, late M. P* for thr city of London. 

8^i. ^. At Cawnporr, aged ?:?, Lieut. 

Itkliard CharUa Uat^h, fourth tau of the 



Rev. Thos. Hatcb, Viear of Walton-un- 
Thames, Surrey. 

Oct, 2, In Camp, at Baizwarmb, I apt. 
John Jones, 30th Madras Nat. Infantry, 
second son of the late CoL Jones, 71st 
Light Inf. 

At MhoW| Mrs, Kate Hughes ; and on 
Octn 4, Assistant- Surgeon Arnold Hughes, 
her husband, of jungle fever. 

Oct. \7. At C bcttoor, aged 32, Capt. 
John Stedman Cotton, 7tb Madras Light 
Cavalry. 

Laittff, At the residence of her father, 
Sir Robert Sale, Kowssolee, Julia, wife of 
Lieut. James G. Molmcs, Ad Nat. Car, 

W'EST Indies. — Oct. 9. At Jamaica^ 
aged 54^ George Cnnningbam, esq, pro^^ 
prietor of Maxfield and Greenside Estates. 

Oc/. SO. At St, Domingo, aged 24, 
Tbomas^John, eldest son of Samuel S. 
Beare, esq, of Norwicb. 

Notf, 2. At Jamaica, on bis return to 
England from New Granada, Julius Hen. 
Plock, esq. merchant, London. 

Abhoao. — Aiiff. I. At Hong Kong, 
John Sbide, es^q. 

Au0, 8. At Victoria, Hong Kong, aged 
24 f Thomas, eldest son of W. Elworthy, 
esq. of Westford, near ^Veliington, So- 
merset J and on Aug, 10, at Macao, aged 
27, Samuel, fourth son of tbe late Rev. 
John Dyer. ^Iliey left England in March 
I84:J, to establish a mercantile connec- 
tion in China. In less than one month 
after landing tbey were both cut off by 
the malignant fever. 

Jitff. '2'2. At Sea, on board the East 
India ship Soutbam])ton, aged .2, Char- 
lotte Henrietta ; and on the morning fol- 
lowingf aged 7, Frederick -Eyre, children 
of Capt. Bowen> H.C.S. 

Juff. i*:i. At Hong Kong, aged 4:i, 
John A- Mercer, esq. 

Atiff, 2t*. On the homeward passage 
from Madras, on board tbe ship Anna 
Robertson, aged 53, Lieut. -Col. Heury 
Smith, of the Madras Aj-my. 

Sept. 7. At Delhi, aged 22, Lient, 
Thomas Cbarlcs Pbillpotts, Bengal Eng. 
second son of Lieut.-Col. PLiiltpotta, 
Royal Eng. 

Sept, 11. On board H. >I. S. Harlc- 

3uin, George-Samuel, youngest son of 
iiseph Berens, esq. of Kevington, Kent. 

Laiefy, At BoiiLogne<snr-Mcr, Francis 
John Weldale Knollys, esq. Lieut. 33d 
Regt« only son of John Weldale Knollys, 
esq. 

At St. Petersburg, Sophia, wife of 
Thomas Atkinson, esq. 

Nor. 1. At Amherst, Nova Scotia* at 
tbe honse of her son, tbe Rev. George 
Townsbend, Flora, widow of tbe Hon. 
WilEam Townshend, of Prince Edward' ^ 
lilond. 



I 

4 



1844.] 



Obituary. 



Ill 



A^. S. At the Benedictine Conrent, 
■ear Nnremherg, aged 101, Count Th^o- 
phik Joaef de la Feld. He was of English 
eztraetion, and a descendant of the Grand 
Biarechal Count de la Feld, in the time of 
Leopold the Tirst. He had served during 
the earlier part of his life in the Im* 
perial armies, hut had passed nearly 
the last 30 years in the above-named re- 
tirement. 

N<n, 7. At Rome, Alicia, relict of the 
Rev. Wm. Ireland, M.A. Vicar of Frome 
Selfrood and the Woodlands. 

Nw. 11. At Port Louis, Mauritius, 
Francis Cynric Sheridan, eso. Treasurer 
of the island, third son of the late Thomas 



Sheridan, esq. and grandson of the Right 
Hon. R. B. Sheridan. 

Nov. 14. At Boulogne, Thomas Wallis, 
esq. Deputy- Lieut, for Gloucestersh. and 
formerly of Tibberton Court, Gloucestersh. 
and of Oakford House, Devon. 

Not, IP. At Ostend, the wife of Com- 
mander C. FitsGerald, R.N. 

Nov, 20. At Brussels, Edmund Henry 
Plunkett, esq. late of 6th Regt 

Nov. 28. At Naples, Patricia, wife of 
John Alexander Hunter, esq. of Lancaster. 

No9, 30. At Munich, Harry Charles 
Blackader Filder, youngest son of William 
Filder, esq. Commissary-Gen. of Her 
Majesty's Forces. 



TABLE OF MORTALITY IN THE METROPOLIS. 
From the Returm U9ued hy the RegUtrar General, 
Deaths Registered from Nov. 25 to Dec. 16 (4 weeks.) 

,. I Under 15 2217^ 

J4229 15to60 H71 f .ogo 

'' I 60 and upwards 832/*^^ 

Age not specified 9 } 



Males 
Females 



2200i 
2029 < 



AVE 

Wheat. 

M. d, 

51 1 


IRAGE 
Barley. 

s. d. 
31 3 


PRICE OF CC 
Oats. Rye. 

S. d. i. d. 

18 2 29 9 


>RN, De 
Beans. 

s. d. 
31 4 


C.22. 
Peas. 

i. d. 
33 3 




PRICE OF HOPS, Dec. 22. 
Sussex Pockets, 5/. Ss, to 6/. 2f.— Kent Pockets, 51. \0e. to 9/. 


lie. 



PRICE OF HAY AND STRAW AT SMITHFIELD, Dec. 22. 
Hay, 21, 10«. to 4/. Os Straw, 1/. Ot. to 1/. lOt.— Clover, 3/. Oe, to 51, Oe. 

SMITHFIELD, Dec. 22. To sink the Offal—per stone of Slbs 



Beef. 2t. 

Mutton 3t. 

Veal 3f. 



Head of Cattle at Market, Dec. 22. 

Beasts 652 C^dves 100 

SheepandLambs 2310 Pigs 35k) 



af. to 4«. Od, 

2d. to 4r. Sd. 

U. to ie. Od. 

Pork 3». Od. to it. id. 

COAL MARKET, Dec. 22. 
Walls Ends, from 16#. 6d. to 2U. Od, per ton. Other sorts from lit. Od. to 1&. 6<f. 

TALLOW, per cwt.—Town Tallow, 46i. Odf. Yellow Russia, i3t. Od. 
CANDLES, 7s. 6d, per doz. Moulds, 9i.0d. 

PRICES OF SHARES. 

At the Office of WOLFE, Beotheos, StoSk and Share Brokers, 
23, Change Alley, Comhill. 

Birmingham Canal, 171. Ellesmere and Chester, 65. Grand Junction, 148. 

Kennet and Avon, 9J. Leeds and Liverpool, 675. Regent's, 22. 

Rochdale, 60. London Dock Stock, lOOf St. Katharine*s, 105^J. East 

and West India, 130. — London and Birmingham Railway, 241. Great 

Western, 95i London and Southwestern, 72|. Grand Junction Water 

Works, 81. West Middlesex, 117^. Globe Insurance, 134. Guardian, 

45. Hope, 7. Chartered Gas, 65}. Imperial Gas, 86. Phcenix Gas, 

35}. London and Westminster Bank, 22|.— -Reversionary Interest, 105. 

For Prices of all other Shares, enquire as above. 



iia 

METEOROLOGICAL DIABY, bt W.CARY, Strand. 
r^rom Ifm. 86 to Bte. 85, 1843, Mk inehuivt. 



Fahrenheit's Therm. | 


llill 


1 


li 


1 


Not, 


ft 


» 


s 


in. pts. 


m 


m 


55 


53 


«9. 78 


t7 


5S 


57 


49 


,70 


28 


50 


53 


40 


30, 16 


£9 


49 


50 


4J 


.30 


30 


40 


47 


50 


,S9 


DA 


4^ 


47 


42 


,oe 


2 


39 


10 


42 


'2' , 


3 


45 


50 


47 


,39 1 


4 


4© 


50 


49 


.40 1 


5 


49 


54 


50 


,16 


§ 


44 


50 


42 


,36 


7 


47 


53 


53 


,17 


8 


5a 


^ 


46 


,83| 





36 


44 


41 


.33 


10 


45 


4d 


45 


.«[ 



Weather. 



^min, do. fr* 
cloudy p fdr 
do. do, 
do, foggy 
do. 
do. 

do« fair 
do^ lit. run 
|do. do. do, 
fair^ cloudy 
clotMi]r,miity 
do. Hit 
gioomyt fpg- 
cloudy 



3.3 



Fubrenheit's Therm. 

It' §• j-iii 



''5^/ 



e 

o 



We«eher. 



11 


43 


48 


IS 


3G 


36 


13 


38 


44 


14 


44 


40 


15 


m 


54 


m 


47 


51 


IT 


47 


5S 


J8 


44 


48 


IB 


46 


40 


m 


4^ 


43 


21 


46 


50 


m 


43 


16 


22 


50 


m 


24 


50 


55 


25 


52 


55 



^1 

46 
46 
49 
50 
41 
47 
47 
45 
4S 

m 

58 
46 



, 47 [fmir, cloudy 

, 52 foggy 

, 47 do. 

p 52 Irair, cloudy 

, 38 cloudy foggy 

, 3d |do.f»ir»ftl£,ru. 

, 46 {do. do. 

, 49 '(do. foggy 

,40 lido. 

, 4,1 do. 

, 42 do. 

f IS do. 

, 4S ' do. ftir 

, 40 I do. do. 

, 46 J do. 



DAILY PRICE OF STOCKS, 

fVom Nov. 27, to Dee. 88» 1843, hoik inehuive. 









3 




Ex. Bills, 
j^lOOO. 



8711 

212 

f72 



55 51 pm. 

0971 pm ' 53 51pm. 

70 72pm 54 52 pm. 

7«70pip,] 54 52pm. 



70 pm, 
74 pm. 

72 75 pm. 

73 75 pm . 
73 pm. 



52 55 pm. 

56 57 pm. 

58 56 pm. 

56 59 pm. 

57 59 pm. 
57 59 pm. 
60 56 pm. 
57 59pm. 

59 pm. 

57 59 pm. 

57 59pm. 

59 pm. 

57 59 pm. 

57 59 pm. 

57 00 pm. 
56 60 pm. 

58 60 pm. 
58 60 pm. 
58 60 pm. 
60 58 pm. 

58 61pm. 

59 61 pm. 

60 62 pm. 
, ARNULL, English and Foreign Stock and Share Broker, 

1, Bank Baildings, London. 

«OLa Aim SON, fMUXTMMMt 9bt rASLIAMIlVT-SnuiIT. 



THE 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 

FEBRUARY, 1844. 
By SYLVANUS URBAN, Gent. 



I 

k 



CONTENTS. ,Ao. 

MtNOii CoKKESfOMDENCE Dr. Jobnsoti <M3 the Pilgrim*t Progress — Bp, 

Ridley's Senla — Outwnrd Confesabn— Etymolu^ of Meols, fltc 114 

Cetlon and its Capahii-jties. B^J. L* Bennett, Euq. F*L.S, U5 

Church House nt Bray, co. Berks fitiih a PUUJ 133 

Norria MoDumeotg aad Chantry Chapel at Bray •..,.,,....•« •*••«•...•.. 134 

On the forms of Churches, and Harmonic Proportion. .»,.»#... • . • • 135 

List of Contributors to the Quarterly Review • *.* 137 

Some PsrticuUrs respecting the English Ecclesiastical Courts {continued) ,,,, 141 

lD%'etitory of Ornamental Platef &^c. at Oinead Halli Norfolk. , , . . . l&O 

Recent Repairs of Churches — West Harlmg, Norfolk; Aldrinjfton, Wilts; 

Compton and Merrow, Surrey ; Lei^hton Buzzard, Beds . , , , , 153 

Brrors in Mr, D' Israeli's Curiosities of Literature — In Lord Broughnna's French 

Biographies, Prof. Smith's Lectures* Preston*s Conquciit of Mexico, &c.... 155 
Gibhoo's Personal Defects — Madame du DclTiiiid — Moliere — Voltaire, fltc. .„. . ise 

Tlie Wife of Chancer— Sir H . Nicolas's Life of the Poet. 14iO 

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

Robinson's History of Hackney t 161 ; BiUlngsV IlIuBtrations of Durham Ca* 
thedral, ICJ3 ; Garbett*s Parochial SennanSp 1G5; King Henry the Second, 
an Historical Drama, l(j<i ; Poems by C. R. Kennedy, esq. 167 ; the Rector 
in search of a Curate, ltj8 j The Order of Daily Serrice, with Pkin Tune, 
&c. 16*9 ; A Christmas Carol, by Chas. Diclceos, 170 ; Miseellaueous Re- 
views , . . . , , « . • , • 171 

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE — 
Ne«r Puhlicatioui^ 173 ; University of Cambridge— Royal Society — Royal 
Asiatic Society — Royal Agricukund Society, 177 — Institutioa of Civil 

Engineers — Sale of Autographs ....»* , . * ,**,.., 176 

PINE ARTS.*"Stataes for London- Earl of Leicester's Monumcut— Panorama 

of Treport 180 

ARCHITECTURE.— Institute of British Architects— Roman Catholic Church 
in Lamljeth, 180 j St, Mary Redclife — Littkborough Church — Ripon Ca- 

thedral» &c. 182 

ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES.— Society of Antif|uarica, 183; Numismatic 
Society, 184 ; Roman Remains at Preston, 185 i Funeral Relics^- Sepulchra! 
Stones at Hartlepool, 187 ; Opening of Tumuli in Cleveland — Indian An- 
tiquities ...,..,» ..*... .....,......*• t *«.,.>».*•. . 

HISTORICAL CHRONICLE.— Foreign News, 189; Domestic Occurrences 

Promotions and Preferments, 193 ; Births and Marriages 

OBITUARY ; with Mcraoira of the Countess of Cork and Orrery ; General 

r M Lord Lynedoch ; Sir George Crewet Bart. ; General Morriiion ; Cnpt, 
■ Arthur Wakefield, R,N. ; Rev, G. W, Hall, D.D. ; Rev. F. H, Turner 
K Barnwell; George Houston, Esq, ; Valentine Mahcr^ Esq. \ George Wm. 
Wood, Esq. ; Mrs. Bulvrcr Lytton ; John Lowe, Esq. ;, Daniel Vawdrey^ 
Esq. ; J. C. Loudon, Esq.; William Allen, F.R.S. ; J, \\, Morrison, Esq. ; 
T.Waller, Esq.; Simon Stephenson, Esq.; H, Perrouet Briggs, Esq. 
RA 1£H- 
CI.EEGT Deceased , ,,.«, 
Deaths, arranged in Counties , , . . • • . « , « • 

Registnir-GeneraPs Returns of Mortality in the Metropolis — Markets— Prices 

of Shares, 2J3 ; Meteorological Diary— Stocks .,/,,. , . . 224 

Embellished with a View of the AnciExVt Church House at Bray, co, Berks ; and 
Representations of the ErFioir of Lady Latimer at Hackney, and Two Se» 
FULCHftAL Stones found at Hartlepool. 



i 



194^ 




J 



114 



MINOR CORRESPONDENCE. 



Cydwf.lt fMys, As the origin of the 
Pilgrim's Progress is now under dis- 
cussion, Dr. Johnson's opinion, in Bos- 
well's Life, is entitled to be mentioned. 
** His (Bunyan's) Pilgrim's Progress has 
great merit both for invention, imagination, 
and the conduct of the stor^, and it has 
bad the best evidence of its merit, the 
general and continued approbation of 
noankmd ; few book«, I believe, have bad 
a more extensive snle. It is remarkable 
that it begins very much like the poem of 
Dante, yet there was no translation of 
Dante when Bunyan wrote. There is 
reason to think that he had read Spenser.** 
Bunyan's own autobiogmphical sketch, 
** Grace abounding to the Chief of Sin. 
Hers," throws no light on the subject ; but 
it may be assumed that the works which 
he was most likely to have read were 
homely ones, though they might them, 
selves have been founded on allegories of 
a higher style. 

Can any of the readers of the Gent. 
Mag. inform F. O. if an impression of 
the Episcopal Seal of Bishop Ridley, 
either as Bishop of Rochester or London, 
is known to be in a perfect sUte, or if 
a fac-simile of the same has ever been 
engraved. Bishop Bilson*s, a very curious 
one, be recollects seeing in the Gent. 
Maff. for 1797. 

JB. I. C. remarks, " In Mr. Wright's 
collection of letters lately published by 
the Camden Society, p. 48, is a letter 
from Bedyll to Cromwell, containing the 
following passage, * We think it best 
that the place wber thes freres have been 
wont to here outward confession of al 
commers at certen tymes of the yere be 
walled up, and that use to be fordoen for 
ever.** Can any of your correspondents 
inform me what is meant by outward con. 
fession ? I am also desirous of learning 
from any one conversant with monastic 
stuctures, either here or abroad, where 
the places in which such confession were 
heard, and which Bedyll by virtue of his 
yisitorial office directed to be walled up, 
were situated. 

W. D. B. wishes to correct a typo, 
graphical error or two which appeared in 
his account of the Barwick family in the 
last number of this Magazine, viz. for 
"the Hon. T. O. Bruce," read "the 
Hon. /. O. Bruce ;" for 1773 read 1733. 
A short account of the late Barwick 
Bruce, M.D. ot Barbadoes, will be found 
in the Gentleman's Magazine for Sept. 
1842, p. 33U 



Ma. UasAN, — Considerable variety of 
opinion having been expressed about the 
derivation of Meols or Meals Ta name 
which occurs in the coast line of Doth the 
east and wert of England,) I beg to hand 
you some of them, and, with great de- 
ference, another which has occurred to 
myielf lately. Mr. Baines, in his History 
of Lancashire, parish of North MeoLs, 
traces the etymology of the word to the 
Saxon dialect of the Teutonic Melo, a 
grain of any kind, qn, '* sand,** in allusion 
to the numerous sand.dunes, which have 
accumulated hereabouts and, form the sea- 
barrier to this part of the county. Another 
etymology of " meals'* is from the marum 
or marramy the sand-reed or star which 
grows upon the hills, and serves to bind 
them together. I once heard of a Greek 
derivation being attempted to be placed 
upon this wonl, and the attempt was 
certainly an ingenious one, however im. 
probable. Thus meals from /*« noil, and 
oXr Miiire, " no longer tea," because tra- 
dition asserts that the comitry was for- 
merly inundated by the tides where the 
feebie break.water of sands now exists. 
Different from all theae raa^ I Tenture to 
offer another derivadon which I do not 
remember ever to have seen, Initead of 
a Saxon might the term NMo/haye a Celtic 
origin, and be a mere permutation of stot/, 
a word still used in Welsh to express 
mountain or hill ? I shall only observe 
further that in ancient MSS. the word is 
spelled meales, mofef, and motU in- 
differently. Yours, &c. An Inhabitant 
or NoETU MxoLf, Lancasbirb. 

£. M. states that our correspondent 
who is troubled with bookworms will be 
able to destroy them if he shut hia book 
up in a box along with tome camphor or 
haruhorn. The leaves should be spread, 
to allow the vapour to penetrate; two 
or three hours would probably be long 
enough, but it would be well to try on a 
book known to contain them. Neither 
the camphor nor the hartshorn will injure 
the work in the least. 

BaaATA.— Deeember, p. 68S, ooL 1, note, 
dtf/breomni innti ab. ibid. col. 1, 1. 40, ft^or« 
geris intert bellum. Ibid. col. 3, L SO. /or Labks 
TtaA Labbe. P. 584, col. S. 1. 48, Ar l^yB^ww 
read t^$ti^, 

January, p. a, L 2, for OUphanI read Dili- 
vant; 1. 86, Mr. Heberden was not a Senior 
Optime, but 9th Wrangler in 1779. P. n> coL 
1, 1. 45, for Latemuense read Lateranense. 
UAd. h alt. for hcreslem read hcrerim. P. 
98, col. l,t.44,/or in read into. OoLa,Unef4> 
for universal read unusuaL 



THB 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 



Gpy/on and it$ Capahiltties, Sfc, By J. W. Bennett, E$q. F.L.S. 4to. 

OUR attention has been drawn to this work, not only from the g^reat 
importance of the subject, bat for the very complete and masterly manner 
in which it is treated. There does not exist a colony of greater import- 
ance to the mother country than the one described in this book. It is 
pre-eminent in its natural resources, whether we consider the fertility of 
Its soil, the variety of its productions^ the great extent of its uncultivated 
hinds, the character and number of its inhabitants, or the increasing 
richness of its exports. It is for the purpose of directing the attention of 
Government to a possession at once so valuable and so neglected, that Mr« 
Bennett has collected all the information that a long residence in the 
island, and an intimate acquaintance with it, has given him -, and has at 
once shown what the capabilities of the country are, and what are the 
proper means of their further developement. The work is dedicated to 
the Earl of Ripon, under whose administration it appears that the colony 
has received the greatest benefits, by the abolition of monopolies, relief 
from feudal service, reductions in the expenditure,* introduction of the 
trial by jury, extension of agriculture, and protection of commerce. The 
plan of the work is extensive, yet every part of its outline is filled with 
the requisite information, and he who is yet undecided as to what distant 
part of the globe he may waft himself and his household gods, who is 
uncertain in what direction fortune is most likely to fill his favoured sails, 
and where he may risk his little fortune with best hopes of remuneration, 
certainly in this volume will find every source of necessary information 
open to him respecting what the author calls " the most important and 
valuable of all the insular possessions of the imperial crown.*' A long 
residence in the island, in an official capacity, and a naturally active and 
inquiring mind, enabled the author to collect more information on the sub- 
ject than any person had previously acquired ; he associated with all 
classes, and obtained his knowledge at the fountain-head -, the priest and 
the chief, the merchant and the agriculturist, the astrologer and the culler 
of simples, the native doctor, the mechanic, the husbandman, the sea 
fisherman and the humbler angler for the finny tribes of the fresh-water 
streams, all opened to him their various cabinets of knowledge ; to which 
he added whatever could be derived from works subsequently published, 
or from oral communication. 

His description extends through the five provinces into which the 
island is divided, and includes everything worthy of notice either as regards 
the civil and social state of the settlements, or the geography and natural 
history of the country. But the leading object of Mr. Bennett's work is 
to show the necessity of great and immediate improvement in the manage- 
ment of this colony, and a much wider developement of its almost inex- 

* The lalarj of the chief jadge in Cejlon it now only 3,500/. a-year, and of tae 
pniine judge 1,500/.; instead of 7,000/. and 4,000/. enjoyed by their predeceaion* 



] 15 Bennett's Ceylon and Us Capabilities. [Feb. 

haastible resources. From this island alone we might procure all our 
teak timber for the navy ; in this island we might grow sugar, tea, and 
spices of every description ; we might to any extent cultivate cotton and 
indigo, silk, and coffee, and tobacco, and yet so little has the attention of 
Government or its functionaries been drawn to the subject of the resources 
of the island, that, though there is every reason to believe that coal has 
been discovered, the inquiry has never been prosecuted ; and, as Mr. 
Bennett justly says, " that mineral is now become an object of such great 
and general importance as to be worthy of the most particular research, 
for the purpose of supplying fuel to steam- vessels touching at Ceylon, on 
their voyage to and from Madras, Bengal, and the Red Sea, and would be 
one of the greatest acquisitions to the colony that discovery has ever pro- 
duced/** — We shall now give a few specimens of the acquaintance of the 
author with his subject, though we are obliged somewhat to abridge and 
thereby disfigure them 3 and our best wish for him, as well as for the 
public interest, is, that those in whose gift the appointments of the colony 
rest, may avail themselves of Mr. Bennett's experience and activity, and 
place him in such a situation as may enable him at once to secure his 
own iodependencc, and to promote the welfare and increase the resources 
of the country committed to his charge. 

Ceylon presents a variety of climate, which may be classed as hot, in- 
termediate, and temperate ; the first, that of the maritime provinces -, the 
second, that of the country lying between them and the mountainous 
region ; and the third, adjoining the highest land, which is 8280 feet 
above the level of the sea, and 800 feet higher than Adam^s Peak, which 
is generally considered to be the highest land. Here the annual range 
of the thermometer is from 36° to 8 T, an approach to an European climate, 
while the mean annual temperature of the coast is between 79** and 81^ 
the extreme range of the thermometer between 68** and 90**, and the 
medium range between 75** and 8G^ The appearance of the island on the 
first approach of the voyager is delightful 5 it presents a line of verdure, 
the northern coast being belted with intermingled palmyra and coco-palm, 
and its southern shores covered with myriads of the latter to the very 
vei^ge of the sea.f The island generally is visited with continual sea- 

* Mr. Bennett justly hopes that mineralogists may be inclined to turn their atten- 
tion to the geology of this magnificent country ; for there can be but little doubt that 
it will increaae the present number of its known mineral productions, if it do not 
include both gold mid »ilver. 

t The coco-palm delightn in proximity to the sea ; its shells, in numbers like little 
vegetable fleets, may be seen performing their voyage in the tropic seas, aa the 
current of the ocean may drift them, perhaps to shade and fertilize some distant shores. 
Mr. Bennett says he never saw, in any country, the coco-palm attain the height it 
does in Ceylon ; he also mentions that he never heard of but one fatal accident from 
the falling of a coco- nut from the tree. Has Mr. Bennett ever made note of the 
eompcrative rate at which the different speciea of palms grow ? for he observes 
generally, that they are alt of rapid growth, (p. 95.) Now, in Itoly, the reason why 
the date-palm (dactylifera) is not more grown, though so much admired, is from the 
extreme iloumeaa of it* groicth. This we were informed by gardeners at Naples and 
Rome. As regards the number of species of palms, botanists seem to us to differ 
very widely. If, as is conjectured, they approach to somewhere about 200, it is a 
noble achievement surely in those distinguished gardeners, Mess rs.Loddiges of Hackney, 
to have brought together above half of that number, where, in our northern climate, 
they may be seen towering in their natural size and beauty. It is our opinion that 
tbesrax-palm of South America would grow in the warmer parts of our island ; but 
what was our surprise in seeing a specimen of the chanuerope humilie in the planta- 
tions of KeniiDgton gardens last summer! ! 



1844.] 



Benuett'a Ceylon and Us Capabillliit, 



117 



breezes, which render its hottest parts much inore temperate thaa the 
ditnate of Hindostan. Tlic seasons accuinpany the uionsooiis, and the 
dimatc Is foand to improve as agriculture increases, and the almost im- 
pervious fore^'^ts — the iiyrsc of disease in its worst form— yield to culti- 
TatioD. 

Wc shall now mention a few of the vegetable productions of the island ; 
and the first place is assuredly due to the pahus. Of this noble tree there 
arc several species, and five varieties of the coco-pahn. This tree blos- 
soms in about six or seven years, and from that time to sixty continues to 
produce its fruit in abuudance. The fruit is gathered four or five times 
^a-year. but there is scarctdy any part of tins valuable tree that is not 
turned to some imj)ottant use. The nreka p^hn is next in value. It 
much resembles the cabbagt- palm of the W^cst Indies ; the nnt forms the 
principal ingredient in t!ie betrl masticatory ; its properties as a dye are 
weli known in Scotland. The third palm m value is the palmyra or fan 
pa]m (Borassus flabclliformis). Its leaves, cut in strips, are used for 
native books and letters j tlicy are written on with an iron style, and lamp* 
I black is then rubbed over them. Pnira oil is midc of the pulp j the 
[iprjng-leaf is an excellent vegetable, and prilmyra tiour has been so 
I esteemed as to be exported to the Cape. The next in point of utility is 
the Caryota urens, or sugar palm. The toddy drawn from it is so lu!*cious 
that it is only used when tliat of tlic coco ])ahn cannot be procured. 

Then follows the talipat, or umbrella-bearing palm; the leaf of this 
tree is the largest known in the world. Its circumference is from 
thirty to forty feet,* and it is so thorougfily impervious to the sun and 
|iju|>enetrablc by the heaviest rains, that its value to the native traveller 
[might be easily imagined. Tents of all kinds arc made of it. The 
I'Baddhist priests had the same privilege as royalty as to the taiipat fan 
|1)eing borne over them ^vith the broad end foremost* Be the quantity 
Flif rain what it may, not a particle of moisture is imbibed by this leaf. 
rCeylon does not produce the date* palm, thong ii two wild varieties of it are 
J found there. Mr. Bennett, whose activity and vigilance seem never sus- 
I poidcd. brought a specimen of the cycas circinalis from the mouutaine, 
rlrhch he planted in Ceylon, and n lien he left the island he says it was a 
[Tery fine tree, and flourished as well as in its native soil. There is, 
■besides the above, a specimen of dwarf paluh or jmlmetto, of the leaf of 
rH-hich small baskets arc made. The next plant of importance is the cin- 
Ramon. This plant fust attracted the attention of the Portuguese dis- 
£>verer of the islaiui in 1.506, and he commenced a treaty with the rajah 
r Ceylon for 2,500 quintals of it. It was then only known in its wild 
litate, and was never cultivated till about 1770, when the Dutch governor, 
J. W. Falck, determined to try the effect of culture upon it. 



** We re<i<]Uy accuse (says the author) 
the Dutch uf moaopoUsing the prmdpal 



staples of cotontai commerce, and we call 
tbtit policy illiberal which rcBtdcted the 



• A ip«ckinen of one of its leaves, tbirty-aiit feet in cirDumference, may be aeeu in 
Klo^'i Cgllc^e* It belonged to Mr. Bennett. 

f Mr. Bennett says, in l^'Z'Z and 1825 he sent several ialipat trees to the late Earl 
of Tankerville, Lord Bagot, and the Hort. Society from Ceylon ; and, tn 1839, he 
I ttreseoted the oiily perfect taiipat seed that he liad left to Mr. Carter, the geedsmanof 
i'Molbam. It if curiouA that the Venetian traveller, Nicolo di Conti, in the fifteenth 
Icentury, after noticing the ctnuauion of Ceylon, should deseribc the darian (Drnrio 
Ifiliethinus) as an indigenous fruit, but vs^bich i» not known At this day in Cejlooi 



1 1 8 Bennett's Ceyhn and Ua CapabaUies. [Feb. 

culture of ciniuunon to Ceylon, of the tiffkietm monthi in our poeseeslon, when 
dove to the Moloccaf , and of the nutmeg the Govemment declared the late king of 
to the Banda islimdi ; but what did not Kandy's ' monopoly in areka nuts, car- 
the British Government in Ceylon monopO' damoms, bees' wax, coffee, and pepper, 
Km, over which it had power T and even to be highly prejudicial to the growth 
during the continuance of its own mo* of those yaluable articles of inland pro- 
nopolies of cinnamon and salt, cum multie duce, and injurious to the commercial in- 
aUie, which bad obtained from the cession terests of the colony,' and it was there- 
of the island by the Dutch in 1796, the upon abandoned by proclamation in the 
Kandyan kingdom had been scarcely Kandyan territories/' 

For nearly three centuries before Lord Godericb*s fiat went forth, every 
regulation of the Portuguese, Dutch, and British Governments in regard to 
cinnamon teemed with tyranny and oppression. " The proprietor of the 
soil, whether European or native, did not dare to destroy a plant, which a 
passing jackdaw or pompadour pigeon, by dropping its ordure, containing 
the indigested seed, might have been the vehicle of generating in his 
grounds -, and a penalty was attached to the party omitting to report to 
the superintendent of cinnamon plantations the presence of snch an un- 
welcome intruder on his property. But this was not all. The proprietor 
dared neither to cut a stick of cinnamon for his own nse, nor a particle of 
the bark for his domestic purposes, nor to distil camphor from its roots, or 
dove oil from its foliage ; because all cinnamon plants and bushes tosre 
public property ,* and, whenever the superintendent chose, he sent persons 
to decorticate the trees and carry the bark to the Government stores, 
without the slightest remuneration to the landlord.** 

The best c'mnamon is obtained from the shoots which spring almost per- 
pendicularly from the roots after the tree has been cut down. The two 
regular seasons for barking are from April to August, and from November 
to January. The Government tasters have so delicate a sense that they 
can distinguish either of the four best sorts of cinnamon in the dark. 

The Ceylon Government derives an average revenue of 120,000/. a-year 
from cinnamon, cinnamon oil> and clove oil. The genuine cinnamon is not 
thicker than stout writing paper, of a light yellowish red, and of a sweetly 
fragrant taste. Many impositions are practised in this country by selling 
the bark as genuine cinnamon after its essential oil has been distilled from 
it When cinnamon is shipped for England, black pepper is used to fill 
the interstices between the bales, for without this the cinnamon wonld 
lose half its value ) but, by being stowed together, each spice is preserved 
in the utmost perfection during the homeward voyage, it was the late 
Mr. Vanderstraaten who obtained a grant from the Government, and 
formed gardens of the pepper vine, in the hope of rendering the island 
independent of the Malabar coast for that important spice, without which 
the cinnamon would lose its aromatic properties, and consequently its 
value during its homeward voyage.* 

* Mr. Bennett says, that the ''cinnamon breezes wafted from Ceylon*' to the 
senses of voyagers is aU a delusion. If any fragrance accompanies them it must be 
ttom the orange and lime and jasmine blossoms, or from the Pandanns odoratissi- 
mus. *' If proof (be says) were wanting of the effect of imagination in regard to 
cinnamon breezes, I might quote an incident which occurred on board an East India- 
man while standing along the island, but not in sight of it, with the wind dead on the 
land. The surgeon hsTing rubbed a little oii of dnnomion on the weather hammock 
nettings, the passengers who assembled on the poop just before dinner were so com- 
pletely conrinced of the reality of the cinnamon breezes, that one of them actnaUy 
published an account of it, yVom hie otpfi ej^periefict ^fite fragreince mtmy ieayuee a$ 



\ 



1844.] Bennett*! Cei^lon and lU Capabilkiei, 119 

The local agriculture of Ceylon doei cot yet inclade that of indigo, 
whrcb is still imported from tbe Indian coutiiient, aod yet the climate of- 
fen none of tho6« injurious vicissitudes which in the course of a night have 
denuitated the extensive plantations in BengEK that in the preceding day 
liad appeared in all their iuxuriance of apprcacbing maturity. It is cer- 
tainly a most singular fact* thai, though both the varieties^ gatwa and 
•pTf»iff. grow in prolific abundance, tbe last export of that dye took place 
under the Dutch government of the island in 1 754 ^ and some experi* 
ments subsequently to raise it have faikrl, from tlie absence or death of 
tlie projectors ; and Mr. Bennett considers that tbecultuic of this valuable 
plant most not t>e left to the private energy of individualB, but must be taken 
Qp by the Government; as tbe cultivation of cofftc^ and perhaps &ugar^ 
will aheorb all the capital which the European colonists can command,* 
OpiuioD was at one time pretty general tbat SHg:ir could not be grown in 
the island, 80 as to ensure a suOicient return for the capital laid out. This 
is believed to have originated in the failure of experiments at Kal- 
tura upon the estates of Messrs* Layard and Moognart, who were alike 
indefatigable in every undertaking of public or private utility. These 
gentlemen introduced the culture of the sugar cane, but upon too exten- 
sive a scale for ahrst experiment, and. owing to the quHutity of iron with 
which the soil there is almost everywhere impregnated, were unsuc* 
cessfnl. That sugar is now grown, equal to any produced in Siam or 
China} recent extensive experiments at Koondelas^ in the central pro* 
vince, have folly established. In a few years the island will become 
independent of other countries for this article of domestic consumption^ 
whilst its greater cheapness » by reiidering it accessible to ttie lower 
disaes, will increase the demand for it» to an extent that must ensure its 
general cultivation wherever the soil may be found adapted to it i and it is 
therefore to be anticipated, that, long before tbe island produces a surplus 
for exportation, the import duties upon East and West India sugars will 
have been equalised in tbe home -tariff. From samples brought to this 
coantry by individuals, tbe quality of the Kaiidyan sugar is not surpassed 
by that of the Mauritius or Bengal, either in the quality of its saccharine 
matter or in cryataJiisation. Coffee ^m^^ first introduced into Ceylon from 
Java, where it was originally planted by the governor of Batavia, who 
procored the seeds from Mocha in 1723. He also sent some plants to 
Amsterdam ; one of these plants the French consul obtained for Louis 
XIV, This plant, placed in a hot-house, throve admirably, and tbe French 
Government sent its produce to the island of Martinique, Only one plant 
bowever survived the voyage } and this one plant (for the history is curi- 
ous] was the original parent of all the present colfeG plantations in the 
British, French, and Spanish West Indies. In l^l-l, the value of coffee 
exported from Colombo to Great Britain amounted to \97^3B7L but 
at the same time not a single bale of cotton, or silk, or a pound of cocoa, 
indigo, gum, opium, or cochineal, the ftative produce of the island, was 
exf>orted ; and not even pepper enough of Ceylon growth to pack the 
cinnamon. Till the cinnamon grower is placed on a more equal footing 
with the cultivator of coffee, tbe cultivation of the latter plant will continue 
to iocrease at the expense of the former.f 



• 8<« Mr. Bennett'i account of particulars, p. 75 — 77. 

t U appears that mvch injury to the oinaamon grower at Ceylon is prodaced 



120 Bennett's Ceylon and its Capabiikies, [Feb. 

Mr. Bennett introdnced in 1821 that valuable plant the cassada or 
manioc from the Manritins. Little attention, however, he says, has been 
paid to its colture, though there is no root which is so well adapted from 
its nature to become a substitute for rice, and one or two failures in the 
rice crop would evince its value. Being safe from the vicissitudes of 
weather, it is rendered a certain succedaneum for rice. It is easily pro- 
pagated, grows rapidly, and ensures a regular succession of crops, week 
after week, and month after month, throughout the year. It will grow 
any where in a tropical climate, and thrives in a sandy soil : indeed the 
mnthor thinks so highly of it, as to say that, next to vaccination,it would be 
one of the chief blessings ever conferred on the colony by the hand of man. 
It was in 1 826 that the Assistant-Staflf-Surgeon Crawford sent to Mr. 
Bennett, among other plants, a fine specimen of what he considered the 
real tea, in flower. It fully answered the generic description in Linnaeus, 
and Mr. Bennett has given a coloured sketch of it, (p. 277,) which cer- 
tainly appears to accord with the character of the real plant He adds 
that Mr. Crawford did not assume any merit to himself for the discovery, 
U bting clear that the Dutch were well aware of the tea plant being indi- 
genous in the eastern province ) but it is somewhat surprising that the 
attention of Government has never been directed to the subject, for, if it is 
worth while to cultivate tea in the distant province of Assam with all its 
inconveniences and dangers, it would be a much more lucrative speculation 
nearer home. But Mr. Bennett observes, ** This, like the bread-fruit 
tree, is another chance discovery ; and a better acquaintance with Ceylon 
in 1787 — 1789, would have rendered the two expensive trips to Otaheite, 
for supplying the West Indies with bread-fruit plants, inexpedient ; for 
they could have been obtained in any quantity from this island, and have 
obriated all the disastrous consequences of the mutiny on board his Ma- 
jesty's ship Bounty.*'t Captain Percival in his account of Ceylon, in 1805» 
informs us that '* the tea plant has been discovered native in the forests 
of the island ; it grows spontaneously in the neighbourhood of Trincomal^, 
and other northern parts of Ceylon. An officer of the 80th regiment 
informed the author of this work that he had found the real plant in the 
woods of Ceylon, of a qualitt/ equal to any thai ever grew in China, and that 
it was in his power to point out to Government the means of cultivating it 
in a proper manner." Mr. Bennetts attention, which seemed always 
awake, was directed to the culture of the mulberry plant as an indis- 
pensable preliminary to Lis projected introduction of the several varieties 
of the silkwomi, from Malta, Bengal, China, St. Helena, and the south of 
France. Had this plan been carried into effect, it would soon have de- 
termined which species of silkworm would best agree with the humid 
atmosphere of Ceylon ; and, as both species of the mulberry tree succeeded 
beyond his most sanguine hopes, the speculation might have been pro- 
ceeded with, safely and successfully, and silk have become long ere 
this one of the most valiiablv exports of the island. The growth of the 



by the importation of the some spice, the produce of Java, under the name of '' Cas- 
•la lii^nea," or base cinnamon, probably the produce of Malabar or China. The ex- 
ternal appearance of thi*!ie two varieties of the aromatic laurel, (Laurus Cinna- 
momum and Laurus Cassia,) cannot be distinguished when growing, except by the 
leaf, and tliat only by those accustomed to both the trees. 

* It iti also to I'm' observed that this expedition was as useless as unfortunate, for the 
bread-fruit has never been cultivated, while the plaintain, and yam, and cassavst are the 
staple food of the negroes. 
I 



1844.] Bennett's Ceylon and its CapahilUiei. 121 

mnlbeiTy is so extremely rapid that in six months the plantations would 
be in full bearing. The foltomng is a very curious account of the Chinese 
cultivation of this insect, and its tree. 

" The Chinese, who are the greatest lown, and produce trees of the desired 

sQk growers in the world, consider the preponderance of foliage. These inge- 

molherrj tree that hears the least fruit, nious people select rising grounds, near 

die best ; and ;adopt a curious method rivulets, for the habitations of their silk 

to increase the quantity of foliage, and worms ; for the eggs require frequent 



that of the fruit ; namely, by washings, and the purest running water 
feediiig hens upon the ripe fruit of the is considered the best. The place must 
malberry tree, after it had been partly be kept free from fetid or bad smells, and 
dried hi the sun ; the ordure of the fowls noise ; for, when the silkworms are fully 
is subsequently collected and steeped in hatched, even the barking of a dog, or the 
water, and the undigested seeds, hav- crowing of a cock, throws them into con- 
ing been again soaked in water, are fusion." 

As regards the fruits of Ceylon, every thing has been left to nature, 
except where Europeans have introduced the arts of horticulture. The 
best edible fruits are from naturalised exotics, originally introduced by the 
Dntch, from Guiana, Java, and Amboyna. They have the mangosteen 
(Garcinia Mangostana,) which is considered the ne plus ultra of tropical 
fruits ; the rose apple (Eugenia fragrans \) the sour sop (Annona 
moricata,) but this is scarce ; the grape, introduced from Goa ; the 
lo-qnat (Eriobotrya Japonica;) the lemon, the fig, the pine-apple, 
miroduced by Mr. Bennett from the Mauritius in 1821 ^ the Mandarin 
orange^ the pomegranate, the orange, shadock, guava, papaw, the 
mango, the best Persian melons, the strawberry, the plantain and ba- 
nana, cachew apple, and others which we have not room to mention. Of 
European frnits, grapes and strawberries thrive best ; and vegetables, in- 
dodingthe potato, onion, cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, carrot, pulse, aspa- 
ragus, radish, celery, endive, cucumber, and indeed every species culti- 
vmted at home, rapidly attain perfection, when compared with their growth 
in this country. There can be little doubt but the Portuguese hop would 
thrive in Ceylon, if the British species should not. Persons who have 
resided in Portugal may recollect the great horror with which the hep-bine 
is regarded and spoken of by the Portuguese, (who consider it a deadly 
poison,) notwithstanding their partiality fbr British malt liquors. Where 
wheal will attain the perfection it does, in the interior of Ceylon, there 
can be no doubt that barley and oats could be easily naturalised. 
TThe northern part of the province of Ouva, Mr. Bennett says, presents such 
a diversity of hill and dale, forest and plain, and consequently of climate, 
which in the upper parts may be styled temperate, the thermometer in the 
morning being as low as fifty degrees, that it is more surprising than other- 
wise that the tide of immigration of moderate capitalists has not yet set 
towards Ouva. The potato flourishes there in its utmost perfection and 
abundance, and is now largely cultivated by the natives, and the gentle 
acclivities of the country arc favourable to the growth of the vine. The 
first attempt to grow wheat in Kandy was in 1815, and, though it com- 
pletely succeeded, yet, owing to the partiality of the natives for rice, it 
will scarcely be an object of extensive cultivation, until a more general 
influx of European settlers might make it otherwise. To a naval power 
like England, all that is connected with the supply of her shipping must 
be considered as of the first consequence j accordingly Mr. Bennett draws 
the attention of her Majesty's Government to the culture of the indige- 

Gent. Mao. Vol. XXI. R 



122 BeDDett*8 Ceylon and its CapahilUiei. [Feb. 

nous hemp, and the formation of teak woods upon the crown lands of the 
maritime provinces. 'J'hat the Ceylon teak is not inferior to any that 
India produces is undeniable ; and, though the present supply of that va- 
luable timber (the oak of the East) from the Malabar and Burmese 
coasts* is abundant, yet a time may come when Great Britain may have 
to depend on its own resources for ship-building materials. The teak-tree 
flourishes best upon the sea coast, and the neighbourhood of Galle, Co- 
lombo, Negembo, and Trincomal^, offer every facility for planting this va- 
luable tree. Besides teak, the woods of Ceylon abound with satin-wood, 
ebony, red wood, and innumerable other trees for which there are none 
but native names. f There is abundance of zebra-wood, though neither 
rose-woo<l or mahogany \ but some specimens of jack and bread-fruit- 
tree wood, when old, equal the finest mahogany. The silk-cotton tree, 
(Bombyx pentrandum) is very common, and of large size. The cachew is 
valuable for its gum and its bark which equals that of oak. Indeed such 
is the variety of the vegetable produce of this island, that, as a native bo- 
tanist told Mr. Bennett, ** If a botanist were to devote a long life to their 
investigation, he would leave an ample field to his successors ;*' not only are 
there abundance of trees that produce medicinal, elastic, and other gums, 
which might have been made for the last forty-six years available to 
British commerce, but that many a valuable production by which the trade 
of the country may hereafter be extended, and the revenue increased, now 
lies hidden in the heart of the jungle, for want of energetic examination 
and developement. It cannot be denied, however discreditable it be to 
the nation, that hitherto '* most of our varieties have been found out by 
casual emergency, and have been the works of time and chance rather 
than of philosophy."! 

Of the wild animals native to the island the elephant is the first in rank, 
and^ perhaps, also the most numerous. That most ferocious of quadrupeds, 
the tiger of Hindoostan, is unknown ; but the chetah, or hunting leopard, 
is common, as well as the bear, to which may be added the baboon and 
sloth. In the woods are also to be found the deer, buflalo, wild hog, 
jackall, monkey, and smaller animals. In its wild state the elephant is a 
very vicious and dangerous animal. It is by no means an uncommon 
thing for herds of them to enter villages at night, remove the thatch from 
the houses, and walk off leisurely at daybreak. Its apparently unwieldy 
bulk is no impediment to its activity, for its common walk will keep a man 
upon the run, and when put to its mettle few horses will beat it in swift- 
ness. In 1826 several native labourers were killed by elephants whilst 
harmlessly going to their daily work. This generally happened on suddenly 
turning the corner of a jungle ) and two Singhalese were killed the same 
morning just after having left their cottages. Gangs of elephant catchers 
from Bengal, under the command of a captain of the army, are occasionally 
employed to procure elephants for the East India Company's service. The 
Ceylon •* elephant establishment " is attached to the civil engineer and 
surveyor general's department. This island has always been famous for 
its elephants. Pliny says that they are superior to those of India. " Multo 
majores erant quam quos feit India;" and Cuvier has shewn such a 

• Dr. Wnllich, in a letter to a friond of ours, says that in the Burmese forests he 
saw the oak and teak -tree sliake hands. 

f Mr. Bennett has given a list of no less than ninety forest trees with native 
nanus, (v. p. ISi-J,; and he fays, scarcely one of these has ever been seen in the 
London market. 

I GlauTille. 






1844.] Ben nod's Cei/lun and its Capabiiiim 123 

di0crei)ce existing betweeu the elepbatit of India and Africaj as to 
cMiiblish the fact of a diflt:rent specicii j yet, powerful in every way from 
its individuiil streiigtii ;iTMi size, and from its collective inimbers asaembled 
in large herds, as this anima! \a, it falls an easy prey to the moat inartl 
ficial uiethods of destroy in ^^ it, Tbc late Wifiiani ijisboriic, Esq. of the 
civil service, would approach an elephant to leeward so close as to toucb 
it, he would then clap hh hands and shout, and upon tbc animal looking 
round plant a two-ounce ball m the centre of tlie os frontiSf where the 
bojic plates are exceedingly thiiii or inimed lately beliiud the car, when, in 
the twinkling of an eye, the stately animal would lick tlie dust* It is 
siurprieirig, when the great risk is considered, and the fpiaiituni of nerve 
required to face an ekphatit within a hw yards, that so few accidents 
occur to EngUslj sportsmen. Major Haddock, of the 97th rei,nment, was 
the only one killed during Mr. Bennett's residence in the island, but 
several others had narrow escape.*?. Vet the inhiibitiiut^^ of the Vcddah 
country nse a still ruder and more extraordinary method of destruction, 
and which is entirely new to us. They lie on their backs, liolding their 
bow between their toes, (which they use with ihe same facility as we do 
our fingers,) and drawing the arrow to the iiead, with all the force of both 
hands, let fly ; and so near do they contrive to place themselves to the 
elephant * uusecn^ that they seldom fail to hit tlic animal in its most 
ruJnerable part, behind the ear. They wing these fatal arrows with the 

Bp red feathers of the peacock,* 

The omittiology nf this island is very rich, and Mr. Bennett has 
given a hst of the indigenous birds (p, 262), wttli the native names j 
but he says that tlie jungles contain many a novel and undcscribed 
species, a small proportion of which only is kno*,vn to Europeans. 
The snipe is found among them, and he had heard of the woodcock 
having been killed in the interior, but he never met with it, J he 
migratory birds also that periodically visit the island are very nu- 
merous. Of the fish of the adjoining coasts and seas in another publi- 
cation he has given a description, accompanied with plates as beautiful as 
they appear to be correct. Of snakes there are no less than thirty difTerent 
species in the ialand, of which half at least appear to be venoiuous. In 
purchasing cobras di capcllofrom the itinerant snake charmers, Mr* Bennett 
says Europeans cannot be too cautious, and nolliing but the fullest proof 
upon inspection ought to satisfy them that the poisonous fangs have been 
extracted. He himself bought one under that conviction, and conse<:|uently 
permitted it all the familiarity which supposed freedom from danger 
authorised, when some montlis after *' he discovered to his horror the 
/angs perfect, and the animal in full possession of its deadly power." Eau 
dc luce has been so successfully employed in the cure of the bite as to 
place its efficacy beyond all doubt. The ichueumori or mongoose, is the 
deadly foe of all the venomous snakes. Mr. Bennett was witness to au ex- 
hibition where the two animals were opposed to each other, aud it is 
curious that, though the mongoose killed its cuemy, it would not enter the 
field of combat tilt it had gone to a hedge covered ivtUi wild plants, and 
after the battle it again repaired to the hedge, whither it was followed ; 
bat the parties who followed it found it ditlcult to name or distinguish 
the plant that it resorted to. 

• Mr. Bennett proposefi to iotrocJuce tlie cauiiil of Arabia iato the iBlatid for the 
UM of the GovcmzDenti &o fij to leave the drAu^ht bullock to be employed for 
a^ricidturttl p\irpofie&. 



II 



A 



124 Bennett's Ceylon and Hi Q^Mities. [Feb. 

We now pass on to the important subject of the pearl fishery, the banks 
OD which the oyster is found, lying, as may be seen in the map, off the 
northern province of the island. 

The author remarks, speaking of the pearl fishery, that since the time of 
theelder Pliny there has not appeared a work professing to treat of Cey- 
lon in which the pearl fishery has not been noticed, and yet, as connected 
with the capabilities of the island, no novel method has been suggested for 
increasing the revenue derived from this source. The present system is 
as follows : — In the November preceding, the Government institutes an 
official inspection of the pearl banks, and on its report the banks selected 
for the purpose, which will depend on the maturity of the oysters, and the 
value of the pearls obtained from the samples, are advertised to be fished. 
The Government seldom fishes on its own account, if an average price be 
obtained by individual speculators, who can give the requisite security, or 
make an adequate deposit In 1814 the boats employed in the Aumanie 
fishery, (after the rented fishery had ceased) landed 76,000,000 of oysters 
during the first twenty days* fishing. About the middle of January the 
boats begin to assemble, between which period and the commencement 
the adventurers construct their various dwellings with areka or bamboo poles^ 
and the fronds of the talipat, palmyra, and coco-nut palms, paddee straw, 
and coloured cotton cloths in endless variety, upon the arid sands of Arippo. 
All persons frequenting the fishery are privileged from arrest upon any 
civil process ; but the power of the supreme court in criminal matters is 
not affected, and justice is summarily administered in disputes connected 
with the fishery. Arippo is situate at the mouth of the Aweria-Aar, 
which takes its rise beyond the ancient capital of Anarajahpoora, in the 
central province, and about two leagues off the land a rocky bank or reef 
lies to the west and south-west. The island of Cardiva, which is very 
low^ narrow, and crooked, covered with patches of sand or jungle, affords 
ample protection to the pearl banks from any injurious effects of the south- 
west monsoon, and they are protected from the north-east by the main 
land of Cevlon. Prior to commencing operations the shark-charmers or 
kadeUkutttes are in requisition to give confidence to the divers, who, on 
the assurance *' that the mouths of the sharks have been closed at their 
command," divest themselves of all fear, llie shark-charming trade is 
very lucrative, because, besides the Government stipend, they insist on the 
additional daily tithe of a dozen oysters from each boat. The Komaa 
Catholic priests bestow a similar charm on the divers of their faith. The 
boats are of the old Portuguese make, from twelve to fifteen tons burthen, 
and carry a crew of twelve or fourteen hands, and from eight to ten divers. 
A stone of about forty or fifty pounds is slung to a double rope, which is 
passed over a boom projecting from the boat's side. The charmed diver 
then places the great toe of his right foot into the space between the double 
rope, and with his left he keeps a net capable of holding some dozen of 
oysters, close to the stone. The rope having been adjusted for lowerins, 
the diver, pressing his nostrils with his left hand, and holding on by his 
right, descends as rapidly as the weight will allow of. On reaching the 
bottom he suddenly jerks the rope, on^ which the stone is hauled up, and 
on a similar signal he intimates that he has filled the net, (which may 
occupy a minute or a minute and a half,) and then holding on by the net 
or rope, he is drawn up within a fathom of the surface, when he relinquishes 
his hold, and, haviuff reached the boat and taken breath, he is soon ready 
to descend again, buch is the process of diving on the oid system. The 



Bennett*e Cejflon and Us Capabiliim* 

djTiDg-beU was introduced for use by Sir Edward Baroea ^ but it lias been 
I objef^ed to, that, though it may answer well at first, it will ultimately be 
thepieans of destroying the oysters, for it roust crash u grmt many, which 

I will putrify, and so extremely delicate is the nature of the oyster that it 
irill spread like a plague, gradually extend its vortex, and destroy al! within 
^t. The oysters lie in layers from four to five feet deep, and when about 
five or six years old they disengage themselves from the madrepore to 
irhich they had attaehcd themselves, and raroblc about the sandy bottom. 
Each diver sends up about 3,U00 oysters daily, and 25,000 have been taken 
by one boat in a single day. In 1836 the revenue derived was 25,^16/* from 
the pearl fishery. It is not uncommon for fifty, or sixty, or even eighty 
pearls to be found in one oyster. The natives consider it a disease, or 
the effects of disease» to which the animal is liable. If a pearl be cut 
transversely it will be found to consist of minute layers, resembling rings 
which denote the age of trees when similarly cut. Tlie largest pearls are 
found in the thickest part of the flesh, but it does not follow that the 
laigeiit oysters produce the finest pearls. No means of successfully trans- 
ferriDg the pearl oyster for the purpose of increasing its hahUat has yet 
been discovered. Tlie common metliod of clearing the {>earls from 
the fleah is by their putrefaction. The pearl oyster a spawn may be seen 
floAtlog in coagulated masses on the western coast of Ceylou during the 
Dorih-east monsoon j for the first year tlic oyster seldom exceeds a shilling 
in size, and is not at maturity for seven years. When it is half grown 
seed-pearls only arc found in the flesh, but after that period they increase 
in size till the maturity of the oyster, when tht disease which produces 
them destroys its victim. The jiearl is not valued at Ceylon for its silvery 
whiteness, but for its golden hue 

Having devoted more space than wc could conveniently spare to 
the consideration of the natural productions of the island^ but which 
attracted our attention by their variety as well as value, we must now 
briefly turn to those other subjects of interest of a diflTcrent kind which we 
find mentioned in the volume i and first, we may lay before the reader the 
judicioQd advice which Mr. Bennett gives to those who may be drawn by 
his deficriptions of the fruit and plants of the soil, and the kindliness of the 
climate, to think of settling there. 



" Land is aot in the same iaaecure nad 
[noiettied state in Ceylon that it is in 
India, notirithflt&ndiDg the proiimLty of 
the two couD tries \ &nd, moreoTcr^ Cejton 
I oflieri that which India doe» not, a fair 
\ field for the adventure of capital accom- 
pttjued by jjMsrmanent settlementr and 
particularly in the interior, without risking 
any disastrous effects of climate upon 
L£iiropcaD constitutioDj. If Ceylon were 
Dettcr or sufl&ciently known to the gene- 
dlty of persons intent upon emigration 
to new and almost unknown lands, for its 
mat and indigenous resources , to he 
folly and fairly appreciated, speculation 
iiroiild not long remain idle; but the 
meOBragODent of hope, or of even the 
■lil^tctt prospect of succeas, to any other 
^n fotttuon qf moderate capitai, would 
be both criminal and delusive » To officers 
dbpoaed to beoome settlers the Gorerii- 
rnent has a Turii^ty of m&Mui at iti com< 



m and to augment the adirantages held out 
by the colonial minister's memorandum of 
Aug. 15p I834t and now extended to Cey- 
lon 1 amongst the rest, by advances of 
money out of the annual excess of the 
Jocal reTBuue oTer the expenditure, upon 
the security of the produoei to enable 
them to form plantations of the valuable 
productiouR mentioned above. If her 
Majesty's Secretary of State would follow 
the example set by the East India Com* 
pany in 17^9, or adopt the plans now 
acted upon for the promotion of the culture) 
of cotton in India by the same bonourable 
body, many enterprising and intelligent 
^officers and private individuals would 
eagerly grasp at the opportunity of further 
develop! ag the resources of Ceylon, ond 
of increasing its revenue, and, at the ssmo 
time, their own means of providing for 
their famihes and denendunts,. But wiUu 
QUt mo^hruU c^f0{ It would tuklend an 




126 



Bennett's Ceylon and its Capabilities. 



[Feb. 



officer to recommend him to avail himielf 
of what are termed the advantages of emi- 
grating to Ceylon, upon the same terms 
provided for settling in the Australian 
colonies, South Australia excepted. It is 
evident from the perusal of those docu- 
ments to which 1 have given a place in the 
appendix for general information, that the 
Government has allowed one grand point 
to escape its observation. An officer 
accustomed to society and the comforts 
and, I may add, the elegancies of life, 
resigns them the moment he becomes a 
settler in a country like Australia. There 
all settlers are bent on the same objects, 
a location, fencing, planting, &c. and. 



however happy they may be to greet 
each other over the tame prog^ they have 
no one better off than themselves that may 
place them in invidious comparison in the 
same neighbourhood or country. But it 
is different, widely different, in Ceylon, 
and wretched will be the settler who may 
have inconsiderately proceeded to that 
island upon any such most discouraging 
terms. The best inducement to officers 
to become settlers in Ceylon would be to 
grant them as much land, at a nominal 
quit-rent of a peppercorn, as they may 
undertake to bring into cultivation, and 
advance them money upon the terms I 
have already suggested." 



We wish our author had been more circumstantial in his account of the 
tenets as well as customs of what he calls the Devil- Worshippers, in order 
that it might be seen whether any analogy could be traced between their 
rites and those of some of the eastern tribes bordering on the Persian 
frontier, who profess the same accursed idolatry. He says (p. 61) — 



" It is a subject of general regret to the 
missions, that, although in the immediate 
neighbourhood of a nominally Christian 
population, scarcely one native family out 
of a hundred, unless immediately con- 
nected with them, abstains on religious 
principles from the ceremonies and prac- 
tice of Devil-Worship, When their 
vmards, astrologers, and conjurors are 
converted, they will quit the devil prac- 
tices by which the native minds are so 
extraordinarily worked upon as to render 
them pliant and subservient victims to 
the grossest impositions that ever fettered 
the spirit of man. This may be calculated 
on as a certain effect of tlie light of Chris- 
tianity upon the minds of the soi-disant 
magi, who now hold bodies and souls in 
perpetual thraldom. But until this grand 
evil be removed, and by the assistance of 
the magistracy, wherever it may be need- 
ful, in severely punishing all such im- 
postors, the fears of the ignorant natives 
will not be overcome by merely professing 
themselves converts to Christianity. The 
conversion of one greatly. dreaded astro- 
loger and devil worshipper will do much 
to reconcile the natives to the power of 

But 

** One of the most unlooked-for and 
extraordinary instances of conversion to 
Christianity was that of a Maha Nayaka 
Oonansd, or High Priest of Buddha, the 
peculiar circumstances of wliich have* 
established claims to attention as matter 
of history, and will be considered interest- 



Christianity over the wiles of the evil one, 
and tend to reduce their fears of the tnaha 
yakOf or great demon, more than can be 
hoped for by other means. The caste of 
Seppidiwigie Karayo or sorcerers is one 
of the greatest stumbling-blocks to Chris- 
tianity that now presents itself, and on 
its gradual conversion very much depends ; 
for the superstitious natives will never 
altogether abandon devil worship so long 
as its priests have such power over their 
minds as to inspire these deluded creatures 
with the dreadful conviction that both 
their own bodies and the lives of their 
cattle are at their (the sorcerers') com- 
mand.* . . . Our missionaries,'* our author 
adds, " may make proselytes of Singhalese 
and Malabars, but they appear to have 
little or no chance with any of the many 
thousands of the followers of Ali and 
Mahomet, of whom 1 have not yet heard 
that they have converted even a solitary 
individual ; but Ceylon has witnessed the 
conversion of an apostate Englithman to 
Mohammedanism. The first and most 
ready Singhalese converts have been those 
who anticipated employment in the mis- 
sionary establishments." 



ing by all who have sincerely at heart the 
propagation of the gospel of Christ. In 
the year 1808 Nadoris de Zilva, the bead 
priest of a temple in this district, left 
Ceylon with eighteen pupils under hii 
charge, to perfect himself in the mysteriei 
of bis religion at the grand depot of pagan 



* See some ceremonies used by those tribes who are devil worshippers at harvettt 
and their offerings, at p. 267. 



1844.] 



Bennett's CeyJon and itt CapaUUltes. 



127 



b Buperstilion and error, Amerapoorai or 
[ U»e Ett^rnal City, the capital of tlie Bur- 

nese empire. Going by way of Madrw, 
resitted there severiLl months, and tie- 
rioted luioBeirto the etudy of the SnascriC 

lADgitage; from thence he proceeded to 

the ciipital of Avo, where he i>erfccted 
, Limxelf in all the dogmas of Buddhism, 
, ftnd ftt length, among other marks of royal 

farour, his ' Goklen*fonted ]VIojeftty " con- 

fcnx*d on him the high-piieatly title of 
.Malta Navaka Oon^nst-.' Having re- 
turned to Ceylon, this higltly digrurted 

priest re&ided some time at hie former 

temple in this district, occasionally visit. 

ing other Vihares and Bana MaJuwas, or 

places for reading the history of Duddha's 
^Incaroations. His fame for mordity and 
' profound knowledge of the Buddhist 
I myateriei and mythology made the * Maha 

Kayaka Oonans^> ' the more conndcuous, 

when, about the time of the Urst trans- 
lated portiQTi of the New Testament into 

the Singhalese language being circulated, 

be displayed a most anxious |and restless 

curiosity to become acquainted with the 

religious tenets of the Europcaa Chris- 

tinns as contradistinguished from the 

Portuguese Christians of Goil, upon the 

coait of Malabar, or» in other words, of 

the Roman Catholic mbsiou of the Ora- 

iorio of San Felippe de Neri. Having 
' suci^eeded in attaining his first object, 

namely, a Singhalese copy of the New 

Testament, he devoted himself careftiUy 

and exclusively to its study. The vast 

difference between the plain and simple 

doctrines of Christianity nnd the con- 
llbuBding medley of the mythology of 

Buddha, became so apparent, that his dc- 
^«ire wu augmented in proportion as con- 

▼ictioa arose ; and he has repeatedly 

asiiured me, that he thought * every hour 

a day* after he had determined to seek 

additional information, before he acc&m- 

phshrd his wishes by an iiittjmew with 

tlie Wesleyan Missionaries, from whom, 

aa well as from the late Archdeacon, the 

Honourable and Veaerable Dr. Twisletou, 

The ecclesiastical establbbmcnt at Ceylon includes the clergj' of the Es* 
tablialied Church and tiie consistory of the Reformed Church of Holland. 
This last consists of four elders and six deacons. Of the Christian miasions, 
that of the Roman Catholic mission of the Oratorio of San Felippe de 
Ncri of Goa is the most ancient. The Portuguese take credit for being 
the 6rst to introduce Ctnistinnity into Ceylou ; but Mr. Bennett says that 
they were preceded by the Russian Missionaries of the Xestoiian Churches, 
and that the functions of religion vvckc performed by [jrlests ordained by 
the Archbishop of Silencia; but of 9uch churches no record is now extant 
ill the island. The chief residence of this mission is at Santa Imcia 
near Colombo \ but the immense tract of country from Targallc ro Ba- 
thioloa^ where devil worship reigns paramount, is deititute of the means 
of acquiring the gospel. The mission estimates its converts a^ 150^000, 



who was their zealouf supporter and firm 
friend, the anxioua candidate for con- 
version received the most cordial assist- 
ance, and every requisite infarmatiaD in 
regard to the essentials of Diviue rcveU- 
tion. The result, which, upon becoming 
public, spread like wildfire from temple 
to temple and from hut to hut, was ttiat 
the Maha Nayaka Oonans^, with one of 
bis pupils, after a IcnijL^ and deliberate 
comparison of the Christian with the 
Buddhist doctrine, abondoned at once 
their saffron -coloured robes of priesthood 
and the delusive dogmas of paganism , and 
ardently embraced Christianity, This 
high convert was received into our Church 
by the baptismal ceremony and named 
George, after liis godfather the ReT# 
George Bisaett, the Governor's brother- 
in-law and private secretary. The other 
godfather was the Ecv. William Harvard, 
Wesleyan Missioiinry- In this case it wa« 
no ignorant man of humble degree who 
had been inveigled into apostacy from the 
faith of his fathers ; no boy who bad been 
entrapped into Christian baptism before 
his reasoning faculties had attained their 
meridian ; no poor native who had no- 
minally become a Christian for the sake 
of a situation in a missionary establish- 
ment ; but a high priest of Buddha, upon 
whom the checriog ray of Almighty favour 
had so pre-eminently displayed itself j a 
man of science aad education, an adept in 
all the dogmcts of the Buddhist mythology, 
and reverenced almost to adoration by his 
brethren; with whom, notwiths tan ding 
his conversion, their former high priest's 
reputation lost nothing in point of respect, 
and other converts amongst the priest- 
hood soon followed the eiample of the 
Maha Nayaka Oonani^. The then Go- 
vernor Sir Robert Brownrigg conferred 
the title and sword of a Moodliar upon 
the eminent convert, who subsequently 
perfected himself in English, and showed 
himself indefatigable in assisting to trans- 
late the Old Testament into Singhalese.'* 



128 Bennett's CtyUm and its Capabilitiet. [Feb. 

for which number there are only seventeen missionaries. But the Roman 
Catholic churches in Ceylon are very poor and mean compared to the 
splendid cathedrals in other coantries dedicated to the same worship. The 
reverend fathers of this mission are subjects of the Queen ; they super- 
intend 118 schools^ and are humane, pious^ charitable to the poor, and 
hospitable to the stranger- The first British mission was that of the 
Baptists in 1 8 1 2. There are but two missionaries^ with five native teachers . 
The Wesleyan mission was established in 1814. These missionaries 
minister in the Hindoo^ Portuguese, Singhalese, and English languages. 
This is limited to eight missionaries, and fourteen assistants, who have the 
management of the education of nearly six thousand scholars. Mr. Ben- 
nett says, ^' Never did the ministers of the Established Church do them- 
selves greater honour than by the manner in which they collectively and 
individually extended the right hand of Christian fellowship to the Wes- 
leyan missionaries on the first establishment of their mission in 1815. 
This laid the foundation of that long-continued and existing cordiality, 
which the Government appeared desirous of encouraging ; for, when the 
Wesleyan chapel was first opened at Colombo, the Governor Sir R. Brown- 
rigg with his family, the clergy of the Established Church, and the majority 
of the civil and military officers, were present.*' The American mission 
was first established in 1816 in the northern parts of the island, and Mr. 
Bennett s])eaks highly of it. This mission occupies seven stations in the 
northern province, to which its attention was exclusively directed. Although 
last in the field, the Church Mission was established in 1818, and has du- 
tinguished itself for its zeal in promoting native education. Occupying 
four stations, and having but nine missionaries in holy orders, they are 
assisted by about a hundred native teachers. In their schools are about 
2000 boys and 400 girls ; the tracts they have distributed amount to 
420,000. The whole of the Scriptures and the Common Prayer-book 
have been translated into Singhalese, besides religious tracts and ele- 
mentary school-books. 

That Asiatic slavery should still exist at Ceylon, while the African 
negro is altogether free to work or to be idle, as may suit his inclination, 
certainly appears a very anomalous kind of legislation, and hardly con- 
sistent with one sound and substantial principle of humanity. But cer- 
tainly it appears that in the census of the population of the island, taken 
in 1835, the number of slaves was 27,397, including 14,108 males and 
13,289 females. To the eternal honour of the humane Dutch and notice 
proprietors in the Singhalese districts, Ceylon was the first and only colony 
under the British flag to make a voluntary concession of prospective slave- 
property to the principle upon which the imperial legislature subsequently 
acted. The Chief Justice (Sir Alexander Johnston) had only to suggest a 
plan to the slave- proprietors to have it adopted. The course which this 
benevolent and enlightened person espoused found a strenuous supporter 
in General Sir Robert Brownrigg, and the principal proprietors of domestic 
slaves among the Dutcli inhabitants and native castes of Colombo addressed 
a petition to the Prince Regent declaratory of their determination to 
emancipate all children born of their slaves on or after his Royal High- 
nesses birth-day, the 12th August, 1806. The author observes that the 
reception of tliis petition was as gracious as the most sanguine philan- 
thropist could have anticipated, and, its provisions having been confirmed 
by his Royal Highness, took effect agreeably to the intentions of the pe- 
titioners. At that period the domestic slaves were generally much happier 
2 



18440 



Bennett's Ceylon and iis CapahiUtief, 



139 



than tliC hired servants or free labourers, whose daily wages never exceeded 
sixpence t&r twelve hours' labour ; but upon what moral principle the claims 
of the African slaves should have been considered so very paramount to 
those of the owners of Malabar slaves in Ceylon that not one shilling of the 
20|000,000/. could find its way nearer to that island than the Mauritius^ 
no one has hitherto attempted to explain. Humanity wilt admit, that if 
the example set by the proprietors of domestic slaves in Ceylon did not 
give them a priority of claim in point of justice over those of the African 
slaves, their voluntary relintjuishment of the rights of ownership over the 
issue of their slaves, from the 12th of August 1816, had at least entitled 
thetn to an equitable compensation out of the twenty millions of the public 
money voted by Pariiament for the enfranchisement of the colonial 
slaves : — but these philanthropic individuals, instead of sharing in the 
public grant, are now doubly burdened through their own humanity j for, 
by slaver)'^ continuing until death shall have carried off the present number 
of domestic slaves, they are bound to support the old and feeble, and 
consequently useless individuaJs, without receiving any allowance whatever 
for their maintenance ; little chance of obtVining rehef by selling their 
rights as owners, because few will purchase under these circumstances ; 
and no succession of service to anticipate from the offspring of the slaves 
whom they are bound to maintain. 



** Ceylon,'* the autlior justly observes^ 
" had no agent iq Parliametit to advocate 
either the claim t of lt» aluve- proprietors 
or of the sbves themselves, or mirely 
the noble couduct of the Dtttoh inhabit- 
ants* burgbem, and native cmatea of 
Ceylon, who bad set such an example of 
humaDity, and indeed of deference to the 
call of the nation, would not only not 
have been overlooked, but have been 



deemed entitled to a four and adequate 
eompensatioD^ and the Asiatic alAvei of 
Ceylon to an ec|ual right of cm&ncipation 
with thetr Afirican contemporaries of the 
West Indies and Mauritiiis, For the 
sake of justice to the one, and of humanity 
to the other, I hope it is not even yet too 
late for their relative claims to be con- 
sidered and admitted by the British Le^s* 
latnre/'* 



It was in 1814 that the great central province of Kandy, the residence 
of the native kings, was iinnexed to the British territories* General Brown« 
rigg was then governor of the island, and commander-in-chief of the 
British settlements. Tlie origin of the war was owing to the molestation 
of the Singhalese, who had entered the Kandyan provinces for the purposes 
of trade. The Kandyan dcsjwt (Sree Wickreni^* Rajah Siogha) refused 
all satisfaction or explanation, and war was therefore determined on ; 
and the defection of the First Adikar gave impulse to the rebellion^ and 
cnaured the assistance of the disaffected^ in supplying the British array 
during their march upon the capital* This Rajah seems to have been a 
monster of cruelty. He sentenced the Adikar*u wifdand children, and brother, 
and his family, to the moat ignoaiiuious deaths. The children were ordered 
to be beheaded before their mother's face, and Ihetr heads to he pounded in 
a rke-mortar by her Mnds! which, to save herself from the most dmboUcal 
torture and ignominious exposure, she submitted to attempt* The last of 



* It appears that the Government baa enfranchi&eil about 3.\0O female children of 
slaves during the la^t tirenty-one jean, and the itumbcr of adult slaTea who have 
purchased their own mannnaisgion may be numbered at a thousand, A very atrict 
re^stratioa of ilaves is now kept^ and extended throughout the island » of which Ihe 
regulations may he seen in Mr. Beauett'a Tolum^i p. :i2— 24* 

Gent, Mag* Vol. XXi, S 



130 Bennett's Ceylon and iti Capahilitiet. \Teh. 

the children was an infant at the breast, from which it was brutally torn 
away, the mother s milk flowing from its mouth, to be sacrificed to the 
tyrant's rage, llie Adikar's brother was also beheaded, and the sisters- 
in-law bound together and thrown into a tank.-— All Kandy, except near the 
palace, was for many days a scene of mourning and fasting ; but the 
people were ripe for revolt, which on the appearance of our army eflfectn- 
ally broke out. The brave and veteran governor, instead of delegating 
his military command, took the field, determined to share every privation 
and danger, and to seek '* the tiger in his lair." The whole march was a 
bloodless one. The city of Kandy was taken possession of in Feb. 1815. 
In about four days after, the King was captured by a party of his own 
subjects, but, Mr. Bennett says, " instead of being hanged on the nearest 
tree, this monster of depravity was treated as a sovereign prince, and with 
his numerous wives, conducted to Colombo, (his dagger still incmsted with 
the blood of one wife whom he had murdered ! ) and, having there re- 
ceived every attention, he was conveyed aboard the Comwallis to Vellore, 
where he subsequently died." Mr. Bennett adds, " that nothing great, 
except in point of neglect, had been done for Ceylon by the home au- 
thorities from the time of this conquest of Kandy in 1815, to the Right 
Honourable 8ir George Murray's accession to the Colonial Seals in 1828 -, 
from which period whatever good has since been extended to Ceylon, 
whether in respect of local improvements, increase of revenue, or rise in 
the estimation of the mercantile world, may justly be said to date. To 
these national benefits Sir J. Murray's successor, Lord Goderich, added 
other public advantages and improvements, which have rendered the island 
of Ceylon the choicest colonial jewel in the imperial diadem.** But as 
people who have with difficulty obtained jewels, should have discretion 
enough to preserve them, the advice of the author should not be thrown 
away, when he remarks, *' that on the supposition of the possibility of an 
enemy having a temporary command of the Indian seas, on a sudden break- 
ing out of a war, he might land, and with a very inconsiderable force he 
might march to Colombo, taking even Point dc (falle, before a redoubt of 
any consequence could be erected at the latter place. There would be no 
dependence on the Singhalese in the event of an attack by an European 
power, for they are an eficminate and cowardly race -, but the Kandyans, 
Mr. Bennett well describes, are a distinct species of the genus Felts ; 
over whom prudence and past experience suggest, that a wary eye should be 
kept. ** VV^ealthy and public-spirited individuals," he says, " who would 
spare neither personal exertions nor private expense, are the persons most 
wanted in this island ; and, if the capabilities of Ceylon were fully de- 
veloped, there would not be a square mile of land throughout the island, 
except the portion of its surface devoted to purposes of grazing, that 
might not teem with produce in the course of the next ten years ; for the 
most valuable intertropical productions of one kind or other will grow 
everywhere throughout the maritime provinces, and wheat and other 
European productions in the central provinces, so that from east to 
west and from north to south, if mere justice be done to the colony by 
giving proper encouragement to agriculture, the greatest abundance would 
be the certain result of the outlay of capital." With fair encouragement 
to native agriculture, and proper management of the native resources of 
Ceylon, the island might be made to yield an incalculable excess of 
colonial produce over its consumption, and consequently of revenue over 



1844.] Bennett's Ceylon and its Capabilities. 131 

its expenditure ; but the value of this splendid colony will scarcely ever 
be fully known, if the time for appreciating it by experiments be further 
indefinitely deferred, as it has been with bnt limited exceptions on the part 
of individuals of small and inadequate capital, for the last forty-six years. 
Although the trade of Ceylon has quadrupled since the amalgamation of 
the Kandyan kingdom with our former dominions, it may with propriety 
be said to be only now in its infancy ; and therefore improved* measures 
are indispensable to insure relief to the native agricultur§dists, and 
stimulate them to abandon their present habits of indoleno^by a more 
certain prospect of remunerating prices for the produce. The l^inghalese are 
partial to the manufactures of Birmingham, Manchester, <cnld Sheffield, 
except certain agricultural implements which they consider infelibr to those 
of Holland. The higher ranks indulge in the best wines^ji^icularly 
Madeira and Champagne, and no people set a higher valie!<^n British 
medicines, stationery, and perfumery, or relish with a keen^%^t English 
hams, cheeses, porter, ale, &c. all which they prefer to sbxabi: imports 
from France and America. But, to bring these articles into more general 
demand, the Singhalese must first be taught to appreciate «(he value of 
industry, which can only result from British example. Thw,»and a con- 
siderable reduction in the taxes and the customs duties, }f|ir-conjointly 
operate to increase the demand for British productions, and • c<yisequently 
add to the revenue of the Crown. *••••* 

As a specimen of what was effected by the author duringwtbe time he 
had the charge of the district of Mahagamm^, and of his scg^JP^s thereby 
to the interest of the entire island and of the colonial Ga&tgment, the 
following notices may be suflScient. He abolished the po wee. of flogging 
convicts. He made tanks for the supply of water ; and a .6e&utiful road 
from the cutchery to the town, planted with rows- of the Ficus.Baengalensis 
and Hibiscus populneus. He ascertained that the opiumtpoppy would 
attain the greatest perfection in Ceylon, and distributetl 'seeds from 
Malwah to different stations best adapted to its culture. He endeavoured^ 
by rewards and by his own example, to induce the inhabitants to habits 
of industry and cultivation. He planted the first coffee-garden ever known 
in the Mahagampattoo. He introduced the Manioc or Cassada root — 
a certain supply of a wholesome food among the natives, who previously 
had died in numbers from starvation. He introduced the Guinea-grass 
from Galle, vines from Teneriffe — also the Teneriffe mulberry, preparatory 
to the introduction of the silk-worm -, the Portugal fig and Bengal nut- 
meg, and almost every sort of vegetable for the table ; and all this in the 
neglected and half-depopulated district of Mahagampattoo ; and lastly, as 
this district, on account of the unhealthiness of the climate^ had been 
neglected alike by the Protestant and Roman Catholic churches, and as it 
was altogether destitute of a single place of Christian worship, and con- 
tiguous to the very meridian of paganism, the author offered his house in 
the most healthy part of the district for a missionary residence, and 
proposed also to build a temporary chapel free of expense to the mission.* 



* Of the Wealeyan missionaries in Ceylon, the author thus justly and honourably 
speaks. *' Since the first establishment of the Wesleyan missions in Ceylon, is there 
an indiyidual, however bigoted he may be to any particular sect or creed, who can 
point out one exceptionable character that haa belonged to it, whether as a Christian 



132 Bennett's Ceyhn and Us CdpabHiiies. [Feb. 

Thb was in the year 1826 ; bat, singular to relate, the district of Mahagam- 
pattoo is at this day as destitute as ever 3 and all this was done by one 
not living at his ease in a beautiful and luxurious retirement and a de- 
lightful country ; but in a district described by one of the highest function- 
aries in the civil service as a horrid unhealthy place, the air that you 
breathe being impregnated with the pestilence that is destroying all around 
you, and mbpje there was scarcely a house without some of its inmates 
either dead*or dying. 

In all cjip^on apprehension it would be supposed that services so eminent 
and useful,. yet so unobtruding, would have been well known and duly 
estimated* &t*the seat of power, and the sacrifices which were made, and 
the dutiev^filled, would have been rewarded by some marks of favour 
and promb}l^J^. We are deeply sorry to have to present the very reverse 
of this pictute. Ihoice was Mr. Bennett attacked with the jungle fever 
while in ^e*arduous performance of his duty under the burning sun (the 
rabid d^g;^^) of the tropics, and a few days after the second attack, 
viz. on the 1st of January, 1827, he received a communication from Govern- 
ment, which Jie shall relate in his own words. 

''A seccM^tittack of fever was the until the 26th of the following J erne, for 

almost immiWte consequence of my ex- which I paid 300/. and I had neither 

posing mysflrln selecting and measuring gakny nor alhwancet during the inter- 

the proper ttfliber on the beach for the mediate period. Upon this order, it does 

erection ol {)^s lighthouse ; and a few not become me to offer a single comment 

days after, YmeivMl an order to return in these pages. There is only Onb from 

to BngUtna^»tAd the very inadequate al- whom the future is not obscured, and 

owance of ^567.^ for the passage— an un- justice may still lie in prospective. It is 

welcome N§f^ear*s gift from the colonial satisfactory to know that, as time does not 

department fdh my long serrices, and run against the Crown, its equity towards 

unaccompdiitd.by any proyiso as to a the injured knows no prescription. — But 

homeward ;t}oigad ship, or no ship being at the moment that I received the order* 

in port aCt|)e*t^e. It so happened that and when the fever was at its height, and 

no European ^vilian would volunteer for the result uncertain, my position, {parmtm 

the station, and the Government could componere magno) recalled to mind the 

not consistently order one to relieve me memorable last words of * a faithful servant 

of my official duties, after its declaration of his Sovereign,* with all their applicable- 

of the 26th of October, in regard to an ness, solemnity, and truth ; for I too felt 

European commandant. I therefore re- conscious, that I had not served my God 

tained office for two months after that as faithfully as I had served my king and 

order had reached me, but there was not country.*** 
a ship by which I could obtain a passage 



and a loyal and devoted subject, or as a husband, father, brother, or friend ? — I might 
long pause for a reply." 

* The author mentions in another place, (p. 303,) on the same subject, <' Under 
all the circumstances, and after so much affliction, I might perhaps have been justified 
in leaving the district, upon receiving the official order to return to England ; but 
I contented myself with making a respectful appeal to the proper authorities, and 
continued at my post till the coUector of the province had made the best temporary 
arrangements he could for the safety of the public stores and treasure under my 
official charge ; because, where example was every things it would not have been 
acting the part of an Englishman, for the only one in the district to have quitted it 
at the moment when his presence was most necessary to the interesto of the public 
service.** 



1844.] 



Church-House at Bray, co, Berks, 



Mr. Urban, July. 

I HEREWITH send you a view, 
painted on the spot io 1835, of one of 
a class of buildings now becoming rare, 
viz. the Church- House at Bray, in 
Berkshire, which, although it has re- 
cently lost much of its antique appear- 
ance, is still interesting on account of 
its picturesque projecting gable, and 
the Lich-gate under it. 

Church. houses, standing, as this 
does, within churchyards, if originally 
built for the residence of chantry 
priests, or of the parochial clergy, 
were, no doubt, consecrated " ad opus 
ecclesiae," and repaired by the lords of 
manors, or the churchwardens, as par- 
sonages still are, or ought to be. A 
few, however, were originally used as 
manor-court houses, or as our modern 
vestry-rooms, or as bede-houses, or 
hospitals for persons who performed 
their religious services in some parti- 
cular chantry ; but most of them have, 
since the Reformation, been appro- 
priated to parochial poor, generally. 

Lich-gates are so denominated from 
the Anglo-Saxon word Lic^^dead body, 
because "through them," says Todd, 
"the dead are carried to the grave." 
Those in towns are often substantial 
arches of masonry, as was that recently 
pulled down at Great Marlow, and the 
beautifully. sculptured entrance to St. 
Giles's churchyard, Westminster, if 
indeed, so modern an edifice may be 
deemed a lich-gate. In villages, how- 
ever, they are commonly mere wooden 
porches, open at their sides, with 
thatched or tiled roofs, covering a gate 
which almost invariably turns upon 
a central pivot. Hone, in his Table 
Book, considers them merely " as rest- 
ing places for funerals, and for the 
shelter of the corpse until the minister 
arrives to commence the service for the 
dead ;" but since they are usually too 
small for such purposes, 1 am inclined 
to consider a lich-gate rather in the 
nature of the ancient ante. port icus to 
the atria or courts of ancient basilical 
churches, and, symbolically, perhaps as 
" An arch of triumph for Death's victories." 

Bray Church-house, I am credibly 
informed, was erected for the abode of 
the chaplain of St. Mary's chantry, 
which John Norys, esq. added to the 
east end of the north aisle of Bray 
church, A.D. 1446. But all traces of 
the altar and its appurtenances in this 



133 

chantr)', or of any screens that may 
have formerly separated it from the 
parochial chancel or the north aisle, 
and its painted glass, have disappeared, 
and the only remaining designations 
of its origin (although nearly effaced 
by whitewash) are certain scutiferous 
angels carved in relief, some with the 
ancient bearings of Norys of Ocholt— 
a chevron inter three raven's heads 
erased — and others with this same coat 
impaling a bearing like, probably, an 
otter, otters having been subsequently 
granted by Edward IV. as supporters to 
the Norris family, one of those few 
families privileged, though not enno- 
bled, to have supporters, and of which 
honour two boldly sculptured and in- 
teresting specimens (the otters sup- 
porting the shield by holding its base 
in their mouths) still exist within 
shallow niches high up in the east 
wall, but also bedaubed with white- 
wash, so that they have become almost 
unintelligible. 

Previously, however, to the " beau- 
tification " which Bray Church suf- 
fered about three years ago, there was 
likewise against the east wall of this 
chantry a tablet of grey shelly mar- 
ble, on which, flatly raised above its 
surface, are two figures kneeling at a 
fold- stool — one, a man in armour, in- 
vested with a mantle having on the left 
shoulder the cross encircled with the 
mottocd garter of the order of St. 
George of England — the other, his wife, 
in a full-sleeved gown and ruff; be- 
hind the man six boys, and behind the 
woman six girls, all in attitude of 
prayer. At the upper part of this 
tablet are engraved on scrolls these 
sentences; viz. 
** Vivit post funera Virtvs.'* 
" Penitendum est, nam moriendam est.*' 
At the dexter upper corner, on a shield, 
(No 1.) surrounded by a wreath of 
bay, is this coat of arms, viz. — a bend 
engrailed, cotised (for Fortescue) ; 
quartering Fretty, in chief three roses ; 
a crescent for difference. 

At the sinister upper corner, on a 
shield (No. 2.) is a coat of eight quar- 
terings, viz. : 1st and 8th, a plain field, 
quartering a fret, over all a fesse 
charged with a crescent for difference ; 
Norreys of Lancashire. 

2nd. A raven rising. 

3rd. A cross moline. 

4th. A fret. 



134 



Bray Church, Berk$hire. 



[Feb. 



Sth. A cross boton^. 

6th. A lion doable-qaeaed rampftnt. 

7th. Three bars. 

On tho fold-stool is the coat. No. 
2, impaling coat No. 1. Between the 
figures of the man and woman is the 
Norris motto, " Faithfully sarve ;" 
mod under them, cut in small capitals, 
this inscription : 

" William NoaasTS, of Fifield in 
Bray, Esq. who was Vsher of the P»lia- 
ment House of the Noble Order of 
the Garter, a Getlema Pencioner, Comp- 
troler of the works of Whidesor Castle 
and Parks ther, & Keeper of Follijhon 
Parke, w<=» offices he had by y* gifte of 
Qween Marie, ei^oyed theime duringe 
life, most faithfully servinge his noble 
SoTeraine Qweene Elizabeth, a Justice of 
peace of Barkshere, euer of honest bcha- 
Tior and good reputation : fayoringe the 
vertTTs, plesuringe mannie, hurtinge none, 
died at his howse of Fifild, 16 Aprilis, 
1591, at the Aage of 68 years, after he 
had be maried 43 years, & had issue 6 
sons & 6 doughters, & is interred by 
his Awnoestors, under the stone graven 
w*^ his armes hearbefore liinge. 
Innoenus vizi, si me post fbnera Icdas, 
Ccelesti Dondno, fscto (sceleste) lues. 

Maria ex Fortescuorii fkmilia adhuc su- 
perstes yidua reUcta supradicti WilUelmi 
Norreys, hoc monumentum suis ezpensis 
Optimo suo marito defnncto curam fieri 
9 Augusti iSdS.** 

Bat, with the usual ignorence of 
churchwardens, though not without a 
Tery respectful private remonstrance 
from my pen to the Vicar, during the 
progress of this beautification, on the 
impropriety of d isplacingany memorials 
of the dead (and especially of the re- 
latires of the pious founder of this 
chantry), from their pristine situation, 
the aforesaid tablet has been removed 
to a pier of the soutli aisle, and the 
" stone graven" alluded to in the above 
inscription, and others that covered the 
remains of the "awncestors" of the 
Norys family, have been placed in an 
opposite comer, under tht theatrical 
inclined-plane pewing with which tlie 
parishioners of Bray are now accom- 
modated. And, not to notice sundry 
other desecrations, the figured tiles 
formerly about the altar nave been 
variously dispersed, and supplanted by 
a wooden block pavement; and the 
brass of Justiciary Lakbn, of 1476, 
removed from the east end of the south 
aisle the chantry which waa, proba- 



bly, of his wife Syferwast's family, 
has been so placed under the pulpit 
(with his head dishonourably north- 
ward) that the tips of his shoes are the 
only parts now visible. Future anti- 
quaries must therefore contemplate the 
ofllcial costume displayed by this in- 
teresting brass, either in Cough's 
great work on Sepulchral Monuments, 
or among the accurate representations 
of brasses now in course of publication 
by tht Messra. Waller, to whom, 
some time since, I presented a rubbing 
from it. Fortunately, however, the 
plain brass labels, with the following 
memorials of the first chantry priest, 
and of a contemporary vicar,yet remain, 
although their portraitures have long 
ago disappeared. 

mt facet jmagii^ fmWm'0 9ifti, 
bkari* eccfi'e be ^rape, qui oiiit u(ti*o 
Me Sanuac' «• 9*ni m^ tttv* %V* cuj* 
art rt*crr nttmt. 

Orate o' ai'a ^iCi tf ^ome Xttelutie 
€$9tliant,tuVai't9*V*titv9'i. %mtn. 

St. Mary's chantry is mentioned in 
the will of its founder, and was chiefly 
maintained by certain lands attached 
to Fyfield House estate, enumerated in 
an Extent of the Royal Manor of Brave 
now in my possession, taken in the 
third year of Elizabeth's reign, at 
which time a John Norris, successor to 
an Edward Norris, held that mansion. 

Youra, Ace. PLANTAOBIf BT. 



Ma. UaBAN, 

MY friend Plantaobnbt having 
intimated to me his intention of trans- 
mitting to you a view of the old build- 
ing at the south-east entrance of Bray 
chureh-yard, I beg to accompany his 
communication with a copy from the 
Tower Rolls of the Foundation Charter 
of St. Mary's chantry in Bray chureh ; 
from which, and from the figures 1448 
cut into an oak beam on the west side 
of the poreh constitnting the lower 
portion of this building, I conclude 
that it was erected by John Norys, 
esq. as a residence for the chaplain of 
the aforesaid chantry, founded by him 
A.D. 1446. 

This edifice was repaired, but with 
considerable modification, four or five 
years ago, by the present incumbent 
of Bray ; and Plantagbn bt's repre- 
sentation is the more valuable as ac- 
curately shewing its original form. 
Yours, &G. G. C.G. 



1844,] 



On the Forms of Churches. 



1S5 



FOUKDATIOK CflfARTBR OV THIE NoKIIIS 
ChANTATi IK TBG PaRISH Ch171ICH 

ow Brat, Bkrkshirk. 

[Pat. 25 Hen, VL p. 1, in* 26,] 

Dc Cantaria fundaadA. — Rex ommbut 
ftd 4UO8, &c, salatetn. Sciatiflf quod de 
gmtift nostra spcdalif coticessiniua et 11- 
oentiiin dedimos pro oohh et hnredibus 
noitris, cjuantum in oobi^ est^ Willi el- 
MO epbcopo SaruMt Johakki Nohyb 
srtni^ro, ft Tbom^c Ludk vicario paro- 
diiolja ecclejioe de Bray^ quod ipsl, aut 
dno seu imui eorum diutius diipemvens, 
ad lamdem ct gloriam Dei, quAodam Can- 
tariftm |>erpetaAm in hoDore beatissimse et 
gloriosisaimie nc latemeratGe Yirginia Ma- 
me infra dictam ccclesiani de Bray^ de 
tioo CapellADO perpetuo diviea in ho no re 
beati^sims et glorioaissimse ac intomeratee 
Virginia Mariie ad oltare dictfle Virginis in- 
fra dicta tn ccclesiam de Bray, Sarum dio» 
ce«i, pro bono itatu ncratro diim vixerimus 
et ipAontm Episoopi Johannis et Thomft ac 
OfDiiiiiin olioram qui terras et tenemeata 
MR potscaiiones aUqua ad sustentationetu 
Caotariae tea CapeUaui ejuadeoi dederint 
fen oo&ttilerliitt vel alias ad austentatianen] 
Cantarue et Capellani liujuBmodi tuanus 
porrexenal adjutrices, et pro anima et 
animabttft sola postquam ab hac luce mi- 
graverimus et migraTerintt aniniabuBque 
omnium fidelium^ singulis diebus, niai 
rationabilis eicusationia caus^lnicrreniat, 
celebratnrOi aliaque pietatis et cari talis 
opera juxta ordiRationem ipso mm episco- 
pi Johannis et Tbomse ant dnorum eeii 
nniiis eorum diuttus vi vent is in hac parte 
fa^iendam imperpetuum impleturo, facere, 
fun dare, et stabilire poaaint et posgit ; et 
quod Cantaria ilia cum sic factufundata et 
stabilita fuerit Cantaria bciitee Maria! de 
Bray, ac quilibet CapoUanua Cantarioe 
ilUus pro tempore exiatena capcUonua per- 
petRRS ejusdem CantaKse imperpetuum 
nRncapentur. Et quod Ca^iellanua Can- 
tariie Ulina cam Cantaria ilia air facta fun- 
dats et stabilita fuerit, el quilibet Biiceea- 
■or auRS CapeUapus Cantaria; iliiua per 
nomen Capellani Cantarie Beats Mariie 
de Bnj sit persona abilis [ci>] in lege ad 
proseqRendum et defendendum omnlmo* 
das actionea realea peraonales et noixtas 
tectaa querelas et demandaa in quibns- 
comque curiiiSi et coram quibuscuraqne 
JRStit^riia et judlcibua spirit ualibuit et 
Imporalibus, et quod posait in eiadcm 
rM|!oaileFe ct respondcri, ct ait similiter 
pCfsona abilia [tic] in lege ad perquircn- 
dnm terras tenementareddiCus et scrvitia, 
et aiiai pc^aaeaaiooea quwcumque. Con- 
ceuAoiRS etiam quod, cam Cantaria ilk, 
cam sie facta fundata et stabilita fuerit ^ 
CapellanRS Cantarite iUius pro tempore 
eiisteiu terras tenementa et redditus ad 



ralorem decern libranitn per annum » qRoe 
de nobis immediate teneantur in capitef seR 
alias per servitium militare doquacumqRe 
persona, sen quibuscumque personis, ea 
ci dare concedere t»ive assignare volenti- 
busi se volentibus perquirere possit babeR- 
da et tenenda aibi et aucceaaoribus aula 
Capellanis Cantarise praedictc in suam 
SRsCentationeoi ct aupportationem one- 
rum eidem Caotanie neceasarie incum- 
bentium juxta ordinationem in hac parte 
ut pncmittitur faciendam imperpetnura. 
Statuto de terria, dec, ike. &c. 

Teate Rege apud WestmonasteriRm ix 
die Septembris. 



Ma, Ufi-BAN, 

WITH regard to the picturesque 
form for building Gothic churches 
lately discussed id your pages, 1 have 
long thought that by placing their 
towers or belfries at or near the centre 
instead of the west end, we should 
then have more graceful cdiiSces than 
we commoDly now meet with. But 
since the propriety of such situatioa 
for towers as well as of your cor*' 
respondent G, C/s equalization of the 
height of naves and chanceld is a grave 
quest ion J requiring more cccleaio logical 
lore thau I deem it prudent to hold 
myself, individually, responsible for— 
it must be referred to the judgment of 
the architectural societies of Oxford 
and Cambridge, or to that of an Asao- 
ciatioD recently established in London, 
which, endeavouring to preserve with 
our nlhcr ancient National monumenta 
those of a sacred character, proposes 
to offer suggestions to any persona 
interested either i n the erection, restora- 
tion, or repair of churches as to the 
proper mode in which it should be 
effected. 

And here I must say a few words, 
by-lhe-bye^on aisles j which, although 
tiiey may improve the picturesque 
appearance of a church, and, when 
considered either economical ly^ or 
architecturally as a kind of %ing 
buttresses, may possibly be useful— 
surely. Sir. we Protestants should 
look with some suspicion at their 
employment in English churches, if 
they be chietly intended (as Mr. Pugla 
implies) for those pompous Romaa 
Catholic processions in which the 
consecrated wafer is carried about 
lifted up to be worshipped ; unless, 
indeed, we would be luding him ia 



136 



On Harmmdc Proportion in Churches. 



[Fd). 



bailding churches for the use of a 
future Roman Catholic population. 

1 was much interested by the idea 
of your correspondent Mr. Barnes, in 
your last December Magazine, for 
erecting churches, the quantity of 
whose several parts shall be in mu- 
sical harmonic proportion to each 
oUier. But, although I cannot imagine 
that this is the true key to the har- 
monious form of such few ancient 
ecclesiastical structures as have de- 
scended to us in an unmutilated state, 
I am strongly of opinion, with Mr. 
Billings (who I hope will favour us 
with fuller views on this subject than 
he yet has done), that there does cer- 
tainly exist some arithmetical or geo- 
metrical module that may eventually 
unloose the hidden chords of archi- 
tectural harmony. 

In the dilemma, therefore, in which 
we now are placed between the Cam- 
bridge Camdenians and Church-build- 
ing committees, I beg respectfully to 
submit that a general council of our 
Bishops, duly gathered together, should 
ordain what parts of ancient Roman 
Catholic churches must not be copied, 
and what parts may — strengthening 
their mandate by d^Kvmeniary evidence, 
(if to be found,) as to the utility and 
origin of such parts and portions, 
whether relating to construction, furni- 
ture, or ornament ; and distinguishing 
those parts ordered authoritatively to 
be destroyed (except by Puritans) from 
those that, not having been included 
in such order, I humbly conceive should 
still be retained and honoured without 
subjecting us to be scoffed at as Pu- 
seyites by ignorant people, who never 
read the thirty-nine articles, nor know 
the tenets of a true Church-of- England 
man. 

Yours, &c. Plantagenbt. 



Mb. Urban, Dorchester, Jan, 
THERE is now, I think, no longer 
anything which your correspondent 
G. C. and myself can dispute. I 
readily allow that while there must 
be three terms in a harmonic propor- 
tion, and that the height of a low 
chancel may be one of them, yet that 
those three terms may be found in a 
church with an equal chancel, the first 
3 



of them being the whole height of the 
tower, the second the height of the 
tower above the nave, and the third 
that of the nave itself, as is the case 
with my outline ; and I am vety glad, 
for the sake of architecture more than 
my own, that the doctrine of harmonic 
proportion has made a favourable im- 
pression ou at least one well instructed 
mind. I strongly believe that, whether 
it was held in Greece exclusively by 
those who were initiated in the 
mysteries of numbers learnt in Egypt 
by Pythagoras and others, or by the 
Grecian cultivators of the liberal arts 
in common, and whether it was kept 
in the best ages of Christian archi- 
tecture by all master masons or only 
by the freemasons, it is one of the 
keys to beauty in form which we have 
yet to recover ; and I think that the 
chief dimensions of all churches of 
cot^essedly beautiful outline, would 
corroborate my opinion by still an- 
swering quite or nearly the conditions 
of harmonic proportion. As this matter 
cannot be unworthy of investigation I 
should be most happy to try any dimen- 
sions that may fall into my own hands ; 
though, with a very little attention to 
harmonic proportion, asgiven in almost 
any mathematical work, any of your 
readers may test the dimensions of a 
church himself. One of the most 
simple modes of doing so is, as I said 
in my former letter, to take the greatest 
and least of three unequal heights or 
breadths, and multiply them together 
for a product, to add them together 
for a sum, and then divide /trice the 
product by their sum, and if the quotient 
should be equal to the middle one of 
the three heights or breadths they are 
in harmonic proportion. For ex- 
ample, if the whole tower were 60 
feet high, the nave 20 feet high, and 
the part of the tower above the nave 
were consequently 30 feet, then the 
greatest and least of the dimensions 
would be 60 and 20, which, being 
multiplied together, would produce 
1200. Then, taking twice that pro- 
duct, 2400, and dividing it by the sum 
of the 60 and 20, which would be 80, 
we should have 30, the middle term. 
W. Barnes. 



1844.] List of Contributors ta the Quarterly Review. 



137 



Mr. Urbax, ^FirkstDOflk, Dec. 22. 

FROM the great additional interest 

that is given to papers of periodical 

criticiBm when the names of the writers 

[ are known, it has often occurred to me 
that a communication pointing out 
the authors of some of the hest es- 
says in the Quarterly Review might 
not he unacceptable to some of your 
numerous readers, I have heen also 

^ led to this concluBion, from the avidity 

^ with which one always reads in the 
tmasiDg and interesting Diary of the 
late Mr. Green^ aad in other parts of 
your Magazine^ the Dames of the 

f "Writers of striking articles in the 
Quarterly Review mentioned. The 

fopularity, too, of such works as 
outhcy'a Essays from the Quarterly, 
mod the recent publication of Smith's, 
Macaulay's, and Lord Jeffrey's contri- 
batioDs to the lidinburgh Review, 
show that the value of these essays is 
not lost hy time. 

The list of contributor? i send is 
derived from sources accessible lo all, 
and is probably familiar to most of 
year readers. There may be some, 
however, whose means of literary in- 
Librmation are, like mine, but limited, 
land who may be gratified to know the 
names of such writers of articles in 
the Quarterly as may have formerly 
^detighted and instructed thenu 

The Quarterly Review is a store - 
ThouBe of some of the finest wrtling 
[ftnd the best criticism in the iinglish 
[tanguage ; and it may lead to a re-pe- 
Irusal of some of iU admirable essays 
vhen it is known by whom they were 
Dfltributed. 
An ulterior object therefore in com- 
kmunicating this imperfect catalogue of 
uthors, is to induce some of your 
iumerous correspondents to render it 
[more complete. It can be no violation 
Df the secrets of literary criticism to 
publish the names of such writers as 
Dave acknowledged the authorship 
I themselves, or of such as have tran- 
spired through the usual channels of 
information. Indeed the diatinction 
of having contributed to the Quarterly 
"eview is an honour which few would 
vish to conceal, and it is desirable 
bat the public should know to whom 
hey are indebted for so much in- 
struction and amusement. 

In the following list I have men- 
tioned mv authority where it waa ac- 
Gbnt/Mao. Vol. XXi, 



cessible : some names, however, I have 
derived from report, and for others, the 
reference to the authority was for- 
gotten, or not at hand. 

But 1 believe all may be depended 
on, except one or two to which a 
note of interrogation is added, and 
about which I bad some doubt. 

The present commtinication extends 
over the early series of the Review, up 
to the first Index ; and, if you consider 
it worthy of publication in your ex- 
cellent Magazine, I shall have great 
pleasure in continuing it in one or two 
other numbers up to the present time. 
Yours, fitc. T. P. 

VOL* I. 

Art. 2, p. 19. Reliques of Burns, — 
Sir Walter Scott. 

Art. 13, p. 134. Chronicle of the 
Cid.— Sir Walter Scott, 

Art. Id, p. 178. Carr's Caledonian 
Sketches,— Sir Walter Scott and Sir C. 
E. Grey, 

Art, I, p. 241. Gertrude of Wyo- 
ming.— Sir Walter Scott. 

Art. 7i p- 337- John de Lancaster* 
—Sir Walter Scott. 

(Vide Scott's Miscellaneous Works, 
and Life by Lockhart, passim.) 

Art. 10, p. 107. La Place— Dr. 
Thos. Young. 

(Vide '* A Catalogue of the Works 
and Essays of the late Dr. Young, 
found in his own Handwriting, to 
1827/* in Brando's Quarterly Journal 
of Science, vol. 28, p. 154.) 

Art. 17, p. 193. Baptist Missions. 
— Mr, Southey. 

(Vide Correspondence of Wilbcr* 
force, vol. 2, p. 264.) 

Art. 7, p. 73. Sir Philip Sidney.— 
Mr. D' Israeli, 

Art. 13, p. a87. Sydney Smith's 
Sermons, — J. W. Croker. 

(Vide S. Smith's Works, passim.) 

Art. 17, p. 437. Austrian State 
Papers. — Mr. Canning. 

VOL. II* 

Art. 2, p. 24. Transactions of the 
Missionary Society, — Mr. Southey, 

Art. 8, p. L'>5. Insanity,— Or, Young. 

Art 1 0, p, 337. La Place.— Dr. Young. 

(Vide loc. cit.) 

Art, 7, p. HC. Miss Edgcworth's 
Tales.- Mr, Gifford the Editor. 

Art, I7.p* 426. Baltic ofTalavera, 
—Sir Walter Scott, 

Art. 6, p. 288, Kerr Porter'a TriTcla. 
— Bp. Hcber. 

T 



lAMi ofConirikU&n to the Quarterfy Review. 



138 

(Vide his Life by his Widow, vol. 
1, p. 363.) 

Art. 14, p. 375. Characters of Fox. 
—J. H. Frere. 

(Vide Qaar. Rev. toI. 4, p. 207, and 
Heber's Life, toI. 1, p. 363.) 

Art. 15, p. 401. Warburtoo's Let- 
ters.— Dr. T. D. Whitaker. 

(Vide Gent's. Mag.) 

vol. III. 

Art. 1, p. 1. Herculanensia. — Dr. 
Young. 

Art. 5, p. 368. Eau Mcdicinale. — 
Dr. Yoang. 

Art. 15, p. 462. Mdmoires d'Ar- 
cueil.— Dr. Yoang. 

(Vid. loc. cit.) 

Art. 3, p. 339* Fatal Revenge. — 
Sir Walter Scott. 

Art. 16, p. 481. Aikin on Song 
Writing.— Sir Walter Scott. 

(Vide Misc. Prose Works, Bcc.) 

Art. 15, p. 185. Sydney Smith's 
Sermons. — Mr. Croker. 

(Vide S. Smith's Works.) 

Art. 18, p. 218. Lives of Nelson. — 
Mr. Soathey. 

(Vide his Life of Nelson, passim.) 

Art. 17. p. 492. Lady of the Lake.* 
•^Mr. Geo. £llis. 



Art. l,p. 281. Crabbe's Borough.— 
Mr. Giffbrd. 

(Vide Crabbe's Life by his Son, 
passim.) 

Art. 8, p. 111. Clarke's Travels.- 
Mr. Southey. 

Art. 13, p. 480. Evangelical Sects. 
—Mr. Southey. 

Art. 12, p. 177. Replies to Calum- 
nies against Oxford. — Rev. J. Davison, 
late Fellovr of Oriel. 

(VidehisWorks, p. 349.) 

Art. 13, p. 207. Life of Fitt.— J. 
U. Frere. 

CThis beautiful article is ascribed by 
Lord Brougham to Mr. Frere, and is 
generally supposed to be written by 
him. It was kept a great secret at the 
time. Vide Ed. Review, vol. 68, p. 
227« and Heber'sLife, vol. 1, p. 363.) 

Art. 9. p* 403. Sadleir's SUte Pa- 
pers. — Edm. Lodge. 

(Vide Gent's. Mag. April, 1839.) 

* '' I have always considered this arti- 
cle as the best specimen of contemporary 
criticism on Scott's poetry.** Lockhart*s 
Life of Scott, vol. ii. p. 296. 



[Feb. 



Art 14, p. 514. Miss Mitford's 
Poems. Rev. John Mitford.f 

(Vide Quart. Rev. vol. 67, p. 323.) 

Art. 15, p. 518. Bullion Committee. 
— Geo. Ellis and Mr. CSanning. 

(Vide Scott's Life, 2d edit. vol. 3, 
p. 366.) 

VOL. V. 

Art. 2, p. 40. Southey's Curse of 
Kehama.— Sir W. Scott. 

(Vide Scott's Misc. Prose Works, 
Tol. 17, p. 301.) 

Art 9, p. 437. Pindar. — Bishop 
Heber. 

(Vide Heber's Life, vol. 1, p. 369.) 

Art. 7* p. 120. Sinclair's Remarks, 
Ace. — Mr. Geo. Ellis and Mr. Canning. 

(Vide Scott's Life, vol. 2, p. 379.) 

Art. 13, p. 498. Letters of Mad. du 
Deffand.— J. W. Croker. 

Art. 1, p. 273. Strabo.— Rev.Thos. 
Falkener, M.D. 

(Vide Memoir of Dr. Falkener, 
Gent's. Magazine.) 

VOL. VI. 

Art. 1, p. 1. Dugald Stewart. — Mr. 
Bowdler ? 

(Vid. Life of Wilberforce, vol. 4, p. 
73.) 

Art. 4, p. 74. Cuthbert on Tides.— 
Dr. Young. 

(Vid. loc. cit.) 

Art 8, p. 124. Hardy's Life of Ld. 
Charlemont. — Earl of Dudley. 

(Vide Letters to Bp. of Llandaff, and 
Quart. Rev. No. 114, p. 323.) 

Art.4,p.405. Montgomery's Poems. 
*-Mr. Southey. 

Art. 9* p. 462. Ford's Dramatic 
Works.— Mr. Giffbrd. 

(The paragraph page 485, beginning 
" We would be well content to rest 
here,'' relates to Charles Lamb.) 

Art 10, p. 166. Edgeworth's Essays. 
^Rev. J.Davison. An admirable article. 

(Vide hu Works, page 409.) 

Art 5, p. 419. National Education. 
— ^Mr. Canning? 

(Vide Life of Canning in Fisher's 
Gallery of Portraits.) 

Art. 11, p. 518. C. J. Fox.— J. H. 
Frere. 

VOL. VII. 

Art. 9$ p* 159. Criminal Law. — Rev. 
J. Davison. Works, p. 459* 

Art. 10, p. 180. Childe Harold.— 
Mr. Geo. Ellis. 



t BrroneottslT ascribed to B^ 
Scott in Loekbart's lifb UmrW^ 



J844.] Litl of Contributors to the Quarterly Sepiew. 



Art. 12, p. 382. Warburton.— Dr. 
T. D. Whitaker. 

(Vide G€nt. Magazine.) 

Art. 2, p. 265. RoBcoe on Reform. 
—Earl of Dadley. 

Art. 7, p. 313. Home Tooke.— Earl 
of Dudley. 

(Vide Lord Dudley's Letters and 
Quar. Rev. No. 133, p. 97, 3cc.) 

Art 8, p. 329. Tales of Fashionable 
Life.— Mr. Gifford. 

(Vide Crabbe's Works, vol. iv. p. 
79.) 

Art. 16, p. 441. Markland's Euri- 
pides. — Peter Elmsley. 

(Vid. Penny Cyclop, vol. ix. p. 368.) 

Art. 11, p. 200. Lay Baptism. 

(This article is supposed to be written 
by Bp. Heber, as he wrote and, I be- 
lieve, published a defence of it.) 



Art. 1, p. 1. National Education. — 
Mr. Canning. 

(Vid. Life of Canning in Fisher's 
Gallery of Portraits.) 

Art. 4, p. 65. Davy's Chemical Phi- 
losophy. — Dr. T. Young. 

(Vid. loc. cit.) 

Art. 3, p. 302. Gustavus IV. — Bp. 
Heber. 

(Vide his Life, vol. i. p. 339.) 

Art. 4, p. 319. Poor Laws. — Mr. 
Southey. 

(Republished in his Essays.) 

Art. 6, p. 374. Lichtenstein's Travels. 
— Sir John Barrow. 

(Vid. his art. "Africa," Encyclo- 
pedia Britan. 7th edit.) 

VOL. IX. 

Art. 1 1, p. 207. Rogers's Poems. — 
Earl of Dudley. 

Art 3, p. 313. Wakefield and Fox. 
—Earl of Dudley. 

(Vid. his Letters and Quart Review, 
No. 133, p. 96.) 

Art. 6, p. 89* Baron de Grimm. — 
Mr. Merivale. 

(Vide Moore's Byron, vol. iii. p. 9.) 

Art 8, p. 125. Artificial Memory. — 
R. J. Wilmot, esq. 

(Vide his Life, vol. i. p. 391.) 

Art. 10, p. 162. Clarke's Travels.— 
Bp. Heber. 

(Vid. Byron's Works, vol. xvi. p. 48.) 

Art. 1, p. 265. British Fisheries.— 
Sir John Barrow. 

(VhI. Ji 



139 



Art. 13, p. 466. Blackall on Drop- 
sies. — ^Dr. T. Young* 

(Vid. loc. cit) 

Art. 15, p. 480. Bridal of Trier- 
main^— Mr. G. Ellis. 

(Vide Lockhart's Life of Scott, 2d 
edit., vol. iv. p. 60.) 

VOL. X. 

Art. 4, p. 57* Grimm's Correspond- 
ence. — Mr. Merivale. 

(Vid. Byron's Works, loc. cit ) 

Art. 5, p. 90. History of Dissenters. 
— Mr. Southey. 

Art. 5, p. 409* Lives of Bossuet and 
Fenelon. — Mr. Southey. 

Art. 3, p. 331 . Lord Byron's Giaour. 
—Mr. G. Ellis. 

(Vide Byron's Works, vol. ix. p. 
158.) 

Art. 10, p. 353. De I'Allemagne.— 
Bp. Heber. 

(Vid. Life, vol. i. p. 482.) 

Art. 12, p. 250. Adelung's Hbtory 
of Languages. — Dr. Young. 

Art. 6, p. 427* Goethe on Colours. — 
Dr. Young. 

(Vid. Brande's Jour. loc. cit) 

Art. 1, p. 301. Patronage. — Earl of 
Dudley. 

(Vid. Q. R. No. 133, p. 90.) 

VOL. XI. 

Art 3, p. 42. On Light. — Dr. Young. 

Art 14, p. 203. Bancroft on Colours. 
—Dr. Young. 

Art 4, p. 313. Davy's Agricultural 
Chemistry.— Dr. Young. 

Art 16, p. 347. Adams on the Eye. 
— Dr. Young. 

(Vid. Brande's Journal, loc. cit.) 

Art. 6, p. 78* Montgomery's Poems. 
—Mr. Southey. 

Art. 11, p. 428. The Corsair, &c.— 
Mr. Geo. Ellis. 

(Vid. Byron's Works, vol. ix. p. 3 1 1 , 
and vol. x. p. 45.) 

Art 7, p. 354. Waverley.— Mr. Gif- 
ford. 

(Vid. Scott's Life, vol. v. p. 150.) 

Art. 9, p. 399. Grimm's Correspond- 
ence.— Mr. Merivale. 



Art 1, p. 1. Flinders 's Voyage.— Sir 
John Barrow. 

Art. 4, p. 90. Wells on Dew.— Dr. 
Young. 

Art 7, p. 146. The Poor. — Mr. 



MO IM 

(Tii, CnMc'A Wodka» wwL w.f. 9iu> 
Aft S» Du loa W«fdavovtk'ft Es- 

Vfoid^wf^tih ATX to md iL" VMe 
Utttn o# C. Uab, p. }23.> 

Art. II* p. 239. BooMpntc— J.W. 
Cf)»lccr> 

Art. 3, p. 309. Gibboo.— Dr. Wliit. 
alter* 

(Viae Uic of Gibbott. bf MUmb. 
fstroJactioB, pogt 5.) 

Art. 9. P' SOL G«7 
Mr.Ofibrd. 

rou XIII. 

Art. 11, p. 193. Wraxali's Mc 
-^3. W. Crofccr. 

Art. 3, p. 340. Manli'i Horn Mm- 
pear — U90 f oocoio. 

Art. 17, p. SI 5. Lifeof Wdliiigtoii. 
—Mr. Sooflief. 

Art. 9# p. 449. Uk of WeHiogtoo. 
—Mr. Soothey. 

TOL. ziv. 

Art. 1, p. 285. Cailodeo IV^iert.— 
8ir W. Scott. 

Art. 9, p. ISS. Emaui.— Sir W. 
8coU. 

(Vido Lilc of Scoa, vol. 7# p. 4, nd 
MIk. Frote Work*, vol. 20, p. 1.) 

Art. 6, p. 120. Mendicity.— Mr. 
Sooibey* 

(Repobliehcd.) 

Art. 4, p. 96. Hermct ScythioM.— 
Dr, YooDg. 

Art. 3, p. 63. BooBaparte.— J. W 
Cfokor, 

Art. 10, p. 513. The Elgin Marbles. 
.-J, W. Croker. 

Art. 3, p. 368.— De Homboldt'f 
Trafek.— Sir J. Barrow. 

(Vide Byron's Works, vol. 16, p. 
53.) 

Art 10, p. 201. Wordsworth's 
White Doe.^Mr. Oiflbrd. 

TOL. XV. 

Art. 8, p. 187. The Poor.— Mr. 
Soathey. 

Art. 12, p. 537. Works on England. 
—Mr. ftouthey. 

(Both these essays were re-pnb- 
iished by Mr, Soutbey.) 

Art. 9. p. 236. Malcolm's Persia.^ 
Bp. Heber. 

(Vide hU Life by Mrs. H.) 



i^a^ 




(Viae Works» pu 337. 

Art. S, A. ISS. TW 

Mr. 



TOL. XTl. 

Art. a. PL 199. XoiA West 
nge.— Sir John Barrow. 

(Viaehia'-Mi ~ / 

Art. 9. p. 17t. CUde 
Sir Walter Scott. 

Art. a, PL 430. Talea af mj 





(Viae hia Life, 
Ptroae Works, wriL I9> F- 1 ; 
Walter explains the reasos 
reviewed his own work.) 

Art. II, p. tlS. 
fors.^Mr. Soathcy._ 

Aft. 10, p. 511. 
tioo^— Mr. SoQthey. 

(Both these eesayi wcfo repabliakcd 
by Mr. Soothey.) 

Art 10, p. 208. BwMnparte^— J. 
W. Croker. 

Art 9, pu 480. Buonaparte.— J. W. 
Croker. 

(Froas Beport) 

▼OL. XYII. 

Art 7» p. 160. Clarke's Traiekir- 
Mr. Soathey. 

Art 11, p. 960. France, by L^y 
Morgan. — ^J. W. Croker. 

Art. 9, p. 506. Answer to Mr. 
Warden.— J. W. Croker. 

(Bapart.) 

Art. 9, p. 229. IVroa. Voyag. da 
Oecaovert^. — Sir J. Barrow. 

VOL. xvxii. 

Art 1, p. 1. Lope de Vega«— Mr* 

Soathey. 

(Vide Crabbe's Works, voL 2, p. 50 
Art 1, p. 261. Poor Laws.— Mr. 

Soutbey. 
Art. 4, p. 99* History of BraziL— 

Bp. Heber. 

(Vide his Life, vol. 1, p. 482.) 
Art. 7, p. 423. Military Bridfca.— 

Sir W. Scott 
(Vide Scott's Life, voL 4, p, 121.) 
Art 13, p. 502. Kirkton's History of 

the Church of Scotland.— S'ur W.Soott 
(Vide Misc. Phise Works, vol. 19f 

p* 213.) 



1844.] 



Lht qf Contributors to the Quarterly Hevkw* 



141 



Art. 6, p. 135. De Humboldt's 
Trmvela.— Sir J. Barrow. 

Art* l], p, 199- Norkbern PassRge. 
— Sir J. Barrow, 

(Vide Bl&ckwood's Mag^vol. 5, p. 
152.) 

Art. 8, p. 431. Burney: Bearing's 
Strait. — Sir J, Barrow. 

Art. 4, p. 335. Tlie Congo Expedi- 
tioD. 

(This article was compiled from 
documents sent over by Mr, Salt. 
Vide Life of Mr, Salt, vol. 1, p. 492.) 

Art. 12, p. 223. Panorama d'An- 
gleterre.— J. W. Croker. 

Art. 13, p. 229- Life of Watson, 
Bp. of Llandaf.— Dr. T. D. Whitaker. 

(Vide Tate's Mag. No. 10, p. 688.) 



Art, 1, p. 1« Evelyn's Memoirs, — 
Mr, Soathey, 

(Vide Hone's Lives of Eminent 
Christiana.) 

Art, 3, p, 79* Means of iroprovtng 
the People. — Mr, Sonthey, 

(Republished.) 



Art, 5, p, 131. Russia.— Bp. Ikber* 

(Vide Life, voL I, p, 486.) 

Art. 9, p. 215. Childc Harold.— 
Sir W. Scott, 

(Vide Prose Works, vol. 17, p. 
337.) 

Art. 14, p. 492. Education Com- 
mittee,— Dr. Monk, Bp. of Glouces- 
ter* 

Art. 4, p, 188. Horace Walpole.— 
J. W. Croker. 

Art. 5, p. 357. Small Fox and Vac- 
cination. — Dr. Uwini* 

(Vide Memoir in Gent. Mag.) 

Art, 6, p. 178. Light's Travels in 
Egypt ; and 

Art. 8, p. 39K Antiquities of Egypt. 

(These two articles were compiled 
from documents sent over by Mr. Salt. 
Vide Life of Salt, vol. 1 , p, 492.) 

Art. 12, p. 250. Bellamy's Tran- 
slation of the Bible *, and 

Art, II, p. 446. Bellamy's Reply.— 
Mr, Goodhugb, author of Motives to 
the study of Biblical Literature, 

(Vide Gent. Magazine,) 
(To U cottliimerf.) 



80IIS PARTietriAES RSSPKCTIKO THS BK0LI8B ICCLlSIASTICAl COVRTB* 
(Contmuwl/rom p, 40.) 



BUT a clearer view may be obtained 
by ciaraining this Jurisdiction more in 
detaiL 

Its two grand departments, com- 
prising various sub-divisions, were 
and are causes of office (or correction) 
and of instance, the former being 
necessarily In the criminal, and the 
tatter in the civil form. Besides these, 
however, there were also certain other 
caoses which partook of the character 
of both, or, in the language of eccle- 
siastical law, were cau»iB criminaks 
dvilitfr intentatiB, 

I will begin with the criminal juris- 
diction, to which both clerks and laics 
were equally subject. These causes 
were instituted in three modes, viz. 
by inquisition, accusation^ or denun- 
ciation. The first Is a proceeding ex 
mero officio t where the bishop or ordi- 
nary, having discovered a flagrant 
offender within his diocese, of his own 
mere motion cites him into his court 
to answer for the crime. The second 
is the every-day process of modern 
times, the voluntary promotion of the 

dms'sofficc by any individual residing 



within the diocese, and answers to 
the indictment at common law. The 
last is the presentment of an offender 
at the ecclesiastical visitation, which, 
though repealed by a late statute in 
the case of a clergyman, is i»till in 
some degree lo use m regard to the 
laity.* The subject matter of the 
criminal jurisdiction is comprised m 
any sin or olFence against the general 
morality and public decency of the 
nation, but which is not at the same 
time of so heinous a character as to 
entirely unhinge the foundations of 
human society, like murder, thef^, or 
homicide, ficcf In laics the Church 
took cognisance of and punished in- 
continence, adultery, perjury, defama- 
tion, usury* violent laying of hands on 
clerks, brawling id a church or church- 
yard, drunkenness, blasphemy, absence 
from church on Sundays or holidaya, 
heresy, &c.| In clerks a aimiUr juris- 

• 3 and 4 Vict. c. 86. 

in the circumgpecie agatis, lib. 2, tit. 2» 
I OttghtoDj Ord. Judicior, de causb, tit. 



142 



JRise tmdProgre^ of the EccUnutieal Courts. 



[Feb. 



diction obtained with more competent 
powers of punishment, for the ordinary 
conid admonish, suspend, depose, or 
deprive, as the offence might deserve 
in his opinion, and according to his 
interpretation of the law. The cen- 
sures to which laymen were subject 
were, with the solitary exception of 
heresy, admonition or corporal pe- 
nance onlv. By the strict canon 
laws the judge was forbidden to impose 
a pecuniary fine for a spiritual offence, 
or commute a sin for the imyment of 
a sum of money. Sometning of this 
kind would appear to have been done 
in Saxon times,* and the custom 
certainly prevailed in this country for 
a long period after the establish- 
ment of the ecclesiastical courts, and 
the permanent introduction of the laws 
of Rome. The Church, however, at 
all times properly and consistently 
disapproved of the practice, though 
recognized and declared legal by the 
common law under certain regulations. 

Pope Alexander III. prohibited such 
a practice in a rescript to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, on the latter 
having informed him that the arch- 
deacons of the diocese of Coventry 
within his province were accustomed 
to exact "panam ptcuniariam" from 
clerks and laymen for their crimes and 
excesses, and he directs him to compel 
^e observance of his injunction by 
the censures of the Church.f 

The ctrcttnupec/e agatiB of Edward I. 
approves of this custom of inflicting a 
pecuniary punishment, but makes this 
distinction, that a plea of the nature 
before referred to shall be allowed in 
the court Christian only, " dummodo 
ad correeiionem peecati agatur, et wm 
petalur pecunia." The meaning of 
this is that the action shall be insti- 
tuted against the offender for penance 
on the suggestion of an alleged breach 
of good morals, and not for the re- 
covery of damages for a loss sustained 
owing to the conduct of the defendant 
as in the case of defamation. 

This famous statute, with a sense 
of even-handed justice which would 

4. Ayliffe*« Parergon, Lend. 1734, p. 
238. 

* I allude to the lecherwite orlegergeld. 
Gen. IntrodactioD to Domesday, pp. 154, 
158. Godolf. c. 34, $ 11. 

t Decret. Greg. 9, lib. 5, tit 37, c. 3. 



find warm admirers in a slave state 
of modern times, recommends that 
penance shall be commuted in all cases, 
" si convictus fuerit hujusmodi liber 
howu>" The remarks of the learned 
commentator Lyndwoode evince a 
rational disgust at the subject of his 
gloss. Commutation of penance was 
also approved of by the Articuli Cleri. 
9£dw. II. c. 4. 

There were, moreover, causes of 
office instituted against the parish- 
ioners or churchwardens of a parish, 
for neglecting to repair a church, and 
supply it with the requisites for divine 
service, or for not walling or fencing- 
in the churchyard, Acc.^ 

Suits for heresy, or rather, as they 
were always termed, for heretical de- 
pravity, {cau9€e herttictt pravitatis,) 
were never instituted in the Court of 
Bishop before 2 Hen. IV. c. 15. Be- 
fore that statute was passed it was 
required that the convention should 
take place at a general convocation of 
the whole province.§ In regard to this 
proceeding a common error prevails 
that the mere expression of an heretical 
or schismatlcal opinion, or the per- 
formance of any act bearing that neces- 
sary construction, made the offender 
liable to the extreme censure of the 
law. But this was not the case, for 
if tlie party confessed the crime ob- 
jected to him, and signed and read his 
recantation, he was dismissed, after 
admonition, ex debito justitise. It was 
only in the case of the firm or obstinate 
heretic who eoninmaciouily adhered to 
his erroneous sentiments, and con- 
sequently refused to recant, that the 
ecclesiastical judge was compelled to 
ceKify that circumstance to the sheriff 
in whose hands the execution of the 
law remained. The sentence of the 
court merely found him guilty of the 
crime, and delivered him over to the 
secular arm. It prescribed no form or 
modification of punishment, and the 
guilt or responsibility would rest with 
the lay officers of uie crown, who, 
however, only obeyed the directions of 
the common law, in burning the con- 
victed person. II 

( A7liffe*8 Parergon, p. 238. 

$ Bracton de Corona, lih. 3, c. 9, fo. 1 24. 
Edit. Tottell, 1569. 

I A deacon was convicted of apostasy, 
*'pro uftdam Judea," at the oouiidl 



1844.] 



Rise and Progress of the Ecclesiasttcaf Courti* 



143 



I 



I 



The next and most important de- 
partment consists of civil causes. And 
these may be classed as pccuniar^^ 
matrimonial, and testamentary. The 
first subdivision comprises suits for 
church rate, tithes^ and for the sub- 
traction of any fee or property belong- 
ing to theChtirch/for which no action 
would lie at common law.* The 
matrimonial suits arc subdivided in 
the following manner, according to 
the difference of the remedy sought by 
the applicant : divorce or separation, a 
mensa et toro, on the ground of cruelty 
or adultery on the part either of the 
husband or the wife ; the restitution of 
conjugal rights where the one of thcra 
has causelessly abandoned the other ; 
aodj lastly, questions regarding the 
nullity of the contract* by reason 
of an impeditive physical or civil 
cause. 

The testamentary jurisdiction of the 
Church may be classed under two 
heads, viz, the enterlainment of suits 
ill respect of last wills, which is tech- 
nically denominated the " probaiio 
Mlemnis per tesfen,** and for the re- 
covery of legacies of personal estate ; 
and secnndly, the power of granting 
probate of a will in common form to 
an executor, and letters of adminis- 
tration of the goods of an intestate to 
the next of kin> 

With regard to the first-mentioned 
division of the testamentary jurisdic- 
tion, there is no doubt but tt was in- 
troduced with the other departments 
of the ecclesiastical law at the epoch 
ot the Conqueror's statute^ and was 
not assumed by the English Church at 
a lubsequent period, as the other 
division certainly was.f But for a 
further illustration of this subject I 
beg to refer the indulgent reader to 
some articles inserted a few years back 
in this Magazine, in which I gave 
an analysis of the particular circum- 
stances, accompanying the rise and 

eelebr&ted by Stephen Laagton, the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury I and^ a(ter having 
been degraded by his own bishop, ** statim 
fuit i|^ai traditus per manum lajcalem." 

• Godolph. edit. 1G7H, London, C* 40, 
p. r.G2. 

t Gtanville, Tractatus de Lcgibus ct 
Cnusuelndinibiis regwi Angliic, edit. 
1604» lib. 7, c, «. Braclon, lik ^, 
c, !2tj. Eilit. TottcH, irm, Fleta, lib. 
3,e. f.7. 



de veto pern en t of the Testamentary 

Jurisdiction.^ 

There is, however, a branch of prac- 
tice connected with the leatamentary 
jurisdiction not mentioned in those 
articles, and the existence of which 
can he clearly demonstrated, but would 
Ficarcely be suspected by the modern 
reader/ It is the recovery of debta 
on certain occasions. For a long 
period actions of this nature were 
instituted nnlciy in the Ecclesiastical 
Courts whenever the debt in question 
formed part of the estate of a deceased 
persoUjOrwhen, on thecontrary, it con* 
stituted a charge upon it, being in the 
one case at the suit of the executor or 
administrator, and in the other of a 
creditor of the deceased. It was com- 
pulsory on the former to com mence pro* 
cecdings for this purpose in the spiritual 
courts, as it was at the same time equally 
incumbent upon him to submit to them 
if brought against himself by a creditor, 
without either party being permitted 
to invoke the aid or interference of the 
secular courts in the shape of a pro- 
hibition. 

It will lessen our surprise that the 
Church should have once asserted the 
cognizance of debts, if w^e consider the 
fact that, in the early age of the eccle- 
siastical jurisdiction, unless the executor 
had recourse to the Court Christian he 
would have no means whatever of re- 
covering any debt due to his testator. 
For the common law at first gave to 
him, qua executor, no remedy at alL 
The character of executor, either testa- 
mentary or dative, was unknown to 
our municipal law, and he could there- 
fore have 00 persona standi in its courts* 
One was the creation, as the other was 
the eltve and foster child, of the canon 
law. 

Before the jurisdiction was narrowed 
by the encroachments of the common 
law, the ecclesiastical tnbuDals, as 
having the entire and unlimited ad- 
ministration of a deceased's personal 
estate, necessarily, and without in- 
fringement on the rights of the latter, 
embraced certain questions of debt ; 
for without them they could scarcely 
be said to afford to suitors that effective 



X See the nmnbers for April wad May 
\H?.9f and December 1H;I!), on the TciiLa* 
ttientary Jurifldiction of th« EcclcsiaKticiul 
Courts, and the Archbishop's Prerogative, 



144 



RUe Mi Progren of the ScdetioHieid QmrU. [fek 



relief which had been contemplated by 
the legislature, when it assigBed the 
testamentary jurisdiction into the hands 
of the Church. This power belonged 
to the Ecclesiastical Conrts by a fair 
conttmction of the original provisions 
of Magna Charta. 

Bat the institution of an action of 
this nature, generally and irrespect- 
Wely of the administration of a «fe- 
aoMed't estate, was invariably and 
upon all occasions discountenanced by 
the common-law judges, as trenching 
too largely on their exclusive province, 
without, as they might consider, a 
sofficient shew of reason or practical 
utility for the attempted usurpation. 
The damages, which the jealousv of 
those conrts in a case of this kind 
constantly awarded to the individual 
who from being the defendant in the 
preceding action had now changed 
sides and become himself the plaintiff 
by obtaining the writ of prohibition, 
furnished a discomfited litigant with 
•nch ample means of retaliating upon 
his hitherto victorious adversary, that 
we can hardly wonder at the frequency 
of the applications, sometimes just, and 
more often the reverse, which appear 
inthecommon- law records of the times. 

In these cases the prohibition was 
granted on the suggestion that the suit 
entertained in the Ecclesiastical Court 
was concerning chattels which do not 
relate to a will or marriage.* 

A distinction was subsequently in- 
troduced which allowed a debtor to 
sue tn foro eccleria$tico under certain 
circumstances only, notwithstanding 
his debt might rank under the general 
definition twfore given. 

The earliest author in whose pages 
we find an enumeration of these re- 
stricted cases is FIcta. He nays, "A 
testator cannot by his will dispose of 
his actions for debt upon which he 
bad not obtained judgment in his life- 
time. If, however, he had so obtained 
Judgment on them, they are to be con- 
sidered ta bom$ tntatoris, and belong 
to the executors in foro ifcrlwaMiiro, 
The mere right of action he has no 
powerto dispose of, and it consenuentlv 
accrues to tne next of kin, to wliom it 



* Abbreviatio Pladtomm, vol. V. p. 
107. 25 Hen. III. and iMMtlm. ••CatdU 
quK non sunt de testamento vel matri- 
monio.** 

4 



is competent to institute the neeetaary 
proceedings in foro »eemUn."f 

This refinement appears to have 
been the prelude to the decline and 
extinction of this portion of the juris- 
diction of the Church. 

The following are a few instaoces 
shewing the exercise of thisjurisdictkm 
at an early period. In 28 Hen. III. 
the ofilcial of Exeter cited the abbot 
of Forde as the executor of Robert de 
Courtenay, aneiaritaie orHmrim, into 
his court to answer to certain creditors 
of that deceased. The King thereupoa 
prohibited the ofilcial from compeUiug 
the abbot "ad reddendum aliia cre- 
ditoribus debita quae debuit," until he 
should have made payment of a debt 
which the deceased owed to tiie king 
himself. The writ adds, " nisi con- 
stiterit quod catalla prcdicti Roberti» 
quae sunt praedicto abbati, satisfadant 
ad solutionem aliorum et nostrorum."{ 

In 43 Hen. III. a like pro^bition 
issued against the archdeacon and 
ofilcial of York, " ne fratrem Gilbertnm 
de Leyscton monachum et alios ex- 
ecu tores testamenti WalterideLeyseloa 
quondam vicecomitis Lincoiniss, vexent 
occasione bonorum dicti Wiilielmr, 
neque de eisdem bonis placitum in curia 
Christianitatis teneant (joonsque per 
ipsos executorcs regi fuerit satiaiactum 
de debitis ^use regi dcbuit."$ 

This jurisdiction endured for some 
time ; for we find in 1319« in the 
articles of agreement between the 
archbishop of Canterbury and the 
bishop of Lincoln, that it still existed 
as an essential and ordinary incideut 



t Fleta, lit. «, c. 57, p. 136, edit. 168*. 
Testator autem actiones suas legare noa 
potest, eo qaod actiones debitoirom noa 
fuerint cognitae neqoe convietaB in vitA 
testatoris, sed hujusmodi actiones com- 
petuDt haeredibus. Cum autem convicte 
fuerint, vel recognitae, tunc sunt quasi la 
bonis testatoris, et competunt execatorihos 
in foro ecclesiastico. Si autem oompetant 
luefedibns, at praedictum est, in fiiro 
seculari debent terminari, quia aataquaa 
convincantur et in foro debito, non per- 
tfaiet ad executores, ut in foro ecdeslasrifo 
convincantur. 

X Madox*s History and Antiouities of 
the Exchequer of the Kings of Englaadv 
edit. 17 11 , p. 663. (Ex memor. S8 Hen. 
in. Rot. 4 b. chap. S3.) 

I lb. Ex memor. 43 Hen. IIL BoC 
14 a. 



1844.] RUe and Profftess of ike Ecckswikal Courts, 



145 



of the general ecclesiastical judicature. 
ITic bishop of Lincoln asserted a claim 
for "cognicjoncs causarum rjuae per 
creditorcs vel legatarios, vel quos* 
cunque alius qucretantes contra execu^ 
/or«yj testa men to rum htijusmodi pro 
bonis pnccipue hujasmodi decedeDttum 
in sua civitatc vel diocesi exist- 
entibus/'* 

But the exclusion of the testamentary 
executor from the common -law courta 
began at length to be gradual I jr re- 
laxed. In Fleta'ft time, (viz. probably 
about the begioniog of the reign of 
Edw. III.) his representative character 
had already been recognized there in 
some instances. He says, ** Per- 
missum est tamen quod executores 
agant ad solutionem in foro seculari 
aliquando/' 

But even when the immediate 
executor was placed on the fiame foot- 
ing that he stands on at the present 
time, the executor of an executor was 
not permitted to sue or be sued in the 
King's court, until 1352. (23Edw, tlL) 
The latter was then put in a similar 
position in regard to all questions 
concerning the estate of the remote 
testator. And in 1357, (31 Edw.III.) 
the administrator or executor dative 
had the same advantages and re- 
sponsibilities "en la Court h Roi*' 
extended to him also. 

After these enactments, it appears 
to have become a rule of law that the 
Ecclesiastical Court should not try a 
debt of any nature, and that, as the 
subject could obtain his remedy at 
common law. he had therefore no right 
to proceed for relief in the ecclesiastical 
forum; andj accordingly, prohibitions 
were awarded on that auggestton alone 
without any further question or demur. 

But even so late as the reign of 
Henry V. we find by a complaint of 
the Commonsj that the Ecclesiastical 
Court still endeavouiC'd as of old to 
exercise this partial sort of jurisdiction 
over matters of debt, though scarcely 
with the good will or for the benefit 
of the nation, if wc may give full 
credence to the querulous statements 
of its representatives in parliament. 

The consistent and persevering 
practice, however, which this petiiiou 
shews, may lead one to suppose that 
flic Ecclesiastical Courts were not at 
all willing to relinquiah this branch of 

• Se« No. for December 1839. 
GifiT. Mao, Vol. XXI, 



their ancient judicature, nor, as long 
as resistance could avail, to succumb 
to the attacks of their common-law 
rivals on a point of authoritVr which 
they had in former ages possessed in 
perfect and unmolested tranquillity, 
as an undoubted incident of their ad- 
ministrative power ; and which, though 
gradaally overruled by their opponents, 
had never been expressly repealed by 
an act of the legislature. 

The petition or bill to which I 
allude was presented by the Commons 
in the second year of the reign of 
Henry the Vth. (1414.) and seta forth, 
that *' diverse liege subjects of the king 
ore from day to day cited into the 
Courts Christian, to answer to divers 
persons as well of things touching 
frank tenement, debt, trespass, cove- 
nant, and others of which the co- 
nusance belongs to the courts of the 
King, as of matrimony and testament/^ 

«cc.t 

This jurisdiction appears to have 
soon after died a natural death, for 
in 1443, (vir. thedateof the commission 
of Alexander ProwettJ we find no re* 
ference whatever made to it. J 

On the Continent, the authority of 
the Ecclesiastical Court was made 
ancillary to the recovery of an ordi- 
nary debt, in a manner which does 
not appear at any lime to have been 
ventured upon in this country* On 
the neglect or refusal of the debtor to 
satisfy the demand of his creditor, the 
latter applied to the court of the 
bishop of the diocese, who forthwith 
entertained the suit on a new and 
entirely ciifferent principle, viz. by 
viewing the nor>payment of the debt in 
the light of a conatruclive breach of 
conscience or morality ♦ The court 
accordingly, considering its jurisdic- 
tion well founded on this latter ground, 

t Rotuli Parlittttient. toL IV. p. IS, 
No* 5. '* Item priont les communes q' 
come divcrses lieges n'rc S'r le Uoi sont 
citees de jour en autre d'apparoir en 
Court ChriBtienne dc¥ttunt joges espiri- 
tueux, ay respondre as diversea persones 
si bien dca cbosca q' touchant franc 
tenement, dctte, trespasses, covenaunts 
ct autresdcsqutniela conusance app*tieiit 
al court n're S'r le Roi, come dc matri- 
monie et tcituineiit ct quand tieux 
personcs iisiot dteea nppicrgent ct de- 
mondent on libel de ceo que lacr est 
eurmys/* 9iC, ike. 

1 Sec No. for Pccember 1839, 
U 



146 



Riti and Progresi of the Eccksiaslieal Courts. 



[Feb. 



first monished the debtor to comply 
with the demand in question, if justice 
required it, and on his contumaciously 
persisting in his former refusal, pro- 
ceeded to fulminate its spiritual terrors 
in the usual manner upon the recusant, 
who would without further question, 
after the lapse of forty days from the 
sentence of excommunication, be at- 
tacked by the powers of the secular 
arm, and detained in confinement 
until his contempt were fully absolved, 
which could only be accomplished by 
means of the due discharge of the 
principal claim and all its conse- 
quential expenses.* 

We have no evidence to shew that 
this side way of prosecuting an in- 
dividual in the Ecclesiastical Court, 
for a debt of a purely secular nature, 
ever prevailed, or was even attempted 
in this country. 

Yet a nearly analogous process was 
certainly established here, by which 
the performance of a sworn contract or 
any engagement that one of the parties 
had omitted to fulfil was compelled 
under the form of a suit for perjury 
or keiio Jidei, ostensibly instituted for 
the moral punishment only of the 
ofiender. 

Much of the equity of the modern 
Court of Chancery was at first ad- 
ministered by the ecclesiastical consis- 
tories, and in many cases it should 
seem to have been not merely the 
result of a concurrency of jurisdiction, 
but to have been the subject matter 
of the ecclesiastical tribunal alone, the 
equity of which was then of a wider 
range, and of more extended powers, 
than it has now long since possessed 
or asserted. 

In the infancy of the Court of 
Chancery, a complete equitable juris- 
diction upon a variety of matters was, 
for want of an opposing claimant. 
Tested in the Ecclesiastical Courts, 
from which, on the rise of the former 
into more general power and utility, 
it was at length transferred, until in 
modern times but scanty traces of it 
are found to exist. 



* Dticsnge, sub voce Excommun. &c. 
Decret. Greg. 9, lib. 9, tit. 3, c. 24. 
Ad surei nostras ])erveniite novens quod 
cnm C. de Senevilla propter pecuniain 
quam debebat vincalo fnisset excommnni- 
cationia adstrictus, creditoribus satis- 
feccrit/' «tc. &c. 



The term liBsio fldei, the foundation 
upon which this ample jurisdiction 
reposed, was sufficiently comprehensive 
to embrace all breaches of conscience, 
which, accordingly, of whatever quality 
or degree they might be, were com- 
bated or relieved by the equity of the 
Courts Christian. 

The necessity for the existence of 
such a tribunal will require no apology 
in these days, when it is so well 
known that the common law, from its 
more confined and literal character, 
has neither the power nor the incli- 
nation in many cases to afford to the 
suitor a due remedy for his grievance. 

The ecclesiastical judge, therefore, 
claimed a jurisdiction in all cases of 
oath and solemn promise, or what 
in common equity assimilates thereto, 
viz. a promise or agreement of any 
nature obtained without fraud or force, 
and resting on mutually fair and just 
considerations. 

Lyndewode gives us a lucid state- 
ment of the mode of proceeding in 
this cause of Unto fldei, in order to 
avoid the obstacle of prohibitions 
which in his time had begun to at* 
sail it. 

A. libels against B. that the latter 
by interposition of his faith, or by 
his oath in some other manner, pro- 
mised and bound himself to A., that 
on such a day he would pay, Ace.; 
but afterwards, minu$ canonice, refused 
to fulfil his promise, in violation of 
his oath, which, by the divine and 
canon laws he is bound to perform, 
under pain of mortal sin ; wherefore 
the complainant prays that, on proof 
of the fact, the judge will decree and 
compel the defendant to observe hia 
promise and engagement, by means of 
canonical censures. f 

By this method of proceeding, the 
complainant not only procured the 
infliction of a suitable penance upon 
his opponent for the sin which he had 
committed, but also obtained a civil re- 
medy of a more gratifying kind, in the 



t Lindwood, lib. 5, tit. 15, De poenia. 
It was sometimes called fidei transgressio 
(id.) and also interpositio fidei. Docange, 
sub voce " Curia Chriscianitatis.*' Where 
an oath had been Uken by the defendant, 
the cause was more properly styled one 
of perjury, but the terms were frequently, 
if not generally, confounded. 



)844.] Rite end Progreta of the EccleiiatHcal Courlt. 



147 



I 

I 



I 



computsory fulfilment of his promise or 
obligiitioo, satiefaction of the wrong 
beiDg, accordiog to the canoos^ a ne- 
cessary and essential accompaniment 
of penance. On this broad saggesttoo 
of breach of faithi the ecclesiastical 
judge also exercised the power of re- 
vising all tinconscionabie contracta 
and transactions, although otherwise 
in no way connected with the juria- 
diction of the Church.* 

We have a record of a suit of this 
kind which occurred in the second 
year of the reign of King John. The 
circumstances which attended it were 
as follows : — Eborard of Binctnc hav- 
ing made an extortionate bargain^ or 
rather an unfair exchange of an estate 
with his brother Herbert, the tatter, 
on discovering the cheat, forthwith 
instituted a suit pro leesiom Jidei in 
the Court Christian, to compel a re- 
storation of the land in question, or 
at least to recover a fair and equitable 
compensation for it. Though the 
other party obtained a prohibition on 
the uaual suggestion that the Eccle- 
siastical Court had to his prejudice 
entertained a suit *' de laico ftodo 
suo,** the courts of common law re- 
fused to interfere, and the suit in the 
Ecctesiaaticat Court was allowed to 
proceed without further interrnption 
or cessation. t 

In the same manner in the 25th year 
of the reign of Henry the Third, Adam 
of Kaokeberg impleaded in the Court 
Christian William the chaplain of 
Newton, on the g^round of his having 
violated a certain composition or 
agreement formerly made between 



* Thia ■nit to obtdn a debt was after- 
ward i totally prohibited. See Year-book 
n Edw. IV. ^i<J6, Wright p. Wright 
(Gwillim on Tithea, p. Iti9) : ** If I owe 
one 10/. and swear to pay him by s certain 
dsy» sQd upon thut he sues me in the 
fpirilual court /wo l^sione JiHci, a pro- 
mbitiou ttes, for he may have sn nctioa of 
debt Ai^iast me for thi* at common law.** 

t Placit. Abbrev. Rot. 21, 2 Joban. 
** Eborardas de Bine trie queritur quod 
Herebcrtus fniter ejui traxit eum in pla- 
cttum in curia Xianitatis de laico feodo 
iuo contra prohibiciouem ju«tic', dtc. 
Herebertus dicit quod implacitavit eum 
super Ue&ionem fidei sua: de quodam ex- 
cambio terrse qoom Eborardus ei ab«tulit. 
Dies datus* et ioterim remancat placitum 
in evia Christianitatif/' 




them, by which he, the plaintiff, was 
damnified to the extent of twenty 
marks. This suit, the precise nature 
of which does not appear beyond the 
circumstance of its being with a view 
of obtaining a compensation for da- 
mages, was afterwards prohibited oa 
some special grounds, and an action 
was then brought by the chaplaia 
for the same purpose at common 
law. J 

This leads us to the subject of a 
peculiarity in the constitution of the 
Eccleiiastical Courts, which deaervea 
a few observations ; viz. their liability 
to be corrected by prohibitions from 
the Court of Queen's Bench, on 
occasion of their overstepping the 
limits of the jurisdiction assigned to 
them by law. This power was ex- 
pressly reserved to the Crown by the 
ordinance of William I.§ 

At the present time the ecclesiastical 
and secular jurisdictions so well un- 
derstand the eitienl of their respective 
provinces, that an interference of the 
latter with the former is of extremely 
rare occurrence. But, during the 
early period, the case was widely dif- 
ferent. The royal prohibition was 
then a necessary and wholesome re- 
medy against the dangerous capricea 
often exhibited by the Courts Christian 
in refining on the broad and general 
principles of the law which they in- 
culcated. 

As a proof that almost any action 
may be construed into a breach of 
the' morality of which these courts 
have ever been the authorized guard- 
ians and vindicators, the following 
fact is in point:— In 7 Edward 1* Ro- 
bert Pichcford, who had previously 
failed in an action of common law, 
was prompted by the chagrin and 
dissatisfaction which he naturally felt 
from his defeat, to adopt the ingcnioua 
proceeding of a writ for defamation 
in the Ecclesiastical Court against 
the majority {plurimi) of the jurora 
who had returned the verdict which, 
in his opinion, had cast a slur and 
reproach upon his character.fi 

J Placit, Abbrev. Rot. 14, p. 108, 25 
Hen. III. 

$ In the words " Nee liiicus homo 
alium hominem stno justitia cpisctipi ad 
judiciam addncat.** 

II AbbnsT, Placit. Rot. 8, p,S70. ** Eos 



148 



Rise and Progress of the Evclctiastical CouriM* 



[Fdi. 



Wc have do means of knowing 
whether the ecclesiastical judge would 
have taken the same view, and pro- 
malged a sentence in his favour, for 
all further proceedings were stopped 
at an early stage of the suit by a pro- 
hibition, and an action at common 
law was then commenced in turn by 
the jurymen, who recovered damages 
against their former opponent.* 

But the facility of obtaining pro- 
hibitions soon became the source of 
as great evils as that provision of law 
was itaelfintendcd to prevent, exposing 
the church and her ministers to many 
inconveniences, and the suitors to 
much injury. This was the result of 
the misrepresentation or falsehood of 
the suggestions by which the prohi- 
bitions were obtained. When Hum- 
phrey the Archdeacon of Dorset (in 25 
Hen. HI.), cited William of Ericville 
into his consistory to answer a charge 
of adulterous conversation, the latter 
contumaciously absented himself, for 
which the ordinary at first suspended 
him ab ingressu eccle8ia^, and finally 
pronounced a sentence of excommuni- 
cation against him. But the delinquent 
was able for a time to elude the reach 
of justice, by procuring the Arch- 
deacon to be prohibited from proceeding 
farther in the suit, on the pretext that 
he was holding a plea " (ie rapio et 
de pact domini rf git fr acta.*' f 

Another usual pretence on the part 
of the recusant, when a suit for tithes 
had been instituted in the Bishop 
Court by the impoverished incumbent, 
was the suggestion that the ecclesias- 
tical ordinary proceeded "de laico 
feodo," or in the matter of a lay fief. 

In the reign of Henry III. the pro- 
hibitions obtained in this manner, 
from their number and frequency, 
trenched on the autonomy and the 
general spiritual jurisdiction of the 
Church so materially and extensively, 
as both to alarm the fears and excite 
the indisnation of the heads of the 
English Church. In reality, the abuse 
had increased to so high a degree 
that even the establishments of the 



implscitavit pro eo quod ipnum difsms- 
verunt.*' 

• Abbrev. Plsclt. Rot. la U\ dorsu, VV* 
Hen. HI. 

t Abbrev. Plscit, Rot. A, p. l(H>, •! 
patHm, for limikr loit«n€0«« 



consistories, though supported oa tlw 
basis of the Conqueror's ordinaBorp 
were shaken to their foandatioos* mod 
their very existence endangered. 

But, fortunately for the Chiircb» the 
primacy of Canterbury was thcs 
wielded by a prelate of stubborn mod 
uncompromising principles. Bonllmce. 
the archbishop, was, from temper mod 
constitution, pre-emioently ada p t fd to 
meet the turbulent spirit of the tio«. 
as one who was neither disiocUocd 
nor afraid to counteract mn evil by the 
application of a remedy equally severe. 
In 1260 he convened a provincimi 
synod, at which the general grieraoces 
of the Church were fully discussed. 
The assembled clergy, urged by the 
example of their resolute metropolitmn, 
determined on a penal eoactaMOl, 
which, to modem notions, can hardly 
appear in any other light than that c^ 
extreme temerity or arrogance :{ bnt» 
if we regard the fallen and desperate 
state of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction* 
it was, in all probability, the safest 
and most prudent course of policy 
which it was then in their power to 
adopt. The various causes in whidi 
prohibitions were obtained on ficti- 
tious representations and snggestiona 
are thus enumerated in the constita* 
tion passed at this council ; viz. the 
admission of clergymen to vacant 
churches or chapels; the institutioa 
of rectors; the excommunication or 
interdiction of the clergy by their pre- 
lates ; the dedication of churches; the 
celebration of orders ; questions re- 
specting tithes, oblations, or the 
boundaries of a parish ; perjury, trans- 
gression of faith, sacrilege, the viola- 
tion or perturbation of the liberties of 
the Church, especially of those which 
were guaranteed by the royal charters ; 
personal suits or actions of any nature 
between clerks and laymen, llie fines 
and distresses levied upon the bishops, 
in the event of any contumacy or de- 
fault of their inferior clergy, for whoa 
the law considered them responsiUe, 
wound up this series of complaints. 

The antidote to all these evils, pro- 
posed by the metropolitan and his suf- 
uagans, and confirmed by the repre- 
sentative body of the provincial clergy, 
was as harshas the necessities of the 
case seemed to demand. The decrees 



t Uttdwoode, lib. 5» c. U. PePtais, 



1844.] Rise and Protjnss of the Ecclesiastical Courts, 



l'J*» 



of Uic council commenced by providing 
that thencefnrlb no archbishop, bishop, 
or olhor prelate, when summoned an 
merely spiritual matters, should attend 
or obey the mandate of a secalar 
judge, to whom no authority was 
given to adjudicate over the Lord's 
anointed. But, to save the king's 
honour, it was unanimouely agreed 
that, whenever this occurred, the pre- 
late who was moBt intimately con- 
cerned in the transaction should re- 
spectfully inrorni the King in writing 
tliat he could not consislenlly, or 
without danger to his order, obey the 
mandate which had issued in the royal 
name. 

The council then proceeded to make 
a sharp provision against another evil 
of a glaring and oppressive character, 
viz. the practice of giving a fictitious 
description of the merits of a fjuestion 
In order to obtain a probibitiotu ** If 
perchance the King in his attach1Ilentf^, 
prohibitions, or writs of summons, 
bhall have made mention, not of tithes, 
fight of patronage, belied faith or 

f)erjury, but of chattels ; not of sacri- 
ege, or disturbance of the liberties of 
the Church, hut of trespasses of her 
dependants and bailiffs (whose correc- 
tion he asserts to appertain to himselO, 
then in such cases the aforesaid pre* 
latea fchall intimate to him that the 
suita, which they are taking cogni- 
zance of, are not of patronage, chat- 
tels, or matters appertaining to his 
forum, but of tithes, sin, and other 
matters merely spiritual, and apper- 
taining to their office and jurisdiction, 
and to the health of souls, and shall 
admonish and entreat him to desist 
from obstructing them in the pre- 
mises." 

The bishop whose authority had 
been infringed vras required by the 
council to address in person a further 
admonition to the monarch, and, if 
ihii failed of its proposed effect, the 
archbishop of the province, on receiv- 
ing the information from his su^'ragan, 
with the ftsatstance of two or more 
other bishops, or the Bishop of Lon- 
don, with a like number of his brethren, 
fthould visit the King for the purpose 
of giving a further and peremptory 
monition. And if the latter, in spite 
of these remonstrances, still persisted 
in refusing to interfere or discharge 
the attacbmeats aod process com- 



plained of, a decree of excommunica- 
tion and suspension should be issued 
by all the diocesans in whose jurisdic- 
tion the sheriffs, by whom the ob- 
noxious law was enforced, should re- 
side or hold prtjperty. If the sheriffs 
persevered in their course, their resi- 
dences and estates were to be subjected 
to a strict and effective interdict. 

Even here ecclesiastical boldness 
did not slop. In conclusion, the coun- 
cil made a further provision in case 
the King should not command the ob- 
no3(ioU5 process to be stayed. The 
bishops and clergy at large were di- 
rected to lay even the boroughs and 
demesnes of majesty itself under the 
same extensive sentence ; and^ if this 
penultimate proceeding was of no avail, 
all the dioceses of the province of Can- 
terbury were to be involved in one 
general doom of excommunication. 

The extraordinary audecity of this 
synod was well calculated to strike 
terror and dismay into the heart of a 
very large portion of the nation, who 
saw, in a suppression of the rites of 
religion, the hopes of Heaven, held out 
to them by spiritual aid, entirely an- 
nihilated for an indefinitive period of 
time through the captious quarrels of 
the lay tribunals. 

Whatever effect the decrees of this 
council may have had in softening or 
allaying the evil complained of, it is, 
nevertheless, undoubtedly true that 
the contest for jurisdiction continued 
throughout the reigus of every suc- 
ceeding monarch until the time of 
Charles L though never to the extent 
to which it appears to have been car- 
ried during the period I have before 
described. For the disturbed state of 
the kingdom in the reign of Henry HI, 
combined with his own imbecility and 
want of energy, had produced so many 
abuses in the general practice and ad- 
ministration of the law, that the easy 
and groundless procurement of pro- 
hibitions formed but an item in a 
long list, although its effect upon the 
Church, in enabling her enemies to 
evade her censures or openly assault 
her judicial conslitution with perfect 
and unlimited impunit>% w*as in the 
highest degree destructive to her le- 
gitimate interest and powers. 
Dociora' Commons. H. C. C» 

{To be continued 



150 



OMMAMKSnAL PLATE, &C. AT OXXSAO KAU^ 

{09mtmmei/r9m p. 24 J 



A browne ciq>pwitkaeoTer tndaahcr 



On that of tlM ereMl, ti^ rii^t ride of 
tli6 chiiBBfy. 

A fOaed head apQii a pedeatilL 

A ng^vre fnamridf vpoo a pcdutilL 

A rad ladiaa cm with a eotor aad 
Uaefcrim. 

A aMther of peute dicll IB a riher and 
gilt Irme, apoo afigare. 

A gilded hone ia a paciage poataia. 

A hlew flower pott in a nlver and gilt 



A gilded hone in a galloaing poataie. 
A BMfther of peaiie ihell in a illTer and 
gOt ftame, noon a Ague. 

A red Indian cap with a oorer and 

*-■--■ -•-■ ■ 
macK fmu 

A figaia anatadd apoo a pedertalL 

A i^ded head apoa a pedeetall. 

On tiiat lide right againit the chimney. 
Ffrf 5 ihelfii in ecariett ribbia, and 
trimdwfthecaikttribbin. OntheishelfB 
a paiie of cryitall balls, etanding npon 
tStftt feet, trimd with ecari^ libMn. A 
inand bon gilt widi a naggel* in 7* midle 
of T* eorer. A Utie ahell boze for amber, 
•et and enameld. A Chdaj pott, S ihaUs 
of each aide, under the ahalfe an engn^an 
ahea of mother of peaile, wiOi acarlet 
nbUn. 

On the Sd ahelfe. 
A ahdi cap engraven, aet in aa&fer and 
gUt frame, ia j* mid&e ot j* corer a green 



with a tortoia-ahell foot and ooYcr. 
agat diah. A chymicaU ball of i 
ailrer boxe, enamald, for perrome. 



A paire of eriatall bodea. 
An amber capp. A diriafeall balL 
Two gilt boxes with agat ootera. 
Under tiw Sd abelfe a mother of pearia 
■hdl angrafiB, wiUi acarlett ribbin. 

OntiwSdahelfe. 

A difliftaOl ciqp eografan» tet in a ilhrer 
ttd gilt frame. 

A paire of eristaa bodea wiOiiaYer and 
gilt heads. 

An agat cap with aailTer and gilt fraaae. 

A ahell boze with a gilt cover. 

An agat boze with a cover. 

Under the ahelfe a mother of pearia 
ahdl ennaTcn with 8 meremaids, wiUi 
Scarlett mbin* 

Onthe4thshelfe. 
A sheU cap engravea, with ivory handka. 



botle for perfanm with 8 jointB. Astone 
£ah with an handk. A gOt boie with att 

Under thia ahdfe a mo^er of pearie 
aheO, eagnven, widi scariet ribbin. 

On tiM 5th shdfe. 

Acristall ball iqMB a siher foot, tfed 
with acarlet ribbin. 

A mother of pearie boxe, eagravan, set 
in aailver frame. 

A baU of glaaae of aeveraa coloara. 

A Chainy pott with a cover. 

3 christall ovaUa. 

Under thia ahdfe a mother of pearie 
ahdl widi acariet ribbin. 

On that aide over agalnat the windowcs 
hanging 7 ahelfes in scariett ribbin, and 
tiiauDed witii scaxlatt ribbin. 

On the lat ahelfe. 

A ahell eap, silver and gOft frasM, foot 
and cover, an agat on y* cover. 

A dtfiatall ball Wing on acarlet ribbin. 

An orall christall ball lying on acariett 
ribbin. 

A ahdl-qpoone, silver and gilt frame, 
foot and handle. 

3 agat balls. 

On the 2d shalfe. 

A mother of pearie capi rilvar and gilt 
frame. 

S eriatall balls carred npon agat pe- 
destalla. 

A white agat diah in feahion of a heart 
with a white rock in it. 

An amber head upon an ebone pedestalL 

An amber ball and pedestalL 

OntiwSdshelfe. 

A sheU cap engnvatti set In a aOvar attd 
gilt frame, a peace of oristall vpon y* 
cover. 

A paire of oristall botles. 

An ivory baakett with a branch of 
flowen in the midat of it. 

An amber aand boze, and an amber 



* Ansgate. 



One litle carved atone. 
Under this shelfe a mother of pearie 
shell engnrven, trimmd with scariett ribbin. 

On the 4di shdfe. 

A shell can with a aQver and gOt foot 
and top, a red atone in the top. 

A paire of chriatall botlea, an ivory 
baakett with a branch of flowen apon it. 

A PartingaU ring, a topas. One Ude 
carved atone. 

Under thia ahelfe a mother of nearia 
cograren, trimmd with scariett ribbin* 



18440 



Omamenial Platen S(C* at Oxnmd Halh 



151 



On the Sth shelfe. 



A ihell standing upon a nVitet and gilt 
foote, y* faushion of a inakc. 

An igat cup with a litle cmtall ball tn 
it. 

An agat botle for perfumes, set in dlTCTr 
with a litle silTer chaine. 

The model] of y« Dnke of Florence 
diamond, lyiog upon agat pedestalL 

A ehristall bail lying upon an agat pe- 
detteli. 

A boxc eograTea with the armea of the 
Ikmily upon the corer, a cristall OTall 
IjiDf npon It. 

On the 6th ihelfe. 

Aa irorj wheele ataDding in a porch 
with 4 plllarti. 

An agat botle for perfame, y* stople 
hanging in a chaine. 

A sitTer botle for perfume ^ with 6 
joiata. 

An agate cup. A gilded boxe with a 
crixtall cover eograven* 

A ^dtA boie with an agate GOrer. 

On the 7 th ihelfe* 

An ivory cup curiously caired and 
turned, with an high cover. 

A mother of peorle apoone with lilrcr 
and gUt handle. 

A chmtaU bail cut, lying upon tcarlett 
Hbbin. 

A chriitall boxe with 3 stones in it. 

A muak diah with a litle ivory 8tagg*s 
head in it. 

A cbrifltall box let in silver and gilt. 

A litk chriitall ball. 

S ahelfet on the lefte aide of the 
chimney, hangijig, and trimmed with 
tcarlett nbbin. 

On the Irtahelfe, 

A mother of pearlc ghell, y^ fashion of 
a boat^ atanding upon a giber and gilt 
foot, upheld with 2 anchors ^ a peice of 
rocke in it* 

An agite cabin ett in a Eilver aud gilt 
frame. 

Under thii shelfe a mother of pearle 
alicU engraveD, tnmed with fcarlct rihbin. 

On the 2d shelfe. 

A mother of i>e«rle shell, y* fashioti of 
ft boat, standing upon a silver and gilt foote 
upheld with 2 aachort, with 2 spoonea in 
it, om chriitall and one amber. 

An amber cjibinctt. 

Under this shelfe » a mother of peark 
shell, hanging with scarlett ribbin. 

On the right sldf of the chimney, 2 
ahfcUeif hangiog and trimd with scarlet 
ribbia. 



On the 1st shelfe. 

An agat cup on a silver and gilt foot, 
car^^ed and euameld. 

An agat botle 6 -square for perfume, set 
in an enamdd frame. 

An agat botle for perfume 3-squar* ' 
engraven, in on enameld frame. 

A ehristall boxe engraven, S-square, tet 
in silver and gilt^ in it 5 stones. 

A little cup^ enameld. A blew Bton« 
boxe, cutt, in sUver and gilt frame. 

On the 2d ahetfe. 

A gilt cup with a cristall pillar, a 
cristall knob on the cover, with 3 chriitall 
halls ia it. 

A cornelian botle for perfume. 

An enameld hotle for perfume. 

A garnet cap, gilt with gold. 

A ehristall flower -pot, enameld ^ and 
garnished with gold. 

A ehristall boxe. 

A perticukr of the Pictures over againil \ 
the doore. 

A great picture of Magdalen, in a great 
carved frame. 

3 letle pictures of eftch side, 6 in all. 

Underneath alim-pieture with 2 ladies \ ^ 
of one side a litle ovalJ picture with birds, 
on the other side an ovall picture flowored J 
with roses. 

The next row is a fine llmd picture wit]| J 
4 figures, of each side that 2 limd pictorei ' 
of ^2 old men. 

A ehristall looking gloss set in silver 
and gilt, enameld, and wrought flowers. 

2 agates- heads finely carved, with 16 
cornelian heads round about them. 

A fiae limd picture of Andromeda 
chained to a rock. Of each side of it the 
pictures of Sir Robert Pastoa*s* and hii 
ladies in limd, with gold cases. 

A fine agat with 2 black moores heads 
cutt, with white turbetts,!" set very finely iE ] 
gold, enameld. 

The King of France* a pic tore in gold 
and enameld. 

Under Andromeda my ladies Paston i 
eldest brother picture in liming,^ done by ' 
Mr. Cooper, 



* Sir Robert Paston here mentioned is 
apparently the same who was created Vis- 
count Yarmouth in 16'73^ and Earl of i 
Yarmouth in 107.9, and died in 1682. The I 
Inventory was, therefore, probably made 
before the first date. His wife was Re- 
becca, second daughterof8ir Jasper Clay- 
ton, Knt. of Loudon. 

t Turbans. 

i i» e, my Lady Paston *s eldest brother, 
a ClaytOD. The same painting is after- 
wards referred to as "my Brother^s pic- 
ture ;" so the InTentory secmx to hive \ 



152 



Ornamental Plate, Sfc. at Oxnead Hall. 



[Feb. 



Of each side of him 2 old men in liming, 
one of them in a gold case, the other in 
ebony. 

Next 2 boxes of mother of pearle set in 
silver and gold, with chaines, and upon 
the lids of them the armes of the family. 

2 Hmd heads of each side of the boxes. 

Underneath my Brother's picture, a 
purple stone of Sir Fran. Bacon making 
set in silver and gilt ; under it an ovaU 
picture in water colours. 

A white agat head set in enameld, with 
a litle pearle at the end of it. 
Under one shelfe. 

Sir Robert Paston^s picture in waxe 
worke. 

Underneath it, an enameld case with a 
white crosse. 

On one side, an enameld picture with 
flowers in an ebony frame. 

A christall picture on the other side, 
with flowers on one side, and a head on 
the other. 

Under that a long chaine curiously 
linked. 

Under the other shelfe. 

A limd picture of an old man in an 
ebony frame. 

On one side, a gold case enameld with 
flowers. 

Under it, a gold case, heart fashion, 
enameld. 

On the other side, a christall case with 
flowers in it. 

Under that, a string with 50 amber 
beads on it. 

Against the end of the chimney. 

One stone picture a* top, 4 small pic- 
tures below, and one mother of pearle 
engraven. 

The other end of the chimney. 

Three litle pictures, one stone picture, 
one Indian Steele looking glasse. 

On tlie side of the chimney, St. Paul's 
picture in a great frame. 

.'{ litle pictures on each side of St. Paul. 

Under it a stone picture with the armes 
of the family. 

On that side of the clossct over against 

the chimney. 
The ladies Paston picture in an ovall 
frame in oyle colour, done by Mr. Lillie.* 
Under that Mr. Paston's t picture done 
in krions. 



been taken by Sir Robert Paston himself. 
The artist was no doubt, Samuel Cooper, 
the ctlebratcd miniature painter. 

* No doubt Sir Peter Lely. 

f •' Nfr. Paston," probably William the 
son and heir of Sir Robert, and afterward! 
the second Earl of Yarmouth. He mar- 



Under that a picture of flowers in 
water colours. 

A picture done upon beuer of Lott and 
his 2 daughters. 

My L** Townsend's t picture, done by 
Mr. Burrell. 

At each comer 2 of the evangelists. 
Under them 2 litle pictures in water 
colours. 

Under my L*" Townsend, 17 great agats, 
8 litle agats, and 8 blood stones, set upon 
silver and gilt plate, with a carved frame 
of silver and gilt, set round with stones, 
a piece of pearle at the bottome, and 5 
agats on the top. 

On each side on y* top of this, 2 lim 
pictures in ebony frames. 

Under one of y* pictures, a cristall 
case with flowers, under that an irory 
head carved ; under the other lim picture, 
a gold case enameld, under that, a chria- 
tdl in the fashion of a heart, with 2 
pictures in it. 

S' John Clayton's picture in an ovall 
frame, done by Wright. 

P.S. I forgot to sUte that the 
view of Oxnead Hall represents the 
original river before the navigation 
was made (about the year 1772-5). 
The Lady Paston used to enjoy her- 
self in a boat down the river ; a mile 
from the old Hall there is a favourite 
spot by the side of the stream, which 
is still called the Lady's Bower. 

The two oaks, shown in the FlaDj 
are about ] 1 or 12 yards apart. 

The Banqueting- Room was one of 
the first buildings erected with Sash- 
windows. About the same time sashes 
were placed in the windows of the 
Banqueting-house of Whitehall, at 
Westminster, instead of the miinnions, 
(which were probably also of wood,) 
in the form of a plain cross, which 
existed at the time of the deca- 
pitation of Charles the First, and ap- 
pear in some of the earliest views. 
These sashes remained at Whitehall 
until the repairs which took place a 
few years ago. They were made of 
squared pieces of oak, some inches 
wide, with beading fixed on. 

The screen of the old Hall at Ox- 
nead, (now in the stables,) consisted of 

ricd the Lady Charlotte Fitsroy, one of 
the natural daughters of King Charles 
the Second ; but, having no issue, was tlie 
last of his ancient race. 

X Horatio, first Lord Townshend, 
created a Baron in 16(il , and a Viscount 
in 1682. 



1844.] 



W«l HarVing Church, Norfolk, 



in 



fif^ segmental archeB supported by 
octagon columDs of oak. wjth Ionic 
capitals, and carviogs of horse's and 
bull** beads on the spandrila of the 
arches, with the arms of the Pastons, 



Ma, LJRBiiN, 

I LATELY visited the church of 
Wcfct Hading, in the county of Nor- 
folk. It has been very judiciously al- 
tered and repaired under the directioD, 
and, I believe, at the sole coat, of 
the Rector, the Rev. C. J. Ridley. 
Amongst other improvements he has 
opened the east window of the chan- 
cel, and converted the vault of the 
Croftes family, in which the bodies 
were roost improperly placed on the 
ground, flush with the Booring of the 
chancel, into a vestry, the colBna being, 
with all decent care, put below the 

Eavemeot, and the coffin- plates, which 
ad become loosened, being affixed to 
the wall, immediately over the respect- 
ive graves. The church, with its 
ivied tower and surrounding trees, is 
a picturesque object. The following 
additions to Blomlield may he worthy 
of record. He notices much stained 
glass, but of this scarcely a vestige 
eiists. The foot, which seems to have 
escaped his observation, is octagonal, 
having its panels ornamented with 
alternate shields and roses. Below 
is a range of small corbel heads, anid 
the shaft is octagonal, with trefoil- 
tieaded panelling. 

Against the south wall of the chan- 
cel is a mural monument of white 
marble, surmounted by a bust of the 
deceased. The arms — a fesa between 
6 estoilcs. The inscriplioD 

Eicardo Gipps 

Avunculo sue 

Oulielmus Croftes 

hoe m arm or 

in grati animi tea ti mo alum 

pont voluit, 

Posuit Ricwdus Galielmi filius. 

The inscriptions on the coflSn-platet 
now ia the vestry are as follow : 

1. Mary Croftes 

relict of 

William Croftes, Esq. 

Died Not. 37, 1773. 

Aged 57 years. 

Gewt. Mao. Vol. XXI, 



2, Richard Croftes, 

Esq. 

Diiid Jnly 4, 

17W3, 

Aged 43 years* 

3* William Croftes, 

Esq. 
Died 14 Novemb. 

1770, 

In the 60th year 

of hjt» age. 

There are three achievements* now 
removed into the vestry. 

1. Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Or, three 
bull's heads couped sable. CrQfUt, 

2. Orp a lioD rampant sable« Potey, 

3. Azure r a fess between six estoiles 
or. Gippa, 

On an eseotcheon of pretence, Argenti 
a deml-buck, holdiag an arrow galea. 
Dtcktr. 

The achievemeat of Mary, the vife of 
William Croftes^ who died in 1772, and 
daughter of Sir Mathew Decker, Bart. 

II. The same quarterly coats, with the 
cscotchcon of pretence, and the crc«l of 
Crofter, being the achievement of William 
Croftca* 

ni. The same quarterly coatH with the 
crest, and an escotcheon of pretence 
hearing Azure, a lion rampant argent, 
ducally crowned or. DurrelL 

The achievement of Richard Croftes, 
who died in U33, 

The pedigree of CroAes in Gage's 
History of the Hundred of Thingoe, 
p. 134, has two slight errors con- 
nected with the above members of the 
family. Mr, Gage gives the date of 
the death of Richard Croftes Aiujuat 
instead of July, and he slates that 
William Croftes was buried at Little 
Sasham, Nov. 26. The West Harling 
Register gives the date of his huriiU 
Nov. 23« 1770. One is dtfBdent in 
preauming to correct any inaccuracies 
in the works of the ablej estimable, 
and lamented author to whom 1 have 
referred, and at tirst 1 conceived that 
the body might have been removed. 
The Harling Register isj however, 
decisive on this point. There are 
some shields of arms in stained glass, 
DOW placed by Lord Colborne^ who 
many years since became the purchaser 
of the property, in the portico of West 
Harling Hall, They came, in all 
probability, from Bardwell, near kk- 
ivorth, where the junior branch of 
the Croftes familv, to which they 
X 



154 



Aldrington, WUU. — Compion near GuHdford. 



[Feb. 



undoubtedly refer, resided, William 
Crofles of Little SaxhaiDj the grand- 
father of Lady Sebright, may have 
placed them io the house od succeed- 
log to his uncle's (Mr. Gipps) estate 
at West Harling. The decoration a 
of the aalooa were evidently done 
by him, hia arma, — viz. Quarterly* Ibt 
and 4th. Croftea ; 2, Poktf ; 3. Gipps, 
impaling Decker, — being in plaster over 
the door. The following are the coats 
of arms in glass. 

L A Urge shield, ** CroftCB and Foley/* 
date** 1620," 

Cre«ts — L A buira head aahle, Crofitw* 

3. A lion rampant sable, collared and 
chained or. Poiey, 

ArtDB — Quarterly, Ist and 4tli, Crqftea. 
2nd and 3rd, Argent, a cro&s ftory gulea 
between 4 escallopft sable. Sampfon. 

2nd and 3rd. Sable, a cbevrou crmiae 
between 3 griffin's heads erased argent. 
Ptarct of North wold. 

Impaling— 

I. Or, a lion rampant sable. Pnhy^ 
9, Azore, a feai or between 3 geese 

argent, beaked and legged gales. 0x9- 
lingham. 

3. Argent, a chevron engrailed sable 
between 3 cocks. Alcock, 

4* Argent, a obevron sable between 3 
mnlleti aznre pierced of the Held. 

5. Af^ent, across sable. 

6. Gules, a chevron between 3 eaglets 
heads erased or. Gadding. 

7. A2ure, 3 chevron eU or Atpcde. 

%, Argent, a fess between 2 cfaeTroas 
gales. Fecky* 

9. Quarterly gules and r^rt^ a bead 
argfnt. 

10. Arf^mt, 3 oheTrunels guleti a mullet 
for diflercnoe. 

The coat of Charles Crofles of 
Btrdwell, who married Cicely, daugh- 
Itr of Richard Foley of Badley, co. 
Sttibtlc. 

II. hmuif «m a Mtt wrare two luul- 
teU or* maroad fulie^ ■ label of S polBta 
gulfsi. l>ntrp — linfMllDf Vr^fin* 

Thii is lilt ihlald of Elitabath^ •Istn- 
of the a(»offf Cbftfltt Croftaa^ and 
wifa i^i Ilobf rt J>fitiy «f jtaajhagi. 

IIL f>i^Ml«ifi«llaf,Aia««fM«OTMt 
Of a pmlUt KulaS' Mhstl^^ 

'Hiir r/iat «f f.1j«#t#a Cro^ itf 



ThoUiii^r, aa4f|rif«r '/r pt«l|ll ilMl Oi ^ 



ermine between 3 griffin^s heads erased 
argent. Pearce of North wold. 

The coat of the same Charles Crofles 
and of his first wife Elizabeth, daugli> 
ter and heir of John Fearce of North- 
wold. 

V. Croft Bit charged with a crescent 
for difference, impaling, Argent, 3 crosa 
CTOsalets gules. Cophdike* 

The coat of Thomas Croftea of 
Bard well (who died in 1595) and of 
his wife Margaret, the daughter of 
Sir John Copledike. He was younger 
eon of Sir John Croftes of Saxbam^ 
and father of Charles Croftes before- 
menltooed« 

I insert the toal of Co pie dike aa 
existing ; but, since I first made a note 
of it, a few years ago, it has been 
broken, and its place filled by the 
glazier with some fancy remnants of 
other glass. 

The connection between the fami- 
lies of Croftes and Gipps is shown la 
Gage's Hundred of Thiugoc. See 
Pedigree of Gipps of Horningshertb, 
page 522. 



nr. 4k9flm* 



r PHW^ 9 Mwf Mf9 



On the iubject of church repairs 
and restorations, I beg to draw your 
attention to the following facts. 

[ am informed, on authority which 
I cannot question, that the church of 
Alder ton or Aldrington, in Wiltshire^ 
is being diligently pulled to pieces, 
and that the monuments, many of 
the family of Gore long resident ia 
that parish, have been cast down ajid 
mutilated in a most disgraceful man- 
ner, and this almost under the eye, 
and close to the subject of the first 
Topographical Essay^ of a Wiltshire 
Society, whose members claim to be 
the votaries of John Aubrey. 

On the other hand, in the county 
of Surrey, the church of Compton near 
Guildford, which is well known aa 
prrftvntiog such interesting remains 
of Norman architecture^ has been ju- 
dkbuaJy aiid carefully repaired, and, 
wImiI li too often so grievously for* 
Ci»tUo, ftf§§9rtiHi, With the solitary 
eirtptiifD of the breaking and throwing 
away *ff an inicribed slab which 
§mm§4 tha rtmaios of a Mr. Wit. 
Ikm9s Whti died in 177^^ and whose 
lillfal m^mm\fni is in the north aisle, 
i MH m^* 110 great complaint. As 
§ ii^Mihm uf Uttr^ the whitewaabing 



1844,] 



Merrow, Surret/, — Leighton Buzzard, Bedt. 



155 



of the range of snaall oakect columns 
and arcbes in front of the very re- 
markable chapel or rood loft within 
the chancel (bow used as the pew of 
the Molyneux family)^ is certainly 
opeo to much censure ; and, while 
under re&loratton, it was a decided 
oversight not to have reopened the 
lower portions of the two windows at 
the western end of the south aisle. 

The destruction of the church at 
Merrow in the same county was no- 
ticed in your Magazine some months 
ago. It is now re-opened for divine 
service, and no fault can be found 
with its arrangements, viewing it in 
the light of one of the new churches* 
But to attempt to point out any traces 
of the ancient building is like exhibit- 
ing a stocking in which the darning 
has superseded the original article. 
The columns of the south aisle and a 
few inches of zig-zag moulding at the 
north door are the rati nantf§ of this 
restoration. I shall here beg to draw 
your attention to the unpardonable 
manner in which the gravestones in 
the chancel, one of the Rev. Edward 
Vernon, who died in 1721, another of 
his wife, who died in tZS-l (and which 
may be read* in Manning and Bray), 
have been cast out, and replaced by 
unlettered slabs. One should have 
thought that rectors and vicars and 
those in authority would, ai Me leait, 
have had respect, the one to their own 
cloth, the other to the spiritual pastor 
of their predecessors in the parish. 
These proceedings are discreditable, 
and, what is more, illegal. 

I was not long since in the church 
at Leighton Buzzard in Bedfordshire. 
It is under repairs, and not altogether 
injudicious repairs. But I must take 
leave to question the propriety of 
ejecting an old carved pulpit, of the 
date 1638, and very good for its lime, 
to give place to some feeble, though 
possibly more uniform, work of yes- 
terday. This old pulpit is now lying 
in the south chapel amidst a heap of 
paraphernalia that have been put aside, 
— tables of benefactions* torn achieve- 
ments, and such like. The north chapel 
has been refloored.and two stune coffins, 
discovered during the operation, have 
been unceremoniously turned out of 
the church altogether. The foot 
in tliis church is well known to the 
anti(|uary. The authorities ahould 



make some sacriJice to clean and pre- 
serve it, and, although I am the veriest 
antipodist of the Cambridge Cam- 
denites, though I will not speU pewi | 
puMJ and forswear the filling of every | 
old font with a couple of buckets of i 
water in order that, '* if required, the 
child maybe immersed!!" I do be*, 
seech the rector or vicar» as the caae , 
may be, to replace his very small | 
blue-aad- white cottage slop basin ] 
with one of Messrs. Mort lock's bap* 
tismaJ fonts. 

Yours, &c, L, 



Me. Urban, Cork. 

TRUSTING to your wonted in* 
dulgence, I beg to submit to your 
readers a few facts and observations of 
literary or historical import, the for- 
tuitous gleanings of an occasional un- 
appropriated hour. In imitation of ] 
your correspondent Ctdweli, as they 
present no necessary or reciprocal con- 
nection, 1 will range them under dis- 
tinct heads, and in successive enume- 
ration, extend tog possibly to abnut 
five. 

(No. I.) MB. D'lSBAELl'a CtJ&tOSlTlSB 
OF LITEaATUftK, &C« 

Mr. D'Israeli, in his article on 
'* Poetical imitations," (Curiosities of) 
Literature, page 205, ed. 1841J is, a» ] 
usual, entertaining and instructive. 
The value of the work is abundantly ' 
attested by its multiplied editions ; but« 
indeed, too many of the anecdotes are 
accepted without critical discrimina- 
tion, on very slender authority. Of 
course, in so varied and extensive an 
assemblage of assumed facts, some 
historical errors would not be of dif- 
ficult detection ; but one has rather 
surprised me. At page 173, *' on the 
Death of Charles IX.'* whose reign 
stands prominent in the records of 
crime, as stained with the massacre of 
1 572, he quotes the Chronicler Cayet'a 
report of the King's last momenta, 
when "the Queen-mother sent fur 
the Duke of Aleo^on, &c.** Thia 
Duke, Mr D'laraeli says, ** was after- 
wards Henry 111." whereas, in fact, 
Henry HI, was then King of and re^ 
sident in Poland, which be promptly 
abandoned on information of his bro- 
ther's decease, and succeeded by se. 
niority of birth to the French tbroocu 
Alen^on (Franvoit de Valois,) wae 




Error a in WIsratits Curiasitlet of Literature^ 



[Feb. 



one of our Elizabeth's numerous 
wooers, though twenty years her 
junior I but he never wore the croAvn, 
having pre-deceased Henry, who was 
Bucceecjed, on ihe extinctjon o( the 
Valois dynafity,by Henry IV. the pa- 
triarch of the Bourbons, bolh of the 
elder and junior brancheB. 

At page 354, Mr. Disraeli disclaims 
for Hudibras " a single passage of 
indeceot ribaldry/*' while, in truth, 
there are numbers which do one durst 
read in female society. The venerable 
author's view rauat have been some- 
what dimmed, his judgment wart>ed« 
or hia charity of construction misap- 
p\ied, whfn he could thus pronounce 
free from impeachment and innocent 
of alt offence to delicate ears a 
volume teeming with proofs that ne- 
gative the bold assertion. He must 
have overlooked the verses 282, 456, 
and 832 of the first canto ; 34 and 234 
of the second; 815, BIG, and 828 of 
the third; 347. 410, 715, and 883 of 
the fourth ; and 216—773 of the &ixth 
canto, without proceeding further in 
the unseemly enumeration. 

Several other inadvertenciea at- 
tracted my notice lu this curious 
repository of anecdotes ; but 1 cer- 
tainly did not expect from the au- 
thor's clasftical pen such grammati- 
cal faults as at page 425, (second co- 
lumn,) where we have ** The Hugue- 
nots * . . . declaring , . . that they 
were only fighting to release the King* 
whom they asserted was a prisoner of 
the Guises ;*' and at page 483, (se- 
cond column,) " The real editor, who 
we must presume to be the poet/' &c, 
Here, it is obvious that, in the first 
pantgraph. we should read irAo, and 
in the second whom, Albertus Mag> 
oiu, I may add, never wrote a line of 
the work imputed to him in page 480, 
•* De Secretis Mulierum:" while the 
impoaitiou stated to have been at* 
tempted on the bibliographer Debure, 
At page 485, has, it seems, been more 
•uccesaful on Mr. D'Uraeli himself, 
betrayed, as he has suffered himself to 
be^ into the belief of its truth. And I 
puat observe that, in the article at 
page 600, on *• Elective Monarchies,*' 
where so signal a part is assigned to 
the French Envoy, Montluc, our au* 
tbor does not appNear aware of this 
uersooAge'a most singular adventures. 
rheyftraiDcidcotally alluded to in this 



Magazine for August 1837* V^g^ H9 ] 
and, as a remarkable membrr, no edi* 
Tying one indeed, of the Dominican 
Older, he may be aggregated to those 
mentioned in this Journal for Decem- 
ber last, page 592, associated, as a re* 
deeming name, with the admirable 
Las Casas. 

These various remarks are the result 
of a very cursory insight of Mr* U'ls- 
raeli'a work, which, by a regretted 
mischance, had never, until lately, 
fallen into my hands. What, however, 
I would tnoBt reprove is the respected 
writer's implicit confidence in unpub- 
lished document^*, which, suiely, are 
much less to he relied on, unless 
withheld for special reasons, as 
doubt less often occurs, than those 
at once deemed worthy of impres- 
sion. Other explorers in these fields 
of research, both here and on the Con- 
tinent, are open more or less to the 
same charge — '* Omne ignotum pro 
magnifico est," as Tacitus (Agricola, 
XXX.) makes Galgacoa say ; and pro- 
ductions, long concealed or unknown, 
are indiscriminately invoked as uner- 
ring vouchers of facts. Valuing these 
discoveries, according to the maxim of 
political ecouomists, by the attendant 
cost of time and labour, compilers 
too frequently overrate their merit. 

The cont'tantly occurring instances, 
which I have felt bound to notice, of 
negligent composition or editorial 
carelessness, are nut, the reader may 
be assured, the fruit of studied in- 
quiry, or pointed search. On the con- 
trary, they are, 1 can truly aver, pain- 
ful to my view, while forced on my 
observation, and of unavoidable colli- 
sioD with my memory* But, how 
pass uncorrected the assertion of Lord 
Stanhope, in the report of his inter- 
course with the notorious Foucht^, 
adopted by Lord Brougham, in the 
third and recently published volume 
of the latter nobleman's '* Stattn. 
men/* page 125, that Fouchd had 
never been at Nantes, whereas he was 
born in that city (the 29th May, 1763), 
partly educated there, and during the 
early period of his public career uni- 
formly distinguished as Fi^ucM de 
Nanif^i f Lord Brougham, in that 
volume, appears to recant the too fa- 
vourable repreaentation of the terri^c 
'• Comitd de Salut l*ublic," conveyed 
in his previous apology for Carnot, a 



1844.] 



Lord Brougham, — French Biographies* 



157 



rDcrober of that sangutnary embodi- 
ment of ihe reign of terror. His Lord- 
fthip is right in retracting, though not 
avowedly, the error; but, altogether, 
1 hesitate not to say, that the French 
articles of his publication display no 
deep knowledge oflheir subjects or of 
the nation. A passing glance has 
offered other mistakes to my obspjva- 
tion, 6uch as at page 30 the name of 
La^oura for Lasource, one of the 
Protestant ministers of the Convention. 
And at page 123 Lord Stanhope says, 
•* that the memoirs published under 
Fouch«f's name do not appear to he 
anthentic." This is an expression of 
doubt, when he must Viave known, had 
he (as he was bound wiiilc writing on 
the subject) inquired^ that not oniy was 
tbeftnthenttcity disjclaimed by Pouchc's 
representatives, but that the priDter 
was fined at the family's suit for the 
fabrication, and that the printer again 
brought an action against M. Beau* 
champ, the author, for the imposition 
(see Gent. Mag. for March 1838, p. 
260, and for November 1842, p, 448). 
Fouch^ represented in the Convention 
bis native department. La Loire In- 
f^rteure, of which the city of Nantes 
is the capital. Again, at page 144 of 
his Lordship's volume, in denial of 
the insult asserted by Junius to have 
been oflfeied to the King, it is added, — 
"Thi« was in I769, when George IH. 
had nearly attained his thiriieth year ;'* 
but, bom in 1738, the 4th of June, 
that sovereign had certainty paaaed 
his thirtieth year, and, in fact, at the 
date ofJunius's letter, was within a 
few days (30th May to 4th June) of 
entering his thirty -second year. Pro- 
fessor Smith's " Lectures on the 
French Revolution " seem to nae 
rather liable to the same observa- 
tion, though pregnant with sound 
doctrine and excellent reflection* i but 
no writer of any personal experience 
of the country could prefix llie parti- 
cle de, the cherished type and distinct- 
ive symbol of noble tiirth, to the ple~ 
lieian, however otherwise eminent, 
names of Guizot, of Thiers, or of 
BftileuU &c. It is just as, in their im- 
perfect acquaintance with our national 
habits or designations, the French say 
Sir Peel, Sir Russell (Lord John), with 
other misconceptions. 1 can scarcely 
read a t>ook in either language, which* 



in reference from one to the other, 
does not present similar abeirationSi 
This moment, a mere accident pointed 
my eye to a French account of ihe late 
Mr, Mathias, whose well known work, 
"The Pursuits of Literature." I find 
translated **Les Host Hires Litt^raires/* 
no doubt assuming the word pursuii 
in its litigious interpretation. And 
again, in the version of Victor Hugo's 
Excursion on the Rhine, by & professor 
of the Ft^ench tomjue, the celebrated 
poet is represented as stating that, 
before there was a theatre at Paris, 
one existed at Meaux, "where ju'eret 
0/ a mysterious nature were exhibited/' 
Here the old mysteries, or subjects 
from the bible, &c, which preceded the 
regular drama, arc rendered ** pieces 
of a mysterious nature f But these 
examples of misapprehension would be 
intermiDable were 1 to pursue the 
topic. One instance, however, or 
rather two, of misstatement, which 
hkvt similarly fallen under my imme- 
diate view, 1 cannot pass over, because 
they occur in an author of deserved 
celirbrity, Mr. Preston, in his History 
of the Contjuest of Mexico, which has 
just reached our city library, (vol. i, 
page 192,)writes, *' With alfhis faults, 
Xiraenes was a Spaniard, and the ob- 
ject he had at heart was the good of 

his country, It was otherwise on 

the arrival of Charles V Hia 

manners, sympathies, and even hia 
language, were foreign, for he spoke 
the Castilian with dilficulty. He knew 
little of his native country, of the cha- 
racter of the people, or their institu- 
tions/' ^c. But Charles, as must be 
known to every tyro in reading, was 
a native of Ghent, in Flanders, not of 
Spain, to which he was allied only by 
his maternal descent. And subse* 
qu<?ntly, at page 208, after fixing the 
birth of his hero, Cortes, in 1485, he 
subjoins in a note, •* 1 find no more 
precipe notice of the date, except, in- 
deed, by Pizzarro y Orellano, who tells 
us that Cortes came into the world 
the same day that the infernal beast, 
the falseheretic Luther, went out of it/' 
The mistake here, in some way or 
other, is most glaring; for Luther 
went out of the world in 1546, more 
than sixty years afl:er the great con- 
queror came into it. Their births, in- 
deed, were more coincident (1485-^ 




158 



GMam.—Madmme dm Defni. 



[Feb. 



1483) and probably that, tboagh by no 
mcmof eiact, was the SpanUh writer's 
inteotion to express. Thus, the error 
mmy be io the translatioii — in itself, 
at all cTeots, it is flagraDt ; and, that 
it shoald have escaped the literary 
frieod who, in cooseqoence of Mr. 
Freston's defectiTe Tisioo, reriscd the 
work, is extraordinary. In the Qaar. 
terly Reriew, No. 145, these anachro- 
nisms are aDadverted to in an article 
on the work. In that periodical a 
classical inadvertence shook! not ha^e 
passed oncorrected (Article on Voy- 
ages to the North Pole). The well- 
known line of Lucan, descriptive of 
Cssar's actirity, "Nil actmn ere- 
dens dum qnid soperesset agcndom " 
(Pharsalia, lib. ii, 657), ia attributed 
to JoTenal, and crtdtau transformed to 
repmioMB. Grotios has remarked that 
the Emperor Jostioian had adopted 
the words of Locan in the Pandects, 
lib. xi. — "De his qoibos nt in- 
dignis," &c. where we read, " Nihil 
enim credimns actom, dnm aliqnid 
addendnm soperest " (see the Floren- 
tine edition Digestomm sen Pandec- 
tanim, 1553, tome I., and Gtbbon« 
chap. 45). 

3.— gibbon's pxesobtai. dxfbcts, &C. 

This magazine has more than once 
adverted to the niggard, or stepmother's, 
dispensation of nature's physical gifts 
to Gibbon. (See page 475 for No- 
vember 1839. and for December 1843, 
page 587» &c.) Bot a singular and 
striking demonstration of the fact, 
though generally notorious, is not, 1 
believe, alluded to in these columns. 
The anecdote (resting, it appears, on 
authoritative assertion) states, that 
Madame du Defiant, whose loss of 
sight, in quickening the sense, made 
the perception of touch her guide in 
physiognomy or discrimination of cha- 
racter, when passing her hand over 
our intellectually endowed historian's 
face, as was her custom on the intro- 
duction of a new visitor, was betrayed 
into a misapprehension, more ludicrous 
in occurrence than delicate in recital, 
but which she resented as an ofiensive 
advantage taken of her misfortune. 

Madame du Defiant, the reader 
needs hardly be told, was one of the 
Parisian celebrities during the last 
century, but more particiiUrly known 



to us as the cof i c ap oi i dent of Horace 
Walpole. (See Gent. Mag. for March 
1843, p. S54.) Nor b this intercourse 
leas ho- title of literary fame in France, 
as their interchange of riews on so- 
ciety, or criticisms of authors, however 
severe, are of deep obsenration and 
striking expression. A circumstance 
related in Grimm's Correspondence, 
(tome X. p. 272.) is viridly descriptive 
of her coki selli^ character, exempli, 
fied alike in her connections of love 
and of friendship, both more namerooa 
than justified li^ moral role, or dic- 
tated by genuine feeling, llie Pr^i- 
dent H^nanlt and Pbnt de Veyle, 
equally eminent in rank and letters at 
that period, were the dopes of her 
simulated passion; but Wnnsscao re- 
coiled in horror from her proffered 
friendship. " J'aime mieux m'expoeer 
ao fl^u de sa haine que de son ami* 
ti^," (Confcasioiis, liv. xi.) axe the 
philosopher's poignant tmns, not 
wholly inapplicable, I have heaiid, to 
the political career of a learned peer, 
quite as much distinguished for hia 
ansteadiness as for his capacity, and, 
as Sir Ralph, afterwards Lord Aber- 
cromby, observed of certain British 
troops during the unhappy state of 
Ireland in 1798, more formidable to 
his friends than to his enemies. Bot^ 
with respect to the lady, Walpcde him* 
self depicts her in equally nnamiable 
colours at page 209 of their Com. 
spondence, (edit. 1811, 8vo.) althooah 
in his Letters to Sir Horace Mann he 
uniformly mentions her with affecttoa 
as " his dear old blind woman." (See 
Letters of 1 8th June 177I« and of 3rd 
August 1775). 

In the above-quoted number of thia 
Magazine, for December last, Gibboo'a 
amorous address to Lady Eliaabeth 
Foster, the future Dnchesa of Devon- 
shire, is related, with the sdf-detoaioa 
that blinded him to the excess of hia 
personal defects. His historical com* 
peer, David Hume, though less gio* 
tesque, was far from attractive in fe- 
male appreciation, but still by no 
means destitute of pretensions, and 
not always, we are even assured, an. 
successfully urged. Yet it ia much 
more certain that at Turin and Pteia 
he fell mon than once into the anare 
laid for him by some sportive beanty, 
or became the victim of his own vanity 



Molikre*^ Ungainly Philosophers, 



159 



P 



I 



I 



in the constructjon of an incidental 
Iribote paid to Lib mental ai2|>erioriiyp 
ft9 i bave ofteQ heard from tha&« of 
his asaociatee whose recollection car- 
ried them BO far back. MarmotitcU 
IB one of hi9 tales, repreaenta a phi* 
hmtphc of bis day as similarly betrayed 
by his self-conceit, like Moli^rc's Tar- 
tuffc (Acte iv. 8c. 7) ; for there waa 
quite as large an infusion of hypocrisy 
in these infideta* affectation of virtue, 
as in the type presented to us on the 
ttageof oatraged religion.* "You make 

* Europe has adopted this nil me as the 
symbol or impersountioa of hypocrisy. In 
the play itself, Moliere couverU it into a 
verb, (as we have lately dooe that of the 
miscreant Burke f) when he makes Mart- 
anne^a mitanhf Donne, exclaim to ber 
young mistress, (Actc ii» so, 3,) 

** Vous serei^ ma foi, tartugUe,** 

Sbakspere, iu like manner, creates a new 
word, where Biaoca says of her sister 
Katharine, that, 

** Being mad herself, Ehe*B madly mated ;" 
to which Gremio replies, 
** I warrant him, Petruchio h KatedJ* 
(Taming of the Shrew, Act iii. sc. 3.) 

We thus, too, find Made, de S^vign6, in 
her letter, dated the 29th August, 1679, to 
Buaai'Rabutln, coining a novel expression 
— Babutinadff to signify the family. readi> 
nesa of wit. 

Of MoU^re^a celebrated composition, 
NapoIeon*a judgment has been cursorily 
referred to in the Gent, Mag. for March 
1841, page 250 j but it is entitled to a 
fuller eipositjon of his opinion. " Cer- 
tainement I'ensemble du Tarttiffe est de 
main de mftitre. ....... Toutefoii cette 

pi^oe porte un tel caract^re, que si j'ai te 
droit de m'etonner de qaelque chose, c'est 
qu*on I'ait laisis* jouer : elje presente, i\ 
mon avis, la devotion sous dcs couleura si 
odieuaes, que si la pij^ce eut i^t^ fuite de 
mon temps, je n'en aurais pas permis la 
repr^ntatioo.^' (Las Cases, 19th August, 
1816). The admirable Bourddoue, in ob- 
vloua reference to this production, also 
says, ** Lea espnta profanes., ..exposent 
tnr le theatre, ct A la rist^e pnblique, un 
hypocrite imaginaire, Ic repr^sentant con- 
sdentieux jusqn^ k la deltcatesse et au 
•crupole snr des points moins importants, 
pendant qu'il se portait d' ail I curs aux 
crimes les plus atroces." (Sermon du 
septi^me Dimanche apr^s PAques.) An 
Italian moralist is not less forcible in his 
reprobation. '* H satireggiare sti Timper- 



tradeyour religion," coarsely observed^ 
we are told, Dr, Warburton to Dean 
Tocker, a copious writer on politico- 
commercial interests 1 "And yo;]/' 
retorted the Bristoi dignitary to the 
prelate, '* make religion your trade." 
(See Parriana, vol. ii. p. 232.) Pa- 
liset, in bis drama/' Lea Pbilosophes,*' 
published and exhibited in 1760^ 
amongst other notorioua objects of his 
satire, assigns a prominence of ridicule 
to J. J. Rousseau, who, indeed, avows 
the humiliating reputses which be 
bad encountered in his impassioned 
advances, although, as be describes 
himself, ** birn pris dans sa petite per- 
sonne," and by no means, like Gibbon 
or Hume, of ludicrous tigure or un- 
couth frame. But grace and manner 
he wanted—" Et la gr&ce plus belie 
encore que labeaut^," as La Fontaine 
tastefully asserts in bis Psyche. 
Awkward and timid, be failed in that 
spirit of address and easy con6dence 
which distinguish the man of the 



fettioni de' relligiosi, pecca in moraliti, e 
scandalizza i huomiui pii.** Yet Voltaire 
succeeded in wresting the approbation of 
his Mahomet from the Holy See, (Gent, 
Mag. for March, 1840, p. 255,) and Bcau- 
marchais*s importunity forced from Louis 
XVL the permissive representatioQ of 
Figaro. Ridicule, it is asserted, is no 
argument — certainly not ; but it is much 
more impressive, if not on our reason, as- 
suredly on our feelings, as a blunder pro- 
vokes it more than a crime, and thence 
often becomes more fatal, as Fouch^ or 
Talleyrand said, in politics. Never did 
the order of St. Ignatius recover a wound 
of its infliction from the pen of Pascal. A 
sneer, observes Dr. Cbanning, (Second 
Discourse on Wart) is more formidable 
than a bullet ;; for it impi^ls the faint- 
hearted to face death in war or due!, 
rather than encounter its keen edge* Yet 
many an arising excrescence of evil has, 
on tbe other hand, sunk under its blight* 
log influence, such as the Theophilanthro* 
pistst tbe St. Simomans, &Gt Would that 
it had always been so beneficially exer- 
cised, and had equally extinguished so 
many other outpourings, religious, poli- 
tical ^ or social, of manV extravagance or 
knavery ! 

*..... . . " RidicaluM acri 

Fortius et melius magnas plerumqoesccat 
res*^' 

{Hor. -SflMib. i.x.) 




160 



The Wife of Chaucer. 



[Feb. 



world or of fashion, and which, in 
Wilkes or Mirabeaa, so rapidly ob- 
literated — the former in half an hoar, 
as he boasted, and the latter probably 
in less — the first impression of ^eir 
deterring features. 

In what estimation these philoso- 
phers, and more especially their 
coryphaei, Voltaire and Roassean, were 
held by Napoleon, these pages have 
borne freqaent testimony (see Gent. 
Mag. for February, 1843) ; but to his 
judgments of the former I may add 
the following. My venerated friend, 
the Marquess de Fontanes, who pro- 
nounced the splendid funeral eulogy 
on Washington, by appointment of 
Bonaparte, the I8th of February, 1800, 
and was subsequently placed at the 
head of the University, that great 
moral lever of imperial rule, which 
made education its tributary, and bent 
the young mind of France in idolatrous 
submission to her mighty chief, was 
favoured it is known with frequent 
confidential interviews at theTuilleries. 
On one occasion, the Emperor thus 
addressed him, •' Vous aimez Voltaire ; 
Tous avez tort; c*est un brouitlon, un 
boutefeu, on esprit moqueur et faux 
.... il a sap^ par le ridicule les 
fondemens de toute autorit^ divine et 
humaine : il a perverti son si^cle ; et, 
sur vingt de mes jeunes oflSciers, il 
y en a dix-neuf qui ont un volume de 
ce d^mon dans leur ports- manteau." 
(Life by Roger.) The admiration of 
Fontanes for Voltaire, it is right to 
observe, by no means embraced the 
poet's philosophy, or antichristian 
sentiments, to which he always pro- 
fessed a conscientious opposition, both 
in his individual and official character. 
Napoleon 'scon viction of the dangerous 
influence of Rousseau was not leas 
energetically felt or expressed. (See 
Gent. Mag. for February, 1843, p. 140.) 
The imperial delineation of Voltaire, 
recals that by Byron of him and 
Gibbon : 

« Uasanne sod Femey I ye have been the 

abodes [nsme. 

Of names wbich unto yoa bequeath'd a 

Mortals, who sought and found by dangennis 

roads 

A path to perpetuity of fiune.** 

Childe Harold, iU. 109. 

Of Voltaire he adds, that his talents 



"breathed most in ridicule;" and 
Gibbon he describes as 

" Sapping a solemn creed with solemn sneer.** 

Horace Walpole writes to his corre- 
spondent Mann, the 9th of September, 
1773, aAer relating the df-ath of the 
poet, his old companion. Gray : " Ha 
(Gray) could not hear Voltaire's nana 
with patience, though nobody admired 
his genius more ; but he thought him 
so vile," &c. 

Yours, &c. J. R. 
{To be continued,) 



Mr. Urban, Jmu 14. 

THE learned writer of the article 
on the life of Chaucer in the last 
number of the Gentleman's Magazina 
has made a mistake which it is material 
to correct, because it relates to an 
ioteresting fact. 

In the text of p. 8 he says, Chau- 
cer's " handsome annuity authorised 
him to solicit the hand of Philippa^ 
eldest daughter of Sir Payne Roet;" 
but he gives in a note some lines 
from an ode by Hugh Holland, and 
remarks, " Yet Sir Harris says, 'It' 
" has not been ascertained wmtivehf 
" whom Chaucer married ; tne state- 
" ment that his wife was Philippa* 
" daughter of Sir P. Roet, scarcely 
" admits a doubt.' His wife's name» 
" however, was not Philippa Roet, 
" but Picard. See Life, p. 60 to 66» 
" and Godwin's Life, II. 374. She 
" probably died in 1387." 

I am thus represented as contra- 
dieting in p. 60 to 66 the opinion 
which I had immediately before ao 
strongly expressed that the Poet mar- 
ried Philippa Roet. 

I fear, however, that the eraditt 
writer of the article in ouestion conld 
not have read what I nave actnallf 
written on this subject, because the 
pages to which he refers contain 
evidence that Philippa Pyeard and 
Chaucer'8 wtfe were, beyond all doubt, 
ditlinct pereone; and I have expresaly 
said, in p. 62, "the Poet must, there- 
fore, have married before September 
1 366, and his wife could notposstblif haw 
been the Philippe Pycord to whom the 
annuity of 5/. was given in Janiiarf 
1370." 
Yours, &c. N. Harris Nice las. * 



161 



REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



I 



I 



Tke Hintoff and AniiquUiea nf the 
Parish t>f Hacknty, MiddUBex, By 

'the bftsis af a gcoeral history of the 
roetropoUtiin county has been Imd by 
the Rev. Daniel Lysons in his Environa 
ofLoDdon^aad his supplemeiitary ac- 
couDt of thoae Parishca in Middlesi^x 
not included In the Environs, Nor 
c«n wi*, probably, from the arduouB 
nature of the work, expect any fuller 
hifitury of the whole county. It h 
therefore extremely desirable to have 
distinct histories of the more extensive 
parishes. 

We have at present Histories of 
Stoke Newington by James Brown ; of 
Twickenham, bv E, Ironside; of Shore- 
ditch, by Sir H, Ellis; of Chelsea, 
Fulham, Hacnn«eramitli, and Kensing- 
ton, by Thomaa Faulkner; of Hamp- 
stead, by T. Park ; of Uxbridge, by 
Geo. Redford and Tho, Harry Riches ; 
of St. Giles's in the Fielda, by J. 
Parton ; of Clerkenwell, by the Rev. 
T. Cromwell, with prints by Messrs, 
Storer; of klingtooj by J. Nelson; 
Account of A, Pugin's Views at laling- 
too, by E. W. Brayley; and since, 
another History of Islington, by S. 
Lewis, juD. ; of Isle worth, part of 
Brentford, and Hounslow, by G. J. 
Aangier; and of Tottenham, Edmon- 
ton, Enfield, and Stoke Newington, by 
Dr. W, Robinson. 

By the above list it will be seen how 
important a portion of the eastern part 
of the county had been before de- 
•cribed by Dr. Robinson j, to which he 
bftft now added the res^pectablc parish 
of Hackney. 

Dr. Robinson has collected a large 
body of valuable materials and official 
documents relative to the district he 
has undertaken to describe, with which 
he has liberally supplied the public in 
the volumes before ua. We hope he 
will not consider us ungrateful if we 
express our opinion that the work 
would have been improved by a conside- 
rable condensation, for sometimes we 
have di&covered passages from various 
sources not a little contradictory to 

Gent. M.io. Vol. XXf, 




each other, without the value of each 
having been sufficiently considered. 
We think, too, that much of the first 
volume might have been omitted, par- 
ticularly in the description of the old 
houses, where the author has been led 
away by his subject into much general 
hiBtory, equally applicable to any other 
place as Hackney ; for instance, under 
the description of an old house (p. 77) 
called •' The Templars' Hou&e" (built, 
probably, in the fifteenth century, and 
we do not see how it can he connected 
with the Knights Templars,) Dr. 
Robinson has entered very fully into 
the history of that military order. The 
same observation is applicable to the 
account of their rivals and successors, 
the Knights of St, John of Jerusalem, 
(p. 830 U the case of "The Black 
and W^bite House,'* (p. 95,) built by a 
city merchant about 157a> there surely 
IS no proof that it was the residence of 
royalty in its having had the royal arms 
in the windows, — but merely a token 
of the loyalty of its owners. The repu- 
tatioa of its having been the residence 
of the King of Bohemia introduces an 
account of his unfortunate alliance 
with his queen, Elizabetht The tra- 
dition of Lord Vaux having had a 
house at Hackney (the exact spot not 
ascertained) gives rise to a very long 
history of the Gunpowder Plot. The 
account of the old mansion of Baomcs, 
the residence of Sir G. Whitmore, is 
much confused and contradictory ; but 
we want time and space to set it to 
rights* See pp. 154 and 158, &c. 

The accounts of the ancient gardens 
at Hackney, though not new, are 
amusing. What we now call planis 
were, a century and a half ago, gene- 
rally termed ^reem. We think Dr. 
Lindley would consider "a warren of 
two acres, very full of coney Sj'* no 
valuable addition to the Horticultural 
Gardens. 

The very popular measure of the 
Victoria Park, in the eastern suburbs 
of London, is properly noticed with 
di served commendation. 

The manufactories at Hackney are 
little known to the inhabitants of the 
Y 




personi are 

mach teoglh* psfticniarly i 
of these remarkablei k tkm 1 
teSebrmted Tarpiiu 

Amoog the 
MiUoci the poet badlinlei 
nejibn irith tlic place, 
merely married, to hit fadi 
the daughter of Cmpi, 
cock, of Hficknef . 
Philip* wai oDty af KAMltibciYpj 
aa was al»o Aogtiitiia 
FUzroy (aftcrwardi third ] 
o( Graf too, thooj^h Dr. 
&on doe» £iot give his title.) Hi 
was born in 1735. — utit 17S5 
ai» printeil in p. 281. Tbe ; 
of his d^ath. 1811. ta ala 
omrtted. Sir T. HealbcoU i 
married a youog Imdf 
Hackney. Thtr omission of tl 
biographical ootices migfal km^ 
been desirable, as oat of 
in a htetory of Hackiie|', 

Tlie second volume 
meucea with the accooat of i 
old Church of St. Aog 
AiDce called St. John, errooc^l 
ously, as Newrourt, is ttil 
Eepertoriam, ob&errea^ 
body of thia church waa de- 
stroyed whea the oew charc^l 
wa* erecled to 1797* 
Robinson says (p, 6 J it ara 
founded by John Herou, esq, 
hut it appears in p. 8, *•©« 
Heron was only a great bcoe«l 
factor when the church was re^J 
paired." In p. 9 Sir 
HeroOj master of the J« 
Office to Henry VIIL is i 
of as a great benefactor. 
church was clearly founded 1 
before the time of Henry ' 
The Rowe chapel waa not takca | 
down, but the fiae old monu«| 
men is have fallen to decay. 
Representations of tbem. eo^J 
graved nearly 100 years, at the 
expense of E, Rowe Mores, are 
preserved in Dr. Robtnson'a ^ 
book. 




1^44.] Review. — BMng^*s IHttstraiwng of Durham CuihedraL 163 




I 



The will of Sir T. Rowe, lorcl innyor 
1568, is rery curious ; he invites the 
[ond ronyor, aldermen, and com|iatiy 
^f Merchant Taylors to attend his fu- 
^eral, at eight io the morniajr, aod his 
idy to be buried before eleven ; that 
ere be a communiao; and after- 
arda a dinner at his house at Shackle- 
eltj for Ihe lord mayor, aldermen^ 
mpany, friends, mourners, priests, 
niinbters* clerks, poor men, and pa- 
riabiooefs, bequeatbiog ij6L 13«. 4c/* 
for that purpose, and 10/. for spiced 
bread to be given to the company^ 
poor as well as rich. 

The fine otd church ought not to 
have been taken down, nor would it 
probably at the present time, a better 
feeling having now happily arisen, Dr, 
Robinson properly observes, 

**This chorch, before its demolitioti, 
was extremcif rich ia monufnents, some 
[few] of which, being considered worth 
preferring, were tiikea down and pat up 
m the porches or vestibules of the new 
church. In most Christino countries the 
iascriptioni or epitaphs on the monu- 
ments erected to perpetuate the memory 
of the dead are carefully preserved and 
registered in the church ^books ; but in 
England tliey are (to the shame of our 
time be it said) broken dotna and almost 
utterly dttiroi/ed, and their bra** inscrip- 
tiOHM erase rlf torn aw Ay, and pilfered ; by 
bieh the memory of many virtuous and 
h\e persona disceased is extiugniahed, 
the true understanding of fiimilies Li 
kened, as the course of their inherit- 
is thereby in a great measure inter- 
[pled. The ancient monumentsp brasses, 
and inscriptionsj which were formerly the 
pride and ornaimeDt of the old church, 
have suffered by the taste for modern iro- 
prorementf j and most of them are scat* 
tered abroad, and not to he found hut in 
the private collections of individuals, and 
placed against the walls of paaaagcs leail- 
ing to conAerratories and other places of 
recreation and amusement.'* p. 18. 

Among other monuments destroyed 
was a fine one to Lady Latimer, with 
an effigy, exquisitely sculptured in 
atone, which is still concealed beneath 
dirt and rubbish, under the old tower. 
It would be highly creditable to the 
preMQt rector and churchwardens to 
cause it to be cleaned and preserved 
in the new church, ae it is evidently 
a portraiture of a noMe lady, the 
daughter of Henry Earl of Worcester, 
and wife of John Neville, Lord Lati- 
mer* She died 15S2. It is, besides^ 



worthy preservation on its own ac- 
count, as being an interesting and fine 
specimen of English sculpture. By 
the kind permission of Dr. Robinson 
we are enabled to lay his representa- 
tion of this statue before our readers. 

Dr. Robinson has printed all the 
existing epitaphs in the mother church, 
as also all he could collect from 
Weever and other sources. 

The chapters of the work describ- 
ing the new churches of West Hack- 
ney, the district chapel at Upper 
Clapton, St. Philip's Church at Dal- 
Bton, St. Peter's Church at De Beau- 
voirTown, and St, James's Church at 
Clapton^ are very satisfactory. The 
site and glebe of West Hackney were 
the gift of the Ute W. G. Daniel Tys. 
Fen, esq ; that at Dalston, of Mr. W. 
Rhodes* i that at De Bean voir Town, of 
R. Ben von de Beau voir, esq. ; and 
that at'Clftpton, of the Rev. T. B. 
Powell. This noble conduct of the 
wealthy proprietors is as it should be, 
and is highly commendable. Copies 
of the original grants and conveyances 
are preserved in Dr. Robinson's work. 
Accounts of the public Bchools, chari- 
ties, &c. are also given at a very ample 
length ; in short, nothing seems omit- 
ted that could io any way, however 
remote, be brought to bear in illustra- 
tion of the history of Hackney. 

After noticing the little attention 
paid (we suppose by the printer) to 
the names of authors referred to, such 
as Lyson for Lysoos, Pepy for Pcpys, 
Grainger for Granger, &c. &c. we 
take our Ieave» lamenting the want of 
lucid arrangement sometimes manifest 
in the work, but grateful for the ma- 
terials amassed by Dr. Robinson's per- 
severing retearch. 

Archii^tural lUttstraliom of Durham 
CaihedruL By Robert William 
Billings. 4/0. 

JN this volume will be found the 
most extensive series of architectural 
illustrations of any English cathedral 
which have as yet been produced. 
As the preface informs us, 

*' It was c43mmeDced with the intention 
of making the architectural ilhistrations 
to one scale. This ititentioD has been 
carried out, and the work as now com- 
pleted forms, with a similar wo*''' ' 
author upon the cathedral 
Carlisle, the first series of 





164 RsiriBW.— Billings's lllustratiwu of Durham CaihedraL [Feb. 



pretentatioBs of two English cathedrali 
ever given to the pnblic* 

The plan is an excellent one, and the 
execution of it most necessarily in- 
volve great labour and expence. We 
trust the author will receive sufficient 
encouragement to enable him not alone 
to illustrate the cathedrals left undone 
by Mr. Britton, but also to illustrate 
every cathedral in England upon the 
same ample and scientific scale. 

Durham Cathedral, the most mag- 
nificent Norman structure in England, 
affords a fine scope for architectural 
illustrations ; all its works, whether of 
the original design or subsequent ad- 
ditions, are among the best examples 
of their kind ; every thing in it that is 
ancient is upon a scale of grandeur 
and magnificence not surpassed, even if 
they are equalled by any other structure. 
The church of a palatine bishop, who 
ranked with the princes of the land, 
who raised his armies and dispensed 
justice in his own courts, would be 
expected to exhibit in its architecture 
a degree of splendour commensurate 
with the rank of the prelate who had 
his seat within the walls; we see 
such a structure in the cathedral of 
Durham, injured as it has been by 
Puritanic violence, and defaced by the 
modern additions of a conceited 
architect, who indulged in the vain 
hope that he could improve the design. 
This church, belonging to a see until 
the recent changes the richest perhaps 
in Europe, has in modern times re- 
ceived but little attention ; vain and 
trumpery additions have been tacked 
upon the old design, and the ancient 
detail destroyed to make room for 
them. The Chapter House has been 
sacrificed to make a parlour ; and the 
Galilee, the resting place of saints, 
threatened with destruction, to afford 
room for a carriage road to the resi- 
dences of modern prebendaries. 

Scarcely will it be credited in these 
days, when preservation of the ancient 
features of our churches are so much 
insisted upon, that at the last exten- 
sive repair the cathedral received 
(between the years 1775 and 1791*) 
four inches of masonry were chiseled 
from the whole surface of the north side 
and east end of the church. This labori- 
ous process was exceedingly expensive, 
amounting to nearly 30,000/. and it 
was conducted by the never to-be- for- 
gotten Wyatt. Let us hope that it will 



be a beacon to warn future deans and 
chapters to save their cathedrals from 
the mercenary hands of professional 
jobbers. It is painful to read the enu- 
meration of the alterations and wanton 
destruction effiected through the vanity 
and ignorance of this man, which is 
given at pp. 13 and 14 of Mr. Bil- 
lings's descriptive account 

In still later years, the repairs have 
been done in Roman cement ; and it 
will scarce be credited, that it was 
contemplated to plaster the entire 
tower with this rubbish, and that the 
design was abandoned only because 
it was cheaper to chisel the surface. 
At this repair thirty-two statues were 
removed from their niches, and only one 
or two replaced by modern ones " done 
in cement." These wretched altera- 
tions, the author tells us, were ef- 
fected by the architect of Abbotsford : 
what else could be expected from the 
designer of a mere toy ? It is satis- 
factory to add, that, within the last 
few years, some judicious restorations 
have taken place under the direction 
of Ignatius Bonomi, architect, which 
appear to be still going on. 

We are sorry to see the author ap- 
ply the injurious epithet of "furious 
clamour" to the opposition, which 
John Carter raised to Wyatt's destruc- 
tive propensities, when he designed to 
modernize the interior. Mr. Billings, 
we are sure, means not to censure Uie 
antiquary'sexertions;buthemighthave 
clothed his ideas in better language; 
for, when it is heard that Wyatt in- 
tended to destroy the matchless 
bishop's throne, and the resplendent 
altar-screen, we cannot see the pro- 
priety of the language which styles the 
enthusiastic opposition of Carter and 
his friends, a " furious clamour." 

From the desciiptive account, we 
make a few extracts of some of the 
peculiarities of the cathedral. 

The buildings are very regular. 

** There is not the slightest variation in 
the lines of the nave and choir, as is the 
case with many other large churches ; the 
latter part being sometimes inclined more 
to the eastward than the nave, and said by 
the symbolists to be typical of our Saviour 
leaning his head on the cross. This regu- 
larity, for the different parts are all pa- 
rallel or at right angles, extends even to 
the conventual buildings, which are all 
exactly at the same angles as the cathe- 
dral." P. 9. 



1844.] 



Retiew. — Garbett'fi Parochial Sermons, 



icn 



Evidence of the continuation of the 
ortgioal architecture in after times— 

" Oii« of th« mast reznarkable features 
rn the cathedrml, an<J perfectly unique in 
the historj of ancient architectiire, was 
the conatmetioa of the vaulting of (he 
nave and south transept by Prior Thomas 
MeUonby in the Norman style, betiireen 
133a and 1244, at a period when tbat 
known as Early* En glisb had complet^^ly 
fuperaeded tt.*' P. 1^. 

The extraordinary exclusion of fe- 
males from Ihe church is remarkable. 
In the nave 

** Is a cross of blue marble, placed as a 
boundary for femflles, for, tinril tbe Re- 
formation, none were allowed to pass it 
eastward J* 

This is attributed to the extraordi- 
nary tanctily of the body of St. Cnth- 
hert» which was ensbrined behind tbe 
altar. 

The Chapter-house was not de- 
stroyed by Wyatt, but a minor bar- 
barian, one Morpeth, effected the work ; 
the mode of his doing it is remarkable, 
and shews how perfectly judicious was 
the choice of the agent to carry out tbe 
destructive propensities of the Chapter. 

** A man was suspended by tackle above 
Ihe joining, aud knocked out the key* 
stones, when the whole fell, and crushed 
the paved floor, rich with gravestones and 
"brasses of the bishops and priors." P. 48. 

We have only space to notice briefly 
the seventy-five engravings which lU 
lostrate the work. Of these the greater 
number consist of plans^ elevations, 
and measured eections exhibiting the 
entire building and its parts at large ; 
a few perspective views are necessarily 
introduced, but Ihe value of the work 
lies in the scientific subjects. The 
plates are executed in a ctear and bold 
style of etching, and the detail is 
effectively shewn, even in the views. 

The engravings of the altar*screen are 
exceedingly valuable, as well as of seve- 
Tal beautiful Kariy-Eoglish capitals. 
The effect of the altar-screen is finely 
shewn in a perspective view of the 
choir, and, when aeen in connection 
'with the massive architecture of the 
columns, the lighter architecture of the 
ficreea has a striking eflfect^ the mas- 
aiveness of the one acting as a set-off 
to the fairy lightness of the other. Tbe 
present altar is very plain; on the table, 
is addition to the two lights prescribed 



by the Rubric, stand one large and two 
sin alter tankards. 

Mr. Billings is deserving of great 
credit for the persevering industry with 
which he has completed his work, as 
the list of plates shews that not only 
has he made the drawings for the work, 
but has executed several of the engrav. 
ings with his own hands. 

We hope to see him shortly com- 
mence the remaining cathedralei which 
he has promised to illustrate, and we 
wish him success and patronage in his 
other undertakings, and that he will 
reap honour and profit from his newly 
announced works, The jirchitectural 
lUusiraiions of Kettering ChurcHi 
No B Til A M PTo N 9 H ! H E , a n d lUustrationa 
of the Architectural Antiquitiei of ihe 
County of DottHAM. i 



Parochial Sermms. By ihe Rtv* J, 

Garbett. 

THESE sermons approach as nearly 
as any we have lately met with to the 
true standard of what may be called 
parochial discourses, enforcing the 
great and leading doctrines of the 
Christian religion with earnestness, 
truth, and eloquence. The most se- 
rious cannot read them without im- 
provement, and even the careless could 
not listen to them without attention ; 
the doctrines of scripture are applied 
directly to tbe conscience ; and the re* 
suits of disobedience are painted ia 
colours at once strong and true. We 
have often lamented that so much good 
sense, ao much correct reasoning, sa 
much religious feeling, such a warm 
desire for the moral improvement of 
mankind, as is seen in very many of 
the productions of our present divines 
and preachers, was not warmed and 
animated by a bolder and tnore ener- 
getic pronouncement of the message 
of the Gospel. Bossuet and Bourda- 
loue, the twin pillars of the Gallic 
church, are unrivalled in the simple 
grandeur of their noble orations; we 
have nothing in our language to com- 
pare with them ; nothing so apostolic 
in character, so nearly approaching 
the very spirit of the scriptures them- : 
selves; nothing so resembling those 
words of power which the messengers 
of God are privileged to deliver to the 
children of men. Now we think that 
these discourses partake as much of , 



166 



Review. — King Henry (he Seconds 




this character as any we could point 
out* either from our former divined or 
present ; aiid« if assisted by ao elDquent 
delivery* we are sure that no congre- 
gation could Jistea to them without 
ixnproveiDent. 

The author in his preface, after an 
alluaion to the propagation of certain 
doctrines which he cnnaiders contrary 
to the principles of the tUformatioo^ 
•ays, 

** We miist not lurrender important 
truths from the feur of miirepresentiitioD, 
and the pouibility of miftconstruction. 
Jufftificdtion, through faith only^ by the 
merits of the adorable SaTioor ; boUnea« 
at the necessary fruit and only evidence ; 
the Image of aur Lord transfused, accord* 
ing to our measure, into the souls of thone 
who are virtually united to hioi ; the sole 
authority of Scripture as tlie rule of faith, 
and the pious mtntstry of th« Church 
as iutniiiicnts, divinely ordered indeed 
lor the promotion of the inward trans- 
formadou of the soul^ but valuable iu no 
other sense. These are the pritidples 
which are designed to underlie the folbw- 
ing discourses, and by which alone they 
are to be measured.** 

We really have do selection of 
sermons to make^ or any particular 
<jnes to recomitieod ; but the reader 
may, if he pleascj turn to the I3tb, 
**BaQishment from God's Presence," 
as exemplifying the qualiiies which we 
bave said are to be f(>und in the whole 
volume. 

We have scarcely room to make one 
qtiotation^ though short, which we 
take from the scrmoa " The Eesponai- 
bitities of a Christian Nation." 

** Dear ii the price, and inappredable 
by human heart, the length, depth, and 
breadth, and heighth of that lore which 
haM porcbased salvation for oa. The very 
anigela would fain penetrate into that mys- 
teiy of grace by which the chains of the 
pcw F Ct i of darkness are and one from our 
limbs, and the love of them from our souls , 
and by which the inheritance of saints re* 
deened, and seraphs who ha?e never fallen , 
bare been opened to those who are by 
satare only ihe childrea of wrath, and 
Bade of linfol du^t and aihes« Then think 
for an Instant of that machinery whi<*h has 
been set hi motion for that purpose * No 
simple act of power — no creative fial, — 
* Let there be li(fht and there waa light, ' — 
but whacU within whecb — Intricacitrti utit 
Id be nnratelled but only by Intlafce Wie- 
dom, aad eoatrlTaneea impoealble bat fbr 
Oomtpotcnoe. What sUr in heaven and 



earth to establish this kingdom ! What 
commotion throughout the uaiveme and 
all its intelligences I Think of the determi- 
nate will and foreknowledge of God — the 
decree* fixed for eternity, and the Lamb 
slain from the foundation of the world j 
and the commands issned forth to the 
hierarchies of heaven, and the princedoms, 
dominotions, and powers, made to minister 
unto OS wbo are the heirs of salvatioa ; 
and the lips of prophets touched with 
coals of tire from off the altar, and the 
calling of saints, and the warnings of in- 
spired teachers, and the rod of visiUitioa 
upon the people, the pestilence, and the 
fire, and Checiword; and reluctant nations 
made the insitrumetits of Providence, and 
the chosen of the seed of Abraham, and 
the descended Godhead, and the despised 
and rtjjected of lueu, and the bloody sweat 
of Geth^emaue, und the unutterable an- 
guiah of Calvary, and the triumpher over 
the pangs of the grave, and captivity led 
captive by the ascending Conqueror, and 
the cloven tongues of lire, and the blood 
of martyrs crying tike Abel's from the 
gronud, and the Church militant and the 
Church triumphant, and nations tried in the 
furnace of God's judgment*, till the earth 
sraokeii to beiiven with it, yet still blas- 
pheming, and God's preachers warning 
the laat times to repentance, and tlie con- 
summation of all things at hand, and the 
reign of the ^corner and the infidel, and 
the terrible wrath to come,** 8tc. p. MH. 



Kinff Henry the Second* An Historicai 
Dreaia. 
THIS ia one of those productinns ifi 
which the author seems superior to hie 
work ; hut, a« the work is the author'a, 
and as every author is supposed lo da 
his best, what do we mean ? why, that 
from something interfering with the full 
flow uf his genius, as, for instance, a 
defective subject, or from aoroc other 
cause, its force and capability are not 
fully developed. In the present drama 
we fcelawaniofiolereetintheprogrese 
of the action, and in Ihe development 
of the characters. The most promi- 
nent and leading person, Beckct, whom 
we expected to t>e the mainspring of 
all the dramatic movements, disap- 
pears in the 3rd Act* and the re- 
mainder of the play is composed of 
King I1enry*s advcnturea in France, 
and, at the termination, of his enmity 
with Prince John his son. If, how- 
ever, aa kittarical drama may be con- 
sidered different in structure from 
otbcra.partakingteasof a dramatic cast. 



i 



J 



1844.] 



Review. — Kennedy's Poems. 



167 



ftnd being rather a aucceBflion of events ; 
10 that case we should feel a want of 
Bufficiently atirring and interesting 
scenes and adventures. Henry himself 
is no very heroic character, and the 
others are too faintly and indistinctly 
marked, much to engage our sympa- 
thies or awaken our curiosity ; hut, in 
saying this of the plan of the story, 
we are quite willing to do justice to 
the author's poetical powers, and to 
express the pleasure we have received 
from many detached passages and 
scenes. The general language, the turn 
of Tersification, the poetical expres- 
sions, are cast in a sound dramatic 
mould ; while the reasoning, the sen- 
timents, and the imagery are such as 
to plea&e and exercise the mind j but 
they cannot compensate for the want 
of variety and movement in the con- 
duct and framework of the story. We 
give one specimcji of the author's style. 
Henry is speaking of his son Henry« 
who was crowned in his father's life- 
time. 

•• TTiou need'Bt not» T know it all ; 
%% Icftit, I am not now In heart to hear it ; 
ml »t whose prompting comes this evil mind 
1 the deaienletl boy 7— at hers, I say, 
fliolftst of alt aluoulithourtd my sons vponmc ; 
fiiot for love of me, at \vaji\ for love 
r them— but all my life tias cAluiinny 

busy with my name— those scribbling 
monks, [culoari 

bey have me down, I doubt not, iu such 
I tbey daub the enemy of all mankind 
I the marjE^n of their choicest mlAnals. 
L would, indeefi, 1 wore a monk myRi'lfj 
att pAdnpf up and down one Utile line 
f lbODg:ht and nrtion» narrow as the cloisters 
MX tiwii would echo to my lintless steps. 
»f, { would almost wish that 1 were oue 
f tliofie same simpletons who bear the cross 
1*0 o*her lands, and leave their enemies 
to reap the goodly harvests from their own ; 
(Ifrt tbAl tbey need be very^ provident, 
I For few of them return. Alas I 1 would 
► ^Tiat ] were auyttiinpr but this.— At Gloucester, 
When a boy^ I wandered on the ^Jeiioru'si 
banltaf 
' Indian deeds of that unbounded man., 
! Macedonian niunarch, seenird to me 
t erploits to be copie<i, but ourdune. 
deed, what youth would be content to take 
KTlie fortune of the greatest that have gone 
f Before him 7 but our life and hopes converge. 
|ICethitikB, my well loved friend, that toil like 

mioe 

{ liif^ht have soflSjced to rise, and, what in more^ 
|To govern kingdoma ; yet my sovereig-nty 
^ I day by day to frow less firm ; why, fools 
Save rul'd vast empires, seeminj^iy with ease. 
^ IVbate'er I purpose, tho* with dePi>est trarti 



designed, an odious progeny of cl&n^ers 
Grow round it continually to ^aw Us Hfe out^, 
Such monsters as encirckd that poor maid 
Whom Glacins lov'd and Circe chang'd so 

fully ; 
Tliese were her offsprings too. — Well, Arundel^ 
Now say what is it that you bear for Eng^land ; 
But first brinif Essex to the Cboncil Chamber; 
What may concern the public weal read there. 
What else thou hast, to morrow at this time 
And place we'll bear J' 



PQfma % C, B, Kmnedy, E$q^ 
A VOLUME of pleasing, correct, 
and elegant composition, partly origi- 
nal and partly translated. We shall 
give a Bpecimen of both ; for the 
former, 

THOUOHT AKI> DEKD. 

Fall many a lig^ht thought man may cherish. 
Full many an idle deed may do ; 

Yet not a deed nor thniigbt shall periah, 
Not one hat he shall bless or rue. 

When hy the wind the tree U shaken, 
There is not a bough or leaf can fall. 

Bat of its falling heed h taken 
By One that sees and governs all. 

The tree may fall and be forgotten, 
And buried in the earth remain ; 

Yet from Ha jaicea rank and rotten 
Spring* vegetating life again. 

The world is with creation teeming. 
And nothing cTer wholly dies, 

And things that are destroyed in seeming 
lo other shapes and forms arise. 

And nature still unfolds I he tissue 
Of unseen works by spirits wrought, 

And not a woik but hath its issue 
With blessing or with evil fraugijtt. 

And thou roay'st seem to leave behind thee 
All memory of the sinful post ; 

Yet oh ! he sure thy sin shnll find thee, 
And thou shalt know ita fruits at last I 

Frora the translations we select the 
Ode lo Napoleon, by Manzont. 

He wat : and as all mutbnledft, 

After the mortal sigh, 
The carcase lay inanimate 

Of the great Spirit reft. 
So stmck in mute aj^tonishtnent 

Earth at the message stands, 

YeSi mtitef and thinking of the laat 

Hour of the fatal man ; 
Nor knoweth shej when any like 

Stamp of a mortal guest, 
Her bloody stained dust will see 

Imprint itself again. 

Their high king on bis throne mj muie 
Beheld, and silent vr&s; 



168 



Review, — The Rector in Search uf a Curate. [Feb. 



While he^ in quick Ticissitade, 
Fell, rose, and proitriite lay t 

Amid A thousand voices round 
She mingled Dot her own. 

From servile flattery virgin^purer 

And outrage cowardly, 
She rose, by sudden Yftaisbing 

Moved of fto bright a ray, 
Atid pours around his ura a aoQg 

That haply will not die. 

From Alp -rock to the Pyramid, 
From Mansanar to the Rhine, 

Hit thunderbolt its course secure 
Behind the hghtniiig kept, 

From Scylla iew to Tauaie 
From one to th^ other aea. 

TVue glory was it ? Tlie unborn 

Alone can then decide. 
Let us to the Almighty hnw^ — 

To God, who chose in him 
Of the creative power diviae 

A trace more vast to leave. 

The stormfnl and the trembling joy 

Of mighty enterprise ; 
The anxious heart tntameable. 

That burned to gain a throne, 
And gamed it, wou a prize that erst 

Madness it were to hope. 

All that he proved ; — the glory hy 
The danger more enhanced, 

Flight, victory ; the palace now, 
And now the exile's paog : 

Twice in the dust laid low, and twice 
Upon the altar raised. 

He named himself; two aget, one 

Against the other armed, 
To him Buhtniifisive turn tbemaelvea, 

As waiting Fate's decree : 
He ordered silence, and between, 

Their arbiter, he sate. 

He vanished ;'-his inactive days 
Closed in a narrow space ; 

Of boundtess envy ttUl the mark, 
And of compassion deep, 

Of ineitingnishable hate. 
And of un conquered love. 

At o'er a shipwrecked manner 

The wave sore pressing rolls, 
The wave on which the unhappy one 

Sato tossing, stretch hit eyes 
Arcmnd far glancing to discern 

Some distant shore in vain ; 
So when this man's soul the sweep 

Of memories rolling came, 
How oftea lo posteritf 

His life Isle be began 
To tell ; but on th' eternal page 

His hand fell weary down. 

How many times upon the calm 
Close of an idle day* 

f 



The length 'ning rays declined, his arms 

Foldfrd upon his breast. 
He stood ; and of the days that were. 

Remembrance o'er him rushed. 

He thought upon the moving tents, 

The stricken rampart w^ill^. 
The glittering of Che nianiplca, 

The waves of cavalry, 
The tierce impetuous command, 

And swift obedience. 

Ah 3 at the torturing thought, perhaps, 

His spirit breathless sank, 
And he despaired j hut then there came 

A powerful hand from Heaven, 
And to a purer atmosphere, 

Him mercifully bore ; 

And by her flowery paths of hope 

To the eternal fields 
Conducted bim, to a land 

Surpassing his desires, 
Where all the glories of the past 

As night and silence were, 

Beauties, immortal, bountiful, 

Faitli ever triumphing, 
Be written also this : rejoice 

That a more haughty pride 
To the disgrace of Golgotha 

Did never bend before. 

Then from his weary ashes keep 

All bitter words away : 
He who strikes down and raises up, 

Afflicteth and consoles, 
The Lord, upon his couch forlorn 

Close at his aide reposed. 

The translation of Semele, froni" 
Schiller, is well executed ; and, indeed, 
the whole volume bears testimony to 
the talents and elegant ncquiremcnts 
of the author. 



TA** Recior m starch of a Curate. 
THE author of this work, whoever he 
ia, is well- acquainted with his subject. 
The points of opinion which appear most 
prominently are biseulogy of Romaine, 
Scott, Venn. Cecil, Simeon, and others, 
whom he calls *' the chariot of IsraeJ, 
and the horsemen thereof," and the 
strong language be uses whenever he 
mentions the Oxford divines. Such 
language as the following is painful 
to find amid the better feeling that 
aurrounds it : " * Mary, my deaf, you 
are my Ubrariao, put up these two 
hooka ; you know iheir places, I be- 
lieve/ - On the keretk'9^hd(, papa ?' 
• Yea ; next to the Oxford tracts.' " The 
language used also in conjunclton 
with the name of Mr, Froude we 
should much wish had been omitted^ 




1844.} 



Review. — The Order of Daily Servtee, Ac. 



I 



for we do not tbink it of the tone or 
spirit which churchmen should use 
towards their brethren, " Hold fast 
the faith/' aays a witty divine, "but 
don't keep rapping your neighbour's 
knuckles all the while/' The whole 
chapter of the Anglo-Catholic is not 
written according to our feeling of 
good taste, resting too much on the 
extravagances of some few over- 
zealous and ascetic persons, whose 
actions are really of no consequence 
in the roaifi argument connected with 
the opinions and principles of the lead* 
ing writers and tncmhers of that party. 
As regards the subject of recreation 
and amuaemeot, the author sides with 
the more ierious view of the question, 
and adduces the instance of dances 
and cards. As wc neither dance, nor 
play, nor shoot, nor hunt, we have no 
bias on this disputed subjecti but we 
know excellent parish priests who do ; 
And we think that no advantage win 
be gained by treating the subject in 
the contracted view in whtch it is 
looked at here and elsewhere, or making 
It the watchword of a party ; and* be- 
tides, there never will be unanrtnity in 
the opinions or practice of the clergy 
on such points as these, where no m- 
noroHti/ is presumed, and the practice, 
for sufficient reasons, must be left to 
each individuars feelings of propriety 
And right ; and we rou^t observe that a 
relinquishment of these amusements 
must arise from a desire to fall in with 
the feelings of certain classes of society 
In the present day, and not from a 
conviction of their inherent sinfulness ; 
for, if sinful now and in the present 
day, they must have been equally so 
in the past ; and then what venerable 
names would have instantly a cloud 
drawn over their former brightness ! 
Only a very few years have passed since 
We have seen two bishops (one now 
,^ltve) playing fralernally the rubber of 
whist, and two more learned, pious, 
diligent, and even illostrtous men did 
not adorn the bench. Why do we 
mentian this ? because we do not join 
io any feeling of disapprobation or 
♦ensure, nor do we think it often 
©f any use to draw prohibitory lines 
<ii iuch matters. Chap. 7, "The Un- 
fortunate Man/' is very amusing and 
well-drawn, and has somewhat of 
novelty about it. We also recommend 
the ninth chapter, called the ^fil- 
Gbnt, Mao. Vol. XXI. 



lenarian, which we are inclined to rank 
with the best and most important ia 
the volume. 



TJie Order of Daily Service, 8fc, with j 
Fkm J^iae, SfC. 
THIS manual of Plain-chant for the 
use of choirs is very elegantly got up, 
and forms a inost'interestiug volume. 
The editor says that it was originally I 
intended to ** define the intentions of I 
the Church of England with respect ^ 
to the use of music in divine "service /*" 
but the materials accumulated so ] 
rapidly, as to render it more suitable ' 
to reserve the subject for future con- 
sideration. The editor aho observei j 
*' that the whole history of Eogliak j 
church music* from the beginning of] 
the I(jth century downwards, must, ia 
fact, liave been re-written/' Neither 
Borncy nor Hawkins enquired into the 
subject ^cMaitkally ; and Hawkint 1 
often betrays ignorance so gross as to 
show that for this part of his subject | 
he was utterly unfit. " What can we i 
think, for example, of his ascribing 
the compoBitiooB of four or five of the 
Gregorian tones for the Psalms to an 
organist of Windsor in the reign of 
Edward the Sixth r" In his very 
useful preface the editor informs u», 

^'Thnt in the I6tb century the term' 
plain tune was sometimes used to express 
any kind of uniaanouM tinging* Thus i 
the Confession of the Paritans, 157 If 
(Neale^ p. 480,) they lay, * concerning 
the singing of Psalms we allow of the 
people^tf joitiing with one toice in a pfain 
itijie, but not of tossing the Psalms from ^ 
one aide totlie other ;' thst i;^, they called 
the iiiie of metrical Psslm tunes io unisoiu 
At first, however, the greater part of the ' 
Psalm tunei (thtt even the PurititUB used) 
were Adaptations of the old melodies of | 
the Hymna in the Breviory to modem 
versification^ Afterwards, when the Psalm 
tunes used to bare any relation to Orcforia^ 
mtisic, the tnelodies con tin tied to be termed 
the plain tnne, as distinguiahed from the 
harmonies that were set to them/* 

Of the present compilation the 
author thus speake : 

" That something of the kind was 
wanted is admitted by Dr. Buniey : and 
when it is coniidered that above a century 
and 1 half has elapsed since the publication 
of the most recent work professing to be 
a directory for the plain »ong of cathedral ] 
service, and owing to the extreme rarity 
both of that and the other formularies 
Z 



i 



170 



Revibw.— Dickens's Christmoi CarpL 



[Feb. 



already noticed, that the practice of choirs 
has for a long period rested solely on 
tradition, it is hoped no apology will he 
reqaired for the present undertaking, even 
though the editor is unahle to hoast of the 
qualifications which Dr. Burney seemed 
to reckon indispens^le to the labour.* 
If the book has no other merit it has at 
least that of completeness, so far as the 
order of daily service and the office of the 
Holy Communion arc concerned. The 
publication of Merbeck wanted the Litany, 
that of Lotee nearly all the plain song given 
in Merbeck *s work, except the intonations 
of the versicles and suffrages, which are 
inaccurately printed. There was not, 
therefore, in existence any publication in 
which the scattered fragments of plain 
song were brought together. Besides, 
the first Prayer book of Edward VI. to 
which Merbeck adapted plain song, differs 
from that now in use, both at the com- 
mencement of the Morning and Evening 
Prayer, and in the office of the Com- 
munion. The music accordingly required 
to be re-adapted to suit the changes made 
at the revision of 1G63, and though Lowe 
professed to do this in the preface to his 
work, it is quite certain that he made no 
attempt of the kind. Whether the attempt 
has succeeded in the present work must 
be left to the judgment of the learned and 
musical reader," &c. 



A Chrittmoi Carol, By Charles 

Dickeos. 
IT is impossible to read Mr. Dickens's 
works without being convinced that 
he 18 a man possessed of very kindly 
feelings. He has shewn this in his 
delineation of the character of the 
amiable Pickwick, in oar favourite 
Smike, and the little milliner, and, 
indeed, throughout his various enter- 
taining volumes. His powers of ob- 
aervation, also, must be very great, as 
we constantly meet with little graphic 
touches equally affecting and true to 
nature. He in, indeed, a sort of Tenicrs 
or Wilkie, and, like them, portrays 
scenes in humble life with a force and 
accuracy which exonerate him from 
the charge of either exaggeration or 
flights of fancy. This undoubtedly 
constitutes one of the great charms of 
his writings. These observations will 
apply peculiarly to Mr. Dickens's 
Christmas Carol, written evidently 

* Merbeck's work was printed in 1550. 
Edward Lowe's little work in 1661, and 
in 1664. 



with the intention of opening the 
hearts of the rich towards the poor at 
the season of turkeys and mioce pies, 
roast beef and plum-puddings. Nor 
have his benevolent intentions been 
unavailing, as we have reason to believe 
that more extensive kindness has been 
dispensed to those who are in want at 
the present season than at any pre- 
ceding one. 

In the "Christmas Carol" a rich 
old miser of the name of Scrooge has 
long shut his heart against the dis- 
tresses of his fellow creatures, but is 
at length visited by some compunctions 
of conscience in consequence of fearful 
dreams, or rather of visits from three 
spirits in the shape of Father Christ- 
mas, past, present, and to come. Like 
Don Cleophas, in the Devil on Two 
Sticks, he is made to accompany these 
spirits in succession, and to witness 
scenes while he remains invisible, 
which convince him at length of the 
wickedness of his own conduct, and 
induce him in the end to make all the 
restitution in his power. He has a 
worthy but half-sUrved clerk of the 
name of Cratchit, on whom he bestows 
a salary of fifteen shilling a week, oot 
of which he has to mainuin a wife 
and some five or six children. It is to 
the Christmas feast of this humble 
family to which we would particularly 
refer, not only because we think Mr. 
Dickens shines most in his relations 
of the "simple annals of the poor," bat 
because we find something irreaistibly 
beautiful and affecting in the whole 
description. Tiny Tim is quite per- 
fection, and will serve as an illastration 
of the great affection shewn by the 
poorer classes to a diseased or deformed 
child. Indeed it is impossible to visit 
the gardens of Hampton Court on a 
Monday in the summer without seeing 
numerous proofs of this. Often have 
we watched a mechanic carrying in his 
arms a little cripple, eying it with 
affection, and occasionally pointing cot 
some object of interest to it. Some- 
times he will gently seat it on the 
grass, watching it while it plucka a 
daisy, or crawls over the verdant turf. 
Nor' is this to be wondered at. Tht 
children of the poor are partakers with 
their parents of the same dish, the same 
room, and frequently of the same bed. 
They are the sharers of their poverty 
as well as of their more smiling hoara« 



184-4.] 



Mkcellaneoiis Rev ieivs , 



m 



and are iheir constant compaoions^ the 
objects of their love, whether in wea! 
or wo€ ; and to the credit of the poor it 
may he added, that when sickness and 
old age arrive, the lie of affection is 
still unbroken^ and they continue to 
ehare in the hard earnings of their 
offspring. 

In thedevelopemenlof Mr. Dickens's 
tale kindness to the poor is admirably 



inculcated, and it is altogether well 
calculated to cement the tie between the 
rich and those who have to struggle 
with poverty and miaforlnne. Tha 
means of {promoting the happiness of 
others ha* been liberally dispeo'sed to 
many, and well is it for them if they 
use these means *' in providing for the 
sick and needy/' and thus "laying up 
for themselves treasure in heaven.*' 



Tkouffhtt and Rejleciiont on Sickneaa 
and JjiicHon. By A. R. Sanderson, 
M.D, — This book is above any praise by 
HI J and criticism must find subject* more 
appropriate for it. Here the Physician of 
Dtil is united to him who cures the 
i of the body, and his voice, perhaps, 
Fbe heard by ears that are deaf to other 
teachers. The work is the production of 
a mind fiUed with the deepest sentiments 
of religion, and expressing itself on the 
iiK^t jiirful and important subjects con- 
nected with the trial and destiny of man, 
Wc read it, not to remark any faults in 
the com position » but to profit by the 
riches of its instruction » 



Remark t on the Book of Pmhm, a« 
prophetic of the Meggiah >—Thh work Is 
dedicated to the venerable Martin Rauth« 
Presideat of Magdalen College, in a dtiti^ 
ful and affectionate spirit ^ and it will be 
read with advantage and inslructiun j at 
least we can say that we have profited by 
the knowledge of the author, 

Hmt» ioward the Format wn qf Charac- 
ier. By a Pimn^tpoken En^HthwomaH,^- 
This little volume i«j to be recommended 
for the sound relig^ious principles on which 
it is writtcnf and for tlic moral instr^iction 
it conveys. It contains much practical 
wisdom for the conduct of social and do- 
mestic life I it examines the cause and 
result of the prevailing vices and follies ; 
it offers advice to those undertaking the 
more important and essential duties ; it 
discloses the probable causes of failure 
and disappointments in the various under- 
takings of life ; in shorty it is a good 
hand*book of sound knowledge and in- 
formation, and might be equally Dieful 
whether placed in the work-bag of the 
spioater, or under the marriage- pillow of 
the bride. 



Manual of Devotion, By en OcUgifUi - 
ri^n, Dwoiiontfor the Sick Raom. — ^In 
the first of these works the hymns are 
weU chosen \ but the [traycrs are not, in 
the selection of the autborsr altogether 
such as we should have pointed out ; the 



names of most of them being absolutely 
unknown to all, except a particular circle 
of readers ; nor is there scarcely one taken 
from the great divines of our Church, 
Andrewes, Sanderson^ Taylor, Barrow, 
Hooker, Pefirson. are ail passed by for 
Miss Kennedy and Mrs. Tuonipson, and 
Dr. Greville, and Bclfrage, and Jinks. 
The devotions of the second work ara 
compiled from the ancient liturgies and 
books of devotion, and most of them will 
recommend themselves to the reader by 
their inherent excellence. 



7^e Poyeant, a Tale. By T. Paget, 
jV/,^4.^Xhls little work is of a different 
character from it* predecessors by the 
same pen» but nevertheless wc like it very 
much. It contains a pleasing and inte- ' 
resting tale, inculcating a great moral 
lesson— that, namely, of humanity to our 
fellow-creatures. The chief object which the 
author has in view is to expose the hardships 
and sufterings of a large and helpless class 
of the community* the young persons who 
are employed in the metropolis in making 
up female apparcL Our readers may not 
be aware, perhaps, that a society has been 
formed for the express purpose of allevi* 
atiog the sufferinga endured in silence and 
patience by this class. Little are th« 
wearers of many a beautiful and costly 
dress conscious how small a portion Aj 
the targe sums which they arc compelled 
to pay for these articles of apparel falls to 
the share of the OTertaaked, ill-fed, and 
ill-used young persons who work at them 
during half, and sometitQes the whole 
night, with scarcely any rest, and, what 
is stili more sad, frequently during the 
Sunday as well. The volume abounds in 
startling facts, and contains some verj^ 
wholesome lessons, and is equally credit- 
able to the understanding and heart of iti 
author. 

The Georyiek* of ViryiL By Rev, J* 
M. King, -4,3/.— Wben Mr. King, in hi« 
preface, observed that the Georgicka •' waa 
the most perfect composition in the work!, 
and the most inadeqvatety tramlated, *' 
had he not read, or had be overlooked, 




172 



Mi$€$lUm€ouM RevkwM. 



[Feb. 



Mr. Sotheby'f bcautiAil veraion, that 
seems to reader another superfluoui ? Mr. 
King's own translation is Tcry creditable 
to him, and is often superior to Warton's. 
We give a specimen from the 4th book, 
(p. ISO.) 

All dangers past, the re-united pair 
Retrace their steps, and seek the upper air. 
Td Orpheus* steps Eurydice'i succeed, 
For such the order Proserpine decreed, 
VThen lo ! his haste unahle to restrain, 
AnxiouH one answering look of love to gain, 
He turned ;— could pity move a Stygian breast. 
Sure then Hell's spirits had its power confnt 1 
Qose on earth's confines, when one moment 

more 
Should to his arms Bur)'dice restore. 
His own Eurydice ; yet thought fbrsook 
The eager lover, and he stopped to look. 
Now useless all tlie skill and care employed. 
The ruthless King declares the league da- 

stroy*d« 
Then a deep groan the lake's dull silence broke. 
As wild with love and anguish thus he spoke : 
<* Oh I who, and wliat great madness could com. 

bine 
Lover and mistress in one fite to Join? 
Fast on my swimming eyelids shadows fall. 
Again the adverse gods my soul recall. 
FUvwell I one long farewell ! thick darlcness lies 
My form around ! no more my hand shall rise, 
No longer thine, in supplicating guise." 
She spolce, and vanished from his wond'ring 

eyes. 
As when thin smoke dissolves into the skies. 
She saw him not with frantic gestures stretch 
His arms her shade impalpable to catch, 
She beard him not, though much she wished to 

hear, 
And much he wished to pour into her ear. 
In vain be strove to reach the infernal shore. 
The surly ferryman refused his oar; 
Twice from his arms the Fates his mistress 

bear; 
What could he do ? or how that loss repair 7 
Will Pluto listen when bis cry he hears ? 
Or Hell's stem deities regard his tears? 
To the dark shores he sees the pinnace turn, 
Where her pale shadow shivers in the stern. 
For seven long months, so chronicles relate, 
By Stymen's lonely wave be wept his fste, <cc. 

We fear that there are few laurels to 
gather from any new translation of Virgil ; 
but Claudian is a beautiful poet, and opens 
a new field to any one who possesses 
poetical talent, command of language, 
and musical versification. 



The Bath* qf Oermany, Sfc. By Edwin 
Lee. 9nd edit, — A very useful and in- 
teresting guide to the medicinal baths of 
Germany : a country peculiarly favoared 
by Providence with waters of salubrity, 
fountains of health and rejuvenescence. 
The author also mentions the French and 
Swiss baths ; and gives ui his opinion also 



on the GdLd»w«t«-c«re. tht _ 
improvement to a new oditiom of thia 
volume would be, we are tare, anuU 
oonvenient map of those parti of Gemum j 
where the baths are sitoated, which are 
not Tery distinctly known to foreignen, 
and especially to the EngUA. V^th thia 
map as a guide, a pleasant aumBier tour 
might be made, jonmeying from one to 
another, and ** sipping the dewa** from all. 
Aa the country in which they are aituatad 
is in general beautiful, and as the artieles 
of life arc cheap, we scarcely know a more 
rational method of passing two or three 
of the summer months, imbibing, at the 
same time, health, instmctioiii and amoae- 
ment. 

ieabeile, a 7\i/e of Sptnn, tmd otUr 
Poemt, — 

RBCOLLBCTIONS. 

There is a feeling, calm and holy. 

That o'er the veriest senses ateah, 
It breathea a tone of melanoholy, 

And yet a silent jot rereala. 
It is, when Memory loves to dwell 

On the bright visions of the putt, 
Times that our fancy loved so well, 

Too bright, too beautiful to laat. 
We love to muse on childhood's hoiir« 

When all that met our gaae was br^t, 
To feel again that thrilling power, 

That waked our infantine delight. 
And how each fair, each winning ioeiie« 

That charm 'd us with its sunny amile, 
Vanish*d as though it ne'er hadoeena 

Or lingered only for the while. 

And though long years have thlnn'd oar 
brow. 

And quench'd the vigour of the frawt. 
Each happy scene is treasured now, 

In all its loveliness the same. 
O yes ! 'tis sweet indeed to dwell 

On the bright visions of the past. 
Scenes that our fancy lov*d too well, 

Too bright, too beautiful to last. 

Z.e//tFt from the Virgin bhmde.^A, 
small volume of light and ag r eea bl e 
reading, containing a number of little 
anecdotes and narratives, from whieh, if 
correct and well chosen, more ia to be 
learnt of the mannera and habita of a 
people, than from a formal and graver 
history. The style is as follows, (p. 88.) 
•« The Creole girls are exceedingly agree- 
able ; notwithstanding their rich American 
drawl, and their inddent habita, seen in 
their slipshod attire, still are there many 
good qualities to counterbalance. They 
are kind-hearted creaturea, whose whole 
soula are wrapped up in the duties re- 
quired of them. Aa the circle of ^"^-'~ 



1844.] 



New Pubbcatioiu. 



m 



deiiro», perbapi their kiiowlodgd, u oftei» 
bono deft by their oirn sea-^rt islet; 
Tbe feelini^s Ihas coofiiied appear to play 
ftroiifer for it ; like the vibratioaa of a 
w«tcb, IhAt becomje quicker aa you contract 
thdr range* The man who findt out, in 
bit total devotion to himfielf, some thing 
to eozapenAate for dimity of micD and 
eleg^aAce in acquirements, ^oen not deserve 
half the love with which an idaad maiden's 
fine • Ionic eyes * would be lighted for 
htoit Then they are the beit nurgcfi any 
where t — but I cannot add, appareiiUy at 
leait, the quietc«t mistresses. Dear, aweet 
girU, 1 pray acquire a tooe of less im* 
perioiwnefts to yoor doraeatioe,*' fitc. We 
must ^re, as a great curiosity » a genuine 
and original love letter from a talfie swain 
to hit table sweetheart ; a faithless house- 
naaid stole it while its on^ner was asleep, 
and carried it to her master, who printed 
it, and here it is : 
** Dear Cattryn, 
" Daremneh fine house, and bera much 
ship here ; bera much fine gal too ; but 
me loh CaCrya all time. Buddy Smit 
4ay dat nigger Jock com see you. JIfe ioo 
pmU wid lub, [ihk u a Jimt Mii^kt,^ hope 



you heart like mine. You bery dear to 
George, Me work for oue dollar by day 
here. Buddy Smith bring you dis : he say 
me luh you too much, Catryn." 



Holy Baptism, Pray en t MedUaiion§, 

and atlect Paaiugu on ihe Sacrament 
of BapiiMm^ with (he Baptismal OJht^ 
according io the uite q/' tkf Bmfflith 
CAurck, Sgvare lawo*— Thi* heautiful 
little hook remit! ds us very m^cb ii| 
its form* and in tlie mode in which it ill 
got np, speaking typographically, of iomt.] 
of the smaller devotiuniil works which ap^.f 
pe&red in the latter part of tbe sixteen t^ J 
oeutnry and begin ui tig of ihe seventeenth | J 
with this exception only, that we think i%J 
superior to its predecessors. It is com* 7 
po&ed of passages selected from thaj 
writings of the most etniuent divines Oi J 
every age, in the list of whom will htt 
found the most distinguished ornaments of 
our own venerable and apostolic Church, 
and the whole Belection has been mi ' 
by Archdeacon Manntn;^, who has alsibi 
enriched the work with a preface from hi^ 
own pen. 



LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 



MmW FITBLIOATIOMa. 
Hiti&ry and Biography, 

History of Scotland. By Patrick 
FaAsan TvTi.jtR, esq. Vol. 9 (complc- 
tion). 8vo, 12*, 

History of the British Empire in India. 
By Edward Thornton, esq. Vol 5 
(completion). Bvo. \6g. 

Memoirs of Mary Stuart, Queen of 
Scotland. By L, Stanhopb F» Buck- 
iHdHAU, 2 vols. Bvo. 28t. 

Life and Times of the Good Lord Coh- 
ham. By Thomas Oaupby, author of 
"The LoUards,*' «cc» 3 vols, post H?o. 

Hbtorical Record of the Eleventh , or the 
*' Prinw Albert's Own," Regiment of 
Hosaart; rontaininf an Account of tbe 
7on&attOQ of the ilegimcnt in 1715, and 
ofitseubseqaent services to 1 84 S. 870. Sm, 

Pictorial History of France, and of the 
French people, from the Establishment 
of the Franks in Gaul to the period of 
the French Revolution, enriched with 
Four Hundred De aisles by Julibs Davio> 
2 vols, royal 8vo. 30f, 

History of Frederick the Great. By 
Frakcu Kuolkb. With 500 original 
Beaigni by Adolph Menzel. From the 



German by Ebwaao A. MQitiAftTY,A.B, j 

Royal Bvo. 31f . 

The United States of America : thej^ 
History, from the earliest period ; thetf J 
Industry^ Commerce, National Works, &C,n 
By HcoH Murray, F.R.S.E. 3 vols* J 
VoL 1. 5#. J 

Antigua and the Antigttaus ; a full Ac- 
count of the Colony and its luhahitaDtib J 
from the time of tbe Cariba to the prcseai] 
day« i' vok. post Bvo. 2\ji* 

Journals kept by Mr. Gully and Cap- J 
tain Dettham during a Captivity in China 1 
in the year 1B42. Edited by a Barrister.^ 
8vo. m. iid. 

Memoir of the Life and Writings of! 
the late William Taylor of Norwich ; coo^ J 
tainiog his Correspondence of many yeartl 
with the bte Robert Southey, esq. an4 | 
Original Letters from Sir Walter Scott, ^ 
and other Eminent Literary Men. Com^i 
piled and edited by J, W. RouBEnniJ 
F,G.S. of Norwich. 2 vols. 8vo. 3t»#. 

Annual Monitor for 1844 ; or, ObituarT^ 
of the Members of the Society of Frieiidi j 
in Great Britain and Ireland for the ycif] 
1843. I8mo. U. Qd, 

Politics and Statiitia. 

Whit it is to be Done? or, Past, 
Presenti and Future. 8vo, 2f, 6d* 



174 



New Publicaiions. 



[Feb. 



The Currency and the Country. By 
John Gellibrand Hubbard, esq. 8yo. 
.3«. 0'<f . 

Reciprocity. By a Manufacturer. 8to. 
1#. 6d. 

The Wrongs of our Youth : an Essay 
on the Late- Hour System. By Ralph 
Barnes Grindrod, LL.D. 8to. U, 

Letters on American Debts. By the 
Rev. Sydney Smith. First printed in 
the Morning Chronicle. 8to. ^d. 

Ireland : Memoir of the Union, and the 
Agitations for its Repeal ; in which that 
measure, its causes and consequences, are 
historically and politically reviewed, and 
its indisRolnbility demonstrated from many 
great authorities, and particularly by that 
of D. O'Connell, esq. M.P. By an Irish 
Roman Catholic. 8to. 2#. (id. 

Can Woman Regenerate Society? 3*. 6</. 

Essay on Cemetery Interments, awarded 
the prize offered by the directors of the 
Reading Cemetery Comi^ny. Edited, 
with the report of the Select Committee 
on the Health of Towns, and selections 
from the evidence taken before the com- 
mittee, by John Richards, jun. esq. 
F.S.A. 8vo. iid. 

Some Observations on the Mental State 
of the Blind, and Deaf and Dumb, sug- 
grated by the case of Jane Sullivan, both 
blind, deaf, dumb, and uneducated. By 
R. Fowler, M.D. l2mo. 29. 

Travels and Topography, 

The Highlands of iCthiopia. By Major 
W. C. Harris. 3 vols. 8vo. 3 plates and 
nap. 42t. 

Recollections of Ceylon, after a Resi- 
dmce of nearly Thirteen Years : with an 
■econnt of the Church Missionary Society's 
opcntions in the Island, and extracts 
flbom a Joomal. By the Rev. James 
Sblkirk. 8vo. 14f. 

Domcitic Scenes in Greenland and 
Icdaad. 8 engravings. 2m. 6d. 

Wanderingsin the Highlands and Ihlands, 
widkikctehcs taken on the Scottish Border; 
hamg a wapel to ** Wild Sports of the 
VciU" By W. H. Maxwell, esq. 
^harof** Storin of Waterloo,'' &c. '2 
idh.»vo.S4t. 

SrtBKT ud Antiqnitira of the Abbey 

If SL UBBid*t Bury. By the Rev. 

Bbbabb Tatbs. D.D. F.R.S. With 

^bnif te muk eoaiidenhle Monasterial 

liBHHi,^ tht Bcr. William Yates. 

arit i Mbl «3& ^ditkms, royal 4to. 

iP^iiA- & Sk; lBE|a T"P^» ^* ^- • ^^ 

'tewflfaaLlMBymind plates to 1st 

■Mm Hi^.na.i^gl.8f. 



fA| oTthe 



of the Development of the Modern Re- 
ligious Systems. By Thomas W^illiam 
Marshall, B.A. 8yo. 199. 

Scripture Characters ; being a Practical 
Exposition of the Histories of the Events 
contained in the Holy Scriptures, for the 
edification of youth. By Robert Huish. 
12«. 

The Land of Israel according to the 
Covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and 
with Jacob. By Alex. Keith, D.D. 
Post 8vo. 18 plates and 2 maps. B9, Gd. 

The Anglican Church in the Nineteenth 
Century, indicating her relative ]K>sition 
to dissent in every form, and presenting a 
clear and unprejudiced view of Puseyism 
and Orthodoxy. By W. C. C, Hum- 
phreys, esq. 8vo. 99. 

The Position of the Church of England 
in the Catholic world, suggested by a 
perusal of No. 90 of the Trai^ts for the 
Times. By the Rev. James R. Page, 
M.A. 8vo. 8i. 

Christ on the Cross ; an Exposition of 
the Twenty. second Psalm. By the Rev. 
John Stevenson. Cr. 8vo. 7i. 6rf. 

Occasional Discourses. By the Rev. 
John Cumming, M.A. Vol. 1. 1^'mo. 6«. 

The Order of the Daily Service of the 
united Church of England and Ireland, as 
arranged for use in quires, and placi's 
where they sing. By Thomas Tallis. 
Newly edited by John Bishop, of Chel- 
tenham. 8vo. 6#. 

The Pilgrim*s Staff and Christianas Daily 
Walk, Second Series — Meditations, Illus- 
trations of Holy Writ, Prayers, &c. for 
every Morning and Evening. By Henry 
Smith. V2mo, 6«. 

The Psalms of David, with the Scripture 
Paraphrases according to the authorised 
version of the Church of Scotland. By 
the Rev. John Cvmming, M.A. Timo. 5«. 

Ambrose Ward, or the Dissenter re- 
claimed : a tale for the times. 4s. 6d. 

Christian Consolation ; or, the Unity of 
the Divine Procedure a Source of Comfort 
to Afflicted Christians. By the Rev. E. 
Mannering, author of " Christian Con- 
sistency." Sec, As, 

Disi-ourses on Scripture Subjects. By 
William Gillsox. V2mo. 3«. (id. 

First Companion to the Lord's Table ; 
designed for the use of ])ersuns lately con- 
firmed ; with an introduction. By the 
Rev. Thomas Dale, M.A. 32mo. 3«. 
calf '.i9. Cd. ; morocco .'i«. 

Sabbath Musings throughout the Year. 
By Mrs. Colooel Mack a v. IHmo. 
29. Gd. 

Holy Baptism ; Fraycrit, Meditations, 
and Select I'assages on the Sarrament of 
Baptism, with the Baptismal Ofliics, ac- 
cording to the use of the English Church. 
By Archdeacon Manning. 2#. Gd, 



1844.] 



Nexb Publicaiions. 



175 



I 



I 



Six Lectiires on the Morning Service 
of the Churchy delivered durmg Lent in 
the Parish Church of Crowle, Lincoln- 
■hlre. By tht Rev, B. J. Aamstrong. 

A Letter to the Dean of Chichester 
on his Sermou preached in Cb [cheater 
C*thedra], Oct. 15^ 1843, ** On the occa- 
fioD of publicly receiving into the Church 
a Convert from the Church of Rome," 
By the Rev. M, A. TiERNny, F.R.S. 
F.S.A. 8vo. 1#. 6rf* 

A Holy Zeal for her Little Children 
the present Hope of the Church r a Ser- 
mon : to which are added, Prayers for the 
Timea. By J AMES Skinner^ A.M. 
13mo, 2*. 

Trial of the Spirits^ or Popery hrought 
to the Scripture Test : the Suh stance of 
Two Sermon § preached at Hanover 
Chapel, Walworth* By IL L» Popfe- 
WELt. ilvo. Is, 

Church in Canada : Journal of a Visi- 
tstion to the Western Portion of hia Dio- 
cese* by the Lord Bishop of Toronto, in 
the Autumn of 1842. 18aio. ac/. 

The Book of British Ballade. £dited 
by S. C. Hall, F.S.A. ^d series, imp. 
8?o. numerous iUost rations. 2\m. 

Botiiloir Lyriea* By FLoaBKct: Wil*> 
BON. avo, 7t* 6rf. 

Poemata Lyrica, Vcrsu Latino Ri ma rite 
scripts. Henrico D. Ryokr, in Ecclesia 
Cath. Lichficldensi Canonieo. l<Jmo. 4t. 

Monads Isle^ And other Fo€in^< By 
William KcNifisKr R.N. 8vo. 5#. 

Spanish Student ; a Play, in Three 
Acts. By Henrv Wads worth Long- 
riLLOW. Square. 4*. 

Voices of the Night. By the aamr. 4#. 

Ballads, and other Poems. By the 
same. 4«, 

Catherine Douglas: a Tragedy. 8vo. 5i, 

Griseldn : A Dramatic Poem. Trana- 
liited from the German of FKe:o£ji:icK 
Halm. Royal IfcJmo. 4«. 

Hymns and Scenes of Childhood ; or, 
a Sponsor's Gift. 18 mo. 3i. 

Agitation t a Poetical Essay. By 
Laicub. Svo. 2jf, 

Poems on various subjects. By Tuos. 
Wray. 24nio. 1*. Grf. 

The Vigil of Faith , and other Poems, 
By Charles Finno HorrMAN. 24mo. 
Itf. 

Atlanston, or the Infidel: a Novel. 
Edited by Lady Chatterton. 3 vols, 
post 8vo. ^I#. 6d, 

The Unloved Ooe : a Domestic Story. 
By Mrs* Hoflano. 3 vols, post bvo. 
3U. (></» 



Irish Coquette : a KoveL 3 vols. VoL 
I, post 8vo. lOf, iid. 

Adventures of Mr. Ledbury and hit 
Friend Jack Johnson. By ALBEilr 
Smith, esq. Author of the *' Wassail 
Bow It* ' 3 vols. 8vo* with illustrations 
by Leech, 31if, Sd. 

Whimsicalities ; a Periodical Gather- 
ing, By Thomas Hoon. With numer- 
ous iltufltrations, from designs by Leech. 
2 vols, crown Bvo. 21 #. 

Chronicles of Gretna Green. By Pbtkr 
Orlando Hittchinso.n. 3 vols, crown 
8vo. 2U. 

New Sketches of Every Day Life : to- 
gether with Strife and Peace. By Fri:- 
DERicA Bremer. Translated by Mary 
Howitt. 2 vols, post Bvo. 21*. 

Master Timothy^s Book- Case* By G. 
W. M. RBYNOLns. Bvo, with 12 illuf- 
trations. \G«. 

Life and Adventures of Jack of the 
Mill, commonly called Lord Othmill, 
created for his Eminent Services, Baron 
Waldeck, and Knight of Kitcottie : a 
Fireside Story. By William Howitt, 
With 40 illustrations on wood^ by G. F. 
Stirgent. 3 vols. 15#, 

Treasure Trove : the First of a Series 
of Accounts of Irish Heirs : being a Ro- 
mantic Irish Talc of the Last Century. 
By Samvkl LovKR. 8vo. 14*. 

The Child* s Picture and Verse -Book, 
commonly called Otto Spcektcr's Fable* 
Book : with the Original German, and 
w ith Fre n c h t ran si a ted i n t o E nglish . By 
Mary Howitt. 10#. Gcf, 

Puss in Boots, and the Marquis of 
Carabas. Illustrated within original de- 
signs by Otto Speckle r, drawn on stone 
by Lewis Haghe, 7t. Gil. 

Cinderella, by F. W. N. Bayley, with 
numerous humorous illustrationB by 
Cham ; and Tom Thumb, by Hal 
W^iLLs, Student -a t-Law, with numerous 
liumoroni* illustrations by Alfred Crow- 
rjuilL 5j. 6c/. 

Puss in BootSf by E. P* Palmer, with 
illuifrt rat tons, humorous and numerous ; 
and Hop 0* my Thumb, by Gilrert A. 
A' Beckett, with illustrattons, humorous 
and numerous, 4!> iHustrattonSi 2f. (id* 

The Seasons : Four Romances, from 
the Gerxnao of the Baron de la Motte 
Fouqu^v. Fcp : — 

Spring— Undine, '2». tirf. 
Summer — Two Captains, I*. 
Autumn— Aslauga'B Knight, 1*, 
Winter — Sintram and his Com- 
panions, 3*. 
Strife and Peace ; or, Scenes in Nor- 
way. By Frederika Bremkr, Trans- 
luted from the Swedish. :if4mo. If. (kf. 
Comic Arithmetic, Bvo. with illustra* 
lions, 1*, 



176 



Kew PwUktitimiB. 



[Mk 



A dirifftmu Carol, in Prote ; Mug a 
Gbott Story of Chriitinai. By Cb arlcs 
DiCKBNf, with iUoitntioDi by John 
Leech. 5«. 

Chrifltmu Tatet. Bto. 3«. 6J. 

Happy Hoars, or the Home Story- 
Bo»k. By Mary Chcbwell. With 
illaitratiooi from dengni by Gilbert. 

Petirr Parley 'i Lires of the Twelve 

A|KiitIfii. With beautifuHy.ftDiihed por- 
trait! on wood, from origiaali by the Old 
Maatrn. -U. 

Wiiat to do, and how to do it; or, 
Moral* and Manner* taught by Examples. 
By Pr.ir.H I'ari.et. l^mo. woodcuts, 

99. r»r/. 

l^i\r and %f onry : an ETeryDay Tale. 
Hy Mamv Hnwin. IHmo. <«>. 6(f. 

K«Kli! i.'lilT: a Tale. By the Anthor 
of "Tltfi Book of One Syilatde." H- 
Ittslralt d with engravisgi, aquare. 2#. 6d, 

Litnalure and i^nguagt, 

Milton: aljrclure. ByJ. UoMOrGnrt. 
Hvf>. 1«. 

(Irirntal Text Korirty.— Pillar of the 
iltrt-A of thi: Sitiiuitca ; being a brief Ez- 
imaition of tliHr prini-l|»al Tenets. By 
lUfidh-IJldin AbiiMbarakat Abdallah At- 
BSsaA. To whirh is aabjoined, a shorter 
IVfttliart of a similar nature, by Najm- 
uldln Abu Hafs I'mar AInasafl. Edited 
by llir Ui-v. W1M.IAM CuRBTON, M.A. 
rU.K. Hoy. Mvo. :»•. 

A Few Leaves out of a Manuscnnt 
(iraiiiinHr on th« Pmnunelatlon of the 
Kalian Unguage. By J. B. Taiidi. 
nSmo. 1*. 

Rcaaona for Eatablishing an Authora* 
Publication Society, by which literary 
labour would receive a more adequate re- 
ward, and the price of all new books be 
much reduced. Bvo. U. 

The Present System of Publishmg ; be- 
ing an Examination of a proposed Plan 
for superseding it. 8vo. 1«* 
Medicine* 

Medicines, their uses and mode of ad- 
ministration, Including a complete Con- 
spectus of the three British Pharma- 
eopccias; an account of all the New 
Remedies ; and an appendix of Formulae. 
By J. MooRE Nelioan, M.D. 8vo. 

On the Nature and Treatment of Tic 
Douloureux, Sciatica, and other Neuralgic 
Disorders. By He«»y Hunt, M.D. 

*^vo. ()*. . , .«^ . 

Natural History, Pathology, and Treat- 
ment of the Epidemic Fever at present 
prevailing in Edinburgh and other towns, 
Ulustrated by Cases and Dissections. By 
^» Rose Coucaok, M.D. 8to. 6#. W. 
8 



Two E«tyt OB Ae IHihmw of the 
Spiae : 1, Ob AngalBr Coratare of te 
Spine, and Iti TreataMBt; 9, Ob the 
Trentnent of Lateni CwrvatBre by Gravi- 
Ution, Lateral Exerdaet &c. By R. A. 
Staptord. ?to. 5t. 

GloMology ; or, the sUitioBal meau of 
Diagnosis of Diaone to be derived fhrn 
indications and qipeanaeea of theTtoogee, 
read before the Senior Phyacal Sodety 
of Gny*B Hospital, Nov. 184J. Sj 
Benjamin Ridge. M.D. Bro. 4*. W. 

Introductory DiieoBne ob the DolSes 
and Conduct of Medicd StadeBti tad 
Practitionen, addrHsed to tiie StndeBta 
of the Medical School of St. George's 
Hospital, Oct. S, 1843. By Sir Bin- 
JAMIN C. Bbodib, Bart. F.R.S. 8vo. It. 

Nutwrml autor^t ^pe. 

Botany of the Voyage of H.M.S. 
Sulphur, under the eommaBd of CapL 
Sir Edw. Belcher, R.N. &c. Edited and 
superintended by R. B. Hinds. Ae 
Botanical Descriptions by Gbobsb Bbst- 
THAM, Esq. No. 1. roy. 4to. lOt. 

Essay on the Physiognomy of Serpents. 
By H. ScHLEOEL, Doctor io Philosophy. 
Translated by Tbom AS Stewabt TbailLv 
M.D. F.R.S.E. CrowB 8to. fit. 6& 

Short and simple Letters to Cottsgers. 
By W.C. Cotton, M.jl. Iftno. St.M. 

The Resources Fanners poise h fbr 
meeting the Reduced Prices of thrir 
Produce. By Hewitt Datis. 8to. St. 

Treatise on Alkali as a Manure, shew- 
ing its Cheapness and Efficiency for in* 
creasing the Productiveness of the 80II. 
By Henbt Watebton, Esq. 8to. It. M 

ocfeiice. 

Introduction to Practical OrgSBio Che- 
mistry : with References to tlM works of 
Davy, Brande, Liebig, &c. ISmo. St. €d. 

Arehiteetmre, 

Architecture in England, fhHB Oe 
earliest to the present time. 8vo. 7t. 

Architectural lUnstrations of KeltsiiBf 
Church, Northamptonshire. By R. W. 
Billings. Medium 4to. 80 plates, sad 
descriptive letterpress, 10<. 6d, ; imp. 4to. 
15«. 

Architectural Illustrations of the eoBBty 
of Durham. By the same. Part 1, bm- 
dium 4to. 2«. ; imp. 4to. 4f. 

Heraldry. 
Heraldic Illustrations, comprliiBg the 
Armorial Bearings of the Principal Fkaii- 
lies of the Empire, with Pedigrees sBd 
Annotations. By John Bubkb, Esq. 
and John Bebnaed Bubkb, Esq. royal 
8vo. 53 pUtes and letterpress, 31t. 6A 



1844.] 



Literary and Scientific InteUigeuce, 



\77 



rm0 ArU. 



PSctoiial MuBcom of Aaimated Nature. 
Vol. I — Mammalia aod Birdi^fol. ](i#. Gd. 

PajDe's UoiTersQTD \ or, Pictorial World j 
being a Collection of Engrariogs of Viewa 
in all Co an tries, Portrait* of Great Men» 
■nd Specimens of Works of Art of all 
Ages snd of every Character. Edited by 
Charlks EnWARDS, Esq. No, 1, 4to. 
4 pUtei and leCterpre^sa^ sewed^ It* 

Sports, 

Treatise on the Game of Cbess, con- 
taioiit^ an Introduction to the Game, and 
an Analysis of the venous OpeningB of 
Gamet, with federal New Mode« of Attack 
and Defence. To which are added, 25 
New Cheat Problems and Diaj^ams. By 
W, Lswts. Bvo. 18#. 

Part Music, Edited by John Mullah, 
Class A, Soprano, Alto^ Tenor, and Ba»8. 
No. 9, Score, St. 6rf. ; leparate part*, M. 
each. 

School Music ? or* Song§ and Hymns 
from " The Singing Master ;" compriNtng 
76 Moral Songs for Children* nrrangred to 
Popular Airs, and 70 Paalms and HymnB, 
with their appropriate Tunes. «vo. 5«, M* 

Annuah, 

^Comic Album, 1?44* a Book for Every 
*>le, 4 to. with 150 ill us t rations, ele- 
Etly bound, 12«« 

Pnpuring/or Publication, 

Mr. JonN MAJon is prejmring a fourth 
edition of his celebrated *' Walton's An- 
fl«r/' with great improvements, ai aug- 
fttt«d by himself and his friends, after 21 
years from the first appearance of the 
work. 



is 



VjriritRflTY OF CASinAIOGB. 

The subject of the Seatonian Prise 

Poem, for the present year, is '♦ Sit her,'* 

Jan, fi. The Hulsean Prixe for 1H43, 

fliT, '"", lihtigation of iht Sahbatk, 

Mii' / of the institution and its 

ktji...,,.. ,,,,,, a Me eartieni iime» to the 
pTMent daj/^*' was adjudged to Charles 
Jofan Ellicott, B.A. (I**41), of St. John's 
CoUegeu The Trustees of the Hulseau 
Prise have given notice that the premium 
will this year be given for the best disser- 
tation on the following subject: ** The 
tttw/kilntti and oblUfation of Oatht in a 
ChttMtian cormmitniiy, and the injiuenee 
which thwy Have Had upon society at d\f* 
/wrmi ptnods.'^ 



aOVAL isOClKTY. 

Tlie Society awsrded its gold medals 
tor 1 843 10 Prof. Forbes, of Edinburgb, 
Gkwt* Mao. Vol. XXL , 



for his Researches on the Law of Ex* 
tj action of the Solar Rays ; to Prof, 
%\'heatstoac, for bis Account of severU 
ntiw instruments and processes for de* 
termining the Constants of a Voltatc 
Circuit; and the Copley medal to M. Jeau 
B. Dumas, for his Researches in Organic 
Chemistry. These were presented at the 
anniversary meeting on the 30th Nov* by 
the President, 

George Dollond, esq. P.RS. has pre* 
rented a bust of his grandfather, John 
Dollotid t and Mr. Watt a bust, by 
Chantrey, of his iliustrioiis father, Jamea 
Watt, to' the Society. Mr. Watt husdso 
presented a bust of his father to the 
Academy of Sciences at Paris. 

The Earl of Aberdeen has communicated 
to the President of the Royal Society, an 
announcement received from the Austrian 
Minister concerning a Scienttlic Meeting 
at Milao, which is appointed to be held 
next autumn. The sum of 10,000 Uvrcs 
will be de?oted to experiments, on that 
oecasioDi in physical science. 

nOTAL ASIATIC SOCTETY* 

Jan, 20. Prof. H. H. WilaoQ in the 
chair. 

The proceedings of the day were de- 
cUred special, for the puri>ose of making 
provision for the more ready admission 
into the Society of gentlemen visiting 
Euglund on temporary leave of absence! 
from their services in India- The result 
of the discussion was, that the existing 
regulations were declared to provide suf* 
Aiuently for the object in view, as it 
would be competent, under a liberal in* 
t^rpretation of Art. XLix. for any mem- 
bers of the services of the Crown or the 
East India Company, whose usnal abode 
would be in the Pret^idenoies and settle- 
ments to which they are permanently nt- 
tached, to become non-resident Mombersr 
for which privilege the annual payment 
wouhl be two guineas. A general hope 
was expressed tliat this resolution would 
become extensively known, and that it 
would lead many persons to avail them- 
selves of the benefits which it holds out* 
Jt was further resolved, that, in moditica- 
tion of Art. xxti. of the Regulations, oil 
candidates for admission into the Society, 
proposed at one meeting, should, in future, 
be balloted for at the following m«eting,^ 

KOYAl. AORlCULTraAt SOCtETY. 

The Royal Agricultural Society of 
England has published the annual an- 
nouncement of prizes offered for 1M4, 
when the annual exhibitions witl be held 
at Sontbampton (principai day July 25 J. 
A acim not exccedmg 300/. Is set apart for 
agncultural implemeDts. Prises are offered 



178 



IMerary and Scientific Intelligence. 



LFeb. 



for estays and reports on Tarious subjecti, 
vix., Water meadows and upland pastures, 
<.H) SOTS. ; Influence of climate, 20 sovs. ; 
Indications of fertility and barrenness, 
50 SOTS. ; Agriculture in Norfolk, Che- 
shire, and Wiltshire, each 50 sots. ; Im- 
proTements by warping, S?0 sots. ; Keep- 
ing farm horses, 'JO suts. ; besides i'O 
■ovs. for the best essay on any agpri- 
rultural subject ; all essays to be sent to 
the SecreUry by the 1st of March. 

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL F.NGINKER8. 

Jan. \6, At the AnniTersary Meeting, 
Mr. Walker the President was in the chair. 
A report of council wait read, and memoirs 
of Professor Wallace of Edinburgh, Mr. 
Buddie of Newcastle, and seTeral other 
deceased members. Telford medals were 
presented to Messrs. F. W. Simms, W. 
Pole, and T. Oldham, for communications 
presented by them to the Institution (as 
already recorded in p. 71 ). Telford and 
Walker premiums of books were also pre- 
sented to Messrs. D. Mackain, D. Brem- 
ner, D. T. Hope, R. MaUet, W. J. M. 
Rankine, W. L. Baker, S. C. Uomersham, 
J. O. York, 6. D. Bishopp, and G. B. 
W. Jackson, for their papers and draw- 
ings, which had been read and ezhihibited 
during the past session. The President 
addressed the meeting upon the internal 
management of the society, the election 
of his Royal Highness Prince Albert as 
an honorary member, the valuable addition 
to the library presented by the Duke of 
Buccleuch, the course of study and prac- 
tice most beneficial for young engineers, 
and the opportunity atforded by the insti- 
tution for coming adTantageously before 
the world. He then, among other novel 
subjects connected with engineering, spoke 
of having lately visited the atmospheric 
railway near Dublin ; and said, that 
without prognosticating as to the future, 
the experiments he witnessed appeared 
more promising than those with locomo- 
tive engines at a corresponding early 
period of their introduction upon railways. 
He also gave a short notice of the con- 
nexion of Colonel Stoddart with the insti- 
tution, as iu Honorary Secretary, in the 
years 1R34-5 ; alluding to the exertions 
now making for ascertaining the fate, and 
if possible obtaining the release, of both 
Colonel Stoddart and Captain C^onoUy, 
who, there was every reason to believe, 
were really still alive, although detained 
in a sort of captivitv. 

The ballot for the Council took place, 
when the following gentlemen were 
elected : — Messrs. J. M'alker, President ; 
W. Cubitt, n. Donkin, J. Field, and H. 
U. Palmer, Vice-Presidents ; W. T. Chirk, 
V. Giles, G. Lowe, J. MUler, W. C. 



Mylne, J. M. Rendel, G. Rennie, R. 
Sibley, J. Simpson, J. Taylor, F. Braith- 
waite, and W. Cubitt, other members and 
associates of Council. 



8ALE or AUTOGRAPHS. 

An interesting collection of letters and 
autographs of eminent characters, both 
living and dead, has been sold by Mr. 
Fletcher in Piccadilly. It was stated in 
the catalogue to belong to a ** lady of 
title, an eminent authoress,** and it was 
understood that the lady was Lady Har- 
riet D^Orsay. The following were some 
of the most important articles : — A letter 
from his late Majesty George IV. to Mrs. 
Robinson, sold for 34«. A letter from 
Mrs. Jordan, dated Bushey-park, 1798, 
3()«. Another letter from the same lady, 
4?«. Letters from G. Colman the elder, 
to Macklin, Fawcett and Bannister, od 
the farce of the Retiete and the soiif of 
** The Ghost," in Bannister's Jta^vl, 
realised sums of lOt. 15«. and SOt. eadi. 
A letter from Garrick to Newcombe, 2Sff. 
A letter of the late Edmund Kean. sold 
for3U. The numbers on the eatalogiie 
from No. 65 to 108 consisted of letters 
from Munden, Young, Quick, C. Ms- 
thews, Liston, J. Kemble, Teny, Tkte, 
Wilkin«on, Madame Vestris, Bobii, 
Power, Sheridan Knowles, &c., and 
realized sums from 5«. to lOi. Hie sig- 
nature of Sir Isaac Newton to a reoei|it, 
S0«. A receipt of Sir Christopher Wren, 
written on the day he died, and dated 
1718, 10«. From No. 118 to 150, the 
collection consisted of letters from emlnoit 
painters, comprising the names of Lsw* 
rence, Beechy, Copley, Shee, Constable, 
Hayter, Stanfield, &c., and realised nus 
averaging from 25«. to 5«. A letter of 
Lord Edward Herbert, bearing date 1645, 
25«. A letter from Matthew Prior to 
Braithwate, i?5«. A letter from the poet 
Shenstone to the Honourable Mr. Knif ht, 
relative to his poems, sold for 34i. Letter 
from Bloomfield respecting his poem of 
the *< Farmer's Boy,*' SOt. A letter frm 
Southey. the late poet laureate, to Sir 
Walter Scott, 13«. Letter from Chen. 
lier Ramsey to the Pretender, 13s. Letter 
from G. Scott to the Earl of Bnchm, 
L>3s. A letter from the Duke of WeUington 
to Madame St. Etienne, I6f. The other 
lots consibted of letters from MoorSt 
Canning, Byron, &c. and brought i 
sums. 



ANCIKNT MANUSCRIPTS. 

M. Minoi tie Minas has returned from 
a scientific mission in Greece, Tliesndy, 
and Constantinople, which lasted three 
years, and was undertaken at the deriro 
of the Minister of Public InstroctlOlk 



•3 



Fine Arts. 



Amongst the valuabte manuficnpts dis- 
coyereil and broiight to France by M- 
Miiia« initf benotieed;. Fables hj Babryas, 
A fnigineDt of the SOth b<iok of Poljbius, 
■eTcral extracts from Dexippu:i ami Eu- 
I ■cbiuj« two biitonans but little known tu 
IS, a fragmeat of the historian Pryseas, 
I treaty of the celebrated Gal lien wbicb 



1/9 



was deficient in hh collection, a nevr edi- 
tion of Msop*& Fables, with a life of the 
fabuliat^ a Treatise on Greek Syntax by 
Gregory of Corinth, an unpublisUed 
grammar of Theodoaius of Alexandria, a 
hiiitory of the conquest of China by the 
Tartars, and various other works^ which 
have safely arrived at Paris. 



FINE ARTS. 



STATUeS FOa THE CITV OF LONl>ON, 

The bronze equestriaa statue of the 
Doke of Wellington, to be placed oppo- 
fcwte the entrance to the New Royal Ex- 
[chanfe. Is proceeding rapidly towarda 
ompletion, under the direction of Mr. 
feeka (the successor of the ktc Sir F. 
IChantrey), to whom it is entrusted. The 
|ftatae of William iV,, from the design of 
1, Nixon, to be placed at the Junction of 
fshurch- street and King William* 
will he shortly rai.«red upon its 
ital. The figure is colossai, being 
rdi of 14 feet in height. It in exe* 
i in Devonshire granite, and will coat 
»hcn completed 2^200/., which aura was 
voted by the corporation of the City of 
ndou for that purpoae. His Majesty is 
epresenled in the cos turn (.' of a High Ad- 
Upon the pedestal (a round one) 
sculptured a wreath of laurel, in the 
CDtre of which an appropriate description 
ill be engraved. The spot upon which 
his atatae will be erected is the exact site 
r the famous Boar's Head of Eosteheap, 
, statue by Nixon h likewise in a forward 
at«| of Jobn Carpenter, town-clerk in 
' reign of Henry VL, founder of the 
y of London Schools, and executor to 
he celebrated llichard Whittington* This 
atoe is six feet high, and will be exe- 
sd in Roche Abbey stone, similar to 
at used by Baily, Rossi, Westmacott, 
nd others, for the friexes and pediments 
I front of Buckingham Palace. It is to 
placed upon the first landing of the 
drcaae of the City of London Schools, 
nd exactly opposite the principal en- 
ance. There is farthert in the same 
in actiTe preparation, a statue of 
Sir John Crosby, to be placed in Crosby 
Hall, Biahopsgate*street. The model ex- 
hibits the knight in the ''winged " arnoour 
of the period, ei am pies of which may be 
met with in the Tower, &c., and of this 
piirticular lait at the tomb of the knight 
himselfj in the church of St, Helen's, 
close by the ball of which he was the pos- 
sessor. It is remarkable that the two latter 
mta — Sir John Crosby and John Carpeii* 



ter — both neighhour^, and the latter living 
in Comhiil, should both now» and this after 
the expiratioD of upwards of 400 years, 
have statues tiect* »l to their memory by 
the same sculptor, but by order of two 
distinct institutions. 



KAHl* OF LEICESTER S MONUMRNT. 

On the 4th Jan, the Committee ap- 
pointed by the subscribers to decide upon 
the adoption of a design for the Memorial 
to Lord Leicester met for that object. 
There w^ere Tti plans and models exbibited. 
One, No. 40, was chosen, subject to cer- 
tain arrangements with the architect, Mr* 
Donthorne, of Hanaver-strect, London. 
We subjoin a description of the design i-^- 

No, 4i>, — ** To him whose pride it was 
to render the Farmer independent.** 
This design is composed of a pedestal, ou 
which is erected a tluted coluntD, sur- 
mounted by a wheats heaf. Three sides 
of the pedestal are has reliefs : one repre- 
senting the late Earl graotiDg a lease to a 
tenant ; the second represeating the Holk- 
haiQ sheep shearing, through which the 
great stimulus was first given to agricul- 
ture ; the third to indicate irrigation. The 
fourth side of the pedestal is left for the in- 
scription. The four comers of the pedestal 
show the means by which cultivation and 
production were improved and increased 
by the Inte Earl. At the firat comer, an 
ox, with the inscription under it, "'Breed- 
ing in all its branches'^ At the second 
comer, Southdown sheep, with the in* 
scriptiotj under them, ** Small in size, but 
great in value/* The third comer, the 
plough, with the inscription, '* Live and 
let liTe," The fourth coracri the drill, 
with the inscription, "The improvement 
of agriculture.'" 

TlTlAIf's VINUt, 

A letter from Dresden says :— The re- 
cent discovery of the Venus by Tittan, 
now excellently restored, excites conside- 
rable interest. The pictxire is an object of 
tlte greatest admiration with all amateurs. 
This roagnificeat work Uas been more 




180 



Archiiecture. 



[Feb. 



tfaAB one hnndred yean coBceaJed ander a 
ma»s of animportaot paintings, and dif- 
ferrat kindi of rabbi sh. For the discorerf 
of this treasure we hare to thank the Di- 
rector Mathai and the Academy Conncil. 
It is the most perfect picture that can be 
looked upon. Exquisite as are some of 
the paintini;s of Venus we already possets, 
they are all far behind this master-piece, 
particularly in the handling of the flesh 
and the background. 



PA NO BAM A OP rRCPOmT. 

Mr. Burford has opened in Leicester 
Square, a panoramic view of the French 
harbour of Treport, as it appeared at the 
time of the Queen of England's risit to 
Louis Phiilippe, in 1B43. Treport is but 



a mall village, or wi moot ft little i 
town, but it itanda boldlf on the entraoee 
of a bay or inlet of the Mft. The road 
from it to £a it ateep, and that town, with 
iti noble dinrch, givea ft fine effeet to the 
backgroand of the preaent picture. The 
whole scene ia bcantifUly at wellaa faith* 
fully depicted by the artiat* who had the 
advantage of being preaent at the time of 
the memorable event it repreaenta. The 
principal group of fignrea ia the royal 
party, who have joat landed from the 
Reine Amelie yacht, and are moring to* 
wards the pavilion. It ia, on the whole, 
one of the most lively and animated 
scenes ever depicted, very cerefUly and 
admirably executed, and equally pictu- 
retqne in ita eonceptloii and amngaBOBt. 



ARCHITECTURE. 



IX9TITUTE OP BRITISH ARCR1TRCT8. 

Jan, 24. T. L. Donaldson, V.P. in 
the chair. 

A communication was read from William 
Bromet, M.D. F.S.A. relative to the 
new bridge lately erected over the River 
Moine, at Cliasoo, near Nantes, in 
Britanny. The river runs in a deep ravine, 
is at all times shallow, and consequently 
unnavigable. and is seldom frozen. In 
the design of the structure, it was ne- 
cessary for the architect to consider it 
lees as a bridge than as a viaduct for the 
more ea^y parage of the ravine. The 
length of the bridge between the abut- 
ments is about 350 English feet, the width 
of the carriage- rond and two footways 
together ^27 feet, making the entire width, 
including the thickness of the parapet 
walls, 30 feet. The arches are fifteen in 
namber, of M) feet 4 inches in span, and 
of a semicircular form (eight being land 
arches), the whole supported by fourteen 
lofty piers, and a long abutment at either 
end, following the slope of the banks or 
aides of the ravine ; the springing line of 
the arches is about 33 feet 3 inches above 
the bed of the river. The total height 
from the bed of the river to the top of the 
parapets, is about 64 feet 3 indies. The 
foundations of the piers of the seven 
principal arches are carried about 6 feet 
9 inches below the bed. The piers and 
abutments are founded on the dark- 
coloured granitic rock, of which the banks 
are composed, which being too coarse for 
architectural purposes, the superstructure 
has been buUt of a white granite, found in 
the vicinity. The stones are all of a large 
■Ise, well squared and dressed, and closely 
Jotnted with fine white mortar. The 



piers, at their lower eitremitiea, preaent 
fisces uf 5 feet, with retnroa or aidea of 
30 feet in extent. The chief peculiarity of 
the construction consiata in each of theee 
piers, at the height of about 13 feet from 
the bed of the river, being pierced with 
an arched aperture, of a pointed form, 14 
feet in width ; theae arches having the 
same springing line aa the aemicircnlar 
arches, and intersecting the cylindrical 
intradoses of the semicircular archea* and 
thereby formine a series of groined vault- 
ings, which, when viewed longitudinally 
from under either of the abutment archei, 
produces an effect somewhat aimilar to 
that of the nave of a Gothic church. 

Mr. R. W. Billings read a paper, de- 
scriptive of some )iecnliaritie8 in the ar- 
rangement of the plan and in the eon- 
struction of the church of St. Peter and 
St. Paul at Kettering, in Northampton- 
shire, and exhibited numerous diagrams 
in illustration thereof, and of the forma of 
the doors and windows, and the prindplea 
on which the tracery and omamenta had 
been designed. He likewise noticed the 
unuitual height of the spire aa compared 
with the body of the church, by which the 
importance of the latter •really of large 
dimensions) is much diminished ; a cir- 
cumstance not uncommon ia the churohea 
of this district. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

The New Roman Catholic church at 
Lambeth (situated in the Westminster- 
road, opposite the Blind Aaylum and 
Bethlehem Hospital,) is rapidly approach- 
ing completion. The foundation -atone 
was laid in April, 1B40, on which occasion 
the edifice was dedicated to St Geoige, tho 






tntdsr nint of England. It ii the lurgctt 
ecelesiutical edifice deroted to the Roman 
Catholic wonbip that ba§ been cotititracCed 
since the Reformation. Its external di- 
mtnatont are 9^0 feet long by B4 feet 
' broid. Tbe height of the tower at the 
Weat end at present \m GO feet, but when 
completed its extreme elevation will bo 

1330 feet above tbe grt)und level. The 
fitjle of architecture, preserved throughont 
the building, ia tbe florid Gothic. Tbe 
tower ia inoft anbatiintijiliy built of Caen 
itone* ita walla averaging: nine feet in 
thick oeaa. It contains a belfrVr with room 
for a peal of eight belb. On each side of 
the tower are hf,Ury windows, decorated 
wttb mitru, parapets, pinnacles, &c. ; and 
when the funds ibatl admit, it ia intended 
to omanient the walls with LOO statues of 
I saints and martyrs. The tower will be 
surmounted by a steeple, built after the 
pattern of the magnificent spire nf Salis- 
bury CatliedraU and will be terminated by 
a large cross. The interior height of the 
church, from floor to ceiling, ia 57 feet. 
The length of the nave in the clear is ItiO 
feet, by li feet broad ; the chancel is 40 

long by 2G feet broad. Over the en- 
nee to the chancel is a richly -carved 

screen, and a rood-loft, supporting n 
, on each pide of which will be placed 
Btatnes of St. John and St. Anne. From 
either side of tbe rood-loft ascends a spiral 
Btaircaae, terminating externally In two 
turrets decorated with crockets, figures, 
and other ornamental work* Each turret 
ia elevated 40 feet above the ceiling. A 
oaired stone pulpit will be placed at a 
abort distance from tbe chancel screen. 
Adjoining the cbancclr on each side, are 
two small chapels for altars^ over which 
are to be placed stained glass windows. 
The chancel- window is very liu^, mea- 
taring 30 feet by 1@ feet ; tho mullions 
arc of oak, with rich foliage ; the inter* 
stiees will be filled with stained glass of 
various colours, containing the history and 
passion of our Lord* It ts the gift of the 
Bar! of Shrewsbury, and will cost ^00/, 
Underneath will be placed the principal 
oltar, which will be decorated with sUtuea 
of saints and bishops. Another large 
window is placed in the tower oppoiiite 
the chancel -window, and is con«i tiered a 
fine specimen of the florid style of archi* 
lecture. The church contains twenty-eight 
windows. The roof ia constructed of 
ciu^ed stained timber* which will be sten- 
cilled in various colours and devices. The 
mode in which the roof baa been built it 
a modiiication of the manner anoiently 
obeerred in the building of large edifices^ 
tiiBtead of covering the raften of the 
ceiling with lath and plaster, to form a 
baaiB 00 which to conitruct the decorative 



work, as is nsually done in mmlern build- 
inga, tbe raften themselves subserve or- 
namental purposes, by which means con- 
siderable expanse is avoided, and beauty 
is combined with utility. The roof It 
supported by two rows of fluted stont 
pillars, consisling of eii?ht in each row. 
The pillars are IH feet in height, and will 
be finished by capitals elaborately wrought 
in fine stone, carved in rich foliage, and 
connected one with another by small inter* 
colmnniations, in the form of arches, rising 
from tho capitals to the rafters. The floor 
of the nave and aisles will be covered with 
red and bine Staftordflhire tiles, each tile 
measuring six Inches in the square. The 
chancel and side chapels are to be paved 
with encaustic tiles cast in different shapesi 
and of various colours. At the eouth-west 
corner of the south aisle will be placed the 
large and richly ornamented baptismal 
font carved in Caen stone. The interior 
of the church ig not obstructed by gal- 
leries ; the only projections are the organ- 
loft and two small galleries for the choir 
over the two siile doorways at the east 
end. No pews or closed seats will be 
allowed { but open benehci will be placed 
down the ai»les, constructed with low 
backs, so us to afford an unobstructed 
view of the interior. The scats will yield 
ample accommodation for 5,t>00 persons. 
The bare coat of erecting tbe cliurch wiU 
be 40,000/. I but it is expected that a sum 
of 1 0(1,000/. will be necessary to complete 
all the contemplated embellishments and 
improvements. At the east end of tbe 
church is a large sacristy ^ and adjoining 
the north-east corner are cloisters, which 
connect the edifice with a presbytery, con- 
taining a spacious dining-room, and af- 
fording accommodation for several priesta. 
Abutting on this is a convent for the 
Sisters of Mercy, and a school for 300 
children. Tlie convent is fitted up with 
kitchens, refectory, dormlturieB^ a small 
chapel with a belfry, and will furaiib an 
abode for thirteen Sisters of Mercy, whose 
charity and kind offices will be di$tHbuted 
among the members of all religious deno- 
minations who may need aftistance. The 
convent, with its accompanying buildings, 
will cost 7,000/. The architecture dis- 
placed in its construction is of a similar 
tityle to that used In the building of the 
church I only more subdued, and of a lets 
expensive description. Several little tur- 
rets and spires are erected in vorioua ports, 
which give it a very pleading effect. The 
church and nunnery together stand upon an 
area of ground measuring forty- two thou- 
sand e{|uarc feet. The entire edifice it 
built from the design of Mr. Pogin, whOf 
during the last ten years, has been en- 
gaged in the conatmction of thirty -serea 



182 



Architecture. 



[Feb. 



churches. It will be consecrated and 
opened for public worship in the autumn 
of the present year ; but a considerable 
time must necessarily elapse before the 
great tower and spire shall be completed. 
The subscriptions towards this gigantic 
undertaking have, for the most part, been 
raised in the proyinces through the exer- 
tions of the Rev. Mr. Doyle, who is the 
principal officiating priest. The Earl of 
Shrewsbury and t£e late Mr. Benjamin 
Greorge Hodges have been the principal 
contributors. A considerable sum has 
also been subscribed by the poorer classes 
inhabiting the parish of St. George. The 
names of the King of Sardinia, the King 
of Bohemia, and other foreign potentates, 
also appear in the list of contributors. 
The Roman Catholic chapel in the Lon- 
don-road, as soon as the new church is 
finished, will be converted into an hospital 
for the cure of cancer. 



RSSTORATION OF ST. MARY REDCLIFFE 
CHURCH, BRISTOL. 

A meeting of the subscribers of 10/. and 
upwards towards the fund for the restora- 
tion and repair of St. Mary Redcliffe 
Church, Bristol, was held on the 25th 
Jan. the Mayor, William Lewton Clarke, 
esq. in the chair, when the committee 
submitted a report of their proceedings 
since Jan. 1843. The result of their 
endeavours has been the receipt of names 
of subscribers to the amount of 4,708/. 
13«. Qd, including the vote of vestry of 
3,000/. Expenses have been incurred 
amounting to about 490/. The committee 
observed, that the very limited number of 
subscriptions at present announced, must, 
in a great degree, be attributed to their 
own reluctance to urge more strongly 
their claims under the unparalleled de- 
pression in the commercial world during 
the past year, which they felt must pre- 
vent many in their great mercantile city, 
and elsewhere, from rendering their as- 
sistance. They cannot believe that their 
fellow-citizens are careless or indifferent 
towards the preservation of the noble 
fabric, so deservedly the pride of their 
cityi or unmindful of the great and ad- 
vantageous effect on the public feeling 
which would be produced by a general and 
liberal subscription in Bristol, and, as the 
committee trust that brighter prospects 
are opening upon us, they recommended 
the meeting to consider the propriety of 
extending, for a period not exceeding 
twelve months, the time for procuring 
subscriptions under the provision of the 
5lh resolution. Resolutions in accord- 
ance with this report were carried unani- 
mously. 



STAINED GLASS AT LITTLBBOBOUGH, 
CO. LANCASTBB. 

The church of this picturesque village 
has just been embellished by the erection 
of a msgnificent east window of painted 
glass. The window is an indifferent 
specimen of the perpendicular style of 
architecture, and consists of five compart- 
ments, with a middle transom, and some 
head tracery in the turnings of the arches. 
The glass of the upper compartments is 
brilliantly rich, and consists of an ex- 
uberance of geometrical design and decO' 
ration. In the centre division is a Urge 
full-length figure of the Apostle St. Peter, 
crowned with an open screen of richly- 
tabernacled niches. The drapery is 
singularly beautiful, and the character of 
the whole figure dignified and expressive. 
The sacred monogram IHS is appro- 
priately placed above this painting. These, 
with some other pieces, are the gift of the 
ladies in the neighbourhood. Below the 
transom, in the five lights, are various 
intersecting lines of great beauty and in- 
genuity of design, consisting principally 
of glass of a ruby and green hue, taste- 
fully relieved by the insertion of seventeen 
shields, bearing the heraldic arms of some 
of the most ancient and opulent families 
of the parish, many of which, however, 
are now extinct in the male line. The 
middle division contains the arms of the 
Bishop of the diocese, the Vicar of Roch- 
dale (who is the patron of the living), 
and those of the Incumbent. The sim- 
plicity of the design in this compartment, 
strikingly contrasts with the rich, varied* 
and elaborate workmanship above it, whilst 
the intersecting circles, loxenges, and 
other sacred emblems in the lateral 
windows of the church have produced a 
soft and subdued light, as well as having 
greatly improved the appearance of 
the interior. It is gratifymg to state, 
that this good work was designed, under- 
taken, and completed by Mrs. Robert 
Newall, a lady residing in the village 
of Littleborough, near Rochdale, who 
has been fortunate in securing the ser- 
vices of Mr. Christopher Barker, an 
ingenious and talented young artist in 
Rochdale. 



RIPON CATHBDRAL. 

The venerable cathedral of Ripon has, 
during the last two years, undergone se- 
veral repairs. The south-west tower has 
had its bands, mouldings, window-heads, 
and pilasters restored, and the walls tied 
together with large iron bars, thus ren- 
dering it more fit to sustain the peal of 
bells which hang therein. The apex of 
the middle compartment of the west front 
down to the string course under the top 



1844.] 



Antiquarian Researches. 



183 



liglitf httft also been tborotighly restored, 
ftnd an early- English cross, in good taster 
fixed on the point. Grained ceilings, in 
the Norman style, have been added to 
the transepts' roofs. 

NKW COUNTY GAOL AT READING. 

The new gaol for the county of Berks* 
at Reading, which is now in tht^ courae of 
erection at an expense of very nearly 
^;i,(KK>/. is fust approaching townrds com* 
pletion. The east wing is finbhed, in- 
cluding rhe kitchens and all the neceasary 
offioeSf and contains between TO and bO 
reUa. The whole cost of the erection will 
be as foUows :— The building, 28,2.tG/. ; 
the internal tittings, 3,^3/. ; aud the fees 
to the architect, and the salary to the clerk 
of the works, 1 ,4(10/. Totals 32. 953/, 



ST. PETER S CHAPEL, NEWCASTLE. 

Another obituary window of stained 
glass has been added to this heautiful 
cbapeL It i& in memory of the late Miss 
Gothard, of St. Andrew's parish, and has 
been presented by Sanderson Ildertou, 
esq, and his wife and family, Mr. Wailcs 
of Newcastle is the artist. Being coro- 
memorative of a departed female, the 
three lights of the window are, with great 
prot^ricty, filled with three female saints. 
Tlve Blessed Virgin occnpics the centre, 
with the Holy Child in her arms ; and on 
her right is St. Anne, her mother, and on 
her left St. Elizabeth, her cousin. The 
artist has admirably succeeded in giving a 
subdued and mellow tone to the compo- 
sition ; and the window, both in design and 
exeeutioQ, is a great ornament to the cha^ 
pel. 



ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES. 



SOCIETY or ANTIdt^AaiGB. 

Jan, 11. Henry Ilallam, esq. V.P, 
Albert Way, esq. Director, eJthibited it 
rubbing from a very tine foreign sepulchral 
brass, now in the hands of Mr. Pratt of 
Bond-street. It came from a family chapel 
in Germany or Flanders, and represents 
Ludovic Corteville and hn lady. 

Mr*. Douhleday, of the British Museum, 
cjthtbited a small oval seal (in sulphur) 
inscribed a, kag'ri simonis langktox, 
and bearing a hnety-ejtecuted head, which 
may be supposed to be the jior trait of its 
owner, KiEsion Langeton, Archdeacon of 
Canterbury, and brother to the Arch- 
bishop, Stephen Langion. He founded 
a hospital for poor priests at Canterbury 

Mr. Douhleday also e.'ciiibited plaster 
casts of the seal of King Chnrlen the 
Second for the counties of Carmarthen, 
Cardigan, and Pembroke. The obverse 
has the King's effigy on horseback, and 
the legend caholub ii dst gracia mag. 
nniTTASijf raAMCi.£ et ut!iEfiNi.£ rex 
FiO£t nEFKNSon. The obverse has the 
anus of France and England quarterly, 
quartering Scotland and Ireland; sup- 
porters, the dragon and the spotted jmnthcr. 
Above the »hidd a crown, and below a 
plume of three ostrich feathers, and the 
motto icR 01 EN. Lfgend, sig. pro can- 

ClLtAltlA Pao COMtTATlHDS CARMAR- 
THEN CAROIGAN ET PENUROCR. 

Two coloured drawings were exhibited 
by Mr. W. Beak, of Roman tesselated 
pavements, the one presei-vcd in the park 
of Earl Bathurst, the other in the garden 
of Mr, Brewiu of Cirencester. 



J. Y. Akemiftn, esq. F,S.A. com- 
municated a note in illustration of a re- 
presentation of the bead of St. John the 
BaiJtist on a leaden ouche or ornament 
foutid at Abbcfille ; he noticed the analogy 
between the iigure of the head and tbat on 
the eoius of King John ^ aitd gave instances 
of the veneration in which the head of the 
saint was held in thti middle ages. 

Sir Henry Ellis read a very interesting 
report of the seiscure and examination of a 
Jesuit under the disguise of a Puritan ia 
the reign of Elizabeth, singularly illus- 
trative of the Machiavellic doctrines a«d 
practices of thnt order, and the activity of 
the Jesuit missionaries in England at that 
time. 

He then concladed the reading of the 
translation, bj George Stephens, esq. 
(autbor of the Translation of FrithioPs 
Saga from the Swedish,) of *' The King 
of Birds, or the Lay of the Phoenix; an 
Auglo-Saxon song of the Tenth or Eleventh 
century, translated into the metre and 
alliteration of the original;^' followed by 
a description, by the same gentleman, of 
an English medical manuscript, apparently 
of the end of the fourteenth century, pre- 
served at Stockholm. 

Jan. IS. Lord Viscount Mahon, M.P. 

John Brodrick Bergnc, esq. was elected 
a Fellow of the Society. 

Albert Way, esq. Director, exhibited a 
combination of several prints from Mr. 
J. G. Nicbols's ** Specimens of Encaustic 
Tiles," showing the effect of the wall- til ci j 
with which the church of Great Malvera i 
was formerly ornamented, in the manner ] 
of wainscoting, and many of which stlU 



A^ipuriMn Re m twt h e M . 



194 



trmsun in U«e fftremeat. f^rr %rt ren- 
<«re«l u**Mt ibUrt4(io| by beuuf a dale. 
Uft i^Au Heci.'T VI. 

W. K. HuLjitob, oq. V.P. made a 
univibur.xatioii r^^tive to Tarioci abdect 
w«a|^4bi, fouii'i lb tLc bed of the Tbucet. 
intfjt-.^iauly aV^vc Kibf^iton. fcren feet 
bcWw a brd of (ravel. TLej were chie^lf 
i4 braa* mHaJ abd caat, and therefore 
••|fp«#»cd t/i be K/ifbaa. 

Mr. Way rontribut*^! tome further oh- 
■arvaiMfht on thelcadeo ornameDt bearing 
Ui«t lirvd fff Jobb the Baptitt, exhibited 
at tbc |ir«-^-iou* ineftiog of the society. 
It a|f|i<;«r« tbat tlic head of John the 
lUfitiit w«« iiri-Mrr^ed among the relict 
at AfiiH:fiii, and that it wab a faiourite 
tAtiMi of iitlgrim^fsi; ; and Mr. Way mtxt 
■Iroiig irM%^m% for believing that theie 
\rHt\ru oii'li<r», ^'.Itich rudtly represent 
tbt? iffUnt), or ii«:(;|>«T of the ihrine, ex- 
hil«i(ii<i( rh<- hMuJ, iflt<:ridrd by hiii two 
HtM^ifK, wMc frivi'fi to pilgriinM, who 
fan ii-<) tlifiri about their |iersons as amulets 
\j» \nnrt\r. Wit-ni from the dixraiM: of epi- 
li-pty, or the I ailing »:vil (U fnal Htt Saint 
Jamn, tit tmorbut Saneti JuhannU), which 
that Mint was t>r|icvf:d to have the power 
fff f-uflng. 

Tbonifea Wright, ekf|. F.S.A. commu- 
nlfiatrd ■ mrdlirvMl Hkt of engraved gems, 
with drMriptloiis of the magical Tirtues 
thr* wi-ru lirlirveil Ut iMMMess ; and an iu- 
tfiidurlfiry f-MHy on thr excavations and 
irsrnri lie* for antif|iiitii'B by Uic monks in 
Ihn niliiillf ai;f-«. Tin- Anglo-Saxons ap- 
|Har to liMvi' liren iiHkiduoUH lu o|>ening 
■nf'lriit liiiiilitt, and iliKffing among ruins, 
ami III tjila inNiiiirr tjiry rollrrtcd together 
grrat nninbi ra of Uornaii nrtirlrs. The 
anrirnt ('hiistiaii rituals rontain forms 
for blmaing vaar.s and other vrssels dug 
up from thr earth, in order to render 
thrm At for ('hristiun use. A curious 
arronut is given in (hi; early lives of the 
ablKits of Kt. Alhnn'H of the extensive 
rxnavations made by two abtiots in ihu 
tenth century among the ruins of Veru- 
lamium, and of the numerous euriosities 
they found. Among these curiosities 
there were many engraved stones. There 
were numerous collections of engraved 
gems In the middle ages, and many in- 
stances were cited. The virtues attributed 
to these articles are strange enough. One 
is stated to have the quality of rendering 
the bearer liable to be frequently invited 
out to dinner, and to be much feasted ; 
another to make the bearer invisible ; and 
so on with the rest. 

Jan, i^o. Henry Hallam, esq. V.P. 

Mons. Edouard Frere, of Rouen, and 

Mons. L^chaud^ d*Anisy, of Caen (the 

associate of the late Marquis de Ste. Marie 

in •* Recherchessurle Domesday d* Angle- 

9 



[Feb. 

') were cMcteJ TonlgB Mflnbcn of 
the SodetT. 

Tlfte Dnvetor ahibited ft Ifttfe plate, 
prinied in chrosDO-litbognphy Ibr Mont. 
Dusommerard's Hiitoire des Aita da 
Moren Are, of the enamelled tablet of 
Geofrer le Bel i.FlaBtageDCt), at limns 
Twhich was engravvd in a naaller scale 
by the Ute C. A. ScoChard.) 

Mr. Rogen exhibittd an Etraaeaa in« 
stniment of bronae in the form of a anall 
pair of fire-tongi. fitted with two fittk 
wheels. 

Albert Way. eeq. Director, cxhibitBd a 
deed now in the pometsion of Richard 
Almack, esq. of Long Mclford, being a 
lease of the Earl of Bedford in the year 
1 570 to Sir W illiam Cedll, aftcrwarda £ord 
Burghley, of a pasture at the eaat end of 
Covent Garden, on the aite of which Lord 
Uurghley afterwards erected hii town 
mansion. Air. Way made some remarks 
upon the description of the honndaries of 
the land, in which mod wallsand** atalpa, 
or rails,*' are mentioned. 

Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary, commnni- 
cated three historical docnmenti : 1. A 
note of the good nset to which die Com- 
panies of London applied their gnnti of 
Chantry Lands, which it appeara they pur- 
chased of the Crown to the extent of 
18.714/. 2. A letter written in 1588 hj 
William Benett, priest, to the Eari of 
Arundel, begging nil forgiTcneaa fbr the 
** false charge** against the Earl which 
had been extorted from him, to the effect 
that the Earl had ordered a mam of dM 
Holy Ghost for the good socceai of the 
Spanish fleet, and o^ering to deny the 
same at all haxards. 3 . A statement of Af- 
fairs Ecclesiastical in Guernsey andlcnty 
in the time of James the First, C 
the innovation of the Book of < 
Prayer which had taken place vpon the 
influx of French Protestants who came to 
the channel islands after the mawicm 
of St. Bartholomew, and snbititiiled a 
Book of Discipline of their own. The 
memoir proceeded to recommend a re- 
storation of the liturgy, and the appofait- 
ment of a Dean of Jersey, hoth whidi 
prayers were shortly after granted. 



NUMISMATIC SOCIBTT. 

Dtc, 28. Professor Wilson, V.P. in 
the chair. 

Mr. Rhodes exhibited a steel die fbr tiie 
reverse of the shilling of James I., found 
a few years since in London Wall, near 
Finsbury Circus. 

The Rev. E. Gibbs WaUbrd exhibited 
some Roman coins recently found at the 
Black Grounds, Chippen Warden. 

The Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., 
Master of the Mint, presented to the So- 



1844] 



Antiquarian Htsearches, 



im 



dety a complete set of proof ^ccimens of 
the cottL} of her present Majestyi incltid- 
tng the five-sovereigD piece. 

Mr. Birch exhibited a Chinese medal of 
merit, being a speciinen of thoae bestovred 
by the Emperor upon every soldier who 
coold prove that he hud killed a harbariaD 
during the late war. It appears to have 
been struck by wooden hlockn, and more 
raetnbles a badge than a mcdaL 

R^ad, a paper by the Rev. E. G. Wat- 
ford on a coin of Juba the Second, some 
time since brought before the notice of the 
Society by Mr* Birch, The chiefintercst 
excited by the coin arises from an inscrip- 
tion in Phoentciancbaractersonthe reverse, 
beneath the fij^ure of a horse , uiibridled , and 
muningat full speed, and which ha<! drawn 
the attention of the late learned Professor 
GeseDius^ By the aid of Hebrew, which 
he quotes St. Augustine and other writers 
to show came from the same sonrco a a the 
Phoenician language, Mr. Walford explains 
th« inacription to read ** By the decree of 
King Juba.* The reading of the paper 
excitisd an interesting conversation be- 
tween Mr* Birch f Professor Wilson, and 
Mr. Akerman, on the Phoenician inscrip- 
tions no coins, and on the bilingual ones 
of the Bactrian series. 

Jan. ?(>. Profef-sor Wilson in the chair* 

Mr* Joseph Clark, of Saffron Walden, 
reported a discovery of an urn filled with 
small brass Roman coins at Wootton^ near 
Northampton. There were, it Is supposedi 
nearly a thousand in the urn, but the 
number was reduced to CIS before Mr. 
Clark could secure them for exsminatiun^ 
They are of GalUenus, Salonina, Victori- 
nus, Tetricus, Marius, Quintiltus^ ProbuSt 
CUudiuiii II* and Namerianus, 

Mr, Smith gave the result of an exa- 
mination of some Anglo-Saxon coins found 
by Mr. Charles Ade at Alfriston, in Sus- 
sex. Tliey are of Canute, Harold, Uarth- 
acDUt, and E J ward the Confessor, and 
preaent the names of new places of mlnt- 
age^ new money era' names, and new 
readings of the names of some towns. 

Mr. Fitch forwarded for exhibition an 
aureus of Vespasian, rev. the Emperor 
crowned by Victory, found recently at 
Helmingham, co. Suffolk. 

Mr. Smith exhibited a cast from a gold 
coin of Libius Severus, lately found near 
Carisbrooke, and forwarded by Mr* John 
Barton t Mr* Smith remarked that the 
Isle of Wight had hitherto been singularly 
barren of Roman »ritiquitic«* The present 
coin, another inguldof Valentinian, lately 
found at Brixton, and at Cliff an urn tilled 
with the small brass coins of Theodorieas, 
Ari^adtus, and Hanorius, being, he be- 
lievcd, almost all the discovery of which 
in the island could be authenticated. 

GuttT. Mag, Vol.. XXI. 



Mr* Smith also made some remarks on 
a rare coin of Nerva, in second brass, 
found at Colchester, and sent by Mr»fl 
Wire of thut town. It reads niptvnq*! 
ciRCENS' coNBTiTVT* — Neptimo Circen^J 
Hum Comtitutori, and is evidently similar' 
to that found at Colchesterf and published 
by Ashby in vol. vf * Archicologla. 

The Rev. H. Christmas made some re- 
marks on the Bitrmese coins exhibited at 
the last meeting, and showed in illustra- 
tion an illuminated Stameae MS. Mr. 
Dickinson concluded that the stag-like 
animals on the coins, with branching 
bonis, were probably intended to repre- 
sent the sol lunar character of Mahadeva. 
Mr. Birch thought that the parts where 
these coins were current were too far from 
any part were Brahmitil.^m was prevalent 
to expect the coins should bear allusion to 
Brahminical legends. In the illuminated 
parts of the MS. (from the collection of 
the Rev. Bathurst Dcane) the history of 
Gaudma is depicted, and that deity is 
always accompanieii by the sacred hind, 
an animal which makes a considemble 
li^ure in Burmese tradition. 

Read, a paper by John Field, esq. on 
the ancient dies, or coining irons, for 
the hammered money^ as used in England 
from tbtf earliest period, accompanied by 
coins struck from dies of Edward tlio 
Third, still preserved, sketches of th« 
dies, &c, 

KOMAN ILBMAINS AT PRSaTOHf NlAft 
WBYMOUTH. 

The dry summer of 184^ having shewn 
in the then growing crops of com in a 
field at PrestoQ indications of extoii«iv« 
buildings, excavations were in the spring 
of the past year made, which soon brought 
to view the foundations of a massive wall 
5 feet in thickness, and forming a squaro 
of about 2B0 feet; within this qimdrangtsfi 
WAS the foundation of asothcr building:] 
a5 feet square : the soil within this Intiflf I 
building was removed i and the few coini | 
and fragments of pottery which i 
turned up clearly proved it to be of I 
Roman origin. But the most sin§pila9 1 
discovery made was that of a shaft sunk fat j 
the south-east corner, which was about 4 j 
feet by 2^ feet in diameter, and nearly IB j 
feet deep. The contents of this pit werQ J 
of a very peculiar character ; the tides ha" 
thin flat stones placed rounds which , frofl 
holes in many of them, appeared to have J 
been previously used for the covering (a _ 
at the present day) of a roof. On pene- 
trating into the shaft a layer of char- 
coal and ashes wos met with-, then a dou- 
ble layer of the same description of ffat 
stones covered the whole area of the shalt; 
between these atones was depoaited m 
2B 



1B6 



/tiitiquarinn Researcket. 



[Feb. 



quantity of small (chiefly bird*') * bones, 
and third-brass coins of apparently the 
lower empire^ but their conditioQ was 
such that (with the exception of one of 
Theodosias) tUey could not be appropri- 
ated. Six or leven of iheie layers of 
charcoal and flat stones with bones and 
coins were continued in tuccession, when 
a straight sword about 2"^ tnehes in length 
and much corroded was found. Under 
this were seven more continuous layers ai 
before, which brought us to the bottom of 
the pit ; here was a larger sword, (3(j inc. 
loof «) and straight as the other» with nu- 
merOBS fregtnents of iron, viz. spear 
heads f rings, crooks, part of the handle of 
a bncket.f of similar shape with that in 
Uie at the present time, and Tarious other 
articles, all which appeared to have un. 
dcrgone the action of fire. With theae 
were also fragments of coarse pottery, and 
two Teasels of the same description of 
ware* which were entire, and whose shape 



* Some years since, ** in dtggiQf with- 
in the ruina of the Priory at Christ 
Church, Hants, a caTity was found, about 
S feet square, which contained about half 
a baihcl of birds' bones, such aa herons, 
bitterns, and do'ncstic fowls, mostly well 
preserved. Extraordinary as thJi phe< 
nomenon may seem,'* observes Warner, 
^* there is do difficulty in accounting for it, 
if we advert to the superstition of the 
ancient Romans, and to the practices of 
the early Christians. Among the former, 
many fjiecics of bird* were held m high 
veneration, and carefully preserved for 
the purpose of sacrificial and aagurial 
divination," 

t Singular as the finding of the handle 
of a bucket, of a shape In use at the pre- 
sent time, may appear, yet it U not with- 
out precedent, at 1 Hud In the S7th vol. 
of the Archsologia, p, 148, a Heport by 
that indefatigable antiquary, Charlea 
Roach Smith, £aq of discoveries in 
London, and of the exhumation of a 
quantity of earthen vases, in a kind of 
wiiLt, plaiiked round with large boarda, 
on the site of the present Moorgate Street, 
with the contents of the well, llie writer 
enmneratea a aroill Samian patera, with 
tb« iYy4eaf border, and a few figured 
piacei of the same, aa found at the 
bottom of the well ; also a small brass coin 
of Allectus with the reverse of the galley, 
** Virtus Aug.'* and roorrover two iron 
implements, reaembling a boat-hook and 
ft hmcM handle* *' The latter of theac 
wrrist such a homely mid modem look,*' 
olwenres Mr. Smith, ** that, had I no 
further evidence of its history than tlie 
mere assurance of the excavators, I should 
litttiiiUy have rvjeeted it.'* 



indicated their adaptation to domestic 
uses. 

The shaft was probed to its bottom ; 
but, as the land was about to be sown with 
com, it was necessary that the excava- 
tions should here be discontinued ; a cir^ 
cumstance to be regretted, as but a small 
portion of the ground in tha space be- 
tween the outer aud inner walls was 
moved. The only interestitig objects here 
discovered were the bases of two pillars of 
apparently the Doric order, both of which 
must have been displaced from their ori- 
ginal position. 

The numerous fragments of Roman 
pottery strewn over the adjoining soil, as 
well as the circumiitance of the finding in 
the same 6t:ld in IB12 an urn filled with 
Roman coins, chie0y of the tyrants from 
Gorilian to Posthumus, (many of which in 
the finest condition I have in ray collect 
tion,) establish the fact of extensive 
Roman occupation. 1 feel a djfndence in 
baxarding a conjecture an these singular 
discoveries, particularly as regards the 
shaft, further than that 1 think it is quite 
evident that its contents must have 
formed a scries of sacrificial deposits. 
Witb reference to the building itself, I 
would merely suggest the probability, of 
the interior portion having been used by 
the Romans as a pharos,^ of which the 
outward waU was used as a protection* 
The structure occupied a site most advan- 
tageously placed for such an object ; beinf 
situated about a quarter of a mile fVom 
the shore, on an eminence commanding 
the whole of tbe beautiful bay of Wey- 
mouth, in addition to an extensive view 
of the CbanncL An ancient rta, which led 
from hence to the landing plaee on the 
shore, it still easily traced. 

On returning from the scene of our 
operations to the village of Preston, in 
crossing a pasture field some slight indi- 
cations offered themselves, which impressed 
us with all but a conviction that we were 
treading on the ruins of by -gone ages. 
The temptation was great i the impulse 
of the moment allayed all scruples ] and 
a few minutes sufficed to remote the 
surface of the soil, to the extent of about 
a yard square, when we at once found 
ourselves on Roman remains, turning up, 
with bull ding atones, fragments of the 

X Foabroke*! Ency* Anfiq.'' artiole 
Lighthouses, says, " they were round 
towers, of three or four stories, each 
smaller than the other; some were 
** square,'* others '* octagonal,** flee, and 
quotes from Pennant's'* History of White- 
ford and Holywell," fol. 112, the dc- 
scription of one then (1794) remaining 
in the former pariah* 



4 



18440 



Antiquarmt Itcsearches. 



18; 



well known tile, pottery, and one or two 
tesserte, with a coin of the LupercaJiftn 
senet in good condition. UnwilliDg to 
trefffiUB, or prosecute our new discoTery 
without permission » wc reluctantly re- 
placed the gr^en sward, with the hope of 
beiDj; allowed, at some future day, to 
resume our researches. 
MilbQurne St. Andrew* t, C* Waiinb» 



FUNERAL RELICS, 

In preparing a vault in the chance! of 
the chapel at Loversall, near Don caster, 
in December last, tho sexton came to a 
fulMcngth skeleton, lying about three feet 
helow the surface of the floor, lust above 
each shoulder of which was placed a small 
pewter chalice^ with stand and cover. 
They measured about four inches in height^ 
three in circumfcreneei and one and a 
quarter in depth. The lids were about 
four inches in circumfereDoe» and were 
loose when discovered. Near to these 
chalices was a quantity of human hair, of 
an auburn cotouri which, when first aeeOt 
was very bright,^ but soon changed to a 
duller hue when exposed to the air and 
light. One of the chalices was accident* 
ally destroyed, but the other» though 
somewhat damaged, was prescrred, and is 
in the possession of Charles Jackson, esq. 
of Doncaster* They were probably the 
sacramental vesteU used by the priest 
whose remains have now been disturbed. 



In Sept. 1843, as some men were cut> 
ting a drain Dear the South Terrace, they 
came upon two graves about four feet| 
below the surface. Close to tlie edge < 
the clilf they disinterred several bouesj 
and at the spot where they supposed th»l 
heail had rested, they found the stonaj 
here represented. 



BXPULCBRAL STOKBS rOtTNZl AT 
BARTLiePOOL. 

We have been favoured by Mr. John 
Bell, of Gateshead, with tracings of the 
two last stOQCS discovered at Hartlepool, 
and inetitioned in our December number 
as having been brought before the notice 
of the Society of Antiquaries of New- 
castle. 

In all, BiJL of these stones have been 
discovered at the same spot* The Urat 
throe vrere exhumed 6 July, l^^2 ; and are 
engraved in the Archseologla, vol. XXVI* 
pi, lii. Their inscriptioua are as follow : 

L Hilddigyth (in Rtines.) 

'2, Hilditbryth (in Runes), with the 
letters A. Q. 

3. ORA PRO VRRTORET 

With these were some otlier pieces, ap- 
parently fragments of one stone, executed 
iu a dilTerent style, and inscribed [a]£. 
aviEscAT [ts pa]ce. 
Next there v^na one found in Oct. ia38, 
of which au eugraving may be seen in our 
vol. X. p. 536« It is inscribed i 
A. O. 
oSRcht syc. 

The fihh and sixth have been dli- 
interred daring the last atttamo« 



n^h 



At the same time they turned up several] 
small pieces of coloured glass, part of &] 
bone Icnitting- needle, and a defaced copper" 
coin, probably of no great antiquity. 

In Oct, t@4J, as a man was excavating 
a drain not far from the laj^t^ be found 
a stone with a Saxon inscription, and a 
cross, here represented* 



L 



There is a general resemblance betwe 
this ornamental cross and the bronxe cot 
ing of a shield engraved in the Arcbeeo«l 
logia, vol. XXIII. pi. xiii. and SkeltonT^ 
Illustrations of the Armouiy at Goodridl 
Conrt, vol. I. pi. ilvii. 

Underneath this stone was a skeleton, 
with the head resting on a small square 
stone ; and shortly after, another skeleton 
WW tttkea up tery perfect. It waa tying 



188 



Antiquarian JRnearches, 



[Feb. 



with the head towards the west, and it 
appeared to be that of a female. Under- 
seath the head was another small stone, 
measaring 5( inches square ; but neither 
of these pillow-stones had any inscription. 
Shortly after two more skeletons were 
taken up. They most hare belonged to 
yery tall men, as the thigh bones of both 
of them measured 2 1 i inches. They were 
lying one over the other. 

Two of the three inscribed stones last 
fovndf hafe been deposited in the college 
at Durham. One of the latter stones is 
in the possession of the clergyman's son. 



OrSNINO OF TUMULI IN CLEVBLAND. 

In No? ember last a number of gentle- 
men met on one of the Cleyeland hills 
called '* East Nab/* (whidi commands a 
beantifnl view of the river Tees and the 
surrounding country for many miles^ in 
consequence of permission being obtained 
of the Lord of the Manor, Mr. Martin 
Stapylton, to excavate two tumuli, situ- 
ated on the ridge of the mountain. They 
proceeded to investigate the western 
mound, which they found to be composed 
of small stones, slightly intermixed with 
earth, and having with much labour dug 
to the depth of about a yard and a half, 
they struck upon an immense stone, mea- 
turing upwards of seven feet long b^ four 
feet wide, and from ten to twelve inches 
in thickness, weighing about a ton, shape- 
less and unhewn. This, by the aid of 
handspikes (obtained from a neighbouring 
quarry), was placed on one edge, when a 
hollow presented itself, of a grave-like ap- 
pearance ; but it contained neither ske- 
leton, urn, coin, weapon, nor any other 
relic of antiquity. After clearing away 
the loose stones by which the slab was 
■vpported, the workmen struck upon an- 
other flat stone of immense size, but from 
the dangerous position in which they were 
placed it was deemed unsafe to proceed 
any further. They next directed their at- 
tention to the eastern tumulus, distant 
about forty yards; proceeding in the 
manner before described, by digging in 
depth about a yard and a half towards the 
centre. It was found to differ widely from 
the former one in the materials of which 
H was composed, consisting chiefly of 
white loamy soil. After three hours' 
labour they approached its centre, and on 
removing a flat stone found an urn, con- 
trioing a great quantity of human bones 
and t^th, the latter in excellent preser- 
▼ttion. It was in height about 16 inches 
by 18 inches in diameter, composed of 
Immt clay, upwards of half an inch in 
thiekness, and in colour resembling a 
eommon tile ; it had a broad rim round 



the top, and its aides are marked in a 
carious manner by the point of some 
sharp inatrument. In turning over the 
mound innumerable small heaps of burnt 
wood, or charcoal, were thrown up. Some 
fifty yards due north of the tumuli 1 an 
encampment, of a semicircular form, and 
of considerable extent. 

INDIAN ANTiaUITIBS. 

At the first meeting for the present 
year of the Royal Asiatic Society, held on 
the 6th of Jan. among several valuable 
donations was the first volume of a very 
erudite German dictionary on Indian An- 
tiquities, which the director observed was 
worthy of publication and extensive circu- 
lation in this country. 

A paper was read by Mr. Jas. Ferguson, 
on the decayed temples or caves used as 
places of worship by the Buddhists during 
the whole era of the prevalence of their 
superstition, in the west of India particu- 
larly. These embrace a very long period 
of time, extending through a series of 
from 1000 to 1200 years, the time of the 
existence of this delusion in India. The 
most celebrated of these are the Ajunda 
caves, which are described as singular 
specimens of early Indian architecture. 
"Diey are all decorated in the interior with 
aculpture and paintings, and some of them 
have additional cells fitted up as if they 
bek>nged to monasteries. One of these 
may suffice as an instance of the whole — 
the Zodiac cave, which was constructed 
about two centuries before the Christian 
era. It is 64 feet in length by 63 in 
breadth, and is supported by 90 pillars, 
being fitted up with series of benches. 
At the entrance is the picture of a pro- 
cession, at the head of which are repre- 
sented three elephants, showing that at 
that early period these animala were 
held in as much respect as they are now 
by the Siamese and Burmese. Here, as 
in other temples, many of the portraits 
are of the Chinese character, which has 
led to the belief that they were delineated 
by Chinese artists who visited this country 
at a very early period. Amongst other 
peculiarities in these drawings was the 
representation of African negroes, who 
were very black, and had curled hair. 
Although there were some paintings of 
animals in the Zodiac cave, it had no 
other resemblance to the Zodiacal templea 
of the Egyptians. Professor Wilson, the 
director, suggested the desirableness of 
memorialising the £aat India Company to 
obtain drawings and deUneations of these 
caves and their interiors. The majority 
of them, having been filled with mud, re- 
quire to be excavated. 



189 



HISTORICAL CHRONICLE. 



FOREIGN NEWS, 



Fft4KCE. 

The Government of Louis Philippe 

\ lifts eomnienced meusuriGB against tbosi? 

F«^n'-JinH*n wbo recently flocked to Eiig- 

T y their homage tu the Duke of 

^ The MesiMiger announce* 

, offituiiJiy, that, on the report of the Minis- 

ler of the Iuterior» eight country iVlayors, 

' wbo Uteiy visited the Duke of Bordeaiix 

I in London^ have been dismissed. H is 

f Mi^esty cannot ttop short with these 

minor offenders, hut must visit with 

DiBrks of bis displeasure the principai 

I leaders, who in tht-ir addre^ised to the 

I joung Duke bafe, in theJr folJy, all but 

I recognized bim as ibeir King. When the 

^Bake bad repaired to Vienna, Dresden, 

I and Berlin, where France bod Ambassa- 

1 4or§, remonstrances had b^-en made against 

' lii< presence there, wbtch were attended 

to liy the respectire governments. The 

' Queen of England has also refused to 

I nemft the Duke. 

SPAIN. 

The new ministry of M. Gonzales 

' Bfmvo it Is presumed will not long exist. 

Mr, H. L. Bulwer, the Envoy Extraor- 

[ dinary of the British Court to Spain, was 

[ {presented to the Queen on the ith Jan, 

delivered a congratulatory address, 

[to which Her Majesty delivered a suit- 

fMt reply. A royal decree ba« been ptib- 

flUbed* restoring to the ex-Regent* Mw* 

Itii-Chmtinn, the pension of 3*000,000 

twiU assigned to her by the Cortes in 

iBil. It U expected that she vviJI imme* 

Ldiately leave France for Spain, The late 

I Spanish Minister OJozaga has sought re- 

[liigcin Portugal, 

CHINA. 

la dut supplementary treaty between 
itfae Chinese and the British, there is one 
r clause to guarantee to all foreign nations 
I the same privileges of crude u^ to the 
I British. Thiii wiU render unnecessary 
l^ilJ negociations between the Chinese 
>eror and the other Powers. The 
I Chinese Oovernment is said to be sincere 
its determination to abide by the 
rtMaty^ wfaicfa ia looked upon in the East 
l9» the mo«t Eignst triumph of the British 
I ^Miipotentiary ; for it renders nugarory 
' iJl the attempts of the French and Ame- 
rican diplomatic missions lately sent with 
much pomp to the Chloe^e coa«t. 



NEW ZEALAHH, 

A woeful tragedy has been performed 
in New Zealand, The district of Wai* 
rau is on the river of that name^ near 
Cloudy Bay, about seventy miles from 
the Nelson settlement. It ia comprised 
in the lands granted by Government to the 
New Zealand Company; and on the 25th 
April, Messrs. Cotterell, Parkin son , and 
BarnicoQt« surveyors, landed with forty 
men, to make a survey of the district for 
the Company. In the mean time, Rau. 
parnbn and Ilangiaiata, two of the most 
powerful chiefs of the Middle Island, 
were at Porirua<, on the other side of 
Cook's Strait { where Mr. Spain, the 
Government Land-ctaims Commission- 
erS| then held his court. They urged 
him to hasten to Wairau, and made 
known their determination to prevent the 
survey from proceeding. Mr. Spain un. 
dertook to meet them there as soon as 
possible after the adjournment of his 
court on the 1 9th June. The two chiefs 
arrived in Cloudy Bay on the I at June j 
Yisited some Englishmen^ who had been 
settled in the buy for years, and de- 
clared their determination to burn down 
the surveyors* houses, and drive them off 
the land. They did bum Mr. Cottereirs 
hut, having first removed all the property 
in it, to prevent needless destruction ; 
and, coltectirig the turvey-party together, 
forced them by menaces to remove to 
the mouth of the riven Mr. Tucket t| 
the chief surveyor, who had now arhvedj 
sent Mr. CotCerell to Nelson for assist* 
ance. He gut there on the l:£tli June, and 
laid an information before Mr. Thomp. 
son, the police m[i(fi«^trate, who issued a 
warretnt against Rnuparaha and HimgiaiutB 
for burning the hut, and determined to 
attend the eirecution himself, accompanied 
by an armed force ; expressing his opi- 
nion that such a demonstration Avould 
prevent bloodshed, and impress the na. 
tives with the authority of the law. He 
was accompanied by Captain Wakefield, 
H.N., the Company's agent at Nelson ; 
Captain England, late of the Twelfth 
Regiment ot Foot ; Mr, Howard, the 
Company's storekeeper j Mr, Rtchard- 
»on^ the Crown prosecutor ; some other 
gentlemen ; John Brooke, an interpreter j 
ifour constables, and twelve men. They 
sailed in the Government brig Victoria. 
On their way, they took up Mr. Tuckctt 



190 



Foreign News. 



[Feb. 



and some ten men, who were returning in 
a large boat to Nelson. They landed on 
the 16th June, and went up the river. 
On the 17th they found the natives or 
Maories posted on its left bank, eighty or 
ninety in number, forty of whom were 
armea with muskets, besides women and 
children. They occupied about a quarter 
of an acre of cleared ground, with a dense 
thicket behind them. After some parley* 
Mr. Thompson attempted to execute 
the warrant on Rauparaha. It was pre- 
sented to the chiefs two or three times ; 
and on each occasion about sixteen na- 
tives, who had been sitting, sprung upon 
their feet, and levelled their muskets at 
the Europeans. Mr. Thompson it ap- 
pears became exasperated, and the dis- 
cussion violent. He called to the armed 
party to fix bavonets and advance ; Cap- 
tain Wakefield, placing the canoe across 
the stream for a bridge, gave the word, 
'< Englishmen, forward.'' A few of them 
bad entered the canoe, when a shot was 
fired, it is not certain on which side, there 
is reason to think on the side of the Eu- 
ropeans. Upon this the firing immediate- 
ly became general on both sides, and se- 
veral fell. Captain Wakefield now or- 
dered the British to retreat up the hill, 
and form on the brow. Tne greater 
number, however, did not halt at all, but 
fled round the hill, attempting to escape. 
Oiptain Wakefield, after several vain at- 
tempts to rally the men, ordered those 
who remained to lay down their arms and 
surrender. One or two Maories then 
also threw down their arms, and advanced 
with their arms stretched out in token of 
reconciliation ; but Rangiaiata, who had 
just discovered that his wife had been shot 
by a chance ball, came up, crying, " Rau- 
paraha, remember your daughter." Rau- 
paraha sat down, and Rangiaiata, with 
his own hand, put to death the whole of 
the prisoners. Nineteen persons were 
killed on the British side. Of the na- 
tives, four were killed, and five wounded. 
They afterwards permitted Mr. Iron- 
side, the Wesleyan Missionary, to inter 
the bodies on the ground where they fell. 

INDIA. 

Dost Mahomed has been shot dead at 
Cabool by order of the Prince of Be- 
lievers, the EJian of Bokhara. It is stated 
that the Khan sent several papers with 
bis own seal to Cabool, stating that who- 
ever should kill the Dost would go to 
heaven. This event will probably lead 
to a suspension of any efibrt on the part 
of the Affghans to occupy Peshawur ; but 
the event will probably be, that Cabool 
itself will fall a prey to Bokhara. 

The whole Lusbkur, since the 2Gih, 



has been in a state of riot, the Maharaja 
having again revolted, and the troops of 
the Grand Jinsee having joined. 

The Marwar succession has been set- 
tled in favour of Ahroednuggur. Tukhl 
Singh has been unanimously elected King 
of Marwar, and his son accompanies bim 
as Prince Royal. 

MEXICO. 

Santa Anna is re-elected President for 
a term of five yean. Advances have 
been made by the Mexican Government 
to the Brirish Minister at Mexico, for 
the purpose of settling the dififerences 
with England. The Bridsh Minister, 
however, declined to enter into any cor- 
respondence or treaty whatever with the 
Mexican Government until he had re- 
ceived instructions from home. The 
Mexicans have been engaged for some 
time in putting all their fortifications 
into a state of repair, in the expectation 
that the British Admiral, Sir Charlc» 
Adam, would arrive and attack them. 

. UNITED STATES. 

From President Tyler*i Message to 
Congress, it appears that n^tiations have 
been going on in London for the settle- 
ment of the Oregon question, but hither- 
to without effect. The President re- 
commends Congress to establish military 
posts on the line traversed by emigrants 
Tnow moving in that direction in coosi- 
dereble numbers), to extend the United 
States' laws over them, and to oige the 
claim of the Republic to the whole 
country on the Pacific, and to the 54 d^. 
40 min. north latitude. The disrated 
cases of detention of American vesaeb by 
British cruisers are said to be in a fior 
way of adjustment. With all the other 
European States the relations of the Re- 
public are unchanged. A commercial 
treaty with the German Union, consist- 
ing of t wen t;^- two millions of people, is 
stated to be in progress. It appears that 
Mexico threatens war if Congress attempt 
to annex Texas to the Union. The 
President counsels Congress not to be 
terrified by the threat Having sketched 
the eight years' unsuccessftd war waged 
by Mexico against the Tcxans, he arrives 
at the conclusion that it is the duty as 
well as interest of the United States to 
put an end to the useless struggle. The 
financial condition of the Unionis stated 
to be materially improved. The President 
regards the pubhc lands as the basis 
of public credit. The surest mode of 
supporting the honour of the Union, 
he observes, is to preserve the credit 
of the general Government untarnished 
— an intelligible hint to the repudiating 
states. ^ 



I 



THE XANTHIAN EXPTSDITtON". 

Accounts have arrived from tbe valley of 
th«: Xnnthus. Theexcavatorscomracuccd 
operatioos nbout tlie %h November, and 
their first efforts were crowued with suc- 
cess, inasmucli u they found tbe trunk 
and other remaios of the Une female 
statue , the head and legs of which nre al- 
ready deposited in the British Museum. 
On tbe loth an cutire magniticent marble 
tioQ was brought to light, wanting only 
tht lower jaw ; a mortar, and a set of 
gcalej(. Messrs, HawLina and Scbarf hare 
oceupied ail their time in sketcbing. The 
Hubfleqoent operations have been confined 
to the discovery of mere broken frjigmeuts, 
if we except the Cbima;ra tomb^ which 
weighs no less tban 12 tonst and can only 
he removed by being sawn into four pieces, 
an operation for which a month will scarcely 
suffiee, Tbe sculptured parts represent a 
man driving a horse chariot, and in tbe 
centre is the fabulouH monster of Lyclai 
with three heads — that of a lion at one 
end j of a dragon at the other, and of & 
goat growing out of the back— the very 



monster said to have been destroyed by 
Bellerophon, the son of the King of 
Epbyra ; a discovery worth, in the opi- 
nion of Mr, Fellows, the whole of the 
cost of the expedition, setting, as it does 
for ever» at rest a question mooted very 
many centuries ago, and confirming the 
correctness of Homer, On the top there 
are four square pichcs, within which there 
no doubt stood, in former timers, as many 
statues, which may yet be brought to light 
Seven cases of the best of the fragments 
discovered have been already removed to 
the lower atetion, to be ready for shipment 
against the time the Medea appears at the 
mouth of the Xantbus for that purpose, 
which ahe would do immediately after 
Christmas ; from thence she will return to 
Macri, to meet the Bonverie (hired trans- 
port) from Malts, and perhaps not weigh 
anchor again before tbe end of March, 
when she will once more proceed to the 
XanthuB, receive on board the expedition, 
with the rest of the marbles, and convey 
the whole to Malta. 



DOMESTIC OCCURRENCES. 



7%f Rerertuf, — In the returns for the 
Quarter ending Jan. 5, 1814, there is an 
increase in the Customs of 552,670^, 
Excise, 8763/ , Property- Tajf, 197,203/ , 
and Post-office, 2*30f)/., and a decrease in 
the Stamps, of 38. KH/., Taxes, 17,306/., 
Crown Land^ ll>,WOL, tmd Miitcella- 
neons, 9620/. — the result being an in- 
crease on the levcnue of the quarter of 
T2a,G70/, — the respective n^gregate 
amounts being in Jan. I&^t3, 11,4>4G,107/,, 
while in Jon. 1841, it is 12.211.777/,— 
The increase on the year is 5,742,078/. — . 
the total amount of the yearly revenue, 
in Jan. 1843, baying been 4 1-, 329,865/., 
while in Jan. 181-1, it h ^0,(77 1 ,943/. 
This great increase bas been occasioned 
by the Income > tax assessments. 

Jan, 6. Tbe purcbase of Hawstead 
Lodge, neBr Bury St. Edmund's, was 
completed by xSir Thomas CuUum, of 

.Bard wick Houbc, Biirt. it being jnst n 
_entury that very day since the estate 

^{wssed out of the hands of Sir TbomB$;*s 
Ancestors. It would be curious to com- 
pare the price at which it was sold in 1744 

'irith that for which it was purehnsed in 
i&tl.. numely, U>,6j0/. 

The vust farm (about 2.700 acres) at 
Withcali, near Louth, for nmny years in 
the occupation of the "Dawson '' family, 
«nd the property of Lord Willoughby 
l>*Erei^bv, bus been sold to Mr, Tom line 
for CiJ,00O/. 



The htmtd of LetPts. ^Mr. James Ma- 
theson, M,F. has purchased from tlie fa- 
mily of Scaforth the princely property of 
tbe Lewis, one of tbe largest iditnds in 
tbe Hebrides, with a population of about 
15JKK), and included in the county of 
Ross. Tbe pyrcbase money was 190,000/, 
Mr. Matheson intends, it is understood, 
to devote a fnrtber sum of W,000/. or 
50,000/. towards the establisbing a re^- 
lar steiim communication with the ieiland, 
forming roads, and othenvise improving 
bis extensive territory, 

Scotch StttltTM in England ^ and Eng- 
Ihk in Scotland. — Tbe En^lisb residing in 
Scotland are in more striking quantity, in 
proportion to the ScottiBb population, than 
are tbe Scotch residing in England. For 
our small popidation ot 2,620*184, to con- 
tain 37,700 persons of English birth, is 
very remarkable. It could not have been 
believed uj»on any but statistical evidence, 
that filteen per (bousgnd of the inhabi- 
tants of Scotl«nd are English ; while only 
six per thousand of the population of 
England are from Scotland — a difTerence 
as live h to two. There is actually a 
sixteenth of tbe whole population of 
Scotland of Knglieh or Irish birth. This 
shews that Scotland, while sending off 
adventurer"* to every other piirt of the 
world, receives also a number of adven- 
turers from tbe two other kingdoms. Of 
tbe English in Seothmd, nearly one-fourth 



192 



DorneMe Oeeurrenees. 



[Feb. 



•re in Edinbarghsbire j and somewbatless 
tban anotber fourth are in Lanarksbire. 
We trust tbat none of tbese results can 
be tbe subject of invidious or jealous feel- 
ing in any quarter. Tbe Irisb are ac- 
knowledged to be a useful, thougb occa- 
•ionaUy unruly, set of people amongst us. 
Tbe Scotch in England are, we believe, 
ffenerally appreciated for their steady con- 
duct in ffairs which require thought and 
powers of management. We only speak 
a general sentiment when we remark, tbat 
tbe English settlers in our northern re- 
gion are generally held in esteem. They 
are, for the most part, tradesmen en- 
caged in lines of business hitherto little 
Known in Scotland ; a considerable class 
are teachers ; there is also a large number 
of working men of superior skill. Any 
one who casts his eye along one of tbe 
principal streets of the New Town of 
Bdinburgh, will remark the surprising 
number of shops occupied by persons with 
English names. As far as we are aware, 
tbese intrusions amongst us are regarded 
with anything but a hostile feeling. — 
Chambers* Journal, 

King William^t College, Isle of Man, 
was wholly destroyed by fire on the 
morning of Sunday, Jan. li. The fire 
broke out in the western wing, either in 
tbe class-rooms of tbe English depart- 
ment, or in the boys' dining-room im- 
mediately below. Shortly after two 
o'clock tbe first akrm was given ; but 
for many hours after this there was no 
fire-engine, ladder, or supply of water that 
oould be used with any effect ; and tbe 
flames, having thus unchecked progress, 
npidlyspread through the corridors and tbe 
entire of the vast building, including tbe 
elasa-rooms, the dwelling-house of tbe 
Rev. R. Dixon, the Principal, tbe beauti- 
ful chapel, and tbe great tower, which, 
with the exception of the apartments of 
tbe Rev. Mr. Gumming, the Vice- 
Principal, situated in tbe eastern wing, 
were totallv destroyed. The first alarm 
was given by two boys who were sick of 
tbe measles, separated from tbe other 
boys, and sleeping immediately over the 
English cUss-rooms. They, having ex- 
parienced a strong smell of fire, gave the 
■lann to tbe Principal and Vice- Principal, 
who, with their families, servants, and 
ibout GO bovs boarding at tbe College, 
aroused from their slumbers, and 
_md with some difficulty. His Ex- 
cellency the Lieutenant-Governor, and 
nearly all tbe respectable inhabitants of 
Castletown and the neighbourhood, were 
abortlv on the spot ; with a company of 
tbe 6th Foot, sUtioned at Castletown. 
But no engines were at band ; and, in 
addition, a want of laddera, whereby 
10 



an entrance might bare been effected 
into the upper stories, without traversing 
the corridors of the building, was severely 
felt, and much valuable property was 
consequently lost, that otherwise might 
have been saved. The ^eater part of tbe 
private library of the Principal, a portion 
of the wines, and some articles of furni- 
ture in the front rooms, were saved bvsreat 
exertions; but the very valuable library 
of the college, including a collection of 
Bibles, from tbe time of Coverdale, 
in upwards of 50 different languages, 
many unique MSS. relating to Manx 
eclesiastical affairs, and tbe military mo- 
dels and phins, maps, and instruments, 
belonging to Mr. Browne, the Professor 
of English and Modem Literature, were 
completely destroyed. The building was 
insured in the Sun-office for 8000/. and 
Mr. Dixon*s property for 2000/. ; but 
the loss to the building alone cannot be 
under 4000/. Mr. Gumming, it appears, 
was uninsured. King William's College 
was a modem erection. The first stone 
was laid by the late Lieutenant- Oovemor 
Smelt, on the 23d of April, 1830, and it 
was opened in the summer of 1838. 
The building was partly in the early- 
English and partly in the Elizabethan 
style, forming a spacious and cradform 
structure, 210 feet in length from eaat to 
west, and 185 feet from north to aouth ; 
from the intersection rises the embattled 
tower, 115 feet high, strengthened with 
buttresses, and surmounted by an oc- 
tagonal turret, intended for an observatory, 
having in each of its sides a loftv window, 
and crowned with a parapet. Tbe edifice 
cost about 6000/. of which 2000/. was 
from the accumulated fund from property 
granted by Bishop Barrow, in 1666, for 
the education of young men for tbe 
ministry in the Manx Church. From 
subscriptions raised chiefly in the ishind, 
2000/. WHS obtained, and the remaining 
2000/. was supplied by mortgaging the 
funds. Tbe onginal draught of tbe de- 
sign was furnished by Messrs. Hanson 
and Welsh, architects; but tbe execution 
of the works, including alterations and 
additions, and the design for tbe great 
tower, were under tbe direction of Mr. 
Welsh. Tbe contractor was the late Mr. 
Fiusimmons, who, it is said, lost 1500/. 
by the contract. The property is vested 
in the bands of trustees, who are tbe 
Lieutenant-Governor, the Lord Bishop, 
the Clerk of the Rolls, the Archdeacon, 
Deemster Christian, tbe Vicar General, 
and tbe Attorney General. Tbe present 
number of boarders was, with the Principal 
37, with the Vice Principal 11, and tbe 
entire number attending tbe seminary, 
besides day pupils, 1 10. 



193 



PROMOTIONS, PREFERMENTS, &c. 



Gazette Phoxiotjohs. 

i>«, 29. l5t Foot, Major G. Bell, to be Lieut.- 
Colonel— loth Foot, Capt. T, H. Franks, to he 
Mflj or.— Brevet, to be Wijors io the Array: 
Ctpl. T, Aubiii, of the 1st Foot j Cftpt, R- Wil- 
H*ms, of the 3ad Foot.— Cecil Chiindleas* of 
Thn. colt. Camb. eldest son ofTliornaA Chamt- 
lesft, esq. barrister, by Carol ii»e his late Viife, 
youQ^eat dati. of Sir Wm. Loiii^, of Kenipidon 
Bory, CO. Bedf. Knt, ileceaiied, to tAke tlie 
name of Ijnni^ only, in compliance with the 
will of his inatenmf ffrxntlfather, 

Dtc. 30. Charles Kdwani Murray, esq* to be 
one of Her Majesty ^s Hon. Corps oi Gentleroeti 
at Arms. 

JfiH. I, niomas Lcanian liuiit, a minor of 
the afe of twenty years, second son of Richard 
Hunt* of Patittiton, lo- Devon, esn. by Mary- 
Ann, siiter and cwhcir of Tlioma» L^amanj of 
Tiverton^ eaq. to lake the name of Leaman 
liter Hnnt. 

Jan. 5. 1st Foot, Gen. the Riffht Hon. Sir G. 
Murray, G.C.B. from 43d Foot, to be C<iloncl. 

Ja*t, 9. air James Hawkins Wljitshed, Bart. 
GX.B. Admiral of the Red, to be Admiral of 
the Fleet.— William Fl&hbourne, esq. to be Ma^ 
riatrate for Her Majesty S ^ttlerncuta in the 
Falkland IslnncN. 

JtiiK It. 1st lyraroon Goarda^ Lt.-CoL H. 
A. Hankt-y. to be Lieut.-Colond.— 7th Foot^ 
brevet Major RiclianI Wdbraliam to be Major. 
— «3d Foot, Lieat.'Gen. Sir Jiahn MacdoTnald, 
KX.B. to be Colonel.— e7th Foot, Ll.-Gen. 
John Clitherow to be Colonel.— Wth Foot, Lt*- 
Gen. Sir Maurice t:, u'C-rmnell to be C<iiloneL 
— 8lst Foot, Major-Gen. Sir Geo. H. F. Berke- 
ley to be Colonel.— Brevet, Lieut, CjjL JoUei 
Gcori<[c Bonner, E. L Co/s service, to be Colo- 
nel in the army in the Ea^t Indies. 

Jan. 70. Robert M on tL^omery Martin, esq. 
to be Treasurer for the Colony of Hong- Kong. 

J9H, «» Robert Murray Rumsey, esq. to 
be Cotoniai Secretary and Ke^strar for St, 
Christopher's. 

JHH, 2G. 50th Foot, Lieut. -0 en. Sir John 
(jftrdiner, K.C.B. to be Colonel.- 61>t Foot, 
Malor-Oen. Sir Jeremiah iHckson, K.C B. to 
be Colooel Ceylon Rifles.— Ceylon Rifles, Mjyor 
SajQl. Braybrooke to be Lieut.Colonel ; brevet 
U^or G. A. Tranchell to be Major.— Brevet, 
Capt ThoB. Hamilton, 63d Foot, to beMdor iJi 
the Army; Capt. John Peter Ripley* l»t Karo- 
pcan Re^. or Beng;al Lirht Iiifantryi to be 
Major in the Army in the East Indies* 



R«v. C. H. Fooker, Tbeydon Giimon R. Ssiex, 

Rev. S- W. Gardener, Trostrey P.C. Mown, 

R*v. W. Gillbee, Gwennap V, Cornwall. 

Rev. J. Hannny, Avhlcv R. Hants, 

Rev. E. Ham- '' nt P.C. Carmarthen. 

Rev. M. Hilt re. 

Rev. R. W. li -Low-onthe-Wold R. 

GlouceHter^tiii'' 
Rev, J. Hodgkinson, Strensall with Haxby V, 

York. 
Rev. J. James, Pinhm* V» Devon. 
Rov. G. Kniifht, jun. Huugerton andTwyford 

V, Leic. 
Rev. E. Lane, St. Mary*3 R* Manchester. 
Rev. G. Mav, Liddinjjton R. Wilts- 
Rev. H. Mackenzie, St. Nicholiw P.C. Grctt 

Yarmouth. 
Rev. G. F. Master, Stratton R. Glouc. 
Rev. T, W. MeTler, Woodbritl^e P.C. SafTolk, 
Rev. J. McmUiani, Clopton R Be<is. 
Rev. G. W. Menteath, Ranceby V. Line. 
Rev. W. Molleneux, St. Luke's P.C. Liver- 

pooL 
Rev. C. vv. Page, Chriatclmrch P.C. Broidw»yi 

Westminster, 
Rev. B. Perrinic, FersfieW R. Norfolk. 
Rev. J. Ree«J, West Allen PC. Northumb. 
Rev. T. Rowlandson, Wbittlc-Ie- woods P.C. 

Lane. 
Rev, T. Sandon, Barlings P.C. Line. 
Rev. E. L. Saver, PuUoxhill V. Beds. 
Rev. J. B. Shipper, Royston V. Herts. 
Rer. J. A. Smitn, Sliotley R Suffolk. 
Rev. J, Spurrell, West Beikham P.C. Norf. 
Rev. J. G. Vance, St. Michaers PC. Man- 

che^iter. 
Rev. O. E. Vidal, Arlinfrton P.C. Sussex. 
Rev. G. D Wheeler. Great Wolfonl V. Warw. 
Rev. J. Williams, St. l>onat'B V, Glam. 
Rev. A. Wodehouse, Carletoti-Forehoe R, Norf, 
Rev* J, C. Young, Southwick R. Suauex, 

ChA PLAINS. 

Ber. J. S. Anderson, to be Pre*cher it Lio- 

coln'a-taii. 
Rev. J. Griifithtf, to the Boml>ay Preaideiicy, 
Rev. E. B. Hawkshaw, to the Earl of Enie. 
Rev. H. Humble, to Lord Forbes. 
Rev, C. LflitijT* M-A. at Hyderaljad, Bombay. 
Rev. R. B. Maltby, at Sukktir, Bengal. 
BeT. R. Pantio]?, at Fanan^, Bengal. 
Rev, G. Stokeu, M.A. to the British realdenU 

at Rouen. 
Ecv.M. N. Stone, to the Madraa Preaidency, 



ECCLRSIASTICAT. PhEPKRMKNTS. 

Rev. C. Di-ury. Rev. W. K. Evans. Rev, W.J. 

Tl^orntoQ, Kev. J. Venn, and Rev. J. B. 

Webb, to be Hon. PrebenJaries in Hereford 

Cathedra], 
Rev. J. W. BaniCi*. Kendal V. Westraorbind. 
Rev. Lord John tie la Poer Beresford, Union 

of BarouBtown, co. Carlow. 
Rev. W M, A. Borton, TIjorMton-Je-Moors R. 

i: an, Cticldon R. Dcvou. 

K rtcr, Clcwer R, Berk». 

Rev. \V. L. Coghlan, St. Mary de Lode V. 
Gloucester, 

Rev, J. Daniel, Eaj*t Ardsley P.C. Yorknh, 

Rev. D. Davies, Ltanannou R. Denbigh. 

Rev. W, B. DrynhAffi, St. Swithiu R. Win- 
chester, 

Rev. C. English, Sydenhtttn P.C, Kent. 

Rev. T. Evans, Sandburg t V. Glouc. 
GttNT, Mao* Vol, XXi. 



Civil Preferments. 
Rev, R. Barber, M.A. to be Head Master Of 

the Collcjfiatc School, Lambeth. 
W . H , Butt, esii. to be Hector of the University 

of Malta. 
J. Chambers, esq. B.A. to be Second Master of 

the Abingdon School. 
Rev. C. M tJoUins, M.A. to be Master of Chud- 

leiffh Grammar School. Devon. 
Rev. T. Dry, MA. to be Head Master of North 

Walsham Free School, Norfolk, 
Rev. S, Kingsford, B..\. to be Head Master of 

Scvenoaks School. 
Rev. G. Lancaster, to be Head Master of Slaid- 

burn Free S<'hool, Yorkshire, 
Rev. G. Mould, M.A. tobp Head Master of the 

Grammar Sch'X>l, Walsall, 
Major James fHiphant elected a Director of 

the East India Company. 
W, Poulton, ewj^ to be 'Fhird Master in Yar- 

mouib Grammar School, 
2 C 



194 



Births, — Marnagti. 



[Feb. 



BIRTHS. 

Nw. 15. At Corfti, the wife of Capt. Htx- 
Herbert, Rifle Brinde, a dao. 

De€. S. The wife of Dempster Hemiof , eaq. 

Caldecote-haU, U'arwickah. a iod. 8. At 

¥reedoii, the wife of WestcoU Lfttietoo, cao. 

Mth rt%. aaoD. IS. At Bradpole, near Urid- 

Bort, the wife of E. B Bishop, esq. a son and 

heir. At Walmer, Kent, Lady Rosa Gre- 

▼ille. twin aona, one of whom was still-born.— 
16. In the Qose, Exeter, the wife of the Rer. 

Chancellor Martin, a son. 17. At Eriintonn 

Castle, the Countess of Krlintonn, a dan. 

SI. At Frampton-house, Lincolnsh the wife Oi 

the Rer. John Tnnnard, a son and heir. 

12. At Sassex-fputlens, Hyde Park, the wife 

of W. H. Swinton, esq. a son. At Fallapit, 

the wife a( W. B. Fortescne, esq. a dau. 

M. At Walton rectory, Glastonbary, Lady 

John Thynne, a son. 28. At Woolwich, the 

wife of Capt. R. B. Bamaby, a dan. 29. At 

Sholden-lod^, near Deal, the wife of Edward 

Banks, esq. a son. 30. At Merton-frore, 

the wife of Alex. Atberton Park, esq. a son. 

Lately. At Uorsincton, the wife of John 

Bailward, esq. a M)n and heir. At Chelten- 

lMB» the wife of Capt. J. W. Re^-nolds, 11th 

Hussars, a dan. At Anckerwycke-house, 

Lady Charles Beanclerk. a son and heir. 

In Fortman-sq. the wife of Sir Alan E. Bel- 

lincham. Bart, a dau. At Uampstead, the 

wife of Capt. Sir W. E. Parry, R.N. of twin- 
dans. At St. Georfe's-terr. Hyde Park, 

Mrs. Geonre Arfouthnot, a son- ^Tne wife of 

Henry White, esq. M.P. a djui. At Wood- 
lawn. Lady Ashtown, a son. At BeMomey 

Caatle, Hif hiands of Aberdeenahire, the wile 
of Charles Wedderbume Sutton, esq. a dau. 

At Cheltenham, the wife of D. Graham 

Johnatooe, esq. a dau. In Harlinrton-st. 

L«dr ManrStq»benson, a son. In Bolton- 

•t. Piccadilly. Lady Sussex Lennox, a dau. 

la Irelaad* Viscountess Guillamore, a dan. 

At Earl's Croome Court, the Hon. Mrs. 

Coventry, a mn. At BcUing-hall, Yorksh. 

the wife of Tb<imas Paley, esq. a son. ^The 

wife of Wm. Hodi^nt e«l. barrister, of the 

Weslem Circuit, a dan. At Bath, the wife 

of Wm. Snrtees Kaine, esq. a son. In Har- 

Icy-at. the wife of 8tr Denis Le Marchant, Bart. 

* ton. At Spike Island, the wife of Laeut.. 

CoU Burton, R. M. a dan. The wife of Major- 
Oca. Battine. C. B. a son. ^At Twyninr- 

park, the wife of George Browne, esq. a dan. 

^At Boumemonth, the wife of Capt. fVm- 

ISf^.JN- » son. At Burlton.hall, Salop, 

the wife of Rob. Cliambre Vaurban, esq. a son 
^^f^'k. ^^ I^l>»ni-hooae, Rye, the wife of 
Major Curteis, a dau. 8. At Ravendale, Un- 

S??***%*^y*'* ^ ^« *ev- J- 1*- Parkinson, 

M.A. of Oxford, a son and heir. 15. In 

Deronsbireter. Mrs. Charles Dickens, a son. 

^ZH^}?^^* **""^*; .***^ ^'"^ of Charles 
Orerlle Pndeaux, esq. of Lincoln's-inn, a dau. 
— -ao. At Newport, near Barnstaple, the Hon. 

Mm. Butler, a son. 14. At l>Kne ftu-k, 

Udy AurusU Barinr, a son. ^15. At Sand- 

liDff Part, the wife of Wm. Deedes, esq. adau. 

MARRIAGES. 
^"%?' a Calcutta, Francis Edward Reade, 
•*>• S-Sr- S^l "?° *>' ^^ ^^ John SSde 
Mq. of Holbrooke-house, Suffolk, to Hen>£tta! 

Ocf. 10. At WiHesboro, Kent, C. Warton 



field, to Ann, only dan. of the late J. P. Smith, 
esq. of Headinf ley, near l^eds. At Guern- 
sey, at the Ckthohc Chapel, and after at St. 
Peter*s in-tbe-Wood, Darius Cofield, esq. son 
of the late Capt. Cofield, R.N. of Blackheath, 
Kent, to Cecilia-Jane, only dau. of the late 
David PMle, esq. of Bootham, York, and 
grand-daa. of the late David Poole, premier 
aerfcant-at-law, formerly of Bath, and Yonga- 
bary, Herefonlab. 

14. At St. Andrew's, Holbom, James WU- 
liaais, eaq. of Dalston,jrrand8on of Sir James 
Williams, to Margaret-Emily, dan. of the late 
John Weston, esq. aad niece of J. T. Cburch, 
esq. of Bedford-row. 

14. At Haroldston, St. Issel's, Pembroke- 
shire, William Prue Jorden, eaq. of Lower 
BelgraTe<st. Eaton-sq. to Amelia-Georgeaana, 
daa. of the late Alexander Douglas M'Kenxie, 
esq. of Cadogan-pl. and Bursledon. Hants. 

AST. I. At Lrominatcr, Thos. Colerick Bird, 
esq. of Myrtle-hall, Sfairehampton, son of 
Tboa. Bird. esq. of SsTanna-la-mar, Jamaica, 
to Ann, second dan. of J. P. Bradford, esq. of 
High-at. Leominster. 

4. At Cawnpore, James Sibler, eso. S4th 
B^ Nat. Ini: third son of Robert dibley, 
esq. of Great Ormond-st. to Margaret, eldest 
daa. of Gen. Boyd, Bengal Army. 

D€€. 9. At ChftOB, Darid Rosa. esq. of Bla- 
densburgh, to the Hon. Harriet-Martaret- 
SkeAngton, dan. of the late Lord FerTara,aiid 
niece or the Dowager Lady Dnlferin. 

U. James PMMes, esq. LL.D. Barriater-at. 
Law, to Mary-Anne, yoongcst dan. of the late 

J. Dodson, esq. of Lanoater. At Taxal, 

John Upton Gaskell. esq. of Ingeraiey Hall, 
Cheshire, to Margaret-Ehiabeth, only dan. of 
Samuel Grimshawe, esq. of Brrwood, naie co. 

At L>-diard Tregot, the Rer. Hewry Drvy, 

M.A. Rector of Alderty. Gkracestcnihlre, to 
Amelia-Elicabeth. eldest daa. of the Rev. Giles 
Danbnry, Rector of Lydiard TlvgOK. lUltB. 

14. At St. John'a,Ffeddiagton, Edward Seiie 
Thorold, esq. son of the late Rev. Edward 
Thorold, to Amelia-Jane, eldest dan. of the 

Ute Rer .John Hinde, of Lodkm. AtOving- 

ham, Northumberland, the Rev. John f^redenc 
Bim, Vicar of Ovingham, fifth son of Ckarlea 
WiUiam Bigge, esq. of linden, Notthnmber- 
land, to Caroline-Mary, dao. of Nathaniel £01- 
son, esq. Commissioner of the District Goort 
of Bankruptcy at Newcaatle-tqwa-Tyae, and 

of Upper Bedford-pL At HMvkknrst, the 

Rer. Richard Creaswell. of Salcombe Regis, 
Devon, to Frances, eldeat dan. of the late 
Robert Creighton, esq. of the BeiM;al Qvil 

8enr. At Leckhamptoa, O. J. PhU^Smitb, 

esg. of the Inner Temple, Bamstcr-at-Law, to 
Elizabeth -Curtis- Hay ward, yonngest dau. of 
the Ute Rev. John Adey Curtis, Vicar of Bit- 
ton, Gloucester. At Weymoott. the Rev. 

Francis Daubenj, of .Mepal. near Cbatteria, to 
So^ia, fourth dau. of the late W. Jonea, esq. 

of Woodball, Norfolk. At Weaaenhaai. the 

Rev. Bernard Gilpin. Jun. of Parkhurst, I. W. 
youngest son of the late Robert Gilpintesq, of 
Jamaica, to Ellen, eldest dan. of Jas. KeiuDt, 
esq^- — ^At Southampton, William, second son 
of William Betts. esq. of Southfiflld Hooae, 
Leicester, to Delicia. eldest dau. of Gcom 

Laishley, esq. of Shirley. ^At Laveratoci, 

Wilts, the Rev. John WiiUama, M.A. of Mag. 
dalen Coll. Cambridge, to Mary-Cove, yoangeat 
dau. of the late William Herbert Maond, fliq. 
of Sussex-pl. Regent's Park. 

18. At Lameiton, near Tavistock, the Rev. 
Gflonre Martin. M.A. Rector of St- FamcfM, 
and Principal of the Diocesan Tridniitf School 
for Masters, Exeter, to Harriet, eldoif dan. of 
the Rev. W. Cowlard, B.A. of Camplehar, 

Tavistock. ^At St. Oiles'8-in-the-Fiel% 

Vemon-Montagiie, youngest oob of Tomon 



J84K] 



Martlagei, 



195 



I 
I 



Homert 

second 

the Ri^ 
cottiity.— .^ 
eiq. of HolDi 
Geof^c Marjf' 
Ellen, eldest tWi 



Abbott r esq. of Gower-9t.« Bedfnrd-ftqQRre, to 
I>rjiii>..i Mai lA, widow of L. G- Wftldon, e«q» of 
th luple, And of Gre*t Torringtofif 

;, iiolstone (iow»T- Rttwani Wood» 
ea<|, wf Cv^in» near Cnrn i Mary- 

Oicberiiie^ eldest daa. of J - LucaSi 

of Stouttiall» csii, At ^.. ;_.;*» Ha- 
nover sq. the Ri^nt Hon. Lord iiuuLiovop, to 
Mrs, Vaajghtn, of Belle Hatcb Hoiiii^e, Uxford- 
»hire.— — -At Liverpool^ tbcRtiT.G. F.Thqmjw, 
M-A., of Worceatcr Coll. Oxford, to Lydia, 
dau. of tbe litte Rer. B. I/)xham. Hi*ctor of 
HAbhsll. fjirii-ftshire.' — -At iit. Jolm's, I^d- 
dlni^ton, X\w R*.'v» (nXJm^ Livinjf?t«>Me Feiiton, 
Vicar of Lilleshrill, tfnJop, to Murv Aiin<», 
\:,i., n.. :,t I i.....|; emi. of 
nmtnT- 

lU esq. 

■ hililof 

- 1 1, ^JI^lc 

, r.>Mii<>i9>> Ubtf^etts, 

- ond son of the late 

t Hilton, to Sarah- 

_ H, itfv. K H. Mnb«rly, 

Vicar of Great Kmboroueh, Sutfotk. 

20. At FAlirij^^ Jost!pU l^rnerson iKjwsoti, 
estf ■" -• 'nhn's Wood, and WeUwck'St.j to 
%\ > t)th daa. of Thomas Hum Hop- 

f" Gnmley Honse* Little Ealing. 

— urec*i, HanOTer-sq,, RicliArd^ 

s • I ticliard Mars li , eHq . of Fart h i njf- 

li' . r, to Mary Matilda Siuitti;, ward 

or uif iiu Hev. James Tl»elwaU Salusbury, 
of RaniflfBte. 

3L At Maidstone. John Adamii Jan. c»q. 
Barrister-at' [.aw, eldest son of Mr, Serjeant 
Adaiti9„ to Krnily, third dau. of tbe late .'^Ir 

John Buflianan kiddell» bart, of Riddoll. 

At St. Gcorjre's, HanovcTwi. Charles Frith, 
«q, of Osnuburnh-st. Rej^iTit' spark, and of 
the tuner Temple, to Fanny, only dati« of the 
Ule Ca|>t. G. n. Phillips, Uth Li^ht Dra^, 

At ftt. Marylrbone. Jame^ Grier&on* esq. 

lat^ of the Hon. East ludia Company's Scr- 
Til r I it^tt, eldest dnu. of Maior-Gen. 

J I Iff, Beuira! Army< — -At York, 

J' ' , e%(\. to Jaiie^ dau. uf tlie Rev, 

1. , Inconibfut of [[af:kne^s, near 

S — At Milton Abbas, the Rev F. 

%\ I L Fellow of Caiu» Colt. Camb. 

aufl \u<\i'i ni strmtton St. Mary, Norf., sou of 
Co}. Jrnard. to Rhode-Sarah, sixth dau. of S. 

H. Jermrd, c*<j. of Milton Abhaa, IJoraet. 

At Pendock« Worcestershire, the Rev. Edward 
free Champneya, to Mary-FranceSt younj^est 
dau. of the Rev. R, F. Daviea, D.D. Hector of 

Pendoek. ^At Tonhridjce Wells, the Rev. F. 

C Alfrec» M.A. to Helen, only dau. of T. R. 

Alfree, t^i. At Rick man swortb, Herta^ 

^^ . ^i\* of CamberwelL to Louisa, 

y< uf the late William Flower, esq. 

of rd -place, Russell stjuare. At 

Br ton. sou of Peter Mi tell p1 I, 

e-* amberweli, to tlien, dau. 

Of ^ r, c-.(. -f I>enmark-hill, 

8urrt!>. — At riidil I > I ''^ John Mare, 

«iq. of Hathertot), ' Mary, eldest 

dm. of Peter Holt, <- . r.:trk--rtr.li-ns. 

tt« At Ltand>Tnug^f Diinijitgli s 
BMch. eaq. of Braadou Lod^e, v 
ftfid Biiawe House, StafforJshirr y- 
Chitrlotte, fourth dau. of the lati* Juiiu Ma- 
docks^ estp of GlanjTTpmj, Denbij^hsh. At 

\j[.t\i)iu^)v, -^i itT*Tilsh. Mr. lliuiaas Sharp, of 
Tr I, and one of the Masters 

<>i li School, to Mary- Anne, 

Bi^ Hev. Dr. Vale, Rector of 

Loiii^tuu. 

3*. At St. George^a, Hanover-sq., John 
Taicheit TatcheU, esn. of Stuke-j^ub-Hamdea, 
Somerset, to Anoe, relict of Opt. John Foniteri 
R*X* of Aiuwickf North umber iaad. 




36. At Woolwich, Alexander Gilleipk, esq. 
eldest son of the late Geory^e Gillespie, esq. of 
Bigf&r park, Lanarksh. to Marion'tiolmea, 
second dan. of CoL Paterson, Royal Art, 

»7- At Caiitcrbory, Thotnas Raker, esq. 
flurffvon. of Steeple Lanirford, Wiltshire, to 
Sopnia-Jaoe, younicest dau. of the late Capt, 
T>«innn«. ^-.itiuov R \\^ und niece to the late 

1 -^ouihey. At ik»uthamp- 

r Trower, esq. of the Inner 

\^.u.y. , -u.. i,,,.>w of Exeter Coll. Ox/ord, 
youni^il son of Juhn Trower, esq. of Westoo- 
grove, Hants, to Frances- Mary, eldest dau. of 
the late Capt. Bradley, HA — ** < helten- 
liam« Cnpt. Bamuei Mars . H N. to 

Fraiicea^kachel, dau. ot .James 

Wiggett, Rector of Crua,..,,, .V.at,. ^— At 
Catton, Hutlauii, the Rev. Edmund Bellnmn, 
curate of Kirstend, lo Isabella-Dendy, fourth 
dau. of E S. Lon^, esci. of Catton. 

28. At St, Helier*s, Jerscv, the Rev. Cbarl«a 
Robin Hon, to Annr^Jessy, ehW't dau. of Henry 
P. Brtjv' - —At Chipatable, Somerset, 
the K*' .► tenson Ed^ell, of Brom- 

ham . ^ \ > n of t he Re v, Ed w. Ed^lL 

of East hiii, iivui Frome, to Heifer, .■luecona 
dAU. of the Uite John Cafwl, esq. of 8troud. 
—At St. Pancras, Edwin Fennell, esq. of 
Wi * ' ' *^urrey, to i^)phia-Jaue, dau. vi 
V Williams, est), of Gower-st. and 

< . , iamaicft. At Axmioster, the 

Ktv, »iMjiiiii Bruce, Rector of St. Nicholas, 
CO. GliiiJionrrin, third »on of John Bruce Prycc, 
esq. of Bufrryn, same co., to Mary-EliJiabeth^ 
only dau, of the Rev, W, U. Couybeare, Vicar 
of AxmiiHter. 

Laitty. At Lon^hope, Wm. Cameron Irving', 
esq. of Clirist lionpital, to Maria- Elinabeth, 
young'est dau. of the bite Rev. Wm, Gwynne, 
Rector of Denton and St, Michael's, Sussex, 

At St. Mar»faret'H, W>5tniin»ler, Capt. 

John Wilson, late Qf the 93d Hiifhiandrrs, to 
Mary^Jane, widow of Nicholafi Rice Ualleiuler, 

esq. At CA.«4t]epark, Robert Kinji: Piers, esq, 

only son of Edward Piers, esq. of Gloucester' 
street, Dublin, mnrl nr-phcw of the late Sir 
Robert Kiujf, > i 'rvn.co. Roscommon, 

B4.rL to Heni >•, youngest dau. of 

the Ri^fht H. « hards.-^Al Kyton, 

the Rev, Wii: , Incumbent of Ham- 

bursfh, to V\ r dau. of the Ven, 

Charles Thor; > on of Durham and 

Rector of Rytoi^. At tiiiminf^ham, theRev. 

Chas. F. B. Wood. M.A. PreceniQr of Qlou- 
eester Cathedral, and Vicar of liarnwood, to 
Caroline, younirest dan. of the late John Page, 
esq. aod niece of the late Mrs. CampWU, of 

tlie Spa, near Gloucester, At St. John'Sj 

Newfoundland, the Rev. Johnstone Vicars, 
Misaionary ftom the Soctetv for the Propi»- 

gatioa of the Gospel, secona son of the Rer. 
[. Vicars, Rector of Godm.mstone, Dorset, to 
Km ma- Maria, eldest dau. of B. G. Garret, esq. 

Hijfh ghenff of lh»" IMand of St. John's. At 

Winterboume Uassetl, Wilts, Fermor Bonny- 
castle Gritton, e^q. Roysl .Marines, grandson 
of tSie > rl, hrat< .1 PToft'**or tkmnycastle, to 

< n of Capt, H. H. Budd, 
li rne.— At St. Andrew^s, 
li ' Hon. the Earl of Harbo- 
rou^li, to .Mitji. leinple, dau, of Edw. Dalby 
Temple, esq. 

Jan, I. At St. Mark's, Myddleton-sq, Adam- 
Adrian, youngest son of the late W.O, Adrian, 
esq. of the Treaj«iiry, to Sarah- Dud ley, eldest 
dau. of W. Hii^ktiSiMi, e^.j. of M. Paiicras, 

At Bowfi- - 1^ 

Burrow, oeii rd 

Flemitnr ftari ih., 

second 

Hanovi 1 

Dresdt.'tt, to h^^ia^ *'iU> ii . . < - 

shall Freare ;$mltli| esq. oi CjJll 




tan 

Jej^WJmM. ^Kbeac ma. if «ir TIibiim V. 

^r r 



•FAl 







t Bcv. >«te J^olcrr. if Milhii(!innc. Sumex. 
-dLE CannrvteR. ck Brr *manf» KdMtan 




JL AS «cnitarC^w^AwL ^Suf Br*, i. B. 

^tammm ^duail, Anvgdia^ and ttbeac «in. if 




tt»itfel 



HfiWiBK ««^ If «tnc9irtH<m^ ^. 



Awnu JU PBsoJkMu Bi!^. -tee K^ J*ti 

VHMr« BuX If «c mart ifai!. 'ntf .rt, %> liv 
■feaip 4hl <f tfct iHe Hear* Gr>s9. •ftv* '>' 

4L AtCVlrniiMM Jito. ]lJ&&OMu<9i^ 'jk« 
«f Maew. »» Mary, 'tea. if Hrar? Wrc'tc •»»|^ 

<>■>■■ iij^ Ga«ta MJrw, VJ>. '-y rnri^-^A. 
tpHiffcw, Mir^eftsM W V. r, Cbimiiiii ■'«*!- 
Itfe 4f BMifiac, AS aM».as 5e. f^ cr*. 

4h. 4r T. GoM^^vC c»L 4f G<*iTvri*« Crm. 
MX Cknm, Ck^rdk. A. UjKjWsnw^ Fnw 

^Oklt-ViIfaMl, MDMHt «M 4f B. C. Klfby. 

«a«,«f Blutfivil.«|, M ivte-NTTtna. .iaa. 4f 
mr Vmni Cmtr^imm, Buu 4f Milacra^. 
—^11 BL ri i . rw , Bafc«9l Bfld^w. «q flf 

gM, c*i|. 4f TaviBie<Kii-«v 
C JU rvCJMa, AaMrvtQi Wal^r, e%«. M.D. 

«f J«te WaOft. «a«|. «f BbMiautei7-4i4. a»l 

7. Al iSc J«4uk's H^rkATT, t]M Brr GMjrn^ 
Ckrwtefdwr HodrtcMUi^ JLA. of Irimtr Cafl. 
ClIwBki, fr> UdMbLfdM. ^Vlint 4^ «f 
tte litft WilbBa i!{MK«, ev|. 4f l'|>7er Gb». 
ctater-^ UvnetHM, 

a. At Ckmt durch, tiut Ber Wt3BiM 
Gewy e 3C9tt, «lde«( «do of SfjMr-Geft. !<fr 
WittHi 540, G.C.B. iur, to A-M^-EXizahietSk' 
Briar, ««l)r 4m. 4f Mafigr'^irx rarrcr. 

jMKo fCayt. Pectta^, Bntnfc Vrc-OMkra! at 

f. At Ctr aa t f. TVmam Xfme. eiq. M.D, 
t» Jfanaret, third 'Imm. 4f J4«e|A Coibat;^ 

caq. «r the Oraa^. At H^^rtr, Thrjma* 

laaca Maade. ewf. of Abcaqp4o»-«ir«t, West- 
■natcr, ti> i^mtn Paiily, rovarnt da-i, of 
the Ber. Join Haapr, %'mr of Ba^or. ^At 



Vjbttic <^. 4f rvvKT BaBRMC 
pL veasml *m -vf th» iKe Mm. WjlmiC «|. 
-if L tw iaaiim , %» san&. mil in u Abl jf v^^ 
y-gftcCfcajina. d^ 4f:^f 
Ar^ MarTA&AocT^Koams 
ttariica^f JoAa Bvrsrvtw < wi af Iftftwiaw^ 
Cab:&ie9C(r.3*DcBb(Ch.«ci::h«n '^ ^ 
Mia Vkwv. D.IK Tatar -if 



a«<4f Lcnurd-9L i 

It. At Chairnhaai. W^am Gvihe. 
Frr^i^Ti, «Ue« Ahl .:f tte i 

cheff, <*|. of BwaacapAe. ^A: St. Gcarn»s 

BtooMAary. iMT^UaipA. l i wa ^ui m «f 
tk« lie« Brr. i-^A U»«4 Jkwn. «f PVo-lb. 
4«c Dk»bi;^k:9h. to C^shmacsJaaa. t&ant ,£k. 
af tk» Sue ni2-7 Fraans. «9i^ 4f fWBaM. 
aKl St. Jaan*4-^ At dc Atte*^ Bm^ 



Ca«ao Mcinlje. cm. wmtarr sa tfe 

East lalia C^aap. to Ei3»>lai 

the Stte Alfred Hjnkastie. oia. af !!■ 

lliBii, j«irrgy. At TkuJcrCharchp 

khoaie, Bbchari, eidsK saa of Biihaii Jca- 
aia^ C9>{. of IVvtt>ad-pL aai Baifc^ HsCi* 
to Afae»-CatV«af>- 1 aanheifc «■!«■ daa. af 
Tlm^AdaB. Sir Edvanl Hf m—. hatf. CXLBL 
of CoBharlaBd-ccrr. aad TwI iaiiaa, r 



Uploa P|a<L Saaaei iJfcHe frtrkim^, 9%q. of 
EieCcr, to Kaiaka, *^fMtA daa. of the fate 

Bdaiaad UMmtn, tnq. of Iwilake Howe. 

At Bt. JfarrlelMae, Mr, YfiDum PUawr, of 
GtSf 'a-ina, to MaryAaae, widow of f raa^ota 
Maaaaina, eaq. of Tbayer-at. Mancheiiter-aq. 

^At AJ] Soob'. Mr, Edvanl Chmrtoi^ of 

HoOca-at. Carewliah^, to Kanljr.Waltoa, 
oahr child of Joha Cochraa, cao. of Harkr- 

fcrd-place, KcBBiMiton. At NorthaaqMoa, 

Qiarva G«iO jai Tooa^ . eaq, of Xore, iSmrnj, 
to Sophy, aecsoad daa. of the late Joacph Col- 
liafwood, caq, of Covbf , iiamiaahire. 
)•. AtfiatbytheBcT.CharkaBiaffiler.Mft 



I4l At CWal>. sCaBcrdsh. GfOKsr 1 

eaq. of Tnartr CoO C amUak e. taCL . 

naejope. voaanst iaa. of C^. r a tt d . BJ(. 

of Hnuiey HaO. aear Chfafle. At Xarth 

Mxaa, Hertft, the Earl of EaaskiBca. ta Jaar, 

eldest daa. of Jaaaes A, Cksmygr, ca^ 

At Exeter. Fraans Bidoat Want, caa. iiiaad 
«oa of Bkbard Bridufele Waid, ca^ «f Bkte- 
toC. to Etna- WeTe4.1art^. eUest daa. ^ Vau 

Adaai W^{3i-ynL ta»\. of the forver place 

At Halifax, JoMfph-Friestley. r( ma gr rt aaa af 
Hcary Lees Edwanls, es«|. of Pjre Xaat. 
Yort.«h. to Manparrt-Jaae, aeooad daa. af the 
late Jamn E. yorris, esq. of Savin 
AtAacroft Chnnrh. aear Bcrvick^ 
Heary Grenoa, esq. of Lovbyaer, 
to Etna, eldest daa. of Joha 3. 
iieCby,eaq. of Cheswitfc. 

17, At Miaseadea Choirh, the Bcr. ^ 
Barfeas, B A , oaly soa of the Ber. Bryaaft 
Barfcas. Bector of !9t. Benct, Graccchavch, t» 
Ebabeth-Sophia, aecsoad daa. of C^pL W. R. 
AraoU /late 19th LaaccrsK of little Miia 

dea Ahbcy, Bocks. At lakpea, Beths* Jate 

Btaart, esq. of the Madras Araiy, ta iaai 
third daa. mt Joha Batkr, caq. af 




2L ITHii iiiiil haul ifTmiiiiih ifc 
'■-1^^^ till rf llfiriir r TTffa iwfllB B_ 



to Joha BeaaoB, caq. 9t 




197 



OBITUARY. 



The CorNTESs or Cork and Orrert. 

Isabella Coimteaa of Cork and Orrery, 
ivbosi} d<»ath is Roticed in our IrsI Num- 
ber, p. 108, WBA the third daughter of 
Willmm Poyntz, of Midgham Hoyse, 
Berks, esquire, by Elizabeth, second 
daughter and co- heiress of Kelland 
Courtenay, esq. formerly M.P. for Ho- 
niton. The Lountesa of Cork, while 
Mi 58 Isabella Poyntz, was Maid ot Ho- 
nour to her late Majesty Queen Char- 
lotte, and mnrried in 1795 to her first 
cousin M SCO u lit Dun^rvau, the present 
Earl of Cork* Her only brothur W»l- 
liara S. Poyntz» esq, hte ALP, for Mid- 
burst, died in 1840, smd his death is re- 
corded ill the Gentleman's Magazine for 
June in that year, p, 653, where some no- 
tiee« are made of that aneient family. 

The late deceased Countess \va«^ the 
mother of nine children, fiix sons and three 
daughters, of whom only three i^ons sur- 
vive; the Hon. John Boyle, formerly 
M*?, for Cork county j Hon. Robert 
Boyle, Capt. Grenadier Guards j and 
Hon, and Rev. Richard Tovvnshend 
Boyle, Rector of Mar'^tOT>, Somerset; 
who attended the remains of their affec- 
tionate mo titer to the family vault iu the 
padab church at Fromc, Somrrset shire, 
amidst the lamentations of many recipi- 
ents of her unobtrusive bounlv. 



Gkkcral Loud Lynedoch. 
Dec. 18, At hiw town residence, Stnit- 
ton -street, aged Ot, the Right Hon. 
Thomas Graham, Baron Lynedoch, of 
Balgowan, co* Perth, a General in the 
army, Colonel of the 1st Foot, Governor 
of Dumbarton CafitleiG.C.B., K.CM.G., 
K.T.S. and K,St,F. 

Ijord Lvnidoch wns the only surviving 
child of Thomas Graham, etq. of Biil- 
go wan, by Lndy Chrisfian Hope, sixth 
daughter of Charles first Ettrl of Hope> 
toun. Until the mature age of forty-two 
he had remained a private country gen- 
tleman, cultvvating the estate of his an- 
ce^toi!!, and indulging himself in eUsstcal 
studies and the enjoyments of an arconi' 
plbhed leisure. 

His father had died in 1771; and on 

the 26th Dec. in the same year he mar. 

"<»<^ the Hon. Mary Catbcart, second 

' f^f Charles ninth Lord Cathcjirt 

'''•r lister Jane was married 

*» Tohn fourth Duke of 

I7!i2 he was de- 

o wbota be 



was most tenderly attached. Their union 
had not been blessed by any children, but 
their mutual affection appeared to be too 
strong to need that additional bond. The 
eff'ect of this melancholy event proved 
suffici^pnt almost to unsettle the mind of 
Mr. Grsham, and his case iidd& one to 
the instances that might be adduced, in 
which domestic calamities have procured 
for the state sprvice» of the highest order 
in tfte field and the cabinet. It may be 
ftiiid that this change in his condition and 
prospects imparted almost a romantic 
character lo the tenor of bis life. His 
grief was so deep and kfiting as greatly to 
injure his ^healtb^ and he was recom- 
mt-ndt'd to travel, with a view of allevi- 
ating the one and restoring the other by 
chtinife of Rccne and variety of oliieets. 
At Gibviiltar he fell into military society, 
and there he fir^t conceived the possible 
lity of obtaining some respite from his 
sorrows by dcvoiing himself to the pro- 
fession of arms. 

Lord Hami was then about to sail for 
the South of France, and Mr, Graham 
had recently been a traveller in that 
coimtry. He therefore gladly acceded ta ' 
his proposition to accompany him as a 
volunteer, We aceordingly hud hiin^ in 
1793, landing with the British troops at 
Toulon, and serving as entra aide-de- 
camp to Lord IM nigra ve (father to the 
present Marquess of Normanby), the ge- 
neral commanding in chief, and who 
marked by his particular thanks the gallant 
and able services of the elderly gentleman 
who had thus volunteered to be his aide- 
di'-camp. The events of that period gave 
Mr, Graham ample means of indulging 
the piisijion which impelled him to a mi* 
litury iife. Nor did he neglect any op- 
poitunity which circumstances presented. 
He was alwuys foremost in the attack, 
and on one occasion, at the bead of a co- 
lumn, when a private soldier fell, Mr, ' 
Gmham look up his musket and supplied 
bis place in the front miik, 

On returning to this country he raised , 
the first battalion of the l)Oth Regimentp , 
of which he \ras appointed Colonel Com- 
mandant on the 1 0th Feb, 1794. Shortly] 
after he was elected the representative in'i 
Parliament of the county of Perth, whicli J 
honourable post he retained until i8iJ7, 
His regiment formed part of the army 
under tbc command of Lord IVloira (af- 
terwTirds Marquess of Haiti rt^s). It 



iaitirtgs) 
passed the summer of 1705 at Isle Dieu. 



198 



Obituabt. — GeHerul Lord Lynedoch. 



[Feb. 



whence it proceeded to Gibraltar. On 
the 22d of July, 1795, the rank of Colo, 
nel in the army Mras conferred upon Mr. 
Qraham. At Gibraltar he endured for a 
short time the idleness inseparable from 
garrison duty in so strong a place ; but a 
continuance of such a life proved intole- 
rable to such a mind as his, and he, 
therefore, obtained permission to join 
the Austrian army. His connection with 
that serrice continued during the summer 
c»f 1796, taking the opportunities which 
his position presented him of sending to 
the British government intelligence of the 
military operations and diplomatic mea- 
sures adopted by the commanders and 
sovereigns of the Continent, it is well 
known that his disoatches at this period 
evinced, in a remarirable degree, the mat 
talents and characteristic energy of the 
writer. During the investment of Mantua 
be was shut up there for some time with 
General Wurmser ; but, incapable of con- 
tinuing unemployed, he made his escape 
txDder cover of night, but not without en. 
counteringgreat difficulties and imminent 
bnard. Early in 17S7 he returned to 
England ; but in the following autumn 

t'oined his regiment at Gibraltar, whence 
le proceeded to the attack of Minorca 
with Sir C. Stuart, who bestowed the 
wannest eulogiums on the skill and va- 
lour displayed by Colonel Graham. 

Not long after this the Colonel, with 
the local rank of Brip^adier, besieged the 
island of Malta, having under his com- 
mand the dOth and 8^h re^ments, and 
some corps embodied under his immediate 
direction. Brigadier. General Graham, 
aware of the prodigious strength of the 
place, resorted to a blockade, and the 
French held out till September, 1800, 
when, after a resistance of two years* 
duration, the place surrendered. 

On the completion of this service. 
General Graham came home for a few 
months, and, again anxious for active 
service, proceeded to Egvpt, but before 
his arrival that country nad been com. 
pletely conquered. He returned through 
Turkey, making some stay at Constanti- 
nople, and during the peace of Amiens 
resided for a short time at Paris. His 
active and enterprising spirit had now to 
endure a period of repose. In 1806, 
however, he proceeded with Sir John 
Moore to Sweden, where he availed him- 
self of that opportunity to traverse the 
country in all directions. Shortly after- 
wards Sir John Moore was ordered to 
Spain, and General Graham served there 
during the whole campaign of 1808. On 
his return to England he was promoted 
to the rank of Lieut.. General, July 25, 
1810, and appointed to command a di- 



vision in the expedition to Malta, but. 
having been attacked with fever, he wiis 
obliged to come home. In Feb. 18U, 
Qeii^ril Graham took the command of 
an elpedition to attack the rear of the 
French army that was then blockading 
Cadiz, an operation which led to the me- 
morable battle of Barossa. The thanks 
of Parliament were voted to Lieutenant- 
Generai Graham and the brave force 
under his command, and never were 
thanks more nobly earned or bestowed in 
a manner more honourable to those who 
offered and those who received them. 
He was at that time a member of the 
House of Commons, and in bis pbce in 
Parliament he received that mark of a 
nation's gratitude. Barossa was to Lord 
Lynedoch what Alroarez H'as to Lord 
Hill, and Albuera to Lord Beresford. 
Eclipsed and out-numbered as these vic- 
tories have been bv those which the great 
Duke achieved, they still were to the 
commanders who led our forces on those 
memorable occasions the greatest events 
of their lives, and the sources of their 
most signal triumphs. 

After this series of events, General 
Graham joined the army under the Duke 
of Wellington ; but from ill.health was 
obliged to revisit England for a short 
period. Eariy in 1813, however, he re- 
tunied to the Peninsula, and commanded 
the lef^ wing of the British army at the 
ever-memorable battle of Vittoria. Mr. 
Abbot, then Speaker of the House of 
Commons, and afterwards Lord Col- 
chester, in alluding to General Graham's 
distinguished career at this period, stated 
that his was *< a name never to be men- 
tioned in our military annals without the 
strongest expression of respect and admi- 
ration,** and Mr. Sheridan, speaking of 
the various excellences, personal and 
professional, which adorned nis character, 
said, — ** I have known him in private 
life ; and never was there seated a loftier 
spirit in a braver heart." AUudins to 
his services in the retreat of the Bntisb 
army to Corunna — in which Sir John 
Moore, the General in command, was 
killed — he continued, ** In the hour of 
peril. Graham was their best adviser ; in 
the hour of disaster, Graham was their 
surest consolation.'' 

Sir Thomas Graham commanded the 
army employed in the memorable siege of 
the town and citadel of St. Sebastian. 
He commanded also the left wing of tlM 
British army at the passage of the Bidas- 
soa ; but soon after, in consequence of 
ill-health, he was obliged to resign his 
command to Sir John fiope. In 1814 he 
was appointed to a command in Holland, 
and on the dd of May in the same /Mr 



I 

I 



1844.] General Lord Li/nedocL — Sir George Crett^, BarL 

he again received tbe tbanks of FarLiament, 
and was mised to the peerage ^ vnth a 
pemion of 2(XK\L having previously been 
created a Knigbi Grand CVoss of tbc 
Order of the Bath, and subsequently a 
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. 
Michael and St. George. He was like^ 
wiie a Knight of tbe Tower and Sword ^ 
in PortugttL In 1821 be received the rank 
of General, In 1826 he was appointed to 
the Colonelcy of the 14th Foot ; and in 
1834 WHS removed to the Colonelcy of the 
royjils ; in IB29 be was made Governor 
of Do ttibarton Cattle — a post rather hono- 
rary than lucralive, its salary being only 
170/. per annum. 

As years advanced, and the infirmities 
ofagebepii to accumulate, Lord Lyne* 
doch found the climate of Italy better 
calculated to sustain his declining energies 
than tbe atmosphere and temperature of 
hii own country ; he therefore spent 
mueb time on the Continent; but, on a 
recent occasion, so anxious waa be to mmiu 
f(r$t bis tense of loyalty and bis personal 
attaebment to the Queen^ that, when her 
Majesty visited Scotland^ he came home 
from Switzerland for tbe express purpose 
of paying his duty to ber Majesty in tbe 
nietropoha of bis native land. 

In politics Lord Lynedocfi was a 
Whig. After representing tbe county of 
Perth from 1794 to 1^07, be was defeated 
in two contested elections, in lijllrand 
1812| by James Drummond, esq. 

Altbougb bis extreme age and en- 
feebled beaitb had long unfitted bim for 
taking an active part in tbe turmoil of 
politics, he was by no means an uncon. 
cemcd spectator of tbe conflict of prin- 
ciples wnicb has been going on during 
the )aat vears of bis unusually protracted 
life; ina bU vote — personal or by proxy 



199 



— has been often found recorded in favour 
of w bat are called *^ liberal " measures. 
Her Mfljesty'iJi vi«iit to Scotland, and ea» 
pecially to the neigbboiirhood of hli seat, 
afforded the venerable peer much delight; 
it seemed to rekindle tbe aniniation of 
youth, and call up tbe fast-decaying ener« 
gies of the old man's powers. His tomb 
will be hallowed by the reverential bo- 
mage from his countrymen which his in- 
tegrity of principle, fidelity of lengthened 
£ervt€e^ Hnd pure, unaffected worth, com- 
bine to claim, 

Tbe titles of this great man are extinct. 
His estates are inherited by a nephew. 
The family from which he is descended is 
a branch of that from which tbe Dukes 
of Montrose trace their origin. 

Lord Lynedoch*s portrait was painted 
by Hoppner and by Sir Thomas Law- 
rence, Of the former there is a folio 
engraving by Reynolds ; and a small one 
in our Magazine for Jan. IB 1 9. Of 
tbe latter there are several araall engrav- 
ings, including one by Meyer in Fisher's 
National Portrait Gallery. There is a 
picture of him (three-qufuters) in Cloth- 
workers' Hall,* London* 



Sm George Crewe^ Bart. 

Jan. 1. At Calkc Abbey, co, Derby, 
a^ed 49, Sir George Harpur Crewe, tbe 
eighth Baronet of that place, late M.F. 
for the Southern Division of the county. 

Sir George Crewe was born Feb. I, 
1795| tbe eldest surviving son of Sir 
Henry Harptir, seventh fiaronet (who 
took the name and arms of Crewe by 
royal sign manual in IB08), and whom be 
succeeded Feb. 7, 1618. 

Sir George Crewe ^va* educated at 
Rugby School, where he attained nearly 



• Painted by order of tbe Court of Assistunts, 7th Sept. IBH. Sir Thomas 
Graham was presented with the freedom of the Clothworkers' Company in the year 
1813, upon which occasion the lol lowing answer (hitherto unpublished) was re- 
ceived from bim, addressed to Samuel Favell, esq. tbe then Master. 

RMndert, 3rd Jan. 1814. 

•• Sir — I have just had the honour of receiving your letter of the 27th uk« comma. 

fticAting to me that I have been elected a freeman of the worshipful Company of 

Clothworkers, by an unanimous vote of the Court of Assistants. I request, Sir, that 

I you will assure the worshipful Company, through tbe Court of Assistants, that I 

feel proud of having been thought worthy of their notice. 

** A soldier can never receive any such gratifying reward as the approbation of bjs 
countrymen. I am, therefore, deeply impressed with the value of the distinction 
conferred upon me by tbe Court of Assistants of the worshipful Company of Clotb- 
workersp b^ being elected a member of their fellowship. 

** Permit me, Sir, to return you my best thanks for the handsome terms in wbicii 
you have expressed yourself concerning me, in tratisroitting the vote of tliu Courts 
and to assure you, 

** Sir, that I remain with sincere regard, 

" Your most obedient and moat bumble servant, 

** Thomas Q&amuu," 



OmrrvAMrj—Sir C t mfi Orme, B^. 



TFflk 



for lu cisncil ■rraimnftia. At t^ 
OB^ ace of TwcstT.f our be siiert«6e4 at 
tbe draiMe of bif farber. tbe late Sir 
UovT C-mrcu B&TL to the Jarxe and 
■Bcksit poBeaboB» of tbe Harpnr fmnulr, 
IB tbe connhes of I>eTbr. StafTord, aod 
Locerer. embracn^ a' rent-nill ouIt 
eqaalied is die ctninrr of Derbr br H^ 
Gnoe tbe i>uke of 'DrTouf>b:re. ' Snr. 
sooBded SI tbu earlr and inexpeneoced 
a^e bj tbe snaret and tcrcptationf of bit 
hi^ ai<d fiai^o» ftarkm. Sir Gec(;gv Kt 
a aoUe csMmytt to raunr men of ntnk 
■fid fcstuDe, aod prorfrd i£e fsticxi^ asd 
kAnoioe of tboK Clrustias prxndp^s ia 
vbkb be bad bet-xi trailed bj a pBoas 
jBodter asd cnzkdiDOtber.* Soon after 
tbe voTLbj Baro&et'f inrrrmnn to bis 
jaterval cstaxei. be was calied iipoB to 
£n tbe iBportaiit o&cse of Hi^^ Sbcfiff 
fa tbe eomtT, asd bir fint pnbbc act was 
oae v-bkb s£cnred tbe leadiap priodpla 
cf bis cbancter, wbkb sbooe so bri^btJj 
tbroBgbout bii life. It bad bees tbe 
CBStOBB inm tiaae iomeBonal to bold an 
aasae baO on tbe rxrun^ of tbe jndges* 
g ntfau ee into tbe tovn. Sir Gc«q^, oo 
las appoibtmeiit to tbe ofice of Hifb 
SbeiC detcmuned to make a ftand 
Ibis 'uk bit wiWfOtij onel asd im. 
rusumi. For tbis purpose be 
polaisbed a lelttr in tbe county news. 
pafiers to tbe noftaiitj asd gentrr of tbe 
eooDtj Ckling upon tbem to couenr vitb 
bim ID dcKsg *v*J v'^tb tbe asnse ball, 
fStowinp boar cruel asd bcartless it ap. 
pearad tbbt anr penoa tbould be found 
cng ap ad la «oiid!r nartb atjd amnsemest 
€M so solemii as occasaoo. vbes so Banj 
poor crearuTM vt- re tiemblinf oo tbe ere 
of tbeir tiia', jx^rbap* for tbelr lives. 
Has appeal to tbe pood srrtM and good 
fodiug of Lif sn^bbooTf bad tbe denred 
cAect; tbe asnze baU was rebaqnisbed, 
and bas nerer bees beard of #isre. From 
tbas tiaae Sir Georpe rttin^ from puUic 
bfci, and lired cbieflj ksovn in tbe do. 
Bestic relaxkiDf of fMiTate life, and oeco- 
psod wtCb tbe iflBproreoae^t of bis esutes, 
and tbe rei^oiD^ abd asoral welfare of bis 
Bsmerxms depfsdantf, until tbe i;eneral 
eiertion of l£fi(5. vben, bj tbe onaniaBous 
vure cf all rlaftces, be ««s most lelncC- 
antly cklled forJi from retirrment to go 
tbrvmgL tbe ordeal of a coutertcd elccdoo, 
one tA tbe most serere oo record in tbe 
eoutj. aM! at a time «iies party f^infr 
lagcd' furk»us!T tbrongbout tbe kingdooB. 
In tbe conntT of Uenr tbe Consenalive 

^ Tbe late mncb respected CbristiaB 
ladr. tbe Lady Frances Harpur, scruod 
daugiter of Fimnds first Eari ofWarvick 
and Brooke. 
11 




of reeoivrr; all i 
Sb Geoige Oevr. and, nldkoa^ at tbitt 
tame in a very weak stage of bnalrti. be BPS- 
aented to come los waid for bis i 
good. Nosooservasbis] 
as acas£d«ze tbastbevrmotti 
pre^-ailed. Men of aD sbades of \ 
and pol'tinl party came fompd to i 
tbeir ro?e ^d inte?m, partialh- or vba2^. 
So Ugb did tbe wortby fianmct stni n 
tbe ecdmazion of all nsk^ §at bis OsEas- 
tian rirtoes asd iinimpfrhabif monl 
cbararter, tbat tbe rerj wmmt of Sir 
Georre Crrne was like oil nftm the 
troidM waters of party ssrile, oo «Bck 
fo tbat oo tbe day of nominnban at the 
comity ball, wben tbere ««s aaaeBhiei a 
most 'ferocioas mob yet aader the iidn. 
CBce of tbe Reform mnia, vbea Sv 
Gcosge caB>e f oravd then was a laD cf 
^e storm, and tbe vont speech that was 
addressed to bim was vbea oae of tW 
mob called out good-bnmoaredSy. 
Sir George, give os a sermoa.** 

Sir George coatiBBed in 
until tbe last Dimolntioa, though 
pressed by inrreasiBg bodily ia' 
and doririr bis Pariiamentaiy a 
eooarieotioasJy i c t o i de d bis fvtes 

biassed by partv ; so tbat it was M 

sneeringly'refflaxked. tbat Sir Geonrwaa 
too consncntaoBS for a mer a ber of Pariia- 
Oo bis relinqwduig the 



doties of a Enti«b aoiator, be ladred ia. 
to tbe bosom of bis familT, and •pent tW 
rcanainder of bis valnable life n Mag 
good to all aroond bim. He fii«d la aee 
bis exteoHve estates in Staforishirc 
raised from a most aDcoltivatied aad dew 
gTMded state to ooe of num p ai ati tg cirS. 
cation and enligbtenment. This prt of 
tbe family property b staatei m tW 
bigb and bleak mooriands of Scdfaid- 
slnre. where a few years ainee tbov ima 
scarcely a passable road. Nov there are 
esccUent roads, goodlarm hoani,chMi^ 
acbools. aad cbapeis. Dari^ tW W 
sammer. Sir Geoige bad the lihaian €f 
seeing tbe last of bis asaay fink chipab 
and scbools opened in a wild aaoor, aad 
crowded with gratefol wonbippen. vka 
woe load in tbetr thanks to God, aad 
rbcir kind landlord and beBcdhdnr. 

Tbe beakh of tbe worthy Daroail had 
been long declining, bat he had ban 
Father bener than asaal, wbea ba Ink 
cold by at tending and 
Christmas dinner to 
their families; and 
broocbitis proved fatal, 
fore bis death, be 
pobUriied a vefrbi 
" Address on the Lofd% 
ate of biafuailj; thai the 




1844,] General Monmn.^Capt Arthur WakefitM, R.N, 



hh ralualfte life were in accordance with 
the sacred season — " Glory to God in 
the highest, and good will towards men.'* 
Vu sendinff u copy of this work to one 
of bis tradcfimeni he added, ** I S4^e an 
ifdverttsement in the paper on behalf of 
a poor family ; pray place to my nccoiint 
five pounds lor ihcm.'* It wonld be end- 
less to enumerate^ were it posi>ible, all 
his teU of public and private bcneticenee. 
Indeed, such was his Christ luii character^ 
united with loyalty and liberiitity, that hi^ 
loss to hh family, friends, and the public 
at large, can scarcely be duly appreciated. 
Sir George married in 1819 the daughter 
of the Rev. Thomas Whi taker, M.A, 
Vicar of Mendliam, Norfolk, and sister 
10 the Rev. G. A. Whitaker, the present 
Vicar of that parish ; whom he has left a 
widow with six children. His eldest aoii 
Sir John Harpur Grewe, Bt. now iu his 
fiOth year, succeeds to the title and 
eitates. 

The funeral of Sir George Crewe took 
place at Calke on Tuesday, January 0. 
A cousidernbic number of pergonal friends 
attended, to pay the lust mournful tributCt 
in conjunction with the iiiemhera of his 
family and relatives, while a large body 
of individuals, many of them tenantry, 
amounting to at lea^t 1000, residerit at 
Calke, Tickenhall, Melbourne, and the 
immediate vicinity, assembled to witness 
ihe funeral procession, which left the 
Abbey in the following order, the cothn 
being borne by sixteen labourers of the 
deceased : — 

Tbe Hev. James Dean (officiatinp). 
Rev. H. Buckley, Rev, R, Coi, Rev, h\ 
Spilsbury, Rev. F. Mere wether, Rev. M. 
Vavasour, Rev. J. Jones, Rev. Joseph 
Deans, Rev, J, M. Webb, J, Child, eaq. 
— Tasker, esq. Dr, Bent,lj, Frear, esq. 

The Corpse : Pall bearers, Hon. and 
Rev. A. Curzon, Sir Q. Mosley, Bart, 
J. B. Crompton, esq. F, Hurt, esq, Wm, 
Mundy, esq, E. A. Hold en, esq. £. S, 
C, Pole, esq. John Balguy, esq. 

Mourners ; Sir John Hurpur Crewe, 
Bart., Evelyn H. Crewe, esq. Rev, H. 
R. Crewe, Kdvv. Lewis Crewe, esq, C 
H. Crewe, esq., Cocksbutt Heathcote, 
esq. Wm. Jenney, esq. Rev. T, W, 
\^iir4iker, Rev. G, A. Whitaker, Mr. 
Justice Patteson* 

Trustees ; Evelyn John .Shirley, esq* 
M.P., William Evans, esq. M.P., J. B. 
Simpson, esq. 

Private friends : C. M. Mundy, esq. 
M.P. John Harrison, esq. Col. Clowes, 
SamU EvanSt esq. W< 1 ^' -wton, esq. 



201 



Sir Henry S, Wilmot, Bart, one of 
the executors and gntirdians, was reluct* 
antly absent, not feeling equal to attend 
upon the melancholy occasion* 



GENEftAL MOEatSON. 

Bee, 3. In Devonshire-place, in hif ' 
84th year. General Edward Morrison, j 
Coioncl of tbe i3th Light Infantry, and . 
Governor of Cb ester. 

In Jan, 1777 this officer was appointed 
Ensign in the Coldstream Guardfi, and ' 
shortly after was employed as Assistant* 
Quartermaster- General. In Sept. 1780 
he succeeded to & Lieutenancy, with the 
runk of Captain, and from Nov. 1781 to 
June I7H3 he served as Aide-de-Camp 
to the Commander-in-Chief in the Wesf^ 
Indies, He was promoted to a company, 
with the rank of Lieut. -Colonel, in Jaii, 
J71M}, and in 1798 was appointed Ueputy- 
Quarterrnaster-General, but obtained per* 
mission to join the 1st battalion of tha 
Coldgtrcam Regiment in Flanders in 
17&+, He received the brevet of Colonel 
2(j Feb, 179^5; w^s appointed Colonel 
of the Leicester Fencibles in Nov, 1800, 
and in Jan. 1805 of a battalion in the 
00th, He became a Major- General Jan, 
1 , 1798 J in April toll owing was appointed 
to the stair in Ireland, where he com- 
manded the liimerick district during the 
rebellion. He was appointed to the fttaS , 
in England in July 1S03, became m 
Lieut. -General Jime I, 1805, Lieut.- 
Governor and Commander of the Forcea 
at Jamaica 8th May, 1S09, and General | 
1th Jnnc, 18H, Genoml Morrison vraa ] 
Colonel of the 13th Foot, which becomes i 
vacant by his demise, and to which he ] 
was appointed 13th Feb. 1813, He wot I 
also Governor of Cheater. 

He married, April 25tfa, 1800, Lady 
Caroline King, second daughter of Robert 
second Earl of Kingston, and sister of 
the Dowager Countess of Mountcashel. 



Capt. Arthuu Wakefield, R.N. 

June J 7, In New Zealand, in his 44th 
year, Arthur Wakefield, esq. Commander 
R.N, 

He was the third son of Edward 
Wakefield, esq. of Burnham, Essejc^ the 
author of a well-known statistical and 
political account of Ireland. 

Captain Wakclield entered the Na^7at , 

10 years of age, and first sailed in the 

Nisus frigate, with Captain FhiJip 

Beaver, whose expedition to Btilama, 

and other services, are matters of history. 

He was subsequently present at the taking 

fit Raiavia and the Isle of France, and in 

ime&fi^ements of BkdeosbargU 

^, where he oerved at Eide« 

ml Sic George Coqk« 



.?/* 



^ ?■*• 3 n ««.. » 



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t."* «.'• '/ .-..i JiT.er.-.i'. * 'J^-i i/» :*- 



f-r,f1rtt .n ;.. 1'^/. 



/>/. 10. A'. Ki« ] '!*!/;:./< ;r f'^rr.V'ik*! 

liam lU.l. I^ll. Ma^^T of •:..!? •r^nfy. 
ft r«n«iri of Oli»ijrf^f#»r, ind Kerror of 

Mr. I full ^^^1 ti«irri Ht f.hr-Nfii Marrh 
|y, 1770. Iff WII4 rh«r -on of Mr. John 
il«ll, fill- f-inini-nt hi^roriml nnd fH>rrriiit 
fHKUvi-r, will known froiri n v.nii'tyof 
i*if-i-lli-rif |ifr|i»rniniir«*«, hut morn pfi. 
|irHiillv Iroin tlir Urt;!* pUti'^ of *' (Irom- 

Will fflnaoiviMK fill* liOIIK I'MrliHini'Mt," 

mill 1 1 I lilt III' fif I III' llfivnr." Hi: 

IVM iwliimiiMl lit St. I'ltiiri* Krliiiol, Lon- 
iliMi, uiiil rliM'tril friiiii thiMiri-toii Si'hoUr- 
«tii|t|il Prinbriikr ('lillrKi*. ill I7NN, wliiTi* 
liu liiTiiiiiii ■ui-rr«>ivi'ly l''rlli>w, Tutor, 
mill, ■iiliaiM|iii«Mlly, ill INlill, ftinHtrr o(' 
lliHl ■iirli*ly. Mil i^initiiiiti'il li..\. Jiiliu 
7. I7UV. Id. A. 1711.^ II. I), mm, mia 

II M IHIMI. Ilia (iiiiiiiiry lit (iliiiii'4»iiU*r 
WM nlliirliril In flio iim«ti*riilii|i ; niiiI ho 
i^Hi }Mr«iiniiiil III iltci iiTliirv «>! Tiiyiiltui 

III IMIO liv ihr Himii miil rlmiitrr itltliiiC 
nilliriliiil rlititi'li. 

hi. lUU \^ill lio ■tiiivrrly ri'^nMlcil, 
Imlli tn miiuil mill liliimviilrr. IIimvm 
« iiiNii itl ilir lniiili'M limrl mitl iiioat 
liriirioil* ili«)>it«tliiiit, i*^i>r iTrtily 10 IMT- 
liMMiM hiiMitth NOiioii. mM iih«iiyB i^tn* 
«i«l«'itiiv AMil liiduii'il \\* ImWo « li*nic))t 

\t\ |*iOiMt«« lit' \\*\\ lsN*n nif Aiu'inM Will}!, 
Imii «lt«i<iiMi«'«l lo l\%l)«»^ h\* |Hiilv i«Urn 




,tf Htk 







■:ii»f 11- 



•ni" -*"imi^x -mm 'Zlju 

e-" vi*r iiiw^p. n pntv « , 
ir--r i¥!«irn rSian ae J^rf 
rnit* ir^vtiiifiiy fc 1, 
-i« V -M«i in ii» jtfl 

■in»-i IT ^nc uut 'Jill 

tt ^ '^fnains • 
r/-*-* .7. ..n a vault 

^f rr.« Hiundi rbe 

L«>nl B(«hop. eierij. 

pr jTcHH into the' efaoir. TW ,^^, 

•vw rnd by the Ber. Sir Jote H. Scy. 

Dovir. in a ncMC wprvavvv ^^Mcr. ^ 

Han4ifi'« faneral antbcai, *« WWb ikv^ 

h'nr-i tiai.** wm bewitifUlT la^. 

H :« eM<?«t flon, the Rev. Occvgv CtalH 
Ha.!, formeriy a defoy of U^dalca CM- 
l'^'', Ot ford /is Vicar of CbofvkaB, smt 
Oloiicr«ter, and married Feb. 9^ lOB^ 
Jane, ^vrond dauffbter of the !■!» L, U. 
fVrrirr. e«q of Belle Vue, lialiilMV. 
fli< iipcnnd son the Rer. Williaoi Atrid 
ilall, .M.A. is a Fellow of New CoOigi^ 
Oxford : and his third has, w« * " 
jiist Irft Winchester School. 



IlF.v. K. II. TuftNOft Babnwsll. 

Oct. 2i. At Bury St. Edmnmiy ^«d 
7.'i, the llrT. Frederick Henrr Tmor 
JiArnwrll, iM.A., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Mr. liHriiwcll was the eldett aon md 
lifir uf thi< llev. Frederick Barnwell, BJL 
UcTtor (if Brarkloy, Lawshall, and Stan. 
niiiKlioid, Suffolk, youngest ton of CbuiM 
llHriiwi'U, PRq. of Mileham, Norfolk, tnd 
of Mary hin wife, only surviving child of 
thp H«*v. John Novell, M.A. Rector ^ 
llilliiiKton, in the same county. Mr. 
IliirnwfU wax of Corpus Christi GoIImb, 
ramliridKo. li. A. 17<)3. M. A. ITSs. 
Having r«')irt*!«oiitvd that hit gnndmother 
Mary y^ NovoU ) alHn'r.mentioiied, enc. 
ivciloJ to a iMii«idrrable estate on the 
draih ot Mi!i4 iMbplla Tumor, of Bury 
St. KilnutitdV. hor cttuvin^cermui onee 
UMiui«od, Mho wa» the only surviving 
M«trr and heirol llenry Turnor.of Bnrj, 
c>^ . h« I«s4k the name\^ Tumor btfdtm 
lUmvivlL by i\\\«l i^n manuil dOcd 17 



I 



I 



I 

I 



1 8440 George Homim^ Esq.— Valentine Maker, Esq, M.P. 

May, 18^, and was allowed to quartfir 
the armi of Tumor in the second quarter. 

Mr» Barnweli eontnbucect to the Gen- 
tle mnn's Magazine, among other articles, 
the following : — 

Account of the Sepulchral Bra&§ of Sir 
Hoger DruTj^ at Roitgham, Suffolkr 
with It plate, July 1813. 

Account of Wordvvell Churcbi SuJJolIt, 
witbaview, April 1821. 

Account of Brigbtwell Church, Suflulk, 
with a view, Sept. 1829, 

He was tit the exnense of engraving 
several plates , of which we can etiu- 
memte— 

Portruits of bis father and mother, each 
accompanied hy a Latin eburaeter* 

Portrait of Miss Juliana Homfray, who 
died Feb. 24, 1832, painted by Sam. 
Lane, engraved bv Sam. Cousins, l8.'iS. 

Two views of toniham Ste. Genevieve, 
then the seat of the Duke of Norfolk^ 
near Bury St. Edmund'i, 

Mr. Barnwell was partial to the com- 
puiition of characters in Latin, and several 
froon hit pen have been placed as epi- 
taphs in tbc churches in the neighbour- 
hood of Bury. 

Mr. Barnwell lived in apartments at 
Bury, in a style not adequute, perhaps, to 
hit ample fortune, tint surrounded with 
olj]«cts congenial to his taste in antiquities, 
beniidry, and the arts ; and his liherality 
and kindliness of disposition highly en- 
deared hina to a numerous circle ol friends. 

He was much attached to the late and 
to the present Sir Thomas Cull urn, Ba* 
ronets, and was thoroughly acquainted 
with all the literary treasurea contained 
in their libraries. On one oecaiiion he 
thus eicpressed himself : — " In having been 
enabled to pvc this and former accounts, 
J cannot but eipress my obli^atjuns to 
Sir Thomas Gery Culltirn, Bi*rt, a gentle- 
soan whose name is mentioned on this 
occasion with the greatest deference and 
respect, and with gratitude on my part 
not to be exceeded, for that, among num- 
berless kindnesses shown to me during 
many years past, I have been honoured 
by his communications, and have been al- 
lowed accest to bis valuable iibrary and 
MSS/* 

There is a portrait of Mr, Barnwell 
himself, engraved in mezzotinto by Jsmes 
Harvey, from a painting by Samuel Lane, 
1829. 

Mr. Barnwell has bequeathed to the 
following insUtutions the sum of 1000/. 
each: — The Suffolk Clerical Charity, 
the Norfolk Clerical Chnrity, the Nor* 
wich and Norfolk Ho«piul, the Norwich 
Blind Institution School, the Rupture 
and Trufis Society, and the Chj-istian 
Knowledge Society. 



203 




QEOAGfi HotJSTOK, EflQ. 

Sept. H. At Invercanld, (suddenly, 
whilst shooting on the moors,) aged 33, 
George Houston, esq. younger, of John- 
stone Castle, tate M. P. for Renfrewshire. 

He was the son and heir apparent of 
Ludovic Houston^ esq. by Anne, eldest 
daughter of John Stirling, esq, of Kip- 
pendavie. 

He first came forward on the Con- 
servative interest for the county of Ren- 
frew in 1835 ; but the former Whig 
member, Sir Michael Shaw Stewart, 
Bart., Klood big gronnd, polling 52S votes* 
Mr. Houston had 4G0, and Mr, William 
Dixon, a Radical, 230. On the death 
of Sir Michael Stewart, in Jan. J 837, 
Mr. Houston wa<i returned, polling 809 
votes, whilst his Whig competitor, Sir J. 
Maxwell, had only G36. At the general 
election tn the same year Mr. Houston 
had S2\ votes to Capt- S»cwart*8 704; 
but in 1&41 he declined the contest. 

Valentine Mahkr, Esij, M.P. 

Dtc, 25. At bis residence, TortoUa, 
near Thurles, Valentine Maher, esq. 
M.P, for the county of Tipperary. 

Jn 1841 Mr. Sheil, who had for many 
years represented Tippemry, made choice 
of Dungarvan, the representation of which 
bad been vacated by the Hon. Cornelius 
O'Callagban, son ot Viscount Lis more ; 
and the liberal electors of that county, 
who formed the mnjoriry of its con- 
stituency, immediately set themsetves Co 
make choice of a successor. Their atten- 
tion was at once directed to Mr, V. 
Maher, as a gentleman who, from pro- 
perty, and the pnnciples to which he bad 
invariably adhered, was unexceptionable in 
every point of view. The principal diffi- 
culty presented itself in the known and 
cheri^hcd pursuits o( this gentleman, 
which rendered bini entirely averse to 
the habits which public lite enjoin. His 
great delight wus to enjoy the sports 
atforded by the life of a country gentle- 
man ; but, when his countrymen mude a 
dem^md upon hi^ time, be at once gave 
up his own enjoyment at the call of duty, 
and was triumphantly returned to Par- 
liament. 

Mr. Muher always kept up a Inrge 
hunting estiihlishment at Melton Mow- 
bray, where he spent each hunting season. 
His large estates in Ttppemry were well 
managed by his relative, Nicholas Maber, 
esq. and his tenantry were always con- 
tented and peaceable. He vvaa unmar- 
ried, and bis immense fortune will, it is 
believed, descend to his brother, John 
Maher, esq. of Tulhimaine Castle, near 
Cashel. 

Mr. Maher appeared m good health m 



George Wm. Wood, Esq. M.P^^Mrs. Bulwer LffiUm. {t'eb. 



204 



Satordaj Dec. 23, bat aboat the doie of 
tfce ity, while riding at foine distance 
ftom Dig bootc, be was attacked with 
illncaa — paraljns it is aaid — and soon 
after became quite insensible. Medical 
lid was immediately procnred from the 
neighbooring town ox Tbarles, bat the 
him, gentleman continued to sink in 
strength, and expired on the mominff of 
Gmstmas day at five o'clock. Mr. 
Maher had the re|mtation of being an ex- 
etllent landlord, and from his inoffensive 
manner as a politician was much respected 
bjr the gentry of all parties. 

George Wm. Wood, Esq. M.P. 

Oct, 3. Suddenly, at Manchester, in 
YAm fl3rd year, George Wm. Wood, esq. 
M.P. for Kendal, F.L.S. a Magistrate 
and Deputy Lieutenant for the County 
Palatine of Lancaster, and President of 
tbt Manchester Chamber of Commerce. 

He was born at Leeds *^6th July, 1781, 
Mid was the eldest son of the Rev. Wm. 
Wood, KL.S. minister of Mill ilill 
Chapel in that town, by Louisa Anne, 
daughter of (ieorge Gates, esq. of New- 
ton Hill. CO. York, lie entered into 
business in Manchester at an early age, 
Mid continued steadily to rise until he 
became one of the leading merchnnts of 
that great commercial town, and was 

Srtner with its present representive, 
ark Philips, esq. At the first election 
for the southern division of Lancashire 
after the passing of the Reform Bill he 
was one of the candidates for the repre- 
sentation of that division, and was re- 
turned at the bead of the poll, which was 
as follows : 

G. W. Wood, esq. . . . 5691, 

Lord Molyncux 5575 

8ir T. ilesketb, Bart. . . 3082 

But at the next election in 1835 the 

llda of political favour bad completely 

iuriied, and his name appeared at the 

Ifptlom of the poll, the numbers being, 

Iwird Francis Kgerton . . 5(320 

llmi, U. B. Wilbraharo . . 4729 

\a%u\ Molyneux 4629 

U. W. Wood, esq. .... 4394 
(m \KVt Mr. Wood was invited to stand 
^ iht^ tiutuuKb of Kendal, to which be 
f»i|« surJ WAi then elected without 
III* s« aUo he was on the suc- 
ivIm^Huii ill J 841. He professed 
[«' « \^ l»l« *•( the school of Charles 
■ »ni\ 'onsoqucntly a friend 
[lous liberty," which, 
I M his fiimily motto. 
'AuW 4h4 suddenly in the rooms 
.U^..,ti»«4i)>i Literary and Philo- 
\A which he was a Vice- 
one of their 




He married, 22 Not. 1810, Sarah, tbe 
eldest daughter of Joseph Gates, esq. of 
Weetwood-haU, near Leeds, whom he 
has left his widow with one sod, Wm. 
Rayner Wood, bom 26tb Aug. 1811. 
This gentleman is, we believe, married, 
and has issue. He succeeds his father at 
his seat. Singleton Lodge, in the north of 
Lancashire. 

Mrs. BuLWEft Lytton. 

Dec, 19. At her house in Upper 
Seymour-street, aged 70, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth- Barbara- Bulwer Lytton. 

Mrs. Bulwer Lytton was the only 
daughter of Richard Warburton, esq. 
who assumed the name of Lvtton, of 
Knebworth Park, Hertfordshire, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of Paul Jodrell, esq. 
of Lewknor in Oxfordshire. Mr. War- 
burton was the son of William Warbur- 
ton, esq. of Yarrow, in the Queen's 
County, by Barbara, youngest daughter 
of William Robinson, esq. who also 
assumed tbe name of Lytton. And Mr. 
Robinson was tbe cousin (through his 
aunt Dame Margaret Strode) of Lytton 
Strode Lytton, esq. who also assumed 
the name of Lytton, being the son of Sir 
George Strode, of the Inner Temple, 
Knt. son of Sir Nicholas Strode, Knt. 
by Judith, eldest daughter of Sir Row- 
land Lytton, and sister to Sir William 
Lvtton, Knt. who died in 1704-5, and 
who was tbe last male of that ancient 
family, which had been settled at Kneb- 
worth from tbe reign of Henry the 
Seventh. (See Clutterbuck's History of 
Hertfordshire, vol. ii. p. 376.) 

Miss Lytton was married in 1798, to 
William Earle Bulwer, esq. of Heydon 
Hall, in Norfolk, who died a General in 
tbe army, July 7, 1807. On the death 
of her father, Dec. 29, 1810, she suc- 
ceeded to the estate of Knebworth ; and 
on the 14th of May, 1811, she took the 
name of Lytton in addition to that of 
Bulwer, by royal sign manual ; — that 
being, as already stated, the fourth time 
that the attempt was made to revive the 
andcnt surname. 

Mrs. Lytton Bulwer had three sons, Wil- 
liam Earle Lytton Bulwer, esq. of Heydon 
Hall, Norfolk ; William Henry Lytton 
Bulwer, esq. recently appointed Minister 
to the Court of Madrid ; and Sir Edward 
Lytton Bulwer, Bart, the distinguished 
novelist, who succeeds to Knebworth. 

Tbe ancient mansion of Knebworth, 
which is described in the Gentleman's 
Msgttzine for March, 1790, was partly 
pulled down by Mrs. Bulwer Lytton, 
in 181 1, and a new mansion was erected 
in the Gothic style, and finished in 1816. 

The mistreta of Knebworth (says t 



1844.] Obituary, — John Lowe^ Etq. — Daniel Vawdrc^, Esq, 205 

oppofite bills, crowned with cottages and 
Bptrei, impart to the scene that pecu- 
liarly EiJglt&h, half-statL'ly and wbolly- 
ciiltiratcd character, upon which the poets 
of Elizabeth 'a day so much loved to 
linger." 



contcrapomry) has left a name there 
more diittingiiiahed than ancestry could 
render it — one that is adorned by nnmber- 
less deeds of private beoevoleoce, and by 
the practice of every virtue. Her cbnrities 
were unostentatious and extensive, A 
donation of u thousand gitinea^ in aid of 
the ** Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts'* is among the recent proofs 
of her tnunificence; and an almshouse 
for the widows of the poor she just lived 
to complete and endow. Not her jost 
and charitable spirit only, but her literary 
accomplishments, have been, in some 
passages of his writings, alluded to by her 
son Sir Ed^vard, as influencing his early 
cbBmcter and directing his tii&tc and 
studies. In the dedication of his Works 
to his mother^ he says — " From yotir 
graceful and accomplished taste I enrly 
L jtarned thot nffection for literature which 
lias exercised so large an intluence over 
I the pursuits of my lite ; and you who were 
I my first guide were my earliest critic." 
Alluding to her own gentle and polished 
Terses, be says—" It was those caf^y 
lessons, fur more than the harsher rudi- 
ments learned subsef|uently In schools, 
I that taught me to admire and to imrtnte." 
And he adds to this a reverential ac* 
knowlcdgnient of the qualities, compared 
with which all literary accomplishments 
»re poor. " Happy, while I borrowed 
firom your taste^ could I have found it not 
, more difficult to imitate your virtues — 
I your spirit of active and extended be- 
nevolence, your cheerful piety, your con- 
siderate justice, your kindly charity — and 
all the qualities that briffbten a nature 
more free from the thought of self than 
any it has been my lot to meet with." 

Mrs. Buhver Lytton's father was a 
great scholar, and one of the most erudite 
Hebraists of his day. He wrote dm mas 
in Hebrew, and consipied bi^ ei^tate to 
stewards and decay. The energy of his 
daughter employea itself In the restora. 
tion of Rnebworih. This old manorial 
seat (*av» Sir Edward Buhver, in a 
beautjful paper deseriptive of the scenes 
of his youth) WAS formerly of vast extent, 
*' built round a quadrangle at different 
penods, from the date of the second 
crusade to that of the reign of Flisabetk 
It was in so ruinoui) a condition when she 
came to its possession ^ that three sides of 
it were obliged to he pulled down ; the 
fouj-thf vet remaining^ is in itsulf a house 
larger than most in the county, and still 
contains the old oak hall, with its lofty 
ceiling and raised music -gal I cry. The 
park has something of the cbaructer of 
Pcnsburst; and its venerable avenues, 
which Blopo from the house down the 
^dual declivity, giving wide views of the 



John Lowe, Esq. 

Nov, 12, At his residence, Glaze- 
brook Hou!ie, South Brent, Devon, in 
bis 68th year, John Low*c, esq. a Deputy 
Lieutenant for that county, and formerly 
a Captain in the 3rd Royal Lancashiru 
Militia. 

He WIS A native of Lancashire, and 
was the second but eldest surviving son 
of Thomas Lowe, esq. a merchant at 
Manchester, by Ellen his wife, daughter 
of Mr, John Heglnbotham, aho a mar. 
chant in that town ; and grandson of the 
Rev, John Lowe, M.A. of Winwick, 
CO. Ltincastcr, by Betty his wife, eldest 
daughter of the Rev. Thomas Stanley, 
LL,D, Rector of Winwick, second son 
of Thomas Stunley, (a descendant of the 
Derby family,) High Sberiff of that 
county 5tb George L He was one of 
the very few surviving officers who formed 
the original corps of the *ird Lancashire 
.Jlililia, when embodied in 1797, 

Mr. Lowe married several years ago 
n daughter of Peter Tonkin, esq. of Ply- 
mouth, by whom he has left issue an only 
son, Stanley Lowe, esq, who is also 
mariicd, and has a ntunerous fimjily. 
The deceased gentleman had been a re- 
sident in Devonshire about thirty years, 
and was universally esteemed by all who 
knew him. 

It is with pleasure we quote the follow- 
ing brief but expressive tribute to his 
memory, which appeared recently in a 
Plymouth paper, ** Few men ever ful- 
111 led the duties of a husband, father, 
friend or neighbour, better than Mr. Lowe, 
whose ttccessiblci gentlemanlike, and frank 
manner evcjy where gained friends, and 
rendered it difficult for him to make an 
enemy." 



DANiKt, Vawdhev, Esq. 

Jan. 17. At hts seat, Plas gwynant, 
CO. Carnarvon, after only a few days* 
illness, in bis 7^rd year, Daniel Vawdrey, 
esq. of Moresbanon and Tuskingham 
Halls, Cheshire, and of Plas-gwynant 
above named ; a Magistrate for the 
counties of Chester, Salop, and Carnar* 
von. 

He was the only surviving child of 
Daniel Vawdrey, esq* of Middlewicb, 
Cheshire, by his* first wife, Mary, only 

* Mr. Vawdrey married secondly, 
a cousin of bis first wife, Mary^ seconj 



OnruABTw^-J. C. L mt d t m, Eaq. 



of WiliiMi fiMin, wq.of 

■ dffi b l e property froai tW Yates of 
My^kvicfc. tke colktml dMcrad—tiof 
Dr. Thonas Yate» Priadpal of Brafcooar 
C4/ltiSt, Oxford. He m boni ocb Oct. 
1771, andybcinf dcfttincd for the bar. wai 
artidcd in tW oftee of Mc«in. Fox, 
Sharp, and Ecdca, Soiidton, id ^Lni. 
cbcfllcr, with whom ha mnaiiicd tbe ac 
ctt OBM d period of proliatioo, fime ycari. 
Soceacdtnf , bowcTcr. to a handMNDe pa. 
triMooy, be ezcbanfed cbe actire dnbn 
of tbat profewion for tbe social retire, 
sent of a couatrj (eoUeoMo. He mar. 
riad, 7tb Feb. 1^1, Aane, dai^btcr of 
Ben^amiD Wjatt, eiq. of Lime GroTe, 
CO. CamarTOD, rniece of tbe kte JaoMa 
Wyau, tui. Sonrefor-Gcnetal to Cbe 
'^ ' of Worki and Ordnance, and 
to Sir Jctfrj Wjattrille, Kot.) by 
be baa left aarvirinf itaue tbree 
1. Daaiel. bom in 1807, in Holj 
Ordcrt. M. A. and late Fellow of Braae. 
noae CoU. Oxford. (3rd rl— mm in Ut. 
buai. in 1%^. now Bector of Stepney. 
Aliddleaex, wbo married, in ISIS, Cbria. 
tiaa Anne, widow of -* Orfoid, esq. 
nd daii«:btcr of W. Hadfield. caq. of 
Nortbwicb. Cbcabire. S. WUIiam Sea. 
aao, in bd^ ordera. M.A. of Qneen't 
Coll. Cambndga, wbo atood lereotb in 
tbaiiatof aen. opt. f47 in number) on 
tbe matbematical thpoa in 1S33; and 3. 
Bcniamin Llewelyn, a tolicitor at Middle, 
wkb, wbo married, in 1843. 



[FA. 
ban OB Aptfl Sib, 




wM^M. WHO mwncu. in le^z. Aoeoooaia. 

daiifbter of — Brookea. caq. of Wbit. 
cfaareb. 8al(». Tbe late Mr. Vawdrey 
aerrcd tbe office of High SberiiTof Car. 
nanronabirc in 16^. AJtbougb arriTcd 
at advanced yeart. be bad enjoyed re. 
markaUy good bcialtb and tpiriu until 
tbe 13tb instant, wben be was seised witb 
an illness which terminated faully in leaa 
than four days. His remains have been 
Iflterrwl in the iamUy vault at Middle, 
wieb. 

J. C. Loiroow. Esq. 

Dee. 14. At bis bouse at Bayswater. 
John Claudius Loudon, esq. who. for 
nearly half a century, bas been before the 
poUic as a writer ol numcfoos useful and 
popular works on gardening, agriculture, 
and architecture. 

•f Mr. Loudon's father was a farmer, re- 
siding in the neighbourhood of Ediiibunrb. 
where he was very h ighly respected ; but 

dau. of Peter Seaman, esq. of Warring, 
ton, by whom he bad issue four children, 
of whom the onlr surrivors now are the 
Rev. Gilbert Vawdrey, M.A. Incum. 
bent of Wrenbury, and tbe Rev. William 
Vawdrey, Hector of Harthill, Cbcahira. 



London, bat tbere was n i 
ddcsce in aaany painla of i 
Tbe two sisicn were, in bock i 
widows at an early age, wiib huge i 
lies, wbkb were bro^bf ap by tbe ex. 
ertioBSof tbe ddcat soa« ; and botb no- 
tbcrs bad tbe bappifas of sceiagtbcir 

Mr. 



rinlSOaL 



■p aaal 
gardener, and began to pnctiai 
wben be came to England witb i 
letters of introdnctioB tosomeof tbeirat 
proprictofs in tbe kingdom. He 



afterwards took a large farm 
sbire, where berendad in ISOOl* 



Intbn 
1S13. 14, 15 be mm^ tbe tov of 
nortbem Europe, tiaiiiMng Swedes, 
Rnsaia. Poland, and AMtrin; in 1S19 ba 
travelled tbroogb Italy; and in 18K 
tbioogb France and G e r m any. 

«* Mr. Loudon's earccTM 1 
in 1803. wben be was only t w ea t y jaan 



ivcrrtau 

! of MMTty 



old, and it continued witb \ 
temipdoo during tbe moa oi 
being only condodcd by bis dcntlu ' Tbe 
first works be published were tbe Mknr- 
ing : — Observations on layinc oet Fnbiie 
Squares, in 1S03, and on Planlntiona in 
ISM; a Treatise on HotbooMS, in 1S06» 
and on Country Residences, in 1806, bolk 
4to; Hinu on tbe Formation of Gaidce% 
in 1812 ; and tbree works on Ilotbossaa, 
in 1817 and 1818. In 1 8SS appealed tbe 
first edition of tbe Encyd^sadin of 
Gardening, a work remarkable ftac the 
immense mass of useful matter wbicb it 
contained, and for tbe then nnesaal cir- 
cumstance of a great quantity of wood, 
cuts being mingled witb tbe text; tbia 
book obtained an extraordinaiy sale, asA 
fully establiabed bis fiune aa an < 
Soon after was published an i 



. written either partly or entirely bf 
Mr. Loudon, called tbe Graanboeae 
Companion, and shortly afterwaida Ob- 
servations on laying out Farms, in Calle, 
witb bis name. In 1824, a i 



• Whilst at Tew Mr. Loudon printed 
anonymously one of his earliest works, •' A 
Treatise on tbe culture of Wheat, reeom. 
mending a system of management founded 
upon the successful experience of tbe 
Author. By a Practical Farmer." ISIS. 
^o. It was dedicated to hia landlord 
geoige Frederick Strattoo, eaq. of Gtetf 
Aew Jrerk* 



18440 



Obituary.— J. C, Loudon ^ Esq, 



207 



of tbe Encyclopicdia of Gnrdentng was 
puhliihed, wtb very great altemtbns and 
improvemenri ; and the following year 
apprared the firit tKiirion of the Encyclo- 
ptedm of Agriculture. In 1826, the 
Gnrdenera Magnziiie was commenced, 
being the first periodical ever devoted 
exclusively to horticulturttl subj«?€ts. The 
MagHzine of Natural Hi§toiy, ako the 
first of its kind» was heimn in 1829, Mr. 
Loudon wus now occupied m the pre- 
paration of tbe Encyeloptpdia of Plants, 
which was published I'arly in \BWt and 
wtis speedily follotved by the HortUB 
Brtcanuiru!«. In IRI31) a necoitd aud 
nenrly re- written edition of the Encyclo- 
jMBdk of Agriculture was publijihcd, and 
Ihia WM followed by an entirely re -writ ten 
edition of tbe Erfcyclopeedia of Gardening, 
in 1831 ; and tbe Encyclopaedia of Cot* 
tage, Farm » and Villa Architecture, the 
fimt be publisbed on bia own account, in 
]B3i. This last work vvas one of the 
most succesRfulf because it was one of Che 
moat useful, he ever wrote, and it is likely 
long to continue a standard book on tbe 
iubjerts of which it treats. Mr. Loudon 
flow began to prepare bis grettt and ruin- 
OUB work, the Arboretum Britannicum, 
the anxietieji attendant on which were, 
undoubtedly, tbe primary cause of that 
decay of constitution which terminated in 
hifl death. Tbis work was not, however, 
cotn Dieted till 1838, and in tbe meantime 
he began tbe Architectural Magazine, 
the first periodical devoted exclusively to 
architecture. Tbe labour be underwent 
at this time was almost incredible. He 
had four periodicals, vix. the Gardener's, 
Natural History, and Arcbitectumt Ala- 
gazine«, and tbe Arboretum Bntannicum, 
wbieb was published in monthly numbers, 
going on at tbe some time ; and, to pro- 
duce these at tbe proper times, he literally 
worked night and day. Immediately on 
tbe conrliifiion of tbe Arboretum Britan- 
nicumi he begun tbe Suburban Garde tier, 
which was also published in 183H, as wa« 
the HortUB Lignosus Londinensis ; and 
in 1839 appeared bis edition of Repton's 
Landscane- Gardening. In 1840 he ac- 
cepted the editorship of tbe Gardener^s 
Gaxette, which he retained till November 
1B41 ; and in 1842 be published his En- 
cyclopaedia of Trees and Shrubs. In tbe 
lame year be completed bis Suburban 
Horticuituralist ; and finally, in 1R43, be 
published his work on Cemeteries, tbe 
laat separate work be ever wrote. In 
this list, many minor productions of Mr. 
Loudon's pen have necessarily been 
omitted : but it may be mentioned, that 
he contxibuted to tbe Encyclopsedia I^H. 
tannioa and Bnnde's Dicti<^n« 
eiice» and that he publbh 



•upplements from time to ttme^ to his 
various works. 

*' Nomnn, perhaps, has ever written so 
much, under ^uch adverse circumstanceSt 
as Mr. Loudon » Many years ago, when 
he came first to England (in J 803)* he 
had a severe attack of intljimmtitory rheu- 
mati^im, which disabled him for two years, 
and ended in an anobylosed knee and a 
contracted left arm. In tbe year 1820, 
whilst compiling the Encyclopaedia of 
Gardening, he had another severe attack 
of rheumatism; and the following year , 
being recommended to go to Brighton to 
get shampooed in Mahommed's Batbs, 
his right arm was there broken near the 
shoulder, and it never properly united. 
Notwithstanding this, he continued to 
write with bis right hand till 1825, when 
the arm was broken a second time, and be 
was then obliged to have it amputated ; 
but not before a general breaking-iip of 
the frame bad commenced, and the thumb 
and two fingers of tbe left band had been 
rendered useless. He afterwards sneered 
frequently from ill health, till his consti^ 
tution was finally undemiined by tbe 
anxiety attending on that most co«tly and 
laborious of all his works, the Arboretum 
Britannicum, which has unfortunately not 
yet paid itself. Hit died at laat of disease 
of the lungs, after suffering severely about 
three months ; and he retained all the 
clearness and energy of bis mind to the 
last. 

'* His labours as a landscape-gardener 
are too numerous to be detailed berei 
but that which he always considered as 
the most important, was tbe laying out 
of the Arboretum so nobly presented by 
Joseph Strutt, cjq. to the town of 
Derby. 

'* Never, perhaps, did any man posaess 
more energy and determination than Mr. 
Loudon ; whatever be began be pursued 
with enthusiasm, and carried out, not* 
withstanding obstacles that would have 
discouraged any ordinary person. He 
%vas a warm friend, atu! most kind and 
afrectionatc in all his relations of son, 
husband, father, and brother, and be never 
hesitated to sacrifice pecuniary considera- 
tions to what he considered bis duty. 
That be was ah^'ays most anjdoui to pro- 
mote the welfare of gardener*, tbe volumes 
of the Gardener's Magazine bear ample 
witness ^ and be laboured not only to Im* 
prove their professional knowledge and to 
increase Ibcir temporal comforts, but to 
raise their moral and intellectual cha« 
rmcter.** (Gardener** Magazine,) 



Kmmw the friends of the writer whose 

*^ in its preseiiit melancholy 

'^neto whoiB be was 



208 



more attached than to Mr. Loudon, and 
perhaps none the loss of whose society 
will be more deeply felt by him. A con- 
geniality of pursuits first led to their ac- 
quaintance, which gradually ripened into 
a more familiar intercourse, and for seve- 
ral past years, when he made his summer 
visits to the metropolis, one of the great- 
est gratifications he looked to, was the 
kind hospitality of Mr. Loudon's house, 
and a renewal of those pleasant excur- 
sions to various parts of the country which 
ofiered most attraction to the botanist, 
the gardener, and the lover of rural scenery. 
At that time he often fancied he heard 
the voice of his friend, calling on him in 
the poet*s words, 

Ti odv aroUis, <f>rj(r\, r<p dcpci rovry. 

It was at this genial season of the year, 
that he used in company with Mr. 
Loudon to visit those places which were 
distinguished, either for their rich as- 
semblage of rare and splendid plants, the 
production of kinder climates, though not 
unsuccessfully transplanted in ours; or 
those to which an additional charm was 
lent, from the happy disposition of the 
^[rounds, and the beauty of the surround- 
ing landscape. Many a day — for it is now 
a melancholy pleasure to recall the time 
^was thus delightfully passed in examin- 
ing the gardens at bropmore, and its 
matchless collection of coniferse, — that 
collection which Lord Grenville made with 
enthusiastic diligence in his earlier days, 
and to which in his last illness, and when 
no longer able to walk, he used to be 
wheeled in his garden chair, that he 
might see and enjoy their progress. 
Sometimes they gained access to the 
noble groups of foreign trees at Syon 
House, which crown the silver Thames 
with a beauty and verdure not its own ; 
sometimes the cedar-groves of Chiswick 
opened their hospitable gates; or they 
visited the royal gardens at Windsor and 
Kew, and other places more remote from 
the metropolis. The^ often spent their 
mornings in the examination of the col- 
lections of the more celebrated nurseries, 
as those of Messrs. Loddiges, Knight, or 
JHenderson. In the course of the summer 
before the last, they made an excursion to 
see what remained of the celebrated 
Lord Chatham*s taste and genius in Uind- 
scape gardening, in which he so much de- 
lighted, as shown in a small secluded 
spot in Enfield Forest, and where they 
found little but the PaUadian bridge re- 
maining : another leisure day led them 
into Kent, to enjoy the fine woodland 
walks and river scenery of Lord Eardley's 
aeat at Belvidere, and the gardens of Mr. 
Angerstein and Lady Buckinghamshire 
12 



Obituary.— s/. C Loudon^ Esq. 



CFeb. 



contiguous to it; and the writer does not 
foi^p^et that at the former place Mr. Loudon 
pointed out to his attention, that the 
oaken woods in which they were walking 
at the time, were all of the sessile-flow, 
ered species ; a tree so comparatively 
rare, as to be found with difficulty in the 
collection of the nurserymen. They 
twice visited Lord Famborough's villa at 
Bromley Hill, celebrated not only for its 
natural beauties, but for the correct taste 
with which those beauties were heightened 
and improved by its Ute owner ; and it 
was on this occasion that, on his return, 
the writer mentioned how much he had been 
struck with Mr. Loudon's quickness of 
observation and decision of judgment. 
Nothing seemed to escape the first rapid 
glance of his eye, from the general dispo- 
sition and picturesque arrangements of the 
scenery, to the form of the smallest shrub, 
or the harmonious arrangement of colours 
in the flowers. Nor were Mr. Loudon's 
inquiries and knowledge confined to botany 
or horticulture ; he possessed also a cor- 
rect and elegant taste in architecture, and 
a professional acquaintance with its de- 
tails; and he well knew how to adjust the 
style of buildings to the local character 
of the grounds, and the general features 
of the place. The present writer has vi- 
sited many of the most celebrated parks 
and pleasure grounds that have been laid 
out or improved by the landscape gar- 
deners of the present day ; but he can say, 
with no unbecoming partiality or preju- 
dice, that he considers Mr. Loudon's taste 
and knowledge in this line of his profes- 
sion (a verv favourite one with him) not 
to have oeen surpassed by any one. 
Whenever an inquiry was made into his 
reasons for projected alterations, or as to 
the future effects he contemplated, his 
answer conveyed precise, and generally 
satisfactory, information. His botanical 
knowledge was of great advantage to him 
in this branch of his profession, and in thia 
he excelled all his contemporaries, who, 
for the most part, were imperfectly in- 
formed on the subject. But Mr. Lou- 
don's studies and general curiosity were 
not confined to subjects connected with 
his professional pursuits. He was alive 
to everything of importance that claimed 
thepublic attention, and particularly to that 
which was connected with the improve- 
ment of the social state of the country, 
the condition of the lower orders, and 
the comfort and independence of all 
classes. But, while he advocated strenu- 
ously and justly the necessity of an im. 
provement in the situation of the people, 
be did not propose that it should be 
effected by an^ encroachment of the 
rights, or spoliation of the property of the 



1644*] 



X C. Loudon, Etq,--Wil!ifim Allen, F.RS. 



209 



I WeftUby, but through their !«pontaneouf 
J ■fiSiAUnce And j n strum en ttility ; and by re- 
minditig tbem that in this case, if in any, 
their duty and their interest went hand in 
band. Though supporting himself and 
family by arduous and indefatigable ap- 
plication, it wai to fiomething far beyond 
a mercenary motive that be looked for 
the lust und honourable revrard of his la- 
bours : the acquirement of money he 
leemed to conBideronly valuable as a ne- 
eesaary mean^ of support; and, had he 
b«en placed in happier and more af- 
fluent circtimstancea, be would have 
b«en equally ardent in bia ptirsuit 
of knowledge for its own sake. Those 
who knew Mr. Loudon best, will 
bear witness to those qualities whirb en- 
deared bim to bis friends ; to bis warmth 
of heart, bis sensibility and liveliness of 
feeling, the HimpUcity of bis manners and 
babit!^, the liberality of bis judgment, and 
his independent character. To bis con- 
teraponiries he wa* always just ; and be 
never spoke of Sir W,' Hooker or Dr, 
Lindley without a willing acknowledge 
xoent of their high attainments, und their 
^eat contributions to the science which 
they cultivated. Other names only infe- 
rior 10 the above might in a similur man- 
UBi be mentioned by us ;* but it is only 
neceasary to add that be considered tho«e 
who wefe engaged in studies congenial to 
hit Olirn, not in the light of rivals con* 
tending for the public favour against him- 
self, but rather as fellow-labourers in the 
great and general iield of science, which 
ei|ually required and rewarded the exer- 
tions of all. 

And now. without withdrawing too 
widely the reserve that ought to 
•hade the privacies of domestic life, 
it may be permitted to us to tay, 
[ ihet Mr« Loudon possessed in bis own 
1 hoine alt the comfort and happiness that 
ean be rationally expected and enjoyed. 
Bia great inirmities, which precluded 
> much personal exertion except that of vvnlk. 
ing, were vigilnntly attended Co, and af- 
fectionately assisted. The pursuits of 
hii family were congenial to hiii own ; he 
possessed a well- instructed and intelligent 
society around him ; whatever were sub. 
jects of interest to him, were also fell arid 



* The writer hopes that be may be 
permitted without impronriety to men. 
tion the nameii of the following persons 
ai^ distinguished by Mr. Loudon's just 
pniise for their botiinical knowledge. 
The Hon. and Rev. \V. Herbert,— 
Mr. Don of Kensington, — Mr, M*Nttb 
of Edinburgh.— Mr. Uaxton of Chats- 
worth, — and Mr. Beaton of ShruhUnd* 

G»jfT. Mao. Vol. XXL 



partaken by all ; and whoever was a guest 
at bis table, was sure to be gratiSed by 
the compimy of persons of superior intelli- 
gence and information ; of naturalists, tnu 
vellers, men conversant with literature, or 
art, or science, of various characters and 
pursuits, but almost all of attainments that 
inspired respect^ and conversation that w^as 
listened to with enjoyment. Alter what 
has been said, it seems superfluous to 
add, how deeply the writer of this me- 
moir must feel the loss of such a friend 
—almost the last of many whom he once 
loved — and whom one by one he has seea 
dropping into an wn timely grave, Mr* 
Loudon's remiiins were deposited in the 
cemetery of Kensall Green ; and the last 
walk but one in which the writer enjoyed 
his society, was taken to this very spot, 
for the purpose of examining the arrange- 
ments of the institution, and the disposi* 
tion of the ground. To all appearunce, 
or at least to common ohservution, Mr* 
London was then in his u.^ual health nnil 
spirits ; the walk UTiS not a short one, yet 
there appeared no diminution of his ac- 
tivity and strength : he supported it 
without languor or wcarinc^is, — and this 
w^as in the commencement of the montb 
of July. Little did the writer cooiem- 
plate the probability of such an event as 
took place only a few months afterwards, 
and which constigned the remains of his 
friend to this very place, while the print 
of his footsteps was yet recent on the 
turf, and the echoes of bii living voice 
seemed hardly to have died away. It ia 
some consolation to him* however slight, to 
have had the opportunity granted of pub- 
licly expressing this opinion of Mr. Lou. 
donV character, and of evincing bis gra* 
titude for having been permitted for 
many years the enjoyment ol his friend- 
ship and society. And if this very im- 
perfect testimony to bis merits sbonid 
meet the eyes of one whose bereave- 
ment is as great as ber aifection and 
duty was sincere, and who fulfilled all 
the claims of her station with attention 
and delight ; perhaps she will not refuse 
sometimes to remember her husband's 
friend; and allow him still to continue 
in the enjoyment of her society, though 
be, through whom he was indebted for 
the privilege, is now no more. 
B— A— f/. J. M. 

William A LLE>?, F.R.S. 
Dee. 30. At Lind field, Sussex, in the 
7-i.th year of hts age, William Allen, F-R.S, 
a member of the Society of Friends. 

The deceased was long distinguished 

by his great chemical att4*inraent9, huving 

been an intimate Iriend ot the late Sir ll. 

2 E 



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:: %..». :li:: ,..7 :be r ti o wy af 



1844,] Thomas H'aikr, Ex^^^-Slmon Sifphenson, Esq, 



ht 



I 

I 

I 



I 



I 



that were considered in dmiger from the 
iamc illness. 

Thomas Wallbr, Esq. 

Nov, 29, At Finoe House, near Bor- 
mokaiie,co, Tip[jerar)% Thomas WalJcr^ 
eitq* 

TLit!i gciUli^Tunn lost bis life in ron- 
feequetiec of a iiioE^t violent outrage, of 
which the deciiils are »s foliow, As be 
WHS eeatpd at dinner on the 16th Nov. 
eight men entered tbc bottle by « back 
door, niid, leaving «Fiitiiiek betoWj three 
o\ ibeui entered the dining room, when 
tbey ina mediately ordered the irentkmeri 
present to kneel down. Mr. Brndrfpll, a 
vieitor, seizing a cbair, nibbed ou the 
ruffians, and, striking a pistol levelled by 
one of them at Mr. VlVtler, dispUeed [be 
flint, and tliuit rendered the vvoiipon com- 
pArAtively barrolessi. Another of ibe gong 
was am)ed with a blunderbuss, which 
missed fire, 1 here then ensued one of 
the most sharj) and savage mities^ whilu 
it lusted, that ever occurred even in that 
portion of Tipperary. Mr. Waller re- 
ceived eleven wounds in tlju bend, nnd his 
left arm was broken. Mis.>; Verekcr hud 
a cut from car to ear at the baek of the 
head, and one extending up ward :4 from 
tluit to the top of her head. Mrs. Waller 
had several cuts, but was the least injured. 
Mr. Braddell had three cuts on the head, 
and other injuries, from bis havingstruggled 
manfuUy with two of the ruffiwns. The 
instrutnents with which the wounds were 
indicted were pistols, and n tool like a 
small billhook for rooting up tbif^tles, 
which, being near Mr. Waller, be bad 
taken up for bis defence. An aged butter 
fotigbt nobly for bis master, and had hts 
arm nearly broketi, and was cut about tbc 
head. His mistress struck one of the 
tcrouudrels with a poker, which was taken 
from her, and used npon the old man. 
The alarm bell was ultimately rung by the 
iicrvants below% and assistance ranie from 
the clergyman (Mr. Goold) nesr at band, 
when Mr. Waller was fufind buthed in bis 
blood, Mr«:. Wiiller insensible in the 
passege, Mr. BraddeU in the hull. Mii^s 
Vereker, who bad endeavoured to get up 
Titairs, had fallen bead downward, and 
luy feet upwards on tbc stairs quite in- 
sensible. The ruffinns had closed their 
M'orkf supporting .Vlr. Waller dead under 
the t»ble, by breaking all the glasses, &c. 
ttnd then departed. Tbey bad taken oiT 
their shoes to came up quietly from below; 
tore away Mr. and Afri*. Waller's 
~ #a. whirh were found with the guard- 
' *Hi»tp. on the ground. 
*»«^kt>t, which 
- f»biect» 
ed, 



they acted as ibej did. A cbild of four 
yearsold was in the room, which they did 
not hurt ,' be got under the table, and up 
stairs, and bid himfielf. Mr. Omddelt hid 
pistols np stairs, and, when be knocked 
down his fir««t assaibint with a chair, be 
rushed to the parlour door to go \i{i for 
them, and was met by a second ruffiiin and 
grappled with — two of bis natls on one 
hand wevi^ torn ofT by the struggles be 
made. The hall was the scene of this 
conflict, The three inflitins each received 
blows on the head, and left marks of their 
blood on the outside of the bouse on 
retiring. 

Fiuoe, and a place tn the same direc- 
tion called Curraghmore, have been in 
bad repute for many yeitrs. No motives 
have been assign c I f»>r the attack, save 
that Mr. Waller made a pa:k where there 
were some \v retched hovels on tbc land 
he bad purchased and improved. He 
employed numbers of workmen whom he 
paid weekly. Many outrages have been 
from time to time committed on bis Land ; 
a barn was burned, sheep killed, bacon 
drying at tenants' bouses destroyed, &c. 
but no outrage olfered to bis person. Mr. 
BraddeU is ngent to an estate in the neigh- 
bourhood, and which has already lost its 
two former agents by murder. He was 
at Mr. Waller's by chance. 

At three o'clock on Tuesduy morning 
the 2l8t Nov. Miss Vereker departed 
this life. An inquest was held, and the 
verdict returned was — ** Died in con- 
sequence of wounds iiillictcd by some 
{)erson or persons unknown.'* Mr. Wul- 
er continued for some days in a very 
precarious state, when, bis friends and 
family confidently looked forward to his 
ultimate recovery , the dangerous sym ptoms 
baying completely abated ; but a very sud- 
den change for the worse took pldcc on 
Wednesday the 29th Nov. and before ibe 
close of evening he breuthed his last. 
The ill-fated gentleman has left a widow, 
(now recovered,) two sons, both bar- 
risters, and one daughter, Mr^i. Stoney. 
His second son, Mr. John Fraucis Waller, 
acted as assesaor at tbc memorable election 
for the city of Dublin in Ibl-l. 




Simon ST£rti£NSOht| Esq. 
Jan* J 5. Of Bpopleiy, aged 90, Simon 
Stephenson, esq* for fifty years the 
res^>ected vestry-clerk of the parish of St. 
Margaret*s, Westminster. His death was 
awfully sudden. At eleven o'clock a 
vestry was held at St. Margaret's Church, 
Westminster, Mr. Pepper in the chair. 
JVIr, Stephenson recorded the names of 
the gentlemen present, and read the 
mioutes of the lait vestry in an audible 
and clear voice^ and was in the act of 



Obituary. — tf. P. Briggs, Esq. R*A. 



212 



taking the book for the signature of the 
chairman, when he fell senseless, and in 
a few moments expired without a groan. 
Dr. Todd, Mr. Kell, and several other 
medical gentlemen, were on the spot 
within five minutes, but their exertions 
were of no avail. The very superior way 
in which Mr. Stephenson had for half a 
centuiy discharged the arduous duties of 
his office had secured him the general 
esteem not only of the select vestry of St. 
Margaret*6y but the parishioners at large ; 
and the absence of parochial squabbles in 
the parish and its vestry, to which almost 
all the neighbouring parishes in West- 
minster have been of late years subject, 
is mainly to be attributed to the tact and 
good feeling of their respected vestry clerk. 
The manner in which Mr. Stephenson 
had conducted the numerous charities 
which the bounty of a more liberal age 
has bequeated to the parish of St. Mar- 
garet's, was highly commendable. 

He had dined at a select Social Club 
on the previous Saturday, and observed 
that, although he bad arrived at 80 years 
of age, he never felt in better health, with 
the exception of being rather deaf. 

Mr. Stephenson oas left one son, 
Edward Stephenson, esq. of Great Queen 
Street, and one daughter, married to Mr. 
Bowles, formerly of Abingdon. 

His death, though in a ripe old age, 
will be genenlly lamented by his family 
and numerous friends. 



[Feb. 



Henry Pearonet Baiooa, Esa. R.A. 
Jan, 18. In Bruton-street, aged 51, 
Henry Perronet Briggs, esq. R.A. 

Mr. Bri^s became in 1814, in his one- 
and-twentieth year, an exhibitor at the 
Royal Academy, sending a male and a 
female portrait — we have never heard of 
what promise; but, from the circum- 
stance that he was not, in the succeeding 
year, an exhibitor, it is evident that he 
was not over-troubled with commissions 
of an^ kind. He soon after turned his 
attention to history.painting, exhibiting 
in 1R18 a picture of Lord Wake of Cot- 
tingham setting fire to his castle, to pre- 
vent a visit from Kin^ Henry VIII. who 
was enamoured of his wife. This was 
followed, in 1819, by a subject from 
Boccaccio :-.«* Calandrino, a Florentine 
painter, thinking he had found the £U- 
tropia (a bkck stone), and thereby be- 
come invisible, is pelted home by his 
companions, Bruno and Buffalmaco.*' 
As his skUl increased, he sought in 
Shakspere for fresh inspiration for his 
pencil; endeavouring, in 1820, to em- 
Dody a scene from Henry IV. with 
Falsuff, and a scene from Twelfth Night, 
with Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew Ague. 



cheek, and Clown. As if not confident 
in his own power of conception, he made 
Maddocks, the actor, the original of his 
Falstaff, a practice then too common even 
with well-established painters. 

From 1816 to 1843, he never neglected 
sending something to the annual exhibition 
of the Royal Academy. Scenes from 
Shakspere and Ariosto were mixed with 
subjects from Robertson^s America, the 
History of the Gunpowder Plot, and 
Smollett's ** Ferdinand Count Fathom." 
One of the most successful of his Shak- 
spere pictures is that favourite subject 
with our painters — Othello reUting his 
adventures to the all-attentive Desdemona. 
Mr. Briggs has not done full justice to 
his subject, but still it is a good picture. 
In 1826 he was elected an Associate of 
the Royal Academy, acquiring that honour 
before both Eastlake and Landseer, who, 
though they started with him, and were 
outstripped for a time, soon overtook him 
in gaining the still higher honour of be- 
coming an R.A. elect. To confirm the 
justice of the Academy in his election, he 
exhibited, in 18S6, a large picture of the 
First Interview between the Spaniards 
and the Peruvians, a clever well-com- 
posed picture, but too dark, and too much 
in the manner of his then favourite Opie : 
it has been engraved. In 1831 he ex- 
hibited a large picture, painted for the 
Mechanics' Institute at Hull, in which he 
endeavoured to embody the Progress of 
Civilisation by representing the Ancient 
Britons Instructed by the Romans in the 
Mechanical Arts. This stamped him as 
an historical painter of high promise; 
and, in 1832, he was elected into the 
Academy, on the death of Northcote. 

Unwilling to risk his newly-acquired 
reputation, and feeling, perhaps, bis pow- 
ers insufficient to make good the high 
expectations that were raised about him, 
or, more likely still, from a wish to make 
money, he now devoted his whole time to 
portraiture, swelled out the catalogues of 
the Royal Academv, and filled his rooms 
with kit-kats and three-quarters of squire 
and noble, clerk and layman, heads of 
colleges and chairmen of qunrter-sessions. 
Lawrence was in the grave, and he had 
to run a race with Shee, Pickersgill, and 
Phillips. He began the race well, and 
has left us some very fine portraits. There 
are few English painted heads better than 
his three-quarter portrait of Chancellor 
Eldon, taken the year before his Lord- 
ship died. 

One of his last great flights was a pic- 
ture representing the creation of the pre- 
sent Earl of Eldon to the degree of 
D.C.L. at the time of the Duke of Wd* 
lington*8 inatallation at Oxford in IM^ 



1844.] 



Clergy Deceased, 



213 



in the presence of bis ftged gnndfilber 
Che lure Earl of Eldoti. 

We subjoin a list of a few of Mr. 
Briggs's portraite: — L The first Lord 
Teignmouth ; 2. Sir Satnuet Meyrick ; 
3. Baron Aldersori ; 4. T. Powell Box. 
Ion; 5. Mre. Opie ; 6, Mrs. Siddona 
and MiM Kemblej 7. Rev, Sydney 
Smith ; 8. Rev. H. H. Milm«n i 9* Lord 
Whaiiidiffej 10. Mr. Planche; 11. Mr. 
Jameson ; 12. Charles Kemble ; 13* 
Lord Stanley ; 14. Duke of Wellington ; 
15. Mr, Walker^ the engineer. — /Hhe- 
neum. 



CLERGY DECEASED, 

Oa. 4. The Rev, Wtiliam Henry Ro^ 
bfrit. Rector of Clcwer, Berks. He 
wan formerly a Fellow of King's college, 
Camhridgef and graduated B.A. iBiy, 
M. A. J^i ; and ^vas presented to Clewer 
by Eton college in 1S27. 

Oct. IS. At Chutmr« in India, the 
Rev, yViUiam Bowiey, who, for nearly 
30 years, wia one of the most active and 
able of the missionaries of the Church 
Missionary Society. The translation of 
the Bible into Hindee was entirely hit 
workt and most of the tracts which have 
iK'en circulated in that language came 
also from bis pen, or were revised and 
improved by him. He wr% a native of 
India, <md A'bs first brought forward by 
the late Bishop Corrie ; from that time 
be ever maintained the highest character, 
in public and in private. 

Nop, 22. At Bath, in his mother's 
bouse, aged 47, the Rev. Roitert A. NatA, 
R«ctor of Hamertonr Huntingdonshire, 
to which be was presented in i%2Ti. 

Not, 23. Aged 85, the Rev. Richnrd 
IVopenp^ M. A* upwards of 50 mt^ 
Rector of Casterton Parva, Hiitland, 
foruR'Hy Fellow of Uriel college, Oxtord, 
M.A, IIW* He was eminent for literary 
attainments, and evinced a critical know- 
ledge of the Hebrew language, by a va- 
luable publication some twenty yeara 
since. Air. Twopttiy^ corruptly so called, 
waa a native of Rochester, having been 
son of a deoeaaed Chapt«r-clerk of its 
cathedral ; descended from a Flemish 
family, of which the Count TV^iyity is 
celebrated in the annals of bis country. 
In early life, apprised of his father's in- 
tention to purchase the next presentation 
to a benefice, Mr. T. with exemplary 
self-denial, replied, ** It is u&eless, for 
now that you have told mo of it, I dare 
not take it.'^ He was presented to Cas- 
terton in I7B3 by the Earl of Pomfret. 
He married a niece of the Very Rev. Dr. 
No well, author of ** An Answer to Pietai 
Oioniensis."' 



Nov, 21, At Cmckenthorpe Home, 
Lincolnshire, aged 77, the Rev. Rovt 
Bowtfead, Vicar of Ulceby, and for 
nearly forty vears Head Master of the 
Grammar School, Caistor. He wai pre- 
sented to Ulceby in 1818 by the Lord 
Chancellor, 

Nov. 27. The Rev, Frederick Thm- 
kifUt D.D. Vicar of Harmondsworth 
with Drayton, Middlesex, He was of 
University college. Oxford, M. A, 1790k 
B. and D.D. 1810; and was presented 
to Harmonds worth in IBlO by H. De 
Burgh, esq. 

Dec, 4. The Rev. Horatio TbtPiif- 
hend Newfmint Curate of KiUbannick, 
in the diocese of Cloytie, 

Dec, J 3, The Eev. ThomaM Dsvmn 
Lumb, Curate of Methley, Yorkshire. 
His body was found drowned in the old 
river near $welHt>gtou bridge, a wtek 
after he was first missed. He waa of 
St. John's college, Cambridge, B« A. Idl9| 
M.A. \%22, 

Aged 5S, the Rev. Thomaa Rick^rde, 
Rector of leklesham, Sussex. He died 
suddenly whilst walking in George -street, 
Hastings. His aister-in-law, Miss Hol- 
lingbery, also recently died very suddenly 
in that town. He was of 5t, John*s col- 
lege, Cambridge, D. A. 1813: and wai 
coikted to Ickleshain in 1817 by Du 
Buckner, then Bishop of ChicbeAter. 

Dec. 16. TheRev./.S^rince«<Bo«?*)i, 
youngest son of the late Admiral Jamea 
Bo wen I of llfncombe. He was ordained 
in \\^23, 

At Pockington, near Taunton, aged 
70, the Rev. George Pyke Duycling, He 
waa ton of the late John Dowliog, esq. of 
Chew Magna, Somerset. 

At Hayes, Middlesex, in his SOtbyear, 
the Kzv,John Nemiiie Freeman^ Vicar of 
that parish, to which he was instituted 
in I7£tt. 

Dec, IS. At Brecon hou«e, Dowlaia, 
aged 36, the Rev. Daniet Daviet, 

Dee,W* At Eythome, Kent, aged 75, 
the Rev. Jamei Minet Sayer. He waa 
of Trinity college, Cambridge, B.A. 
1790, as eighth Wrangler, M.A. 1793, 

Dec, 2{. Aged 73, the Rev. John 
Stephens, M.A. of Pullan cottaj^e, Mont- 
gomery, one of Her Majesty's justices of 
the peace for that county. 

Dec, ^. At Doonas glebe, co. Clare, 
aged 71, the Rev. Thomat Westmpp, 
M.A. fortweniy-one years Rector uf the 
united parishes of Kiltaiilea and Killo- 
kennedy, in the diocese ol Kilhiloe. He 
bad just been collated to the living of 
Doonaa, but waa carried off suddenly be- 
fore he had received induction. 

Dec, 24. Aged 67, the Rev. WiltUm 
Dutom, incumbent of Eaat Ardaleyi netr 



^\A 



Clergy Deceased. 



Wakefield y to which he was presented in 
1806 by the Earl of Cardigan. 

Dec. 25. At Bath, in his 82d year, the 
Rev. Richard Pollard, 53 years Perpetual 
Corate of Parson Drove. His predeces- 
•ors were the Rev. Henry Pujalos, who 
died in 1750, aged 90, after being minister 
00 years. Next followed the Rev. John 
Dickenson: he officiated 40 years, and 
died in 1790. He was succeeded by Mr. 
Pollard. It is rather a singular circum- 
■tince that one church should be holden 
153 years by three successive clergymen. 
Mr. Pollard was of St. John's college, 
Cambridge, B. A. 1783, M.A. 1788. 

Dec, 26. At Cheltenham, aged 71, the 
Rev. Edmund Bellman, Rector of Hel- 
mingham and Pettaugb, Suffolk. Mr. 
Bellman was formerly Fellow of Gonville 
and Caius college, B.A. 1795, M.A. 
1 798. He was presented to the rectory of 
Pettaugh in the year 1801, by his early 
patron the late Wilbraham Earl of Dy- 
•art, and to the rectory of Helmiiigham, 
which he obtained through the same in- 
fluence, in the year 1812. 

Aged 53, the Rev. John Robinson Win* 
•tanley, \),D, Vicar of the third portion 
of Hampton, Oxfordshire. He was half, 
brother to the Intc Rev. Wm. Bankes 
Winstanley, Master of the grammar- 
•cbool at Bampton, whose death is re. 
corded in our Dec. number, p. GOO. The 
gentleman now deceased was presented to 
the third portion of Bampton in 1828. 

2>«c. 28. The Rev. «. G. Bedford, 
M.A. for nineteen years Vicar of St. 
CJcorge*s church, Brandon Hill, Bristol ; 
to which he was presented in 1824, but 
afterwards resigned, and was succeeded 
by the late Rev. Mr. Emra. 

Dee. 29. At the rectory, Templcmore, 
tho Rev. W, A, Holmee, D.D. Chancel. 
lor of Cashcl. 

Lately, Aged 02, the Rev. James An» 
dnu*, for nine years ('urate and twenty- 
live Incumbent of Whitby, Yorkshire. 
The living is in the gift of the Archbishop 
of York. 

At Trcfriw, near Aberystwith, the 
Rev. Morgan Davies, Rector of Llanur. 
mon Dyffryn Ceiriog, Denbighshire, in 
the gift of the Bishop of St. Asaph. 

At Howgil), near badbcrgh, Yorkshire, 
aged 48, the Rev. Roger Clifton Hadwin, 
Ho was of Christ's college, Cambridge, 
B.A. 1819, M.A. 1822. 

Rev. /. K. Hughes, Perpetual Curate 
of Llatigwstenin, Carnarvonshire. On his 
return homeward from Llanberris, he had 
a fall firom his horse within two miles of 
Conway, by which bis skull was so dread- 
fully fractured as to cause immediate 
death. He was collated to his church 
bj the Bishop of St. Aaeph in 1831. 



CPeb. 



At Northwood, Isle of Wight, aged 87, 
the Rev. John Patinuon, many years 
Curate of that place. He was of Queen's 
college, Oxford. M.A. 1782. 

The Rev. Th<muis Upjohn, Rector of 
Highbray, Devonshire. He was pre- 
sented to the rectory of Honeychurch in 
that county in 1832, and to Highbray, we 
believe, in 1836. 

In Oxford-terrace, Hyde Park (the re- 
sidence of his son), aged 87, tbe Rev. FFi/- 
HamJosevh Wdfon, M.A. 

/an. 1. At High Harrington, near 
Whitehaven, aged 40, the ifcv. Amos 
Hill, for the lust thirteen years Curate of 
St. John's chapel, Hensingham. He was 
if Sf'^^.oo^^^^®' Cambridge, B.A. 1828, 

Jan. 2. Aged 48, the Rev. Henry Free- 
land, Rector of Hasketon, near Wood- 
bridge. He was of Emmanuel coUeffe 
Cambridge, B.A. 1817; and was instil 
tuted to Hasketon, which was in his own 
patronage, in 1819. He has left a vridow, 
and ten children under fourteen years of 
age. 

Jan. 6. At Ningwood House, in the 
Isle of Wight, aged 69, the Rev. Thomae 
Bounreman, for thirty-five years Rector 
of Brooke in that island, which church 
was in his own patronage. 

At York, aged 78, the Rev. John Gra- 
ham, for nearly fifty years Rector of St. 
Saviour's and St. Mary Bishophill Senior, 
and Chaplain of the York County Asy- 
lum. He was presented to the churches 
above mentioned by the Lord Chancellor 
in 1796. 

Jan. 7. At Whixall, Salop, the Rev. 
John Murray, Incumbent of that cha. 
pelry, and one of the acting magistrates 
for the county. 

Jan. 8. At Woodbridge, the Rev. Tho- 
mas Shenton Bomford, Perpetual Curate 
of that parish, to which he was presented 
by M. C. J. Betham, esq. in Nov. l&il. 

At Swansea, aged 77, the Rev. George 
Martin Maber, for nearly fifty years Rec- 
tor of Merthyr Tidvil, co. Glamorgan. 
He was of St. John's college, Cambridge, 
B.A. 1788, M.A. 1791; and was pre- 
sented to Merthyr Tidvil in 1795, by the 
Marquess of Bute. 

Aged 80, tbe Rev. William Powell, 
Rector of Shelley, near Hadley, Suffolk. 
He was of St. John's college, Cambridge, 

B. A. 1788, M.A. 1794, and was pre- 
sented to his living in 1B13 by Sir W. B. 
Rush. 

Jan. 10. The Rev. T. Ley son S. Pen- 
oyre, of the Moor, Herefordshire, Rec- 
tor of Llanvigan with Glynn, co. Brecon, 
to which he was presented in 1821 by 

C. K. K. Tyii*^ 
Jan. 13. 



1844] 



Obituary. 



215 



Peter Datiet, Master of the Grammar 
School, Carmarthen. He waa author of a 
'* Descriptive and Historical View of 
Derbyshire, 1811," 8vo. at the period of 
the publication of which he was resident 
at Makeney in that county. 

Jan, 14.. The Rev. Bulkeley WiUiams, 
Perpetual Curate of Pentraeth, Angle- 
sea. He was of Peterhouse, Cambridge, 
B.A. 1823. 

Jan, 17. In his 70th year, the Rev. 
Henry Charles Hobart, Master of Led- 
bury Hospitnl, a Canon Residentiary of 
Hereford, and Rector of Beer Ferrers, co. 
Devon. He was the only son of the late 
Hon. Henry Hobart, M.P. for Norwich, 
by Anne. Margaret, dau. of John Bria- 
tow, esq. He was a nobleman of Christ's 
college, Cambridge, M. A. 1798, was 
presented to the rectory of Beer Ferrerf 
the same year by Viscount Valletort; was 
collated to the Bi8hop*s prebend at Here- 
ford in J 819 ; presented to the vicarage of 
Kempley, co. Glouc. in 1824, by the Dean 
and Chapter of Hereford, and resigned it 
in 1839. He married in 1800 Mary, dau. 
of Sir Thomas Beauchamp- Proctor, Bart, 
and had issue two sons, George, who died 
on the 9th May last, a Major Scots Greys; 
and Charies Hobart, esq. born in 1808. 

At Hyde-park place West, in his 70th 
▼ear, the Rev. Henry Smith, the senior Pre- 
bendary of Southwell. He was the second 
son of the late Rev. Samuel Smith, 
D.C.L. Prebendary of Westminster. He 
was formeriy a Student of Christ Church, 
Oxford, and took the degree of M.A. in 
1798. He was installed in the prebend 
of North Lcverton, at Southwell, in 
1807. 

Jan. 18. At St. Cleer, Cornwall, aged 
92, the Rev. John Jope^ for sixty-seven 
years Vicar of that place, and Rector of 
St. Ives. This venerable gentleman was 
the oldest incumbent in the dioce<«e of 
Exeter. He was of St. John's college, 
Cambridge, M.A. 1785. He was pre- 
sented to St. CMecr in 1776 by the Lord 
Chancellor, and to St. Ives in 1806 by 
the King. 

Jan. 21. At Croydon, aged 70, the 
Rev. George Kingston, Rector of Syder- 
sterne and Barningham Norwood, Nor- 
folk. He was presented to the latter 
church in 1800 by Admiral Wyndham, 
and to the former recently by Samuel 
Hoare, esq. 



DEATHS. 

LONDON AND ITS VICINITY. 

Dec. 12. At Stoke Newington, Harriet, 
wife of Mr. William Smith, Publisher, of 
Fleet-street. 



Dec. 13. Aged 17» Mary-Hannah, eldett 
dau. of Richard Lambert, esq. of John-st. 
Bedford-row. 

Dec. 14. At Fairfield, Bow-road, aged 
55, Robert R. Brown, esq. 

In Connaught-sq. Major John William 
Pew, late of the Madras Army. 

In Montagu-st. Russell- sq. aged SO, 
John Henderson, esq. 

In Montagu-st. the widow of Charles- 
Raymond Barker, esq. 

In Upper Gower-st. aged 68, Elizabeth. 
Susanna, relict of Lannoy Richard Couss- 
maker, esq. of Westwood, near Guildford- 

At Clapham, Jane, wife of Peter Black- 
burn, esq. 

Dec, 15. Aged 50, William Evered, 
esq. late of the firm of Broughton and 
Evered, of Oxford-st. 

In Charlotte- St. Bloomsbury, aged 55, 
Mr. Michael Jones, of her Majesty's 
Office of W^oods, Forests, &.c. 

Dec. 16. At Greenwich Hospital, aged 
68, Commander Edward Williams (1805). 
He obtained his first commission 1796, 
served as Lieutenant on board Nelson's 
flag-ship at Trafalgar; and was conse- 
quently made Commander Dec. 34, 1805 ; 
and appointed Commander of Greenwich 
Hospital 27 Aug. 1840. 

Dec. 17. Three days after the delivery 
of a still-born son, aged 41, Sarah, wife of 
Joseph Anderson, esq. of the Holme, 
Regent* s- park. 

Dec, 18. In Bryanston-sq. Mary, relict 
of Thomas Cotton, esq. 

Dec. 19. Aged 67, George Mansfield, 
esq. of Oxford-terrace, Hyde-park. 

Dec. 20. Aged 70, Rachel, relict of 
Hananel Mendes Da Costa, of Bury-st. 
St. Mary- Axe. 

Mary-Eliza, wife of John-Thomas Ed- 
monds, esq. of George-st. Hanover-sq. 

Dec. 21. At Ashbumham House, Grove, 
Blackheath, aged 80, Mrs. Richard- 
son. 

In Kennington-lane, Vauxhall, aged 78, 
William Drew, esq, 

Dec, 23. Aged 88, Robert Horn, esq. 
of Harleyford-pl. Kennington-common, 
many years of the Navy Office. 

In Southwick-st. Oxford-sq. aged SS, 
William- Lewis, only son of William 
NichoU, esq. M.D. of Ryde, I. W. and 
of Penline, Glamorganshire. 

Jane, eldest surviving dau. of the late 
Thomas Mure, esq. of Warriston, N. B. 

Dec. 24. In Elm-tree-road, Regent's- 
park, aged 65, John Goodchild, esq. 

Aged 42, Samuel Parkman, eldest son of 
the late Abraham Mann, esq. of Clapham. 

Dec, 25. In Queen-st. Mayfair, aged 
81, James Paterson, M.D. 

At the residence of her reUitive, William 
Whittem, esq. in Little Qaeen-it. Ian- 



S16 



Obituabt. 



[Fbfa. 



€6tm*B Inn-fieMf , Sarah, wife of Mr.Charln 
Draper, nirgeon, of Kenilwor^, and daa. 
of the late Thomas Webb, esq. of Tid- 
dington. 

la Moor§^te-st. Lieat. Benjamin Wil- 
liam Vaoghan, 33nd Madrss Nat. Inf. 
third son of Archdeacon Vanghan, of 
Madras, and Woolston House, DcTon. 

At Oak-cottage, Old Brompton, the 
wife of T. H. H. Canty, esq. H. P. Bour- 
bon Rifle Reg. 

Dee. S6. At Brompton, Mary, relict 
of Willitm Neale, esq. of Bory-st. St. 
James*s. 

Aged 55, Diana, wifeof Mark Williams, 
esq. snrgeon, of Soley-tcrr. Myddelton- 
sq. Her death wu accelerated by the 
death of her only son, Frederick-Mark 
Williams, Assistant Surgeon R. N., who 
was lost on board Her Majesty's sloop 
Victor, when that vessel was wrecked in 
the Gnlf of Mexico, 6th Sept. 1843, and 
all bands perished. 

Dec. 27. Aged 63, Charles Frederick 
Spratlin, esq. of the Examiners' Office, 
Rolls-yard, Chancery-lane. 

Dec, 28. In Charlotte-st. FiUroy-tq. 
aged 74, Sarah, widow of William Lum- 
1^, esq. of Sidmonth-pl. 

In the Tower, aged 57. William Spinks, 
esq. of the Ordnance Department. 

Aged 8S, Zachary Langton, Esq. of 
Bedford-row. 

In Mecklenburgh-sq. aged 68, Edward 
Eyton. esq. 

Lately. In London, Lydia, dan. of the 
late John Cnrre, esq. of Ilton-court, Mon- 
moathsh. and sister of Mrs Deere, Mon- 
tague-house, Bath. 

At Kensington-terr. aged 74, Eliiabeth, 
relict of Samuel Fellowes. esq. surgeon. 

Jan. I. Alice-Mary: and on Jam. 5. 
Julia, the only children of George Wood- 
ley, esq. of Howland-st. Fitsroysq. 

Jam. ^. In Upper Seymour-st. aged 
76, Charles Strwart. esq. of Ardsheal, 
Argyllshire, N. B. male representatire of 
the Stewarts of lx>m, Appin, and Ard- 
iheal. 

Aged 61, Richard Burman, esq. of 
Whitehead's-grore. Chebca, and of the 
Eichrquer Office, Lincoln's-inn. 

In York.pl. Chelsea, Elisabeth.Maria, 
relict of A. H. Haworth. esq. F.L.S. 

Jam.X ln$loane.st. Cheasea,aged<l. 
James- Parsons, youngest son of Oeorge 
Henning, M. D. of PiHile . 

At Islington, aged 48, Mr. Tliomas 
Higham, a native of BramAeld, Suffolk, 
whose talents and application had raised 
him to eonaiderable diatinction as an ar- 
chitectural engraver. He was one of the 
artists employed in the great national 
plalo, reprnantlnff the Coronation of her 
pnient MajMty, In WMtaaaMcr Abbey, 
U 



Jam. 4. Aged 63, John Robimon Har- 
rison, esq. of Highbury- vale. 

In Acton-pl. KingslaDd-road, aged 77, 
Joaeah Bnllen, esq. 43 yean in the aerieo 
of the Bank of England. 

In Grove-terr. St. John's Wood, Mn. 
Lucy Ann Sinclair Sutherland. 

Jam. 5. Aged 4?, Anne, vrife of John 
Nokes, esq. of Guildford-st. Raaaeli-iq. 

In Golden-sq. Rebecca-Hannah, eldaat 
dan. of the Ute William Clarke, caq. of 
Parmoor-house, HamUedon, fineka. 

Jam. 6. Aged 76, Mary, rdict of Sir 
George Hamage, Bart. She vras his cou- 
sin, the eldest surviving dan. of Lt-CoL 
Henry Hamage, of Belliswardine, eo. 
Salop. ; was married in 1791 to Geoi|[o 
Blackman, esq. who assumed the name of 
Hamage, and was created a Baronet im 
18SI : and vras left his vridow in 1836, 
having had issue the present Sir George 
Harnoge, Capt. R.N. and three other sona. 

Jam. 7. In Weymouth-st aged 86, 
Mary, third dau. of the late Peregrine 
Bertie, esq. and widow of Samuel Lechi* 
garay, esq. 

In Dalston-terr. aged 70, J. A. A. 
Bames, esq. formerly of Calcutta. 

Aged 91, John Jones, esq. of Upper 
Norton. St. 

Aged 41, Maria, eldest dau. of the late 
Gideon Acland, esq. of Camberwell. 

In Gower.st. aged 49, Capt. William 
Compton. 

Jaa. 8. In Chester-pl. Kennington, 
aged 77, William Fowler, esq. late of tte 
Customs. 

In Ebury-st. aged 42, Maria, wife of 
Henry Eaton, esq. solicitor. 

At Ulington, aged 68, Sarah, relict of 
Robert Blaason, esq. 

In Upper Montague-st. Ann- Martha, 
only dau. of the late David Glorer, caq. 

In Upper Seymonr-st. aged49, Charlea 
John Middlcton, esq. late of the Bengal 
Civil Senioe. 

Jam. 9. At Peckham, aged 83, Jane, 
relict ofWilliam Boyd, esq. late of Plals* 
tow, Bromley, Kent. 

In Miilbaok-st. Westminster, aged 54, 
David Shuter, esq. scrivener. 

Jan. 11. In Eatonpl. aged 60, Capt. 
John Bernhard Smith, R.N. He served 
as midshipman of the Hercule 74, behig 
the ilag of Rear Adm. J. R. Dacres, on 
the Jamaica station, was made Lieut. 1808, 
and Commamlcr Wl.'. 

.\t Uimboth, Edward Beck, esq. late 
of the UoyaI Art. 

•/(in. l-/. Robert Spariing. esq. of Ec- 
clcston>st. l^mlico. 

At Kensington, aged 7 1 , John Bayford, 
esq. of DiKtors* Commons. 

Jam. 13. At Deptfoid, aged 83, Rich- 
ani Uughes- 



18^4.] 



Obituary. 



217 



I 

I 



In Belgrave'sq. tbe Kight Hon* Anne, 
Countess dowager of Ckre, Sbe wm the 
second daughter of Richard Chapel Wha- 
ley, e£H[. was married in ITBti to the Rt, 
Hon. John Fltz- Gibbon, aftcrwurda first 
Earl of Clare, and Lord High Chancellor 
of Ireland, and was left a widow in 1R02. 
Her ladyship leaves issue the present Earl, 
Colonel the Hon. R. H* Fitz- Gibbon, 
Lord Lieatenaat of co. Limericli:, and one 
surviving daughter, unooarried. 

Jan, 14. At Kingskod, aged T2^ retired 
Commander Charles ChampiuD, R*N. 
(1830.) 

KlizAheth, wife of George Wigg, es<i. 
of Mecklenburgb esq. 

Jmi, 15. Aged 49, in Westbourne-pL 
Elisabethiwifeof Williaju Sedgwick, Esq. 

At his residence^ Judd-place East, 
New.road, aged 76, William Dodd, esq. 

Stephen Vertue, esq, of Queen 's-sq. 
Westminster. Alfred, his second sou, 
died o& the i.ith Dec, 



ECDS.^ — Dec. 14. At Upper Dean^ 
aged «7, Elias Boswell Coilett, esq. His 
remains were interred by the side of his 
ancestors in Dean Chitrcb. 

Dec, 2^. At Bedford, aged 81, Eli. 
nbeth, widow of Wm. I sham Eppes, esq. 

Berks. — Jan. 14, At Warfravc-hill, 
Lieut.. Col. Raymond White, late of the 
Enoiskillen Dragoons. He was appoint* 
cd Cornet 1824, Lieut. 1^35, Captain 
182M, and Major 1838. 

Jan,H. At Windsor Castle, aged 67, 
Capt. Thomas Fcmyhoiaghof the 40th regt. 
of Foot, Governor of the MilitJiry KnighLa 
of Windsor, [He died very suddenly 
from dtse,a&e of the heart.] He was 
well known at the British Moseum as 
a genealogist, and was much employed by 
William Salt, esq. F.S.A. in fonning his 
Suffordshire collections. His body was 
deposited in the new catacombs at SL 
George** Chapel with full military ho- 
nours, 

Jan. 16. At Deaf Wood, ag«d 24, Ca- 
tharine Mary, eldest dao. of John Wal- 
ter, esq. 

Bucks.— Drc. 24. At Ameraham, aged 
85, John Wellcr, esq. 

Dtc, 29. At Bierton, aged H), SusAnna* 
Mary, youngest child of the late Rev. 
John Stevens, Vicar of Swalcliffe, Ox on. 

Cambridgk. — Dec, 16» At Cambridgo, 
aged TO, J. Simpson Howlctt, esq. 

Dfc, 22. At Cambridge, aged 84, Eli* 
jtobetb, relict of the Rev. George Pad don, 
If .A. Vicar of PakeAeld. 

/flH. 1. At the rectory, Westley Water- 
less, Emily, wife of the Rev. Thomas 
Ualsted, and youngest dau. of the late 
Frederic C. Mortlock, esq. of Cam- 
bridge, 

Gent. Mao. Vol, XXL 




CffESMiREt — Jan, 4. At Dunham 
Massey, the scat of the Earl of Stamford 
and Warrington, in her 43rd year, the 
Lady Grey of Groby, She was Lady Ka- 
tharine Charteria, fourth dau. of the pre- 
sent Earl of Wemyss and March ; waa 
married in 1824, to the late Lord Grey of 
Groby, and left his widow in 1835, having 
had issue a daughter, bom in 18£5, and 
George Harry, now Lord Grey of Groby, 
bora in 1827. 

Cornwall. — JDee. 15, At Falmonib^ 
iiged 17 1 John, youngest son of Edward 
Clifton Came, esq, and grandson of the 
ktc Wilham Imiea Pocock, esq. of St* 
MicbaePs bill, Bristol. 

Lately, At Helston, John Rogers, esq* 
Author of " An ti' Popery.*' 

At Trehsrrow, Maria, wife of the Rev, 
Gilbert Heatbcote. 

Jan, 4. Aged 23, Wilmot*Atine, wif« 
of George Dennis John, esq. of Penzance^ 
to whom she was married only two months 
ago* 

Dkrbt.— Dee. 25. At Chesterfield, 
aged 61, Frederic Lely, esq. late of Gran- 
tham. 

Dtc, 30. Aged 4, Clement M, Kings- 
ton, only son of Clement U. Kingston, 
Esq. B.A., Grammar SchooU Ashbome. 

Jan. 4. At the house of her late bro- 
ther. Dr. Forrester, Derby, Elizabeth, 
widow of Mundy French, esq, 

Jun, 13, Aged 79, Joseph Strutt, Esq, 
of Derby, 

Devon. — Dec, 11. At the rectory, 
Keiitisbeare, aged 7B, Anne, widow of the 
Rev. Wm. Roberts, Vice- Provost of Eton 
College, and Rector of Worplesdon. 

Dec. 1*). At Narraroore, in the parish 
of Lustleigh, the residence of bis sister 
Mrs. Amery, aged 72^ Peter Fabiam 
Sparke, esq. of Asbbarton. 

Dec, IB. At Stonehonse, aged 48, 
Joseph Taylor, Esq, R.N,, eldest sou of 
the late CoL Taylor, of Holt House, Norfc 

Dec. 23. At Plymouth, aged 27» Fran- 
ces Darracott, second dau. of Lieut. 
Thomas Burdwood, R,N., and niece of 
James Pin horn, esq. Secretary to Rear- 
Ad m. Thomas. 

/)ee. 21. At Heavitrcc, Haniet, fifth 
d&u* of the late John Davte, esq. of 
Orleigh Court, and sister of Joseph 
Davie Baasett, esq. of Watermouth, 

At Heavitre«, aged 87 1 Elizabeth, widow 
of Capt. Kingdom, l&te of the 94tb. 

Dec. 22. At St. Thomas* Exeter, 
aged 60, Grace, wife of Lieut, Hewitti 
R.V. 

At the rectory, Dunterton, aged 84, 
Mary Royse, relict of the lie v. W, Royse* 

Dec. 26. At Seaton, near Airoinster, 
aged 70p the Rev. Jonas Jagger, of the 
Wealcyan Methodist Society, It waa hit 
2F 



218 



Obituary. 



[Feb. 



evftom, for the last 20 years, to astemble 
on bia birthday 12 old men, to whom he 
always gave a subatantial Christmas din- 
ner. On the above day, as usnal, the 
anniversary of his birth and day of death, 
10 old men assembled, whose ages aver- 
aged 79 years. 

Lately, At Torquay, aged 34, John 
Warren Howell, esq, surgeon of Bath, 
late HonorarySecretary of the Bath Royal 
Literary Philosophical Institution, and 
Corresponding Member of the London 
Botanical and other learned Societies. 

Jan. 1. At Barnstaple, aged 18, Mary- 
Ann, wife of Capt. Douglas Curry, R.N., 
and only child of the late Charles J. H. 
Rowe, esq. of Stratford- on- A von. 

Jan. 3. At Barnstaple, in the house 
of her son-in-law, Thomas Hutton^ esq. 
Mrs. Robertson, relict of William Ro- 
bertson, esq. E.I.C.S. 

Jan. 4. At Tavistock, Elizabeth, re- 
lict of the late Rev. — Maunder, many 
years since Rector of Stowford. 

Jan. 5. At Torquay, aged 76, Wil- 
liam Clark, esq. 

Jan. 9. At Exeter, aged 83. Robert 
Cornish, esq. 

Jan. 11. At Alphington, aged 26, the 
Lady Catharine Caroline Parker, wife of 
John Parker, esq. Capt. 66th Foot. She 
was the fourth and youngest daughter of 
Henrietta-Anne Countess of Rothes, and 
aunt of the present Earl. She was mar- 
ried to Capt. Parker in 1841. 

Jan. 13. Mrs. Dalton, dau. of the late 
Rev. Peter Beavis, of Wcrkleigh. 

Jan. 14. George Thomas Ley, esq. 
a clerk in the Public Business office of the 
House of Commons, third son of John 
Henry Ley, esq. Chief Clerk of the 
House of Commons, and Lady Frances 
Ley, of Trehill. 

Jan. 16. At Heavitree, aged 77, Mary, 
wife of the Rev. John Tothill, Rector of 
Hittisleigh. 

DoRSKT. — Dec. 8. At Weymouth, aged 
3 years and a half. Clarendon, and on the 
Idth, aged 5 years and 3 months, Joseph 
Derwent, sons of Dr. Allanby, M.D. 

Dec. V3. At Weymouth, aged 61, 
William Heath, esq. He was the last 
Mayor under the old Corporation, and has 
ever since acted as a borough magistrate. 

Dec. S6. At Child Okt-ford, Louisa, 
rtlict of the Rev. John Davis, Vicar of 
Ceme Abbas, and sister of the late H. 
Ker Seymour, esq. of llanford House. 

Lately. At Poole, aged 105, Mrs. 
Alexander. 

Jan. 3. At Weymouth, aged 74, Mrs. 
Ann Harbin. 

Emskx.— Dec. 23. At Great Ilford, 
aged 41, Sarah, wife of William Hasle* 
huTkt, esq. 



Jan. 1. At the rectory, Stock, Ma- 
rianna, eldest dau. of the lata John Edison, 
esq. of Kensington. sq. 

Jan, 9. Aged 47, Anne-Maria, young- 
est dau. of the late John Bygrave, esq. of 
Danbury. 

Jan, 3. At Walthamstow, affed 86, 
Richenda, relict of Thomas How Master- 
man, esq. of Keston, Kent. 

At WestThurrock, Louisa, second dao. 
of A. W. Skinner, esq. 

Jan. 9, Anne, eldest dau. of James 
Windus, esq. of Epping. 

Jan, 13. Aged 51, Sarah, wife of the 
Rev. S. F. Rippingall, of Langham. 

Gloucester. — Dec, 8. At the house 
of her dau. at Downend, near Bristol, in 
her 96th year, Anne, widow of the Rer. 
Christopher Haynes, Rector of Siston. 

Elizabeth, wife of John James, esq. of 
Highfield House, near Lydney. 

Dec. 13. At Thombury, aged 66, Mrs. 
Macdonell, relict of Major James Mac- 
donell, and dau. of the late S. Woodfield, 
esq. 

Dec. 19. At her grandfather's, S. P. 
Peach, esq. Tockington, aged 18, Emma- 
Atbol, only dau. of John Murray Aynsley, 
esq. 

At Redland, aged 16, John, second son 
of Philip Vanghan, esq. 

Dec. 22. At Cheltenham, aged 35, 
Arthur Frankland, esq. 

At Bristol, aged 43, Mr. William 
Prichard, Secretary to the Bristol Union 
Fire-office. He had for some time past 
laboured under great mental depression, 
and destroyed himself by taking a quantity 
of hydrocyanic acid. He has left a widow 
and six children. Verdict, *' Insanity.*' 

Dec. 31. At Cheltenham, aged 60, 
Lieut.. Col. Cyprian Bridge, on the re- 
tired full-pay of the Royal Artillery. 

Lately. At Clifton, Caroline, widow 
of J. A'hmuty, esq. of the Bengal Ciril 
Service. 

At Bristol, Mrs. Foy, mother of Mr. 
Foy, the Comedian, and of Mrs. Warren, 
Pianist and Vocalist, of Portsea. 

Jan. 1 . At Cheltenham, Susanna, wife 
of T. King Stephens, esq. of Greenfields, 
near Presteign, and dau. of the late Wil- 
liam Davies, esq. of Little Strawberry- 
hill,' Middlesex. 

Jan. 7. At Cheltenham, Julia Wilkin- 
son, wife of Thomas Allport, esq. 

Jan. 13. At Cheltenham, aged 54, 
Marianne, eldest dau. of the late Lieut.- 
Col. Aubrey. 

Hants. — Dec. 14. At Winchester, 
aged 15, Henry-Peers Trotman, second 
son of the Rev. Fiennes Trotman, of 
DallinKton. 

At Winchester, Robert-Lewis, youngest 
son of the late James Inglis, esq. of Nor- 



1844.]. 



Obituary. 



S19 



wood, Surrey, and grandson of the late 
William Mason, esq. of Colchester. 

Dec, 15. At Lymington, aged 18, Hen* 
rietta, wife of Grisorge F. St. Barbe, esq. 
and dan. of Col. Cleafeland, R.A. of 
Woolwich. 

Dee, SO. In Cold Harbour, Gosport, 
aged 4G, Walter Toby, esq. Commander 
R.N. (1840.) 

Dee, 87. At Sydney Lodge, near South- 
ampton, in her 77th year, the Most Hon. 
Urania -Anne dowager Marchioness of 
Clanricarde, only sister of the late Mar- 
quess of Winchester. She was the daugh- 
ter of George twelfth Marquess of Win- 
chester, by Martha, daughter of Thomas 
Ingoldsby, esq. ; was married first in 
1785 to Henry twelfth Earl and first 
Marquess of Clanricarde, who died with- 
out issue in 1797 ; secondly, in 1799t 
to Colonel Peter Kington, who was 
killed at Buenos Ayres in 1807 ; and 
thirdly, in 1813, to Vice-Adm. the Hon. 
Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke, K.C.B. father 
(by a former marriage) of the present 
Earl of Hardwicke. Sir Joseph was un- 
fortunately drowned by the upsetting of a 
boat in the Southampton water, on the 
5th May, 1831. 

Lately, At Christchurch, George-Mar- 
tin Kemp, only son of George Kemp 
Welsh, esq. 

At Anglesea Villa, aged 86, Grace, re- 
lict of Adm. Lobb. 

At Southampton, aged 68, Sarah, wi- 
dow of H. Best, esq. of Bo tleigh -grange. 

Jan, 4 . At Bevis Hill, Southampton, 
aged 66, Mrs. Hack, well known as the 
writer of books for young people. 

Jan, 2. At Lymington, aged 18, 
Henry- Worsley, eldest son of Major- 
Gen. H. T. Roberts, C.B., of Milford 
Lodge, near Lymington. 

Jan, 13. At Lake, in the Isle of 
Wight, aged 47, Lieut. J. H. Peel, R.N. 

Jan, 15. At Merston Cottage, I. W, 
W. J. Beckingsale, esq. aged 67, for 
many years a respectable inhabitant of 
Salisbury. 

Herts.— Dec. 16. At St. Alban's, 
aged 84, Margaret, reUct of W. Wade, 
B.D. Rector of Lilly, Herts, and youngest 
dau. of the late Rev. W^alter Serocold, of 
Cherry Hinton, Cambridgeshire. 

Dee, 20. At Twyford House, aged 
85, Mrs. Sophia Williams, late of Is- 
lington. 

Jan, 3. At Abbot's Langley, Edmund, 
only sunriving son of the Rev. W. Lewis. 

Jan, 5. At Leavesden, aged 83, Sa- 
muel Ward, esq. * 

Jan, 16. At Bohun Lodge, East Bar- 
net, aged 47* George Knott, esq. of the 
ilrm of Booth, Ingledew, and Knott, of 
Upper Thames- street. 



Hkrkford.— At Leominster, aged 79» 
Philip Derry, esq. 

HoNTiNGooN. — Dee, 33. Aged 48, 
Charles, youngest son of the late Charles 
Blood worth, esq. of Kimbolton. 

Dec, S4. Aged 19, Owsley Bickerton 
Rowley, second son of George William 
Rowley, esq. of the Priory, St. Neot*s. 

Kbnt. — Dee. 15. At Maidstone, aged 
53, Charles William Parrell, esq. 

Dec, n. Henry, youngest son of 
Fulke Greville, esq. of Walmer. 

Dee, l.Q. At Lewisham-hill, aged 9, 
Mary, dau. of William Mortimer, esq. 

Dec 22. Aged 28, Augustus Frederick 
Bromley, of Meopham, youngest son of 
the late Samuel Bromley, esq. surgeon 
R.N. 

Jan, 5. Aged 46, Rebecca, wife of Mr. 
George Walker, surgeon, of Sheemess, 
and dau. of the late John Swift, esq. of 
Borstal Hall. 

At Tunbridge Wells, Sibella, relict of 
William Wilkinson, esq. late of Well 
House, Streatham. 

Jan, 11. At Tunbridge Wells, aged 56, 
Elisabeth, relict of Thomas Harrison 
Burder, esq. M.D. 

Lancaster. — Dec, 14. Aged 60, 
Bulkely Price, esq. of Withington, near 
Manchester. 

Dec, 92, At Golden-hill, Chorley, 
John Silvester, esq. eldest son of the late 
Col. Silvester, of Chorley. 

Jan, 3. At Liverpool, William Cator, 
esq. 

Jan, 6. At Beech-hill, near Manches- 
ter, aged 53, John Edward Taylor, esq. 
Proprietor of the ** Manchester Guar- 
dian." 

Leicester. — Dee, 16. At Ashby de 
la Zonch, aged 81, Catharine, only dau. 
of the late Rev. Richard Tillard, M.A. 
Vicar of Wirksworth, Derbyshire, and 
relict of the Rev. Joshua Smith, B.D. 
late Rector of Holt, Norfolk. 

Middlesex.— Dec. 17. Aged 84, John 
Foster, esq. of Enfield. 

Dec, 20, At Chalk-hill House, Kings- 
bury, aged 53, Augustus, eldest son of 
Augustus Manning, esq. 

Jan, 12. At Great Ealing, Sarah, eldest 
dau. of the late Meyrick Feild, esq. of 
Evesham. 

Monmouth.— Dec. 26. At Pontne- 
wydd, near Newport, Jane, dau. of the 
late George Conway, esq. Pontnewydd 
Tin works, 

Norfolk. — Dec, 10. At Lynn Regis, 
Rosa, fourth dau. of the Lite Rev. R. Bat- 
hurst, and grand-dau. of the late Bishop 
of Norwich. 

Jan, 3, AtNewCatton,aged36, John, 
eldest son of J. B. Nettleship, esq. of 
Hingham. 



220 



Obitcakv. 



[Feb. 



NomrnAiiPTOif.— *Yor. 8. At the vi- 
range, \VeIfonl» aged 69, Jonmtban 
^'ilkes, esq. late of St. Ann*«, Barley, 
near Leeds. 

Dec. 17* At Northampton, aged 83, 
Mrs. Peach, relict of Samuel Peach, esq. 
Notts.— Dec. ^5. At Newark, agMl 
&}, Mrs. Mary Pennell, niece of the late 
Rer. Davies Pennell, formerly Vicar and 
Master of the Free Grammar School of 
that town. 

OxroKD.— Dec. 0. Aged (>6, Mary, 
relict of the Rer. William Woolstone, at 
Adderbary. 

Salop.— Dec. 1.%. At Onslow Hall, 
aged 14. John, eldest son of the Re^'. 
Charles W'ingficld. Vicar of Llanllwch- 
aiara, Montgomeryshire, and nephew 
to Col. Wingfield. of the former place. 

Dee. ilti. At Whitchurch, af;rd *>*), 
Hannah, relict of Willioui Hunt, cm]. of 
the Brades. Stafford>hirc. 

Dee. .)0. At the Isle House, near 
Shrewsbury, the wife of the Uev. Hum- 
phrey Sandfonl. and the only child of the 
late Rer. Gcoree Holland. 

SoMcasET.— />c. 10. At Bath. Robert 
Brooke. e$q. late of the Bengal Civil Ser- 
Tii*e. 

Dee. U. At Weston-super-Mare. Han- 
nah. elde»t dau. of the late John Pro- 
theroe. esq. of Clifton. 

Dec. lit. At Bath. aged»«0, the widow 
of Christopher William jrrine. esq. of the 
Island of Tobago, r.nd l.an$down -cres- 
cent. Bath. 

At Bath. Charles Henry Hardy. M.D. 
former U of Brasenose College, Oiford. 
M.A. l>13. Fellow of the Royal College 
of l^y>icians. and for many }CAn PhyM- 
cian tit the Bath I'nitcd Ho»pitaK 

Dee. IT. At Weston -su|«er-Marv, aged 
47, Harriet. PtV»le. wife of John Howell 
Cook, e»q. and y^Hincesi dau. of the Rev. 
Dr. Wollen. Vii-ar oV Bridgwater. 

/Vr. CI. .\l Haselhury. near Crew- 
keme.a^ed 4. Jamrs>B<-thunc, t^onof the 
Rer. Frederic PusautOT. 

Dfv. ::. At Bath, aieed 77. Mary-.\n. 
Ionia, relit^t of Samuel Palmer, esq. for- 
merly of Cohton. IV^on. and youni^ntt 
dau. of the late Matthew S|vnoer. 'c*%\. 
of Hor»ington, in thi»^^)unty, 

Dt\\ ::^, \t Widtvml»c,* B:ilh. John 
Mowatt W(V>dward. e««{. rlde»t M«n of the 
ble Christopher Richard W ixvl « arxl . esq. 
of KinjnKlown. Bitstol. 

Dec. CS. At Bath, the «idow of Col. 
IViTis^tn. 

Dec. M. M Minehe««l. agtsl 4\\MarT* 
Ann, r^lii^ of Che Re^. H. K. Cainphcil. 
Curate of l.ang^«ul Bndxille. 

Jmi. .i. .\t Bishop'p Hull, near Taun- 
ton, afr4 VI, Kllen, third dau. of the Ret. 
Pr.Stani^, 



STAFFono.— Dee. 13. At Sedgtey, 
aged 22, Charles Chew Smith, organiat, 
son of Samuel Smith, and nephew of tba 
late Rev. Charles Chew, Vicar of Lock- 
ington and Kegworth, Leiceatenhire. 

Dec. 23. At Longden Green, near 
Lichfield, aged 83, Thos. IVebb, eaq. emi- 
nent as a medal engraTcr. 

Jan. 1. At Wolrerhampton, Mary 
Anne, wife of William Bamfather, eaq. and 
eldest dau. of the late Capt. Sanndert, of 
Stratford-npon-ATon. 

Jan. 5. At Bramshall rectory, aged 
76, Sarah Young, relict of the Rer. John 
Seagrare, late Rector of Caatle Aahby, 
Northamptonshire. 

$i-FFOi.K. — Dee. 31. At Framlingbam, 
in her 2:?d year, Ellen-Josephine, young- 
est dau. of the late Joseph Hammond, 
esq. of Pettistree. 

Sraacv.— Dee. 2?. At Sutton, aged 
37. Capt. W. F. Dn Pasquier, of the Ma- 
dras Arinr. 

Dec. '.M. At Streatham. aged 86, WO- 
liam Land. esq. formerly of Greenwicfav 
Kent. 

Dec. '.'(!. At Rtc. aged 81, Anne, relict 
of Rev. Wm. Jacicson. 

Dec. C7. In Ikunes terrace, Jane, wife 
of Edward William Cooke, and dau. of 
George l^diges, esq. of Hackney. 

Jan. 3. Aged t>4. Edward ColfiJl EdHn, 
esq. of Stanley-grOTe, Mortlake. 

Jan. 12. At Orove Houae» Ham, aged 
67. William Beebe. esq. 

Jan. \^. At Richmond, aged 76, re- 
tired Commander John Gnyon, R.M. 

Jan. U>. At Thomcroft, near Letlicr* 
head, aced -1. Col. Drinkwater Bctiinne. 

At OoTdon. at the residence of Mr. 
C.e«i. PcnMJ. a<ed 74. Elizabeth, relicC 
of Rev. James Wykes. Rector of Easel- 
bffch. Northamp!on. 

Sisscx.— Dfi-. I.\ At Brighton, agad 
t»-. l'*hcr li-anrille Dovle. esq. 

DeK' i:v At Brighton, aged ^, Ed- 
war\l-Knatt*hbulI. youngest son of John 
Brcuohley. esq. of* Wanlisc How, Wcit- 
morland. 

Dec. Ir. A: the residence of hit lOD, 
in l^«es. aced £>7. John Laagford, c«|. 
late of E.%st bourse. 

IV.\ >:4. At St. Ijeonard's-on-Sei, 
a^ed :i. Fmnra. <Iiest dau. of Gcoifa 
Baittclot. esq. of Stopham House. 

Jan, S. At Br.i:hion. Mrs. Cathariae 
Vane, el.lcst dau. of the late Sir Liond 
Wn$ht Fletcher Vase. Bart, of Huttou- 
hall. l^umberland. 

Jjin. i:. At Ma^.hn^IVaceiT. Lewci, 
acr^l t«-:. Lucy. dau. of the Utc' Timothy 
Ratkrs. esq. o! S:. IVlerpbcrg. 

.tan. \,s. \x Bnjrht.-^. Mary, wife of 
the late Slr|^a Jaiees ^Kitb, cs^. 



18440 



OaiTCARY, 



221 



I 
I 



I 



At North iatn, aged Tfi, Mr. Gfi^rge 
Bisbopp. This much reipccted gentle- 
man aod hts ancestors have inherited, and 
coDAtaDtty rcjided upon, an estate at Nor- 
thiam during the la^t three centuries. 

Aged 7 1 , WilUam Scrivenfl, esq. banker, 
Hastings. 

Warwick, — Dta. 21. At Leaming- 
ton, Bolton Peel, esq. of Dosthill Lodge, 
near Tam worth. 

At the house of her son-in-law, the 
RcT. S, Crowther, Knowle, aged 81, Hes* 
ter, relict of the Rev. R. W. Yates, of 
the Etms, Solihull, and only ehiki of the 
late Rev. Dr. Biirnurdiston, Master of 
Corpus Christ! College^ Cambridge. 

Dw. 24, At Leans in gtcm, aged 2G, 
Edwmrd, eldest survifing son of the late 
Thomas Crookenden, esq. of Rushford- 
lodge, Suffolk, formerly of Trinity-coll. 
Camb. 

Dec, 35, At Birmingham, Thomas 
A. S. Stocker, esq, M,D, late of Ludlow. 
Jan, 10, At Leamington, Mrs. Symp- 
son, wife of Robert Sympson, esq. 

WesTUO ALAND. — Dtc. 123. At Ing- 
mire Hall, Kendal, Thomas Upton^ esq, 
nephew and heir-at-law of Sir John 
Smyth, Bart, of Ashton. 

WW.TS.— />ec. l.>.— Ill his 88th year, 
John NeAte, esq. for nearly 30 years de- 
puty high steward of the h^^rough of 
Malmesbury. 

Dec, 27. At Salisbury, aged 89, James 
Sutton, esq. a magistrate, senior alderman 
of the Ute Corporation, and a member of 
the present Town Council. 

WoBCTtSTER, — Dee. 19. Aged h'2f 
Anne, wife of John Gotdinghami esq. 
of Worcester, 

Lately. At Mahern Wells, Harriet, 
youngest dan. of the late Thos. Berring- 
too, esq. of Wlnsley, HerefordHhire. 

At Worcester, Susanna, wife of the 
late Stephen God.son, esq, and youngest 
dau* of the late R. Cokcr, esq. of Map- 
powder, Dorset. 

Jan, T. At Worcester, Robert Hull- 
burton, esq. only surviving son of the late 
Gen. Ualibfirton, of the Madras estab- 
lishment, 

Jan. 9. At Hartlebury, aged 5S, Geo. 
Lewis, eaq. 

York.— i>ec, J 3. At Do ncaster, Fran- 
ces-Elizabeth, widow of the Rev. John 
Raraaden, Vicar of Arksey, who died lu 
1807, and slater to Sir Wm. B. Cooke, 
Bart. She was the eldest dau. of the late 
Sir George Cooke, Birt. of Wheatley, by 
Frances, dau. of Sir John Lambert Mid- 
dletoD, Bart. 

Dec. IB* At the vicarage, Onnesby, 
the residence of her son-in-law, the Rcy. 
Thomas Irvin, aged 6p, Phcbe Uayes, 
wife of Capt. George Hayes, R.N. 



Dec 2(i. At Bishoi>hlll, York, aged ?3, 
Stephen Beck with, esq. M.D, He gra- 
duated in 1798, Dr. Beckwith bos be- 
queathed above 40,000/. to the charitable 
instltutious of York. 

Ir/i/e/y, At Sheffield, aged 109, Mrs. 
Gray, of BelVs-gardens. 

Wales, — Dec, 10, Morris Jones, esq* 
of the Gunrog, near Welshpool, Mayor 
of that borough. 

Bee. 17* Aged 48, Mory-Fraoces-Fortl; 
wife of the Rev, Henry Jones, Vicar of 
Northop, Flintshire. 

/Jee. \ii. At St. Asaph, aged 63, 
Richard Rohert Jones, better known in 
the Principality as Dick of Aberdarou, 
the eelehrnled Welsh linernist. He was 
well kfioitya to the generality of the public 
from the peculiarities of his pergonal 
appearance, but more favourably to the 
literary portion of England in general, 
by the estent of his acquirements in the 
ancient and modem languages. He was 
fortunate in Iiaving for the chronicler of 
a certain portion of his life, of his attain* 
mentj, and his peculiarities, the author 
of the life of Lorenzo de Medicis, whose 
biographical sketch of him will now be 
referred to with much interest. 

Dee. 26. At Park-hill, near Beaumaris, 
Isleof Aoglesea, Ehiabeth-Susanna, third 
dau. of the late Rev. Robert Williams, 
Rector of Beaumaris aod Llandegfan. 

Laieitf, At Swansea, Thomas Thomas, 
esq. solicitor, aged 53 , Recorder and Town- 
clerk for the borough of Swansea, and 
coroner for the county of Glamorgan. 

At Brecon, aged 7.9, Hester, relict of 
Rev. Wm. Williams, Rector of IJyswen, 
Brecknockshire. 

Scotland.— iVof. 29. At the Goynd, 
near Arbroath, aged 70, John Ouchter- 
lony, esq. of the Gnynd and Tulloes. 

Dec. 13. At Inverness, Major John 
Barclay, of the Hon. East India Com* 
pany^s 4th Bengal Light Cavalry, 

At Haughend, near Dnnkeld, Mungo 
Murray, esq. 

In Coatcs' -crescent, Edinburgh, aged 
71, John William Norrie, esq. Author of 
" A Complete Epitome of Practical Navi- 
gation,*' &c. 

/on. 3. At Bath House, Ardrossan, 
aged 78, Mrs. Mary Fisher, dau. of the 
late Alexander Fisher, esq. and relict of 
Charles Macintosh, esq, of Campsie and 
Dunchattan, F,R*S, London. 

Jan. d. In Howe-st. Edinburgh, aged 
73, Robert Freebaira, esq. 

Ireland. — Dec. 20, At Dnblin, 
Eli«abeth, wife of CoL Mnnro, Royal 
Art. 

Dee, :H , A t Clonagath , Kildare , Ann a 
Beaamont, wife of Weldon Deverell, esq, 
and dau. of \^''olfendeD Kenny, esq. 



223 



OBrrUABV. 



[Feb. 



At Tftrbert (Lower Shtnoon) » on board 
the Fox frigate, to which Im wu attached 
as mid ship mm, Mr fiuUeel, son of John 
C BuUeel, eiq. grandsoa of Earl Grey, 
Fleet House, Devon. 

Jjoiei^* In DubliDt Arthur Huxiie» 
esq. late Teller of Her Mi^eft^'e Eit- 
chequer. 

Jan. 10. At Dunany HooM* aged 81 1 
Prances Lady BelLiDgham. 

East Ikdibs.— ^m^. i6. At Singa- 
pore, aged 24, Capt. William Mao. 

Oct. 14. At UmbalLahT on his march 
from Benares to Scinde, aged \6, J. 
Gideon Jenkins, Ensign in tlie 55th Reg. 
of Native luf* eldest son. of J. G. Jen- 
IclnSp esc). of Radwaj, Sidmouth. 

Oct, 17* At Dacca, Bengal, Robert 
BarclA]r Dimoazii esq. surgeon, 49th Na* 
tire Inf. 

Oci. 30. At Calcutta, aged 25. W. A. 
Tongue p esq. of lOtU foot, eldest son of 
William Tongue, esq. of Conibesford Hall, 
Staflordsbire* 

No9, L At Calcutta, aged '21, Lieut. 
Samuel Edward Soejd, of the Bengal 
Eog. fourth son of tb« late Major Ralph 
Henry Snejd, of the Bengal Cavalry. 

Nov. 5. At Sttkkur, in Scinde, aged 
96, W^illiam Eilice Pollard, esq. of the 
Bengal Medical Serrioei son of the Rev. 
J. PoUard, Rector of Bennington, Hcrtt. 

Nqv* 13. At the Nilgberhes, Samuel 
StokeSf esq, surgeon Madras European 

At Hyderabad, aged 39, M, T. Chatter, 
ton, esq. Assistant Surgeon of the 3d reg. 
of Light Cavalry, Hon, East India Com- 

Eany's 8ervioe, and second sou of the 
iU Mr« Ricbard Chatterton, of Bath. 

JVotr, 14. At Kurnool, Eliza Scarlett, 
wife of WUliara C. Rich, esq. 46th Regt. 
of Madras Nat. Inf. and dau. of John 
Robert Henry Jackson, esq. of Swallow* 
^Id-fiL near WeUlufton, Soiotnefesliire. 

Nov. 17. At Bolliry, iged S6, Tbo- 
mas Alexander Turquand, Lkot. Quarter- 
master and Interpreter of the M Regt. of 
Madras Light lof. He waa the only son 
of the late Cammisairy^General. 

No9. U, At Agra, aged 37, EHen, 
wife of Capt. Phjlip Harris, of the 7Uth 
Ri«t. Bengal Nat. W. eldest dau. of the 
litie Thomas Blair, eaq. of Lucan, Dublin. 

WKrr Inoiss.~JV«v. «j. At Fal- 
miwtli. Jamaica, Mr. WiUiam Dyer, for 
mmj years editor of the Jamaka Corn* 
wall CoorMirf and son of tbe late Robert 
Dyer» esq. mercbant, BrUtol, 

AaaoAii. — /utp ,, , At Addatdc, 
8<»uik AustraUa, eged 46, Charlei Fk«d«. 
riek Burton, solicitor, son of the Rev* 
Charles Burton, Hector of BladignryelM, 
Nortbamptoosb* aad Vicar of 



Julft 19. At Wellington, New Zea- 
land, George Hunter, esq. Major o( that 
settlement, late merchant of London. 

Aug. S4. At Bagdad^ on board the 
Hon. East India Company*! steam ree- 
sel the Nitoeris, aged 32, George Augus- 
tus Frederick Danvers, esq. late first 
Lieut, of the PorUmouth DivirioD of 
Royal Marines. 

Si^pt, 2. At Hong Kong, Francis R. 
Foote, Esq. Deputy Commissary Gen., 
only son of the late Vice-Adm. Sir Ed. 
ward J. Foote, K.C B. 

Sept, 14. On board the sbip Beulafa, 
which passing from Hong Kong to Cal- 
cuttn, Robert Higliat, esq. of Livcrjiool, 
and formerly of Paisley. 

Oct. 13. At the liland of 8L Helena, 
having nearly completed bis 90th year* 
Sir William Webber Doveton, Knt. an 
old and faithful civil senant of the East 
India Company for nearly half a century. 
He was knighted Feb, 3, IBIj^, being then 
one of the Council at St. Helena, and 
Lieut.-Colonel of the Volunteers there. 

Nov, . . On his passage from Bom- 
bay to England, aged ^9, Capt. Rattray, 
8€th Reg. eldest son of the late Lieut.- 
Col. Rattray, of the 63d. 

JVbv. 17. At GeDoa, aged 74, John 
Watts, esq. late of Cheltenham. 

Not. 2i. At Washington, United Statest 
Pettus, eldest son of T. R. Harmon, esq. 
of Bedford'pl. Russell-iq. 

Nov. 38* At Sierra Leone, Capt. WiU 
Ham Rhodes, «d son of the late Godfrey 
Rhodes, of Stepney. 

Dee. \K At Rome, aged 28, Mr. Sa- 
muel Redford, of Hampton Court, artist. 

Dec. lU. At St, Petersburg, aged 77, 
Charles Baird, eaq. of tliat city, Mr. 
Baird was a man whose enterprise and 
talents, exercised sucoessfiiily, during a 
long life, in the introduction into Ruuia, 
and prosecutiuu tbere, of the variona greet 
improvements of eugineeriDg science, vriU 
cause him to be long reoDusmbered in that 
country. 

At Rome, aged &2f George Cbarlea 
liarrey. esq. 

Dec. 11. At Zante, Sarabella-MaHa, 
eldest dan. of Pryse L. Gordon, esq. and 
wife of F- L. Cbiaranda, e&q. Assistant 
Commissary* Geo. to the Forces, and late 
Collector of the Customs at that bland. 

At Bruaseis, aged 66, Col. Wtliiam 
Mayne. 

Detf, \». At Baden-Baden, Sank 
Henrietta, youngest dau. of the late 
Tboaai JttAor, esq. of Edinburgh, and 
youngett niece of the late Col. Patrick 
Br«ee, B. L C. S. 

Her. 86. At Bnusela, Capt, Mayne, 
eldeai aoti of the late Col. Mayne, wko 
tarrited hie fktber only 14 days. 



n 




1844.] 



Obituary. 



223 



Vi 



Dte, 86. At liU bhatean in Franehe 
Comte, Greneral Comte d'Onay, one of 
the most distinguislied officers in Napo- 
leon's army, and on the restoration em- 
iloyed by Louia XVIII., as GoTomor of 
Ittoria, where he so conciliated the af- 
fection and esteem of the inhabitants that 
on his departure they presented him with 
a costly sword, inscribed " Au General 
Comte d'Orsay, Vittoria reconnoissant.*' 
He is succeeded by his son Comte Alfred, 
who has resided so long in this country. 

Dec. 31. Aged 70, Gustare Maximi- 
lien Juste, Prince de Croy, Cardinal 
Archbishop of Rouen. 

Dee. 89. At New York, aged 33, WU- 



Uan, toil of Thomti Vyw, 6^. of Heme- 
hill Abbey, Surrey. 

Dec. 30. At Nice, in his 4th year, 
Henry, eldest son of William Fitiherbert, 
esq. 

At Florence, aged 39, WiUiam Wanser, 
jun. esq. late of Hanger-laOe, Stamford- 
hill, eldest son of William Watisey, esq. 
F.S.A. of London. 

Jan, 6. At Boulogne-sur-Mer, agod 
18, Georgiana-Looisa, eldeat dan. of Sir 
J. William Hort, Bart. 

Jan. 7. At Lisbon, Francis, eldest son 
of the late Francis Patten» esq. of Roches- 
ter, Kent. 



TABLE OF MORTALITY IN THE METROPOLIS. 

Ftom the Returns usued by the Regittrar Oenerai, 

Deaths Registered from Dec. 23, 1843, to Jan. 80, 1844, (5 weeks.) 

Under 15 2313^ 

16 to 60 ^^^idsm 

60 and upwards 994 (^'* 
Age not specified 47 3 
%* The district of Wandsworth and Clapham (which up to the present year had 
not been included in the Metropolitan Return) is now added, which will account for 
the apparent increase in the number of deaths. 



Males 
Females 



2483 i 
2394' 



4877 



AVERAGE PRICE OF CORN, Jan, 20. 



Wheat. 
#. d. 
51 8 



Barley. 


Oats. 


Rye. Beans. 


f. d. 


f. d. 


t. d. t. d. 


33 7 


18 7 


31 2 30 2 



Peas. 
#• d, 
3i I 



Head of Cattle at Market, Jan. 26. 

Beasts 581 Calven 130 

SheepandLambs 2130 Pigs 9M 



PRICE OP HOPS, Jan. 29. 
Sussex Pockets, 6/. 2». to 6/. lOf.— Kent Pockets, 6/. 4*. to 10/. lOs. 

PRICE OF HAY AND STRAW AT SMITHFIELD, Jan. 27. 

Hay, 21. 12f. to 4/. Oe Straw, II. 5t. to U. 12«.— Clover, 3/. 5». to 5/. Of. 

SMITH FIE LD, Jan. 29. To sink the Offal— per stone of Slbs. 

Beef. 2t. 4rf. to 3#. 4rf. " " ... - 

Mutton 2i. Sd. to 3#. Sd. 

Veal 3i. lOd, to 4*. \0d. 

Pork 2*. Sd. to 4i. Qd. 

COAL MARKET, Jan. 26. 

Walls Ends, from 16«. 6d, to 44f. 6d, per ton. Other sorU from 14*. Od. to 18#. 6d 

TALLOW, per cwt.— Town Tallow, 44f. 6d, Yellow Russia, iSt. Od. 

CANDLES, 7f. Od, per doz. Moulds, 9t. 6d. 

PRICES OF SHARES. 

At the Office of WOLFE, Brothers, Stock and Share Broksrs, 
23, Change Alley, Comhill. 

Birmingham Canal, 171. Ellesmere and Chester, 64. Grand Junction, 150. 

Kennet and Avon, 81. Leeds and Liverpool, 670. Regent's, 23|. 

Rochdale, 60. London Dock Stock, 105. St. Katharine's, 100. East 

and West India, 136. — — London and Birmingham Railway, 244i Great 

Western, 111— London and Southwestern, 77. Grand Junction Water- 
Works, 82^. West Middlesex, 1 15. Globe Insurance, 134. Guardian, 

46^. Hope, 7^. Chartered Gas, 64^. Imperial Gas, 86. Phoenix Gas, 

36. London and Westminster Bank, 24.— Reversionary Interest, 104. 

For Prices of all other Bharest •nquire as above. 



224 

METEOROLOGICAL DIARY, by W.CARY, Strand. 

From Dee. 26, 1843, to Jan. 25, 1844, ftoM inelmive. 
Fahrenheit's Therm. 

'^^ ' Weather, 5*J 1 i i 2;? 5 Weather. 






?5 l225 



Dec. 





o 


o 


in. pts. 


26 


46 


47 


47 


30,38 


27 


44 


47 


45 


,44 


28 


45 


50 


47 


.52 


29 


46 


46 


43 


,48 


30 


42 


44 


41 


.26 


31 


44 


47 


48 


29.92 


Ja.1. 


34 


38 


33 


,58 


2 


32 


36 


26 


,66 


3 


32 


38 


41 


.89 


4 


42 


52 


48 


,57 


5 


42 


52 


52 


.53 


6 


46 


52 


44 


,26 


7 


43 


46 


37 


,57 


8 


47 


43 


38 


.83 


9 


36 


37 


35 


30, ai 


10 


43 


45 


44 


,24 



slight rain 
cloudy 
do. 
do. 

Ido.slt.rn.slt. 
do.fr.do.do. 
rain, snow 
snow.fr.cly. 
cloudy 
do. foggy 
do. hvy. rain 
do.fairsm.do. 
do. cloudy 
do. do. 
cldy, sm. sit. 
rn.cly.fr. cly. 



Fahrenheit's Therm 


. 


•Sfl 


\t^ 


^ 


"§,^ 


a 


II 


-3 E 


» 




1 




o 


o 





in. pts. 


11 


42 


46 


43 


,37 


12 


43 


45 


42 


, 17 


13 


41 


44 


39 


.04 


14 


38 


40 


35 


,18 


15 


32 


40 


30 


.32 


16 


30 35 


37 


,27 


17 


40 


45 


43 


,24 


18 


41 


4^ 


43 


,24 


19 


44 


47 


48 


29,99 


20 


39 


42 


49 


30.04 


21 


45 47 


47 29, 94 


22 ! 41 • 47 37 ! . 95 1 


23 


40 43 39 


30,071 


24 


37 42 


37 


f^\ 


25 


39 


43 


43 


,»i 



cloudy 
do.heavy rain 
rain, cly, fair 
do. do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
do. fair 

do. 

do. 
foggy, fair 
cloudy do. 



DAILY PRICE OF STOCKS, 
From Dec. 29, 1843, to Jan. 27, 1844. both inetunve. 







7779 pm. 

79 pm. 

78 8Upm 



78 pm. 
7880 pm. 
7981pm. 
7961 pm. 
79 Bi pm 
SlSOpm. 
82 80 pm. 

80 pm. 



Eju Silli^ 
£1000. 



15 1871 
16188 

IB9 I 97, 
t8l»9i 
10191 
iOlOl 
S2I<K1 

S4194 

i5i9i| 

86193i 
S7195 



AI70pm 

THfttjpin, 

80 pin. 

79 81 pm. 

9 pm. 



8280 pro. 

8280 pm. 

i 80 pm. 

^648082 pm. 

ms\ prn. 

-MlKipm, 



&} 

m 

&i 

64 
67 
69 
67 
67 
67 
70 
60 
66 
Co 
67 
67 
G5 

67 
67 
65 
65 
60 
G6 
08 
67 



6lpiii. 

64 pm. 

66 pm. 

69 pm. 

70 pm. 
07ptn. 
69 pm. 
69 pm. 
G9pm. 
08 pro. 
67piii, 
68pnt. 

67 pm. 

65 pm, 

65 pm. 

67 pm, 

68 pm, 

66 pm. 
65 pm. 

65 pm. 

67 pm. 

68 pm. 
68 pm. 

66 pm. 
66 pm, 
69pm 



J. J. ARNULU £oglish and Foreigo Stock and Share Broker, 

1, Bank Baildings, London. 

J. B. MICHOU AMD SOV| F»IlfTBM| 25, f AKLIAMBHT'tTmilT. 



THE 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 

MARCH, 1844, 
By SYLVANUS URBAN, Gent. 

CONTENTS. »^„ 

MtNoa CoEEESPONDENCK.^Repnirs of Alderton Church — ProTiocml Tokeni— 

Miss Ciith&rioe Fan thaw— Cleaning of ** scary," &c, •..*...• 256 

Lord Brougham's Statesmen op the Time of Georqe III. »«.. ,•, S^7 

BaCb Abbey Turreti— Holy- water Stoup at Hastings — Font at Scraptoft fwUh 

a Piafe), ,.,,..,.. ,», •......,.. 246 

The ContribatioDS of Sir J oho Barrow to the Quarterly Review , 246 

Authorflbip of the article in Quarterly Review on the Character of Pitt»« t « .* . . 247 
Oa the Etymology of North Mcok , • 247 

I French Scteatlfie Congress — New Eoglibh Archieologicai Aiso^tion 246 
A Word on the State and Prospects of Art .* 349 
Dr. Rock and Dr. Franks represeotecl in the Harlot^s Progress ? * . . • 253 

LoNDi!*rtANA» No. VIIL— Site of Britiih Loudon— List of Potter*» Marki •. 254 
ACTOOHAFHS — in Spain, Italy, Germany, and Fraoce — of Bonaparte and of 

Moli^re — Scarce Publications by Irish CatbolttH .,».,.,..,,, , , 257 

On procuring sleep during pain— Dr. Btnns aod Sou they *.•.*»,,« 264 

On Church Toweri and Spires * « . *..««.« < 285 

Rethosfective RfiTiBW.^Salt upon Salt, by George Withert , , , . , 269 

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

I Ward's Borough of Stoke -upon- Trent, 273 ; Pettigrew'a SuperitltiOttB in 
Medicine and Surgery, 276 ; The Viltoge Cburch, a Poem, 279 j Williamt*! 
Study of the Gospels* 2BCI ; Moultrie' t Dream of Life, and other PoetHi, 
281 ; Barbam's Life of Reuchlin, and Mia^ellaneous Reyiewi ».. ., 283 
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE — 
New Publications, 2H5 ; UniTersity of Cambridge — Royal Society of Litera- 
ture^ ^Ifric Society . . , 291 

ARCHITECTURE.— Institute of Britiali Architects, 292 ; Oiford Architec- 
tural Soeiety— Holywell Church— Iffley Church, 294 ; Woolpit^ Suffolk ,, , 295 
ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES.— New ArchBological Association, 295; 
Society of Antiquaries, 596 ; Society of Antiquaries at Ncwcaitle — Du- 
plicate Rosetta Stone, 2Sd ; Roman Altars at Newcastle ^Lake Mffirit-^ 
Ancieiil Weapons found in Essex — Cave Temples of India, 299 \ Royal 
VaulU in PruAsia, 300 j Carthaginian Bust— French An tiquarian| Intelligence 301 
HISTORICAL CHRONICLE.— Parliamentary Proceedinge, 302; Foreign 

News, 304 ; Domestic Occurrences , , 306 

Promotions and Prefermeota, 307 ; Births and Marriages , , ^ , , , 30$ 

OBITUARY ; with Memoirs of The Grand Duke of Saxc Cohurg Gotha ; 
Douna Carlotta of Spain j Marqness of Winchester ; Earl of Plymouth ; 
Lady Newborough ; Hon. Percy Jocelyn ; Sir Francis Btirdett. Bart. ; 
Sir Robert Fitawygram ; Adm. Sir Graham Moore ; Vice-Adm, Sir R. L. 
Pitigcrald ; Lieut.* Gen. Sir W. Johnston ; Lieut. Gen, Sir Hudson Lowe ; 
Sir F. W, Macnaghten ; General Bcrtrand ; Count Mazdnghi ; Rev. 

George Stephenson j John Barwis, Esq. ; John Bradley, Esq 31 1— 326 

Clurot Deceased * 326 

Deaths, arranged in Counties -...*. » , ♦...,*.. . * 327 

Registrar- Generttl's Returns of Mortality in the Metropolis — Markets— PHcei 

of Shares, 335 ; Meteorological Diary— Stocks „ 336 

I Embellished with Represeotationi of a Turret of Batk Arret, HoLr^WATim 

H Stoup in St. Clement's, Hastings ; the old Font of ScRArroFT, co. L^c«lt€r j Afid 

H of tw^ Roman AiTARi found at N«wcaftl« ia NorthamberlAiid* 

m 



M1XOB COKRSSPOSDESCE, 



?!! 




•rru •-»! ;t -J* rvTain o^ 

4cn«« IvflSnf Wn f 7 narr 7«n 3 m 

MM is viK«e i . i i i Bfti X i* «nBe*. Jaatpk 
JSttld. Eml. M.F. <fr Ci ill i ■■ IV. 
■<lttig. «: tm «n art* <«ic tc icfccn 

m4 CMC 6m ?)qpv4 l ittfdM W| 

Orvf 4/ M« G^€ /i 
tmhm ^Mrm«U/9*M/Mr n if. '«^:*,m 
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